Saturday, May 19, 2007

  • The MILITARY GAME, one of forms of preparation of organs of troop control (forces). It is carried out on maps. Can be operational and tactical, operating, strategic, etc.
  • MILITARY BOARD in Russia, the maximum central organ of military steering in 18 century. It is built in 1717-20 instead of lines of military orders with the purposes of a centralization of military steering. In 1802-12 it is reorganized in the Military ministry.
  • MILITARY COMMAND ACADEMY of the ANTIAIRCRAFT PROTECTION him. Marshal of Soviet Union G.K.Zhukova, it is based in 1956 in Kalinin (nowadays Tver). Plots command staff for a troops of air defence.
  • The MILITARY MEDICINE, studies the theory and practice of public health services and a feature of originating and flow of battle defeats and diseases of staff of armed forces; will organize a medical support at management of operations and treatment-and-prophylactic service of staff of a troops in a peace time.
  • MILITARY MUSIC, intended for performance duhovymi by orchestras, buglers, drummers at front education of a troops, military and public solemn ceremonies. In past it was applied and at operations.
  • MILITARY SCIENCE, system of knowledge of preparation and management of war. The military science is closely related with special branches different public, natural and engineering science.
  • MILITARY ORGANIZATION of " NATIONAL WILL ", organization of officers of imperial army and fleet in 1880-83. The purpose: preparation of military tumble. The chief - the Central military circle in Saint Petersburg (A.P.Shtromberg, N.E.Sukhanov), mugs in 20 cities (ok. 400 person). It is routed by police, leaders are convicted on " to process 14-òè ".
  • MILITARY SECRET, the informations of a military nature specially guarded by the state; see also the State secret.
  • AIR FORCE ACADEMY him. J.A.Gagarina, is based in 1940, urban settlement Monino of the Moscow region. Plots air command staff.
  • AIR-FORCE ENGINEERING ACADEMY him. N.E.Zhukovskogo, is based in 1920 in Moscow. Plots artificer officers for air force, and also scientific and pedagogical staff.
  • AIR FORCES (air force), kind of armed forces. The air force of some the large states will consist from strategic, tactical, a military-transport aviation and an air defense aviation. In the USA enter into air force also connections of intercontinental ballistic missiles and a military-space means.
  • The MILITARY-MEDICAL COMMISSION, in the Russian Federation is nominated in structure of several doctors - experts for realization of military-medical examination.
  • MILITARY-MEDICAL EXAMINATION, medical examination of militarians and servicemen for definition of their validity to a service in the ranks of army, fleet or special service arms.
  • The MILITARY - GEORGIAN ROAD, the historical title of a highway Vladikavkaz - Tbilisi, 208 kms. It is built through Main Caucasian hr. (the Cross saddle-point) Russian troops in kon. 18 century. The report is open in 1799. In 20 century it is renovated. A plot of a main highway Beslan - Vladikavkaz - Tbilisi - Gjumri - Yerevan. Tourism.
  • MILITARY ART, the theory and practice of preparation and management of act of war overland, the pest and in air; a theory of art of war - a part of military science.
  • MILITARY SITUATION, the special legal regime in country or in its separate parts, established routinely the solution of the supreme body of the government under exclusive circumstances (war, a natural disaster, etc.). At military situation all functions of public authorities on the defence, pass maintenance of the public order and a state security to military organs. The order of introduction and a mode of military situation are determined by the law.
  • MILITARY - ENGINEERING ACADEMY him. V.V.Kujbysheva, conducts the history from the Main engineering school, founded in Saint Petersburg in 1819 and converted to 1855 in the Nikolaev engineering academy, with 1932 in Moscow. Plots artificer officers.
  • The MILITARY - HISTORICAL MUSEUM of ARTILLERY, ENGINEERING TROOPS AND TROOPS of COMMUNICATION, in Petersburg (Park Lenina), is based in 1756 in Saint Petersburg. St. 476 thousand units of a storage, including the instrument, cool and fire-arms, banners; materials on a history of domestic artillery, an engineering troops and a troops of communication.
  • MILITARY HISTORY INSTITUTE, research establishment in Moscow. It is built in 1966.
  • AIRWAY (airline), the space overland by the way a corridor within the limits of which flights are executed, procured airfield and terraneous radio aids.
  • AIRBORNE TROOPS (VDV), the arm of the ground forces, intended for paradrop (transplantation) from air in back of the opponent and management of operations. VDV will consist of air-borne, tank, ammunition, samohodno-ammunition and other parts and subdividings.
  • AIR HEATING, heating of rooms feed in them of heated air. Distinguish warm-air heating systems: recirculation (in which exhaust air returns in a Cowper blast air heater for reheating) and combined with ventilation.
  • AIR LAW, the body of laws, (national and international), regulating the order of use of an airspace, air removals and reports. In an orb of an air law the considerable figure of international double-end and multilateral agreements acts. The Chicago convention 1955, directed on a strengthening of security of international air reports is most known. To an air law concern the convention on extirpation with stealing civil aircrafts, etc.
  • AIR-BREATHING ENGINE (VRD), the jet engine using for squeeze combustible oxygen of free air. On a way of squeeze of air distinguish turbokompressornyj (TRD), pulsing (PuVRD) and straight-flow (PVRD) engines.
  • AIR BATHS, kind of an air-cure: dosed influence of air on an exposed body, protecting from a direct sunlight.
  • AIR MASSES, large uniform (in a horizontal direction) parts of a troposphere. Are disjointed by atmospheric fronts. In system of general atmosphere circulation air masses move as a unit, determining largely a mode of weather. Distinguish masses arctic (or antarctic), polar, tropical and an equatorial air.
  • AIRSHED, airspace within the limits of terrain of an occupied point or industrial enterprise. Conditionally it is considered to be high bound of an airshed passing above the highest building or a structure.
  • AIR TRANSPORT, see. The transport.
  • The AIR FILTER, ministers for dust element of air given to rooms ventilating systems and conditioning or used in fabrication systems and machines. Air filters with a fibrous, lubricated or spongy filter medium are distributed.
  • CAPABILITY AND REAL, the philosophical grades expressing basic shells of development of subjects and the phenomena; a capability - the tendency of development of a subject; a real - is objective existing subject as outcome of realization of some capability. Distinguish the abstract, or formal (for which implementation there are no all necessary conditions), and substantial (having for the realization by all necessary conditions) capabilities.
  • POSSIBLE CONVEYANCES (virtual displacements), infinitesimal conveyances which can commit points of a mechanical system from time of a rule taken by them at present, not upsetting the communications imposed on system (see. Communications mechanic).
  • POSSIBLE CONVEYANCES the PRINCIPLE, for a mechanical equilibrium it is necessary and enough that the sum of activities of all forces operational on system at any possible conveyance of system was peer to zero. Possible conveyances the principle is applied at study of equilibrium conditions of the composite mechanical systems (mechanisms, machines).
  • DISTURBANCES MAGNETIC, jumps of a magnetic field of the Earth, distinguished from magnetic variations the sudden beginning and stormy passing. An example - magnetic storms.
  • ASCENSION, one of religious dvunadesjatyh holidays, it is established in honour of ascension of the Christ on the root. It is celebrated by believers for 40-th day after Passover.
  • VOZNESENSK, city (with 1938) on Ukraine, the Nikolaev region. Landing stage on r. JUzh. Bug. A depot. 44,4 thousand inhabitants (1991). A flavoring industry. Tanning association, factory of press clusters, etc. It is based in 1795.
  • VOZNESENSKAJA Julia (an ice-film. A name Julia Nikolaevna Okulova) (r. 1940), the Russian writer. With 1980 in emigration in Germany. Started as the poetess. In 1976 it has been sentenced to 5 years of the reference. In sketches " the Note from a water hose " (1979), " Women camp in the USSR " (1980), " the Camomile white " (1982), the book " the Women Decameron " (1987), founded on a documentary material, tells about a humiliating rule of women in the Soviet camps. The story " the Aster Chernobyl " (1987). Autobiographical lyrics.
  • VOZNESENSKY Andrey Andreevich (r. 1933), the Russian poet, the academician of the Russian Open Society (1993). In lyrics - tendency "to measure" the modern person grades and modes of a world civilization; extravagance of comparisons and metaphors, complicatedness of rhythmic system, acoustical effects. Collections: " the Triangular pear " (1962), "Antiworlds" (1964), " Vitrazhnyh businesses the master " (1976; the State premium of the USSR, 1978), " the Postulate of the self-claim " (1990). Poems of "Master" (1959), "Lonzhjumo" (1963), "Eskar" (1964), "Perhaps" (1972; a rock opera " JUnona and Perhaps ", production 1981), "Pit" (1986). Memuarnaja prose, publicism; the book " Head foremen of spirit " (1984).
  • VOZNESENSKY Ivan Nikolaevich (1887-1946), the Russian scientist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1939). The main transactionses on a hydromachine industry (supervised over designing and construction of potent turbines and pompes) and to automatic regulation (vapor prime movers and boilers). The state premium of the USSR (1947, posthumously).
