Tuesday, May 8, 2007

  • ANGLO-BURMA WARS, wars of the Great Britain against Burma in 19 century. As a result of 1-st (1824-26) Burma has lost ranges Arakan and Tenasserim, after 2-nd (1852) - range of Pegu, in the total 3-rd (1885) all Burma has hitted under the English domination.
  • ANGLO-BURSKAJA WAR 1899-1902, war of the Great Britain against burskih republics Juzh. Africa - the Orange loose state and Transvaalja. As a result of war both republics have been transformed{have been turned into} (1902) in English êîëîíèè.* * *ÀÍÃËÎ-ÁÓÐÑÊÀß WAR 1899-1902, a final stage of extirpation proceeding about 100 flying for the statement{confirmation} of the British domination in Austral Africa. A direct halter to war the problem on the political status of the european immigrants who have moved to the republic of South Africa (Transvaal) in connection with discovering there of gold has become. Having received equal elective franchises, immigrants could conquer at elections to parliament (folksraad), that threatened afrikaneram with loss of a political authority. A beginning of war on September, 10 1899 minister for colonys Dzh. CHemberlen in the cable to president Transvaalja P. Kruger than 5 flying has required enfranchisement to all Europeans, living in republic not less. Ultimatum CHemberlena in the issue has pushed to the beginning of armed conflict. On October, 11 burskie a troops went borders{limits} Kapskoj of colony and Natalja. Within November - December bores possessed the initiative. They have precipitated cities Ledismit, Kimberley, Mafeking and have conducted some successful military operations. However their successes have appeared short-lived. Fracture After failures of the first period of war the British command started mass troop transportation on the South of Africa and has created huge overbalance in a number of troops and technique. At the end of February 1900 English troops have removed osadu with Ledismita and Kimberley, in April have trapped capital of Orange republic Bloemfontein, in May deblocked Mafeking, in June have taken capital Transvaalja - Pretoria. However war on it was not terminated. The guiding burskoj has transfered armies to other tactics of act of war - guerilla warfare which kept almost two years. Leaders of bores repeatedly attempted to achieve performance{statement} of the mandatory powers of Germany, France, the USA, Russia - for the arrest of war on conditions acceptable to republics. Governments of these countries declared condoling to bores but as each of them aspired{tried} to exploit difficulties of England, any collective interference has failed. Delegacies of bores have visited in the USA and Europe. Public opinion, as a rule, was on the party of this small people appearing against the strong and powerful Great Britain. Hundreds volunteers from Holland, Germany, France, Italy, the USA, Russia have gone to Austral Africa and combated on the party of bores. Political results the Colossal superiority of the English army and major loss over civilian population have forced burskoe a command to go on negotiations. On May, 31 1902 the peace treaty on which republics become the English colonys (Transvaal and colony of the Orange River) has been signed. Englishmen, in turn, have gone on a concession to bores in a "native" problem, having refused from the former promisings about political rights for not white population. Experience anglo-burskoj wars utilised by army circles of different countries. Here for the first time such achievements of military technique of 19 century, as smokeless powder, machine guns, explosive bullets of thoughts - thoughts have been applied. A wide circulation from now on have received loose build during attack, khaki "khaki" in regimentals of soldiers, field telegraph, a barbed wire. Practice of concentration camps for civilian population also rises in this war. In outcome anglo-burskoj wars all Austral Africa has appeared under an authority of England, and on May, 31 1910 building unified juzhnoafrikanskogo dominion - the Southern - African Soyuz (JUAS) were in structure of British Empire up to 961 has been officially professed. Literatura:Avgustus E. F. Memories of participant Anglo-burskoj of war 1899-1900. Warsaw, 1902. Gurko V.I. War of England with the southern - African republics, 1899-1901 // the Report sent on business.. To a troops of the southern - African republics.. Colonel Romejko-Gurko. SPb., 1901. Izetdinova S.V.Neskolko of months for bores: Memories of the sister of mercy. SPb., 1903. Sb. Materials on Anglo-burskoj to war in Austral Africa / the Baking plate red. Colonel Artamonov. SPb., 1900-1905. Vyp. 1-21. Davidson A.B.Sesil Rods and his{its} time. Ì., 1984. Nikitin I.A.Zahvat burskih republics Englands (1899-1902). Ì., 1970. Àmery L. S. The Times History of the War in South Africa. London, 1909. V. 6. Kandyba-Foxoroft E. Russia and the Anglo-Boor War 1899-1902. Pretoria, 1981. The Oxfîrd History of South Africa. Îxfîrd, 1971. V. 2, 1870-1966. R.Vyatkin
  • The ANGLO-DUTCH WARS of 17 century, are called by trade and economic and colonial contest of two states most developed in 17 century - England and the Dutch republic 1-n - 1652-54, 2-n - 1665-67, 3-n - 1672-74. Were led primarily on the pest. Promoted a weakening in positions of the Dutch republic and transition of trade and economic and colonial hegemony to England.
  • ANGLO-EGYPTIAN AGREEMENT 1936, for friendship and the union. A little having expanded independence of Egypt in internal and foreign affairs, has saved the main{basic} military items of the Great Britain in Egypt. Denonsirovan Egypt in 1951; the Great Britain has recognized his{its} cancellation in 1954.