  • VOZNESENSKY Nikolay Alekseevich (1903-50), the Russian political figure, academician AN the USSR (1943). In 1938-41, 1942-49 chairman of the State plan of the USSR. In 1946-49 vice-president Council of Ministers of the USSR. The member of a Central Committee of the CPSU in 1939-49. The member of the Political bureau in 1947-49 (the candidate with 1941). The book " Military economy of the USSR in the season of Domestic war " (1947). The state premium of the USSR (1948). It is repressed (see " the Leningrad business "); it is rehabilitated posthumously.
  • CHILDREN BORN OUT OF WEDLOCK, children born from the father and mother, not consisting among themselves in properly made out spoilage. Under the legislation of the Russian Federation children who were born out of wedlock, have the same rights and the responsibility in relation to parents and their relatives, as well as children born in a registered marriage if the origin of children from data of parents is established in the statutory order.
  • EXTRA-GALACTICAL ASTRONOMY, section of astronomy, in which space bodies (asters, galaxies, quasars, etc.), located outside our sidereal system - Galaxies are studied.
  • SUDDEN OUTBURST, spontaneous instantaneous destruction of a part of a layer of a mineral (coal, a rock salt, a sandstone, etc.) under influence of mining operations in shaft. It is accompanied by a maximum deflection of a mineral and reinforced outgassing in mining outputs.
  • EXTRA-TERRESTRIAL CIVILIZATIONS, societies of reasonable entities which, on the modern scientific submissions, can exist outside of the Earth (probably, on the planets reverting around of far asters). Clean datas about detection of extra-terrestrial civilizations no.
  • SALPINGOCUESIS, development of an oosperm outside of a uterus, it is routine in a parent pipe. Results in expulsion plodnogo eggs through a running end of a parent pipe in an abdominal cavity (tubal abortion) or to a pipe break (it is accompanied by an intraperitoneal bleeding, a shock). Treatment operating.
  • VNERABOCHEE TIME, the time which has been not occupied in transactionses in a social production. Actuates: the spare time expended for spiritual development, leisure time activities, entertainments, playing sports, and the time spent for a road on activity (there and back), restoration of forces and satisfaction of physiological requirements (dream, meal), management of a domestic and personal part-time farm, etc.
  • OFF-SYSTEM UNITS, units of physical quantities which are not entering in one systems of units. Examples: a horse - power, millimeter of mercury, etc.
  • OUT-OF-SCHOOL ESTABLISHMENTS, state and public institutions on out-of-school activity with children and adolescents - the nursery centres (out-of-school, educational activity, aesthetic education, sports, etc.); nursery parks and small towns; detsko-youthful sporting schools, stations of juvenile mechanics, stations of juvenile naturalists; the camp, organizing travel for children; nursery clubs, nursery libraries, nursery theatres, etc.
  • EXTERNAL FRICTION, see. Abrasion external.
  • FOREIGN TRADE BOARD OF ARBITRATION (VTAK), see. Arbitration court.
  • FOREIGN ECONOMIC RELATIONS, economic interaction of the states in which basis the international division of labour lays. Actuate mezhstranovoe motion of the goods and services, financial and labour forces, technologies, administrative experience and scientific - information flows, foreign tourism. Master place in system of foreign economic relations is taken with export trade. The important role in development of foreign economic relations is played with the modern technological advance, planting economic mutuality of countries of the world.
  • PERIPHERICALS of a computer (peripheral units), input/output devices, print-outs, a storage and a communication of information, the bound it is function with the central processing unit according to structure of a computer (or systems of a computer).
  • EXTERIOR ANGLE of a triangle (polygon), the angle derivated by one his parties and prolongation of an adjacent side.
  • EXTERNAL MEMORY of a computer, memory devices major (up to several Gbytes) containers (predominary on magnetic tapes, discs, drums, optical discs) from which the necessary information is introduced into a computer during fulfilment of this or that program.
  • EXPORT TRADE, trade of one country with other countries, a constituent part of foreign economic relations. (Export) and import (importation) of the goods is sectioned for export. The sum of export and import will derivate the foreign trade turnover. Export trade bases on an international division of labour. Set of foreign trade operations of countries of the world - international trade.
  • VNESHTORGIZDAT, izdatelsko-polygraphic association. It is based in 1922, Moscow. Foreign trade and tourist advertising, the engineering specifications on the exported goods in Russian and foreign tongues; export and import of polygraphic services.
  • ATTENTION, concentration and directivity of mental activity to fixed object. Distinguish attention involuntary (passive) and the arbitrary (active) when selection of object of attention is effected meaningly, deliberately. Performances of attention: resistance, volume (quantity of objects which can be perceived and embodied by the person in rather short instant), distribution (ability simultaneously to retain afield consciousnesses objects of different activities), a capability of switching.
  • VNUKOVO, a urban settlement in the Russian Federation, the Moscow region. A depot (Airport). 13,8 thousand inhabitants (1991). Close Vnukovo - one of the main airports of Moscow.
  • INTERNAL FRICTION, 1) property of solids is irreciprocal to capture a mechanical energy received by a body at his strain. Internal friction shows, napr., in decay of free oscillations. 2) In liquids and gases the same, that viscosity.
  • INTERNAL EAR, system reported, the filled a liquid of channels and cavities in a cartilaginous or osteal labyrinth for vertebrates and the person. In an internal ear accepting parts of acoustic organs and balance - a snail and a vestibular apparatus are located.
  • VOCODER (from English voice - a voice and code - a code), a communications system in which the transmitted voice information will be transformed by a sound analyzer to code signals on frequency or on time. Restoration of speech on a receiving end executes the synthesizer of a note. Allows essentially (approximately in 10 times) to compact the communication line at minor deterioration of quality of drive.
  • VOKULER (Vaucouleurs) Gerard Anri de (r. 1918), the American astronomer. Probeed Mars, has developed new grading galaxies, has discovered rotation of a galaxy Major Magellanovo the Cloud, has described an aboriginal superclump of galaxies. The writer of books " Physics of a planet Mars " (1951, Russian transfer 1956), " the Astronomical photo " (1961, Russian transfer 1975), etc.
  • The BULLOCK castrated samets of a large horned stock. It is used as meat and a work animal.
  • VOLAN (frants. volant), 1) a ball finned for the game in badminton. 2) Finish for a coat frock, a blouse, skirts, a stem of a frill.
  • VOLGA (ancient - Ra, in Middle Ages - Itil), the river in the European part of the Russian Federation, the largest in Europe. 3530 kms, the area of basin of 1360 thousand êì2. The beginning on Valdai vozv., the m. runs in Caspian, derivating delta (the area of 19 thousand êì2). Average discharge of water for Volgograd 724 m3 / with, in a mouth - 7710 m3 / with. Volga accepts ok. 200 inflow, the largest - Kama and Oka. In connection with a structure of a coordinated hydroelectric system with water reservoirs a drainage of Volga hardly zaregulirovan. The largest river plants - Volga (Kujbyshevskaja), Volga (Volgograd), CHeboksarskaja. Regular navigation from Rzhev (3256 kms). Volga is bridged to Baltic m. A Volga-Baltic waterway, with White m. - Severodvinsk water system and the Belomorsko-Baltic channel, with Azov and Black seas - the Volga-Don shipping canal, with Moscow - the channel him. Moscow. On Volga - large cities Tver, Yaroslavl, N.Novgorod, Kazan, Ulyanovsk, Samara, Saratov, Volgograd, Astrakhan. In a bass. Volga reservations: Volzhsko-Kamsky, ZHigulevsky, Astrakhan; natural national park Samara the Onions. As a result of man impacts the environmental setting has sharply worsened; search of scientifically reasonable ways of restoration of natural complexes of Volga is conducted.
  • VOLGIN Vyacheslav Petrovich (1879-1962), the Russian historian, academician AN the USSR (1930). Transactionses on a history of socialist and communist ideas domarksova the season. The lenin premium (1961).
  • VOLGO, the lake largest in system Verhnevolzhskih of lakes on Valdai vozv. 61 êì2.
  • VOLGA-BALTIC WATERWAY (. Mariinsky water system), in the Russian Federation. Bridges Volga to Baltic m., and through the Belomorsko-Baltic channel with White m. Passes through Rybinsk vdhr. Up to Cherepovets, r. Sheksna, Belozersky the channel, r. Kovzha, the Mariinsky channel, r. Vytegra, the Onega channel, r. Svir, Ladoga an eskar. And r. Neva. Mariinsky water system sooruzhena in nach. 19 century; with 1964, after native born renovation, - the Volga-Baltic waterway. Length ok. 1100 kms, depth not less than 4 m. Court up to 5000 t.
  • VOLGOGRAD (up to 1925 Tsaritsyn, up to 1961 Stalingrad), the city - hero in the Russian Federation, the centre of the Volgograd region. A port on Volga. Initial point of the Volga-Don shipping canal. A railway junction. 1005 thousand inhabitants (1992). A machine industry (a software: " the Volgograd tractor plant ", "Barricades", etc.) and metal working, black (factory " Red October ", etc.) and nonferrous machine industry, chemical and petrochemical, wood-working, a building materials, mild, a food-processing industry. Bliz Volgograd - the Volga (Volgograd) river plant. 7 high schools (including 3 universities), 5 theatres. Museums (monument - band to " Heroes Stalingradskoj of battle " on Mamayev a tumulus, the Museum of the defence, study of local lore, fine arts, etc.). It is based in 1589, with 1615 on the modern place. Within Great Domestic war almost it completely eroded, recovered under the general plan (1945).
  • The VOLGOGRAD RANGE, in the Russian Federation, 113,9 thousand êì2. The population of 2643 thousand person (1992), urban 76 %. 19 cities, 32 urban settlements (1989.) Center - Volgograd. The river Volga divides range on a raised Right bank (an altitude up to 358 ì) and low Zavolzhje. Mean temperatures of January from-8 up to-12 °S, July 23 °S. A rainfall ok. 350 mm annually. The main rivers - Volga and Don. Production of gas and petroleum; oil refining, chemical and a petrochemical industry, a machine industry (tractors, court, bearings, the industrial equipment, etc.), black and nonferrous machine industry; a building materials, wood-working, mild, a food-processing industry. The Volga (Volgograd) river plant. Crops of wheat and other grain, sunflower, mustard. A melon production (watermelons), a vegetable raising. A fruit growing. An irrigation farming. Meat-and-milk cattle breeding, a sheep raising. Navigation across Volga, Don, the Volga-Don channel.
  • The VOLGOGRAD THEATRE him. M.Gorkogo, drama, is based in 1918.
  • The VOLGOGRAD UNIVERSITY, is based in 1980. Plots experts on physical and mathematical sciences, philologies, histories. In 1991 over 3 thousand students.
  • The VOLGOGRAD WATER RESERVOIR, on r. Volga. It is derivated by a dam of the Volga (Volgograd) river plant. It is filled in in 1958-1961. The area 3117 êì2, volume 31,5 êì3, length of 540 kms, an extreme breadth of 17 kms. Navigation. It is used for water supply and an irrigation. Fishery. Ports: Saratov, Kamyshin.
  • VOLGODONSK, city (with 1956) in the Russian Federation, the Rostov region, a port on TSimljanskom vdhr. A depot. 182 thousand inhabitants (1992.) softwares of a nuclear power machine industry "Atommash"; chemical, a food-processing industry. A study of local lore museum.
  • The VOLGO-URAL OIL-AND-GAS-BEARING PROVINCE, on the orient is limited to Ural, in the south - Prikaspijskoj a hollow, in a north - Timanskim a block, in the west - Sysolskim, Kotelnicheskim, Tokmovskim vaults and the Voronezh mass. A gross area of 700 thousand êì2. It is open over 900 petroleum and 50 gas fields. Industrial deposits are dated for adjournments of Devonian, Carbon and permi. Major deposits: Romashkinskoe, Orenburg, Tujmazinskoe, SHkapovskoe, Arlanskoe, etc.
  • VOLZHANSKIE (an ice-film. fam. Volzhankiny), family of circus performers, tightrope dancers. The chief of number - Vladimir Aleksandrovich (1917-83), the national actor of the USSR (1979). Has developed the instrumentation changing a discharge angle of chain cables, has given the composite ekvilibristicheskomu to amusement romantic character. Partners - members of family Volzhanskih. The state premium of the USSR (1978).
  • VOLZHSK (up to 1940 settlements. Lopatino), city in the Russian Federation, Republic of Maries El, landing stage on Kujbyshevskom vdhr. A depot. 62,5 thousand inhabitants (1992). A machine industry and metal working; pulp and paper and a woodworking industry.
  • The VOLGA MILITARY FLOTILLA, in June 1918 - July 1919 participat in breakages with White Guards on Volga and Kama, then part of the Volzhsko-Caspian military flotilla. During Great Domestic war existed in October 1941 - June 1944, participat in Stalingradskoj to battle.
  • VIGNETTING (from frants. vignette - a picture), limitation by diaphragms of a part of a slope light beam in an optical system. The vignetting conducts in fall of an image illumination from the centre to a headland of sight.
  • VIGNETTE (frants. vignette), a dressing in the book or manuscripts: small drawing or a decorative pattern in the beginning or at the end of the text.
  • VINI (Vigny) Alfred Victor de (1797 - 1863), the French writer - romantik. In poems "Eloa" (1824), "Moseses" (1826), "Deluge" (1826) - antheming of theoretical love, travails of the disappointed hero; bogoborcheskie motives. In psychologic drama "CHatterton" (1835), a poem " Mors of the wolf " (1843) - tragical loneliness selected a shower in the world not perceiving them " trite crowd ". Verses. The book " the Diary of the poet " (it is published in 1867).
  • VINOLA (Vignola) (an ice-film. fam. Barotstsi, Barozzi) Dzhakomo yes (1507-73), the italian architect. Palaces (Farneze in Kaprarole, 1558-73), country houses (dads Julia III in Rome, 1550-55), churches (Il Dzhezu in Rome, 1568-84) combine principles of the architecture of Revitalization with elements of Baroque and a classicism. The theorist of the architecture (" the Rule of five warrants of the architecture ", 1562).
  • VINJA-DEL-MAR (Vina del Mar), the city and seaport to Chile, are included into agglomeration of Valparaiso. 305 thousand inhabitants (1990). A climatic health resort. Center of tourism. Sugar, textile, chemical, a petroleum industry.
  • VIOLLE-LE-DJUK (Viollet-le-Duc) Ezhen (1814-79), the French architect, the historian and the theorist of the architecture. The restorer of Gothic cathedrals and the deputies.
  • VIOLONCELLO (ital. violoncello), a musical instrument skripichnogo sets of the baso-tenor register. Has appeared in 15 - 16 centuries. Classical samples are built by italian masters 17 - 18 centuries: À. And N.Amati, Dzh. Gvarneri, A.Stradivari, etc. The VIOLONCELLO (ital. violoncello), a musical instrument skripichnogo sets of the baso-tenor register. Has appeared in 15 - 16 centuries. Classical samples are built by italian masters 17 - 18 centuries: À. And N.Amati, Dzh. Gvarneri, A.Stradivari, etc.
  • VIOLJA the CANDLE, unit Violja, obsolete unit of light intensity, equal to the light intensity, radiated 1 sm2 of a surface of solidifying platinum in a direction of a normal to this surface. It is offered French physicist L.Z.Violem (L. J. Violle, 1841-1923) in 1881. The modern unit of light intensity of a SI candela (candle) is peer approximately 1/20 Violja candles.
  • VIOTTI (Viotti) Giovanni Battista (1755-1824), the italian violinist, the composer. Cable cores in the Great Britain and France (headed "Grandee - opera"). One of creators French skripichnoj schools. 29 concerts for a violin with an orchestra, string quartets, etc.
  • ASPS, the same, that vipers.
  • VIPPER Boris Robertovich (1888-1967), the Russian historian of art, the museum figure, corresponding member AH the USSR (1962). Son R.J.Vippera. Transactionses contain the analysis and generalization of problems of the theory and a history of art (predominary Western-European 16-18 centuries and Russian 18 century).
  • VIPPER Robert Jurjevich (1859-1954), the Russian historian, academician AN the USSR (1943). Transactionses on a history from antiquity up to a modernity. The writer of tutorials on a history for mean and a higher school.
  • VIPPER Jury Borisovich (1916-91), the Russian literary critic, academician AN the USSR (1987). Son B.R.Vippera. Transactionses under the French literature (Revitalization, including poetry of the Pleiad; a classicism, Enlightenment, critical realism).
  • VIRA, in Ancient Russia the fine for the benefit of prince for assassination of the loose person. For a mutilation it was paid poluvirje.
  • VIRADZH, in vedijskoj and induistskoj mythologies the women godhood, olitsetvorenie creative powers of cosmos.
  • TURN (frants. virage), 1) turning movement. 2) the Figure of flying - complete turn of a flight vehicle in a horizontal plane. 3) Reagent for toning - metamorphosises of black-and-white photographic plotting in colour monochrome (single-color). See also Staining of photographic plotting.
  • VIRBALIS (Virbalis) (up to 1917 Verzhbolovo), city in Lithuania, bliz zh.-d. An item. Kibartaj. 1,5 thousand inhabitants (1990). Manufacture of hardware and milk food. It is known with 1593.
  • VIRGINIUM, Virginia (Virginia), staff on the orient the USA. 105,7 thousand êì2. The population 6,5 million person (1993). Adm. ts. - Richmond.
  • VIRGIN ISLANDS (Virgin Islands), group of small-sized islands in West Indies. Possession of the Great Britain [153,4 êì2, the population of 13 thousand person (1987); adm. ts. - Road Town] and the USA [355 êì2, 104 thousand person (1984); adm. ts. - Charlotte - Amalia].
  • " VIRTUOSOES of MOSCOW ", a chamber orchestra. It is built in 1979 in Moscow. The artistic administrator and the conductor - V.T.Spivakov. In repertoir - products Western-European and Russian klassikov, the modern composers.
  • VIRTUS (an armour. Virtus - valour), in Roman mythology the goddess, personification of valour, military bravery and the civil duty.
  • VIRULENCE (from an armour. virulentus - toxicant), a degree of pathogenecity (pathogenicity) of the given microorganism. Depends on zymotic properties of the agent and from a receptivity of an infected organism. Synthetic change of a virulence of microbes is applied at obtaining vaccines.