  • ANGLO-IRAQ CONTRACTS AND AGREEMENTS. Agreement 1922 has legally issued mandated relation of Iraq to the Great Britain. Agreement 1930, providing cancellation of the mandate and recognizing the sovereignty of Iraq, has actually saved his{its} state of dependence from the Great Britain in a sphere of foreign policy and in military affairs. Agreement 1955 has substituted agreement 1930. the Great Britain saved the supervisory control above iraq army and air-force bases. Denonsirovano Iraq after Iraq revolution 1958.
  • The ANGLO-IRISH UNION 1801, liquidated independent{autonomous} irish parliament; to irish representatives some figure of places in parliament of the Great Britain was retracted.
  • ANGLO-IRISH AGREEMENT 1921, granted a large part of Ireland the status of dominion at conservation of the English domination above its{her} north-east part - Ulster (see Boreal Ireland).
  • ANGLO-CANADIANS, people in Canada (10,8 million person). An aggregate number 11,67 million person (1992). Speak on canadian version of the English tongue. Believers - basically protesters, a part - roman catholics.
  • The ANGLO-CHINESE WAR 1840-42 (t. n. First " opium war "), encroachment of the English armed forces into China (capture of some bayshore cities), laid foundation to his{its} metamorphosis{transformation} into semi-colonial territory. Has concluded Nanking agreement 1842.
  • ANGLO-MAJSURSKIE WARS, the English East indian company for capture of the indian principality Mysore. As a result of 1-st (1767-69) and 2-nd (1780-84) Mysore it was possible to save independence, after 3-rd (1790-92) from Mysore ottorgnuta a part of terrain, as a result of 4-th (1799) Mysore it is transformed{turned into} into the English vassal.
  • ANGLO-MARATHSKIE WARS, the English East indian company against the union marathskih principalities in India in 1775-82, 1803-05 and 1817-18. The considerable proportion of terrain marathov has been seized, some principalities become the English vassals.
  • ANGLO-NEW ZEALANDERS (new zealanders, pakeha), people, the main{basic} population Is new. Zealand (2,6 million person). An aggregate number 2,76 million person (1992). Tongue English. Believers - basically anglikane.
  • ANGLO-SAXON SEIZURE, seizure of the Celtic Britain by the German nations anglov, saxophones, poops and friezes in 5-6 centuries. To kon. 6 century there was a number{series} of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms (Kent, Wessex, Sussex, Essex, Vost. England, Northumbria, Mersija).
  • ANGLO-SAXONS, non-proprietary name of the German nations anglov, saxophones, poops and the friezes which have conquered in 5-6 centuries. Britain. In 7-10 centuries there was the Anglo-Saxon nationality{national character} absorbing and the Celtic elements. Later anglo-saxons, having mixed up with Danes, Norwegians and (after Norman seizure of England 1066) natives of France, have laid foundation the English nationality{national character}.
  • ANGLO-SIKHSKIE WARS, the English East indian company against the state sikhov in Punjab in 1845-46 and 1848-49. The state sikhov has stopped existence, and Punjab is seized by Englishmen.
  • ANGLO-SOVETSKO-IRANSKY the AGREEMENT for the union, is signed 29.1.1942 after temporary uptake of the Soviet and English troops to Iran with the purpose to prevent fascist Germany to use his{its} terrain in war against the USSR and the Great Britain. Has supplied{ensured} cooperation of Iran to an antihitlerite coalition in 2-nd world war; after an end of the war a troops of allies have been introduced from Iran.
  • ANGLO-TRANSIORDANSKIE (JORDANIAN) CONTRACTS. Agreement 1928, formally granting an authority in Transjordan (the mandated territory of the Great Britain) to emir, established{set} the British supervisory control above its{her} foreign policy, the finance and armed forces. Agreement 1946 formally cancelled the British mandate for Transjordan which was declared by an independent kingdom, but saved beyond the Great Britain the right to keep a troops and to plot military bases on transiordanskoj terrains. Agreement 1948 saved relation of Jordan to the Great Britain, a little having expanded competence of the Jordanian authorities. It is cancelled in 1957.
  • ANGLO-FRANKO-IZRAILSKAJA AGGRESSION AGAINST EGYPT (1956), targot capture of Suez canal. On October, 29 the Israeli troops have intruded on terrain of Egypt; on October, 31 the English and French armed forces have begun bombing Egypt and on November, 5 have landed a troops in area of Port Said. A preventive measures on the part of the USSR, the USA and the United Nations have forced the Great Britain and France to introduce the troops from Egypt in December 1956, Israel - in March 1957.
  • ANGLO-FRANCO-CHINESE WAR 1856-60 (t. n. The second "opium" war), the Great Britain and France against China. In 1857-58 Englishmen and the Frenchmen have taken Guangzhou and forts Dagu on coast Bohajskogo a hall., in 1860 - Tianjin and Peking. The Great Britain and France had been imposed to China Tjantszinskie contracts 1858 and the Peking contracts 1860.
  • The ANGLO-FRANCO-RUSSIAN AGREEMENT, secret. It is made out by the way an exchange of memoranda and the verbal note in April - May 1915. Provided drive of Istanbul and the Black Sea channels of Russia under condition of its{her} sharing{participation} in war with Germany up to the victorious extremity. It is cancelled by the Decree on peace 1917.
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