  • VIRUMAA (Virumaa) (Virlandija, Vironija, Virujany), drevneestonskaja maakond (ground) on north-east of the modern Estonia with cities Narva and Rakvere. In 13 century it is seized by Denmark, in 1346 it is conceded Livonskomu to order, with 1561 - in structure of Sweden, part Estljandii. In structure of the Russian state with 1710; later - Vezenbergsky for. Estljandskoj lips.
  • VIRUNGA (. Kivu), national park in Zaire (809 thousand ga) and Ruanda (23 thousand ga). It is based to 1925. Savannahs, tropical mountain and gallery forests. A mountain gorilla, the elephant, the river horse, a water buffalo, antelopes.
  • VIROLOGY INSTITUTE him. D.I.Ivanovskogo Russian AMN, is based in 1946 (the modern title with 1950) in Moscow. Probes on general and a molecular biology of viruses, virus diseases.
  • VIROLOGY (from viruses and... logija), science about viruses. The general virology studies a nature of viruses, their structure, reproduction, biochemistry, genetics. The medical, veterinary and agricultural virology investigates pathogenic viruses, their zymotic properties, develops measures of the warning, diagnosis and treatment of diseases called by them. The section of a virology investigator hereditary properties of viruses, is closely related with a molecular genetics.
  • CARRIAGE OF VIRUS, see. Bakterionositelstvo and a carriage of virus.
  • VIRUSES (from an armour. virus - a poison), the smallest noncellular particles consisting of nucleic acid (DNK or RNK) and a proteinaceous environment (capsid). The form rhabdoid, orbicular, etc. The Dimension 15 - 350 nm and more. Are open (viruses of a tobacco mosaic) by D.I.Ivanovskim in 1892. Viruses - intracellular parasites: being multiplied only in living cells, they use their enzymatic apparatus and relay a cell to synthesis of mature virus particles - virions. Are distributed everywhere. Invoke blights, animal and the person. Sharply differing from all other forms of life, viruses, similarly to other organisms, are capable to evolution. Sometimes them secrete in a special kingdom of wildlife. Viruses are widely applied in activities on genetic engineering, a carcinogenesis. Viruses of bacteria (bacteriophages) - classical object of a molecular biology.
  • VIRHOV (Virchow) Rudolf (1821-1902), the german pathologist, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1881). Has put forward the theory tselljuljarnoj a pathology, according to which pathological process - the sum of violations of vital activity of separate cells. Has described patomorfologiju and has explained a pathogeny of the main obshchepatologicheskih processes. One of osnovatelej (1861) and leaders of a german incentive consignment, with 1884 - Consignments latitudinarian.
  • VERSES (polsk. wierszy, from an armour. versus - a verse), 1) in 16-18 centuries the title of any verses (especially for reading, instead of for singing). 2) In the latest time - the pejorative title of verses (it is routine the poor).
  • VISAJJA (bisajja), people on Philippines. Number 26,75 million person (1992). Tongue visajja. Roman catholics believing main, the part holds on to traditional convictions.
  • WIESBADEN (Wiesbaden), city in Germany, a port on Rhein, an administrative centre of ground Giessen. 264 thousand inhabitants (1992). A machine industry, himiko-pharmaceutical, polygraphic, cement, a food-processing industry. Balneoklimatichesky a health resort.
  • VISENTE (Visenti) (Vicente) (ok. 1470 - ok. 1536), the Portuguese poet, wrote in Spanish. The representative of Revitalization. The founder of the Portuguese theatre. Plays " Auto about visitation, or the Monologue of the shepherd " (1502), " Fars about Ines Pereira " (1523), " the Priest from Beira " (1526) are directed against social faults and church.
  • VISIMSKY RESERVATION, in the Russian Federation, Ekaterinburg region, on Mean Ural. Existed in 1946-51, it is again open in 1971. The area 13750 ga. A mountain taiga. Elovo-firry and derivative berezovo-spruce, berezovo-piny and birch forests. The moose, a brown bear, a marten, protein, etc., meet an otter, a beaver, a mink; a lag bolt, a hazel grouse.
  • VISKASHA (viskacha), mammalian a rodentia. Length of a body up to 66 sm, a tail up to 20 see. Dwells in pampas of Argentina and in the south of Paraguay. Object of a hunt (meat, an abrasive paper).
  • WHISKY (English whiskey, whisky), an alcoholic beverage (40-50 volumetric % of spirit), received by distillation of the overfermented must prepared from a dry barley malt, neigh or corn.
  • VISKOVATOV Alexander Vasiljevich (1804-58), the Russian military historian. The writer " the Historical description of clothes and arms of the Russian troops " (2 izd., t. 1-34, 1899-1948) and " Chronicles of the Russian army " (t. 1-20, 1834-42).
  • VISKOVATOV Paul Aleksandrovich (1842-1905), the Russian historian of the literature; it is methodologicalally close to cultural - historical school. Son A.V.Viskovatova. Monographics probe " M.J.Lermontov. Life and creativity " (1891).
  • VISKOVATYJ Ivan Mihajlovich (?-1570), the Russian diplomat, dumnyj the clerk, the printer (with 1561). The first chief of the Ambassadorial order, more than 20 flying supervised over foreign policy of Russia. Within oprichniny has been accused of change, it is executed.
  • WINE-MAKERS Alexander Nikolaevich (1869-1944), the Russian political figure. The doctor. One of creators Moscow and ekaterinoslavskoj social-democratic organizations. In 1918-21 narkom a community service of RSFSR, in 1924-38 chairman of the Supreme Court of the USSR.
  • WINE-MAKERS Eugeny Mihajlovich (r. 1925), the Russian poet. Verses on people of military generation, about their spiritual vozmuzhanii. Gravitates to philosophical lyrics. Collections " the Face human " (1960), "Word" (1962), "Contrasts" (1975), "Toss" (1978), "Life" (1982), "Ipostas" (1984). A poem " To the West " (1981). Transfers. The state premium of the USSR (1987).
  • VINSKY Grigory Stepanovich (1752 - after 1818), the Ukrainian memoirist, the writer of notes " my time " which envelop 2-¯ a floor. 18 century (the Ukrainian national household activities, nobiliary education, metropolitan life).
  • The SCREW (polsk. gwint, from a nem. Gewinde - thread, a thread), 1) a fastener - a rod with the head (routinely has a spline under the screwdriver) and a thread. 2) the Screw leading - a guide link in a screw gear. 3) the Screw bladed (air, rowing) - the bank with the propeller vanes, ensuring motion of an airplane, the helicopter, a vessel.
  • VINTER Alexander Vasiljevich (1878 - 1958), Russian energeticses, academician AN the USSR (1932). Site manager Shaturskoj of a state district power station, Dneprogesa (1927-30), etc. Transactionses on probe of power resources, structure of a power system of the USSR, etc.
  • WINTERTHUR (Winterthur), city in Switzerland, on r. Deal. 108 thousand inhabitants (1986, with suburbs). A machine industry, textile, a printing industry.
  • HELIX, the regional spiral curve settling down on a surface of the circular cylinder or a circular cone and crossing all generatrix under equal angles.
  • RIFLE, personal small arms with propeller rifles in a bore which give a pool the rotary movement ensuring resistant flight. A sight reach up to 2000 m, firing rate of 10-12 outrigger booms one minute. The first rifles have appeared in 16 century, were distributed in 19 century. In 1891 in Russia the rifle (7,62-mm) of S.I.Mosin has been adopted. After 2-nd world war the rifle is extruded by a gun - machine gun, the automatic control unit, an automatic rifle and a spring hook, including self-auto-loading. For the educational and sporting purposes there are sporting rifles.
  • SCREW MOTION, motion of a solid which is composed from straight-line translation and rotation of a body around of a shaft parallel a direction of a speed of advance.
  • The PROPELLER ENGINE (zabojnyj), hydraulic zabojnyj the engine of volumetric type, which multiple-start actions plump under the scheme gerotornogo the planetary train powered at the expense of power of a washer fluid.
  • HELICAL CONVEYER (feed screw), the bank with coiled projections and the mechanism of a drive. It is used basically for conveyance of loose bodies on rather small distances.
  • SCREW PUMP, rotary pump with actions by the way one master and it is routine two conducted screws which are meshing with. At rotation of screws the liquid, blocked off in hollows of a screw thread, moves along screws and is popped in the outlet pipe. Feed up to 0,25 m3 / with, pressure up to 35 MPa, efficiency up to 95 %.
  • The ROTORCRAFT, flight vehicle is heavier than air with a vertical launching and the planting, having rotors and propulsors (propellers, jet engines). The upward force at a level flight of a rotorcraft forms by the bearing screw and a side panel. It is applied restrictedly.
  • VINTOROGY REBOUND LANDING (marhur), a cloven-hoofed animal of a stem of a bench. Length of a body up to 1,7 m. Horns are tightened up. In mountains of Asia - in Afghanistan, Pakistan, in northwest of India; in a southeast Compare. Asia. Everywhere it is small, it is guarded.
  • VINTSENT from Bove (frants. Vincent de Beauvais; an armour. Vincentius Bellovacensis) (ok. 1190-1264), the French outlet box - black friar, the writer " Great zertsala " (it is issued 1473, t. 1-4) - the wraparound encyclopedia of medieval knowledge using major popularity.
  • VINTSENTS (Vincenz) Stanislav (1888-1971), the Polish prose writer, the essayist, a translator. From the extremity of 1930th in emigration, has deceased in France. The writer of the novel - chronicle " On High Polonine " (the hours 1-3, it are published in 1936-79), books of an essay " Dialogues with Advices " (1966), " the Jewish themes " (is published in 1977), " Post-war peripetias Sokrata " (is published in 1985), "Atlantida" (is published in 1994).
  • VINCHA, neoliticheskaja archeologic crop (kon. 5-th - 4 thousand up to n. e.) on the Balkans, in basin of the rivers Morava and Vardar. The title on telju Vincha about Belgrade. Residues of settlements, the stone instrument, ceramics, clay figurines. An economy: agriculture, cattle breeding, fishery.
  • The HARD DISK, the title store, and after the automatic rifles released with is grey. 19 century the American firm of a small arms (named its founder O.F.Vinchestera), and also the widespread title of rigid magnetic disks (data modules).
  • VINH (Vinh), city in a central part of Vietnam, an administrative centre prov. Ngetin. St. 154 thousand inhabitants (1989). Wood-working, mechanic, the alimentary enterprises. Seaport Vinh - Benthjuj. Bliz Vinh was born Ho SHi Mines
  • VORTEX MOTION, flow of fluid (or gas) at which their small volumes move not only bodily, but also are spun about some instantaneous axis (napr., waterspouts, funnels in water, etc.).
  • The PERIPHERAL PUMP, 1) a vacuum pump in which rarefaction forms lengthwise axis a vortex flow of a compressed air or a gaseous steam driving on tangent to the chamber of whirling. A residual pressure up to 0,7 Pa. 2) the Rotodynamic pump of abrasion in which the liquid receives power as a result of its whirling by the rotated driving wheel and moves over rims of the driving wheel in a tangential direction. Feed up to 0,01 m3 / with, a head up to 100 m, efficiency up to 45 %.
  • EDDY CURRENTS (eddy current), selfcontained inductive currents in solid explorers which arise under action of the vortical electric field generated by a variable magnetic field. Eddy currents result in loss of the electric power on heating of an explorer in which they have arisen; for reduction of this loss magnetic circuits of machines and apparatuses alternating-current produce from isolated steel plates.
  • VIHREKAMERNYJ the ENGINE, the diesel, which each cylinder is paired to the whirlpool chamber where fuel is premixed by a vortex of incoming air. Vihrekamernye engines are defined by small sensitivity to fuel grade, but a heightened specific consumption of it.
  • ROTATION OF A VECTOR and, the vectorial characteristics of " rotary component " field of vectors and; it is meant rot and.
  • VITS (Witz) Konrad (after 1400 - up to 1446), the Swiss painter. Combined principles of a gothic and art of Revitalization (a glume of an altar over. Peter, 1444).
  • VITSE... (from an armour. vice - instead of, return), a prefix meaning: the mate, the deputy ex officio (napr., the vice-president).
  • VICE-KINGDOMS, since 16 century before War for independence of spanish colonys 1810-26 in the American colonys of Spain the administrative and territorial units were under steering of viceroys (representatives of the Crown).
  • The VICE-PRESIDENT, 1) in some states (the USA, countries of Latin America, etc.) the deputy of the chief of state, is elected, as a rule, simultaneously with the president; 2) the deputy of the president in different national and international organizations.
  • VICINE George Mihajlovich (r. 1918), the Russian actor, the national actor of the USSR (1990). In 1937-69 in Moskovsk theatre him. Ermolovoj, with 1969 in theatre - studio of a film actor. It was taken out in films: " the Reserve player ", " the Twelfth night ", ø "Operation" " and other adventures SHurika ", " the Caucasian captive ", " Marriage Balzaminova ", " Gentlemen of good luck ", etc.
  • VICH-INFECTION, see in an item. AIDS.
  • VICHUGA, city in Russian Fderatsii, Ivanovo region. A depot. 49,5 thousand inhabitants (1992). Textile, a machine industry. It is derivated in 1920.
  • VISHAKHADATTA, the indian playwright of 7 century (on other sources, 5-6 centuries). Wrote on a Sanskrit. The patriotic play on the historical basis " the Ring of minister Rakshasy ".
  • VISHAKHAPATNAM, city and port in India, on the Bengal a hall., pieces. Andhra Pradesh. 750 thousand inhabitants (1991). A port capacity over 10 million t annually. Shipyard, a petroleum industry, a machine industry. Fishery.
  • VISHAPY, stone sculptures of fishes up to 5 m an altitude, olitsetvorjavshie in an antiquity (2 or 1 thousand up to n. e.) godhoods of water and fertility. Are known on Caucasus and in Mongolia.
  • VISHVAKARMAN, in vedijskoj and induistskoj mythologies the god - creator, the all-seeing and all-knowing, heavenly master and the builder.
  • VISHVAMITRA, one of vedijskih wise men - rishi, opponent Vasishthi, father Shakuntaly.
  • VISHVARUPA, in vedijskoj and induistskoj mythologies trehgolovyj the demon, belongs to asuram.
  • VISHVEDEVA (sanskr. All gods), in vedijskoj and induistskoj mythologies sonm gods.
  • ALGAE, group of the lowest water plants routinely keeping chlorophyll and producing organic substances during a photosynthesis. A body algae - a thallome which is not having true roots, stalks and leaves, from lobes of micron up to 60 m. Noncellular, single-celled, multicellular, colonial organisms. Reproduction asexual, vegetative and sexual. Departments (or phylums) algae: green, brown, red, yellow-green, yellow-green, diatomic, etc. Ok. 30 thousand kinds. Blue-green algae consider as blue-green algae more often and fall into drobjankam. Algae - the main producers of an organic substance in fresh water reservoirs and seas. Are part of a plankton and a benthos. Some are edible (napr., a sea staff, a porphyry), other - raw material for obtaining feed mass, an agar, a carragheen, an iodine, etc. (many of them - object of aquiculture). A number of algae test as components of the biocomplexes, spacecrafts logging in life support. Some single-celled and algae in symbiosis with mushrooms will derivate lichens.
  • DRAINAGE BASIN (orlik, an aquilegia), a stem of perennial grasses of a set of a crowfoot family. Ok. 100 kinds, in a moderate belt of Eurasia and America; including 27 kinds - in Vost. Siberia, Compare. Asia, on Caucasus. Some - the decorative.
  • CATCHMENT AREA (a drainage basin, a storage basin), terrain from which surface and underground waters flow off in a fixed water reservoir.
  • WATER ESCAPE (sluice-way structure), the hydrotechnical construction intended for reset of redundant (freshet) water from water reservoir, and also skips of water in a downstream pool. The water escape with the surface skip of water calls as a weir, with depth - a water outlet.
  • WATER-YOUNG PIGS (kapibary), a stem of rodents. Length of a body up to 1,3 m, mass up to 60 kg and more (largest of the modern rodents). 2 kinds, in central part JUzh. America, on coasts of water reservoirs and on forest bogs. Well float. Object hunts (meat).
  • BLESSING OF WATER, Christian church dedication service of water (in a temple, dwellings, the rivers, wells, etc.). The orthodox church distinguishes t. n. Great Blessing of water (before a holiday of Theophany, or epiphany, and in the holiday) and small Blessing of water (it is routine twice a year: per day a temple holiday and at any time domiciliary at will believers).
  • WEIR, barrier (threshold) through which water deluge flows over. In a hydraulic engineering the water escape with a loose flood of water through his crest calls as a weir.
  • WATER SUPPLY, set of measures on maintenance by water of different consumers - the populations, industrial enterprises, etc. The Complex of engineering structures and the devices executing water supply (including a drawing water from natural sources, its clearing, transportation and feed to consumers), calls as water handling or the water-pipe.
  • WATER OUTLET, water escape with the depth skip of the water, plump routinely by the way the tubular channel in a body of a dam. Ministers for descent of water from water reservoir, promyva ground pompes of a hydraulic project, the skip of water in a downstream pool in the operational and building seasons.
  • CHANNEL, water-course with motion of water on a direction of a slope in a deepening of a surface (the river, the brook, the channel).
  • WATER TUBE BOILER, steam boiler for which water and a steam-water mixture move on the steel pipes which are washed against outside by light-end products of combustion of fuel. Drum water tube boilers with a vertical run of pipes and straight-flow are most distributed.
  • WATERPROOF LAYER (water confining), the layer of water-proof rocks limiting from below or from above a water-bearing horizon.
  • The WATER BUDGET, ratio between arrival (a rainfall, return fluids from sewerage systems, from dewed fields, etc.) and the charge (vaporization, an irrigation, water supply, etc.) waters on any part of a surface (basins of the rivers, inland seas) for fixed time with allowance for economic activities of the person. Testifies to water availability of basin; at the negative water budget - about necessity of measures on cover of a water deficit.
  • WATER RESERVOIR, the artificial watertank of the considerable capacity derivated routinely in a glen by water retaining structures for regulation of its drainage and the further use in a national economy. Water reservoirs can exclude lakes which mode of levels variates artificially and adjusted by hydrotechnical constructions. The most negative consequences of building of water reservoirs: an inundation, a swamping, a underflooding of grounds, etc.
  • WATER EMULSION, the same, that emulsion paints.
  • VODSKAJA PJATINA, an administrative and territorial unit of the Novgorod ground (in the Novgorod republic and up to nach. 18 century), between the rivers Volkhov and Luga. In 16 century it was divided on Karelian and Poluzhskuju halves. In nach. 18 century has come in Petersburg lips.
  • VODSKY TONGUE, tongue drive, falls into the pribaltijsko-Finnish branch of Finno-Ugric tongues.
  • WATERS of the DRY MATTER, water of the rivers, lakes, water reservoirs, bogs, icehouses, and also underground waters (total amount ok. 35,8 million êì3). Waters of a dry matter basically fresh.
  • VOD (the self-title - vadjalajn), people in the Russian Federation. Number - less than hundred person (1992). Tongue vodsky. Believers - orthodox.
  • WATER CURTAIN mountain, a zone from water a dropping in shafts for a dust recovery on a path of motion of a dusty mine air. Forms by spray jets, fog generators, etc.
  • VLADIMIR Rzhevsky (13 century), sacred blagovernyj prince. Memory in the Orthodox church on July, 15 (28).
  • "Vladimir RUSANOV", the icebreaking motorship, is called named V.A.Rusanov. It is constructed in 1908; displacement 2650 t. On "Vladimir Rusanov" scientific probes in seas of Arctic regions, including expedition in Karskom by m. (1932 were led; has discovered islands of " Informations of the Central Electoral Committee "); preparation (1936) 1-st air expeditions on an arctic pole; conducted court on Boreal marine ways, etc. On stream up to 1950.
  • VLADIMIR-VOLYNSK, city on Ukraine, the Volynsk region. A depot. 40,3 thousand inhabitants (1991). The alimentary enterprises, sewing, furniture factories. A historical museum. It is known with 988, in 12 century capital of the Vladimiro-Volynsk principality; with 1370 in structure of Lithuania and Poland, in 1795 it is reset to Russia. A dormition fast (12 century), Vasiljevskaja church (kon. 13 - nach. 14 centuries); chambers of diocesans (16 century; the Renaissance).
  • VLADIMIRESKU (Vladimirescu) Tudor (ok. 1780-1821), chief Valashskogo of revolt 1821. In 1806-12 commander of order (lieutenant) of the Romanian volunteers in structure of Russian army. During revolt for Vladimiresku there were dissents with Grecian "geteristami" (see. Geterii) in which headquarters he has been killed.
  • "VLADIMIRKA", the title of road (with kon. 19 century. The vladimirskiy highway) from Moscow in Vladimir on which convicted on penal servitude departed to Siberia.
  • VLADIMIRKO VOLODAREVICH (1104-1152), prince zvenigorodsky (with 1124), peremyshlsky (with 1129) and galitsky (with 1141). In 1144 has created unified Galitskoe the principality with the centre in Galich. Attempted to conquer Volhynia, has helped Jury Dolgorukomu to take Kiev. Successfully reflected offences of the Hungarian and Polish troops.
  • VLADIMIROV Vasily Sergeevich (r. 1923), the Russian mathematician, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1970), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1983). The main transactionses on calculus mathematics, a quantum theory of a field, the theory of analytic functions of many complex variables, equations of mathematical physics. The state premium of the USSR (1953, 1987).
  • VLADIMIROV George Efimovich (1901-60), the Russian biochemist, academician AMN the USSR (1960). Transactionses are dedicated a metabolism and energetics of biochemical processes, a functional biochemistry of a brain and muscles. Has updated quantity of the power which are generatrix at a hydrolysis adenozintrifosfata. One of first in the USSR has applied radioisotopes (labelled compounds) to study of exchange processes in nervous and muscle tissues.
  • VLADIMIROV Ivan Alekseevich (1869/70-1947), the Russian painter. Military sketches, battle and historico-revolutionary patterns (" Doloj an eagle! ", 1917-18).
  • VLADIMIROV Igor Petrovich (r. 1919), the Russian actor, the producer, the national actor of the USSR (1978). With 1960 main producer of the St.-Petersburg Open theatre (up to 1992 Theatre him. Lensoveta). Productions: "Pigmalion" B.Shou (1962), " Three-cheap opera " B.Brecht (1966), " the Person from the party " I.M.Dvoretskogo (1971), etc. It was taken out in films: " thy contemporary ", "Converse connection", etc.
  • VLADIMIROV Jury Kuzmich (r. 1942), the Russian ballet dancer, the national actor of the USSR (1987). In 1962-88 at Major theatre, about 1988 teacher - tutor in the same place.
  • VLADIMIROVA Leah (an ice-film. A name Julia Vladimirovna Hromchenko) (r. 1938), the Russian writer. With 1973 in emigration in Israel. To be published the beginnings with 1957 (the story " the First kiss " in the log-book "Youth"). The poetry is noted by intensity of spiritual search, dramatic nature of attitude. Collections of verses: " Communication of times " (1975), " Is time presentiments " (1978), " Snow and sand " (1982), "Poems" (1988). The collection of stories " the Letter to itself " (1985).
  • The VLADIMIRO-VOLYNSK PRINCIPALITY, old russian, on Zap. To Bug and dextral in-leaks of Pripyat. In 1-st floor. 12 century were secured as do-it-yourself of the Old russian state. In 1199 it is joint with Galitskim the principality.
  • The VLADIMIRO-SUZDAL SCHOOL (12 - nach. 13 centuries), one of main schools of old russian art. For art of building of the Vladimiro-Suzdal school (cathedrals in Vladimir, church of a Holy Protection on Nerli - all 12 century) are characteristic refinement of proportions, carved belokamennyj decoras (relief compositions, arkaturnye belts), for painting - spirituality of modes, a stateliness of rhythms (paintings Dmitrievskogo of a cathedral in Vladimir, ok. 1197).
  • The VLADIMIRO-SUZDAL PRINCIPALITY, the largest old russian feudal state in Severo-Vost. Russia. With 10 up to it is grey. 12 centuries. The Rostovo-Suzdal principality - destiny in structure of the Kiev Russia. Capitals - Rostov, Suzdal. With it is grey. 12 century the great principality. Capital - Vladimir on Klyazma (1157). It is waste by mongolo-tartars in 1238. In 13-14 centuries the title of the vladimirskiy grand duke was considered main in Severo-Vost. Russia. The Earth the Vladimiro-Suzdal principality were part of Russian state.
  • The VLADIMIRSKIY CHERRY, arcaded Russian grade, in boreal and mean areas of a fruit growing of the Russian Federation, from group of griottes. Fruits of an average. Productivity of 6-12 kg from a tree.
  • The VLADIMIRSKIY RANGE, in the Russian Federation. 29 thousand êì2. The population of 1656,0 thousand person (1989), urban 80 %. 21 city, 36 urban settlements (1991.) Center - Vladimir. A surface - vsholmlennaja plain (an altitude up to 236 ì). Mean temperatures of January-11 °S, July 17 °S. A rainfall ok. 500 mm annually. The main rivers - Oka and Klyazma. A machine industry and metal working (tractors, excavators, motorcycles, electric motors, electric appliances, television receivers, household refrigerators, etc.), manufacture of a building materials, textile, chemical, alimentary, etc. an industry. Art crafts (an embroidery pattern, jewels, a lacquer miniature). Crops of wheat, neigh, buckwheats, feed crops. Cultivate a potato and vegetables. A fruit growing. A dairy - beef cattle husbandry, a swine breeding, a poultry breeding. A horse - breeding. Navigation across Oka and Klyazma.
  • The VLADIMIRSKIY Vasily Vasiljevich (r. 1915), Russian physics, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1962). The main transactionses under the theory of linacs of charged particles, neutron spectroscopy, etc. The Participant of building of a booster on 76 GeV Institute of high energy physics. The lenin premium (1970), the State premium of the USSR (1953).
  • VLADIMIRSKIY Lion Anatoljevich (1903-73), the Russian commander, admiral (1954). In Great Domestic war commanding a squadron of the Black Sea fleet, in 1943-44 - the Black Sea fleet. In 1944-46 Baltic fleets commanding by a squadron.
  • VIZIR, see. Vezir.
  • VISIT (frants. visite), visitation, predominary official.
  • MORNING COAT, single-breasted frock coat with radiused floors missing in front.
  • The CARD, card with a name, a patronymic, a surname, the indicating of the official position, the address, the earphone and other cramps on a face handing or abandoning her at official acquaintance, visitation somebody, etc.
  • VIZNER (Visner) (Wiesner) JUlius (1861-1928), Austrian botanik, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1912). Transactionses on physiology and a plant anatomy. Probeed an ontogenesis of plants, a transpiration, education of chlorophyll and the phenomena of a heliotropism. Has found a tropism in plants under influence red and an invisible heat, has explained it the phenomena reaction to a thermal irritation. Studied a structure of cell walls.
  • VISUALIZATION, (from an armour. visualis - visual), methods of transformation of a radiation field invisible to a human eye (ultrared, ultra-violet, x-ray, ultrasonic, etc.) and visible (black-and-white or colour) the plotting of raying object. There are some methods of visualization: photographic (see. The electrooptical transducer), methods of a thermovision, transformation of an invisible radiation of the laser in visible, etc. Visualization is widely used in medicine, a non-destructive testing, technique (see. Introscopy, the Tomography).
  • VISUAL STELLAR MAGNITUDE (mn), the stellar magnitude defined by a straight vision and adequate spectral response of a human eye (a maximum of sensitivity falls at a wavelength 0,55 microns).
  • The VISUAL POETRY, the kind of art uniting verbal and visual creativity - poems, whose lines will derivate the decorative or vested emblematicheskim sense of a figure and marks. Among characteristic examples - art of a poetic calligraphy (in particular in Muslim, and also) where it is indiscernible the pattern and sense are connected Far East crops; visual poetry of epoch manjerizma and Baroque. Such, quite often expressly "abstruse" verbal - visual experiences, representatives of futurism and dadaizma, renovating the modern polygraphic design had a fancy also; the visual poetry compounds the special tendency and in a postmodernism.
  • VISUAL (from an armour. visualis - visual), visible. Manual observations - made to the naked eye or with the help of an optical device (napr., a telescope).
  • VIIPURI, the Finnish title of city Vyborg in 1918-1940.
  • VY, in vostochnoslavjanskoj mythologies the spirit bearing mors. Having huge eyes with heavy eyelids, Vy slays the view.
  • VIJDUMJAE, reservation on about. Saaremaa in Estonia. It is based in 1957. The area over 1 thousand ga. Pine forests with an impurity of an oak. Endemic and infrequent plants: ezelsky a rattlepot, a mountain ash an aria, etc.
  • VIJERBAN (Villeurbanne), city, suburb of Lyons in France. 115 thousand inhabitants (1990). An autostructure, silk, a chemical industry. " Theatre de ac the Screen ".
  • VILLON (Villon) Francois (1431 or 1432 - after 1463), the French poet. In poems " the Small will " (1456), " the Major will " (1462), saturated autobiographical hints, have found reflectance of the scene from life of the Parisian bottoms; motives of mors combine with impudent glorifying earth radostej, ironical denial of asceticism and hypocrisy.
  • VIJRA (Viira) August (1853-1919), the Estonian producer. In 1878-1903 headed theatre " Âàíåìóéíå " (Tartu).
  • VIJRALT (Viiralt) Edward (1898-1954), the Estonian schedule. In tense - drama grotesque leafs uncovered the ugly parties of life of city ("Cabaret", 1931). In modes of women and children national character (" the Estonian girl ", 1942) is strongly pronounced.
  • VETCHES (Vick), the german and Swedish title drevneestonskoj grounds Ljaanemaa.
  • VETCH, stem of perennial and annotinous herbaceous plants of a set of pod-bearing plants; a feed crop. Ok. 150 kinds, in moderate belts of Boreal and Austral hemisphere. In crop of 10 kinds - a fodder grasses. Cultivate a vetch sowing campaign and a vetch shaggy (it is routine in a mix with ovsom and barley) - 200-250 ts with 1 ga a green material, 20 and more ts with 1 ga grains more often.
  • VIKALLOJ, the magnetically hard alloy keeping 52-54 % Co, up to 14 % V, remaining Fe. It is used primarily for manufacturing the permanent magnets used in probing devices, electrical micromotors, etc.
  • VIKARIAT (from an armour. vicarius - alternating), the phenomena at which close kinds of plants or animal (call as a representative species) take different ranges of distribution (geographycal vikariat) or dwell in one terrain, but in miscellaneous ecological conditions (ecological vikariat). Napr., in sand deserts dwells mohnonogy a jerboa, and in the same places, but in argillaceous deserts - small (ecological vikariat).
  • The VLADIMIRSKIY DRAFT-TYPE HORSE, breed of horses; it is introduced in it is grey. 20 century in the Vladimirskiy and Ivanovo region. Animal large, mobile, hardy and serviceable. Cultivate in many areas of Russia, primarily in a non-chernozem zone.
  • VLADIMIRSKIY - BUDANOV Michael Flegontovich (1838-1916), the Russian historian, corresponding member Petersburg AN (1903). Transactionses and publications of sources on a history of the Russian and Lithuanian right.
  • VLADIMIRTSOV Boris Jakovlevich (1884-1931), Russian mongoloved, academician AN the USSR (1929). Main transactionses about the Mongolian nomadic feudalism, tongues, the literature and ethnographies of Mongolian peoples.
  • VLADIMOV (an ice-film. fam. Volosevich) George Nikolaevich (r. 1931), the Russian writer. The story " Major ore " (1961) and the novel " Three minutes of silence " (1969) about a modernity, the novel " the General and his army " (1994) about Great Domestic war. Ostrokriticheskoe the plotting of life combines with philosophical understanding life, a problem of conservation of moral dignity in drama circumstances. In stories " Valid Ruslan " (1975) phenomenon of a strain of a human nature system of violence of Stalin camps. A comedy " the Sixth soldier " (1981), the satirical story " do not pay attention, the maestro " (1982). In 1983 has emigrated.
  • VLADISLAV II (Vladislav II) JAgellon (1456-1516), king of Czechia (with 1471), Hungary (with 1490). Son Kazimira IV. Has consolidated (1500) privileges of the Czech nobility at the expense of rights of cities.
  • VLADISLAV Serbsky (mind. 1239), prince, the founder of a monastery in Milesheve, the son over. The Stefan Serbian. Memory in the Orthodox church on September, 24 (on October, 7).
  • VLADISLAVLEV (an ice-film. fam. Gulbinsky) Ignatius Vladislavovich (1880-1962), the Russian bibliographer. Recommendational indexes: " Bibliographic year-books. 1911-14, 1921-1924 " (1912-27), " the Literature of a great decade. 1917-1927 " (1928), etc.
  • VLADISLAVLEV Michael Ivanovich (1840-90), the Russian philosopher, the writer of activities on logic, psychologies, histories of philosophy. The professor (with 1868) and the rector (with 1887) the St.-Petersburg university. A translator of " Criticism of clear reason " I.Kanta.
  • VLADISLAVS, the title of city Kudirkos-Naumestis in Lithuania up to 1934.
  • VLADISLAVSKY Vladimir Aleksandrovich (1891-1970), the Russian actor, the national actor of the USSR (1967). On the scene with 1912. With 1933 at Small theatre. The state premium of the USSR (1948).
  • VLADOMIRSKY (an ice-film. fam. Malejko) Vladimir Iosifovich (1893-1971), the Byelorussian actor, the national actor of the USSR (1955). With 1924 at the Byelorussian theatre him. Kupaly (Minsk).
  • The LORD, in Russia the circulation to the bishop.
  • ATMOSPHERIC HUMIDITY, the content of a steam in air; one of the most essential performances of weather and a climate. Quantitatively the atmospheric humidity can be determined by water-vapour pressure, an absolute humidity, relative humidity, a moisture deficit, a dew point.
  • VLAMINK (Vlaminck) Moris de (1876-1958), the French painter. The representative fovizma. Dynamical, tense - contrast on I blossom landscapes ("Machonias", 1906).
  • VLASENKO Lion Nikolaevich (r. 1928), the Russian pianist, the teacher, the national actor of the USSR (1991.) 1-n the premium at International competition of pianists by him. F.Lista (Budapest, 1956), 2-n the premium at International competition by him. P.I.Chajkovskogo (Moscow, 1958). The professor of the Moscow conservatory (with 1976).
  • VLASOV Alexander Vasiljevich (1900-62), the Russian architect. The chief architect of Kiev (1944-50) and Moscow (1950-55). Supervised over site development of a Kreschatik in Kiev (the design 1945-47, construction with 1947), a stadium him. Lenina in Moscow (1955-56). The lenin premium (1959), the State premium of the USSR (1950).
  • VLASOV Anatoly Aleksandrovich (1908-75), the Russian physics - theorist, the doctor of physical and mathematical sciences. The main transactionses under the theory of plasma, has offered an equation, it is called as his name. The lenin premium (1970).
  • VLASOV Andrey Andreevich (1901-46), the general - lieutenant (1942). With 1920 in Red Army. In Great Domestic war the deputy commanding the Volkhov front, commanding 2-nd Impact army (the Volkhov front), in appeared spring 1942 in a surrounding commanded a body and army. Was taken prisoner, has headed " Committee of discharging of peoples of Russia " (KONR) and " Russian liberation army " (ROA), constituted of voennoplennyh (officers and soldiers ROA called "vlasovtsami"). In May 1945 it is seized by the Soviet parts. Under the sentence of Military board of the Supreme Court of the USSR it is hung up.
  • VLASOV Valentine Viktorovich (r. 1947), the Russian biochemist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1990). The main probes on chemical updating biopolymers (primarily RNK), development of reactants and methods of bioorganic chemistry.
  • PANEL GAMES (Victorinus) Maries (4 century), drevnerimsky the writer, the teacher of rhetoric in Rome. Has translated into on latin tongue of composition Aristotelja and Grecian neoplatonikov. Having addressed to christianity, commented on messages of apostle Paul and has written the tract " Against Arius ".
  • VICTORIA, the English title of city Siangan.
  • VICTORIA, in Roman mythology the goddess of victory. Corresponds Grecian Nike.
  • VICTORIA, Ouen-Fols (Victoria; Owen Falls), water reservoir in terrain of Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya. The area of 76 thousand êì2 (including an eskar. Victoria 68 thousand êì2), volume 204,8 êì3, length of 320 kms. It is built by a structure dams Ouen-Fols (Uganda) on r. Victoria - Nil in 1954, that has reduced an eskar in a backwater of a level. Victoria on 3 m.
  • VICTORIA, city in Canada, a port on Quiet ok., an administrative centre prov. British Columbia. 71,2 thousand inhabitants (1991). A woodworking, shipbuilding. University.
  • VICTORIA, Victoria - Njanza (Victoria, Victoria Nyanza), Ukreve, lake in Vost. To Africa, in terrain of Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. 1134 m. 2 on value fresh lake of the world are located in tectonic a sag of the East - African ramp, at the altitude. 68 thousand êì2, length of 320 kms, an extreme breadth of 275 kms, depth of 80 m. Is a part vdhr. Victoria. Flock of islands. Runs abounding in water r. Kagera, escapes r. Victoria - Nil. Fishery. Navigation. Main ports: Entebbe (Uganda), Mwanza, Bukoba (Tanzania), Kisumu (Kenya), bliz boreal shore - Kampala, capital of Uganda. On about. Rubondo (Tanzania) - national park
  • VICTORIA (Victoria), an island in the south of Canadian Arctic arh. 213,8 thousand êì2. An altitude up to 914 m. Tundra vegetation. It is a lot of lakes. An occupied point - Cambridge - Bej.
  • VICTORIA, stem of perennial water plants of a set of a water - lily family. Circular swimming leaves with declinate edges a dia up to 2 m, maintain freight up to 50 kg, flowers a dia 25-35 see 2 kinds, in JUzh. To America; both are cultivated in botanical gardens.
  • VICTORIA, capital of the state Seychelles. 24 thousand inhabitants (1987). A port on Indian ok. A supply base fuel of courts on ways Africa - India. An international airport. Tobacco, fish treatment, furniture and other enterprises. Tourism.
  • VICTORIA - NIL (Victoria Nile), the title of a plot r. White Nile in Uganda, from an exit point from an eskar. Victoria up to a lockin in an eskar. Mobutu-Sese-Seko (Albert). Length ok. 420 kms, the area of basin of 262 thousand êì2. Porozhista; cataracts - Ouen, Kabarega (Murchison). Average discharge of water ok. 700 from a river plant for Owen falls. It is navigable on stray patches.
  • VIKTOROV Alexey Egorovich (1827-83), Russian arheograf, the bibliographer, corresponding member Petersburg AN (1879). Has based the Department of manuscripts and slavonic staropechatnyh books Rumjantsevskogo of a museum (nowadays in structure of the Russian state library). Has proved the Moscow origin t. n. The desperate issuings typed up to I.Fedorova.
  • VIKTOROV George Aleksandrovich (1925-74), the Russian biologist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1972). The main transactionses on dynamics of number of populations of hexapods and a taxonomist of hexapods - entomophages.
  • VIKULOV Vladimir Ivanovich (r. 1946), the Russian sportsman (ice hockey), the deserved master of sport (1967). The champion of Olympic Games (1968, 1972), the repeated world champion, Europe and the USSR (in 1966-79).
  • VIKULOV Sergey Vasiljevich (r. 1922), the Russian poet. Collections of lyrical verses, including " the European birdcherry the window " (1966), " still Had afield track " (1979), "Shoots" (1982), poems "Willow - mountain" (1970), " the Duma about Rhodinum " (1977). The managing editor of the log-book " our contemporary " (1968-89).
  • VIKUNJA (vigon), a cloven-hoofed animal of a stem of llamas. Length ok. 1,5 m. Dwelt in high mountains of Andes; as a result of predatory liquidation (a valuable wool) the area was hardly reduced. In the Red Data Book of the International union of nature protection and natural resources. Activities on a domestication are carried out. Vikunja, crossed to a guanaco, (alpaca) tames.
  • TWISTED Syrian (mind. ok. 250), the Christian martyr damaged in persecution of emperor Detsija, the son of martyrs Terentija and Neonilly Syrian. Memory in the Orthodox church on October, 28 (on November, 10).
  • (Port Vila), capital of the state Vanuatu, on TWISTED (Vila) about. Efate (It is new. Hebrides), a port on Quiet ok. 19,4 thousand inhabitants (1989). The international financial centre.
  • GRAPE MEALY BUG, hexapod of a set of farinose scale insects, the pest of a grape in the Sowing. And JUzh. To America, Africa, Eurasia. Pinkish, length of 3-4 mm. Eats (larvas and samki) a sap.
  • GRAPE SUGAR, the same, that a glucose.
  • GRAPES (up to 1946 Sevljush), city on Ukraine, Zakarpatye region. A railway junction (Vinogradovo-Zakarpatye). 26,3 thousand inhabitants (1991). The enterprises of an alimentary, mild, radio electronic industry. It is known from 9 century.
  • GRAPES Alexander Pavlovich (1895-1975), the Russian geochemist, academician AN the USSR (1953), doubly the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1949, 1975). Transactionses on problems geo-, biogeo-and space chemistry; developed problems of formation of earth environments (a zonal melting), chemical evolution of the Earth, a geochemistry of isotopes, etc. The Premium him. V.I.Lenina (1934), the Lenin premium (1962), the State premium of the USSR (1949, 1951 - doubly), the Golden medal him. Lomonosov AN the USSR (1973).
  • GRAPES Anatoly Kornelievich (1888-1946), the Russian writer. Artistic - biographic and documentary books: " Three colours of time " (1931), " Paganini Condemnation " (1936), " Stendal and his time " (1938).
  • GRAPES Victor Vladimirovich (1894/95-1969), Russian jazykoved, the literary critic, academician AN the USSR (1946). Probeed Russian (grammar, lexicon, etc.), a history of Russian literary language, tongue and style of Russian writers of 19-20 centuries (A.S.Pushkin, M.J.Lermontov, N.V.Gogolja, F.M.Dostoevskogo, etc.), problems of poetics, stylistics. The state premium of the USSR (1951).
  • GRAPES Vladimir Alekseevich (r. 1921), the Russian economist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1984). The main transactionses on an economic history of Russia and other countries. The state premium of the USSR (1982).
  • GRAPES George Pavlovich (1908-80), the Russian singer (the lyrical tenor), the honored artist of Russia (1949). Has become famous for performance on a concert platform of vocal cycles of L.Beethoven, R.Schuman, popular lyrical songs of domestic composers - N.V.Bogoslovskogo (" Dark night "), M.I.Blantera (" In a wood front "), V.P.Solovjeva-Sedogo (" On solar poljanochke "), a tango, Russian romances.
  • GRAPES Dmitry Ivanovich (1720?-58), the creator of Russian porcelain. Has developed the "know-how" and has received the first samples of porcelain from domestic raw material.
  • GRAPES Ivan Matveevich (1891-1983), the Russian mathematician, academician AN the USSR (1929), doubly the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1945, 1971). The director of Mathematical institute AN of the USSR him. V.A.Steklov (with 1932). Having created a classical method of the trigonometric sums, has received fundamental outcomes and has decided a number of the major problems in an analytical number theory. The lenin premium (1972), the State premium of the USSR (1941, 1983), the Golden medal him. Lomonosov AN the USSR (1971).
  • GRAPES Igor Ivanovich (r. 1930), the Russian critic, the literary critic. In a centre of attention - spiritual finding actions of the Russian literature of 19 and 20 centuries (M.J.Lermontov, F.M.Dostoevsky, L.N.Tolstoj, M.A.Bulgakov). Articles and reviews about the Russian literature 60-80-Õ of 20 century. With 1992 managing editor of the log-book "Continent".
  • GRAPES Michael Evgenjevich (r. 1928), the Russian oceanologist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1990). The main activities on ecology of thalassiums, distribution of a plankton, simulation of productional processes in pelagiali. The state premium of the USSR (1977).
  • GRAPES Oleg Mihajlovich (r. 1937), the Russian ballet master, the artist, the national actor of the USSR (1983). In 1973-77 main ballet master of the Leningrad Small opera theatre. In 1967-72 ballet master, with 1977 main ballet master of Mariinsky theatre. Productions: " Romeo and Dzhuljetta " S.S.Prokofjeva, " Liza and Elbows, or Vain precaution " P.L.Gertelja, "Koppelija" L.Deliba, "JAroslavna" B.I.Tishchenko, "Auditor" A.V.Chajkovskogo, etc.
  • GRAPES Paul Gavrilovich (1854-1925), the Russian historian, academician AN the USSR (1925; the academician Petersburg AN with 1914, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science with 1917). In 1902-08 and with 1911 in the Great Britain. The main transactionses on an agrarian history of medieval England (has given the classical characteristics English the ancestral lands - manor), historiography.
  • GRAPES Sergey Arsenjevich (1869-1938), the Russian painter, the member of Soyuz of Russian artists. Peredvizhnik. The writer of plein-air lyrical landscapes and interiors (" In farm in the autumn ", 1907), patterns from country life. After 1924 cable cores abroad.
  • VINOGRADOVNIK (ampelopsis), a stem of woody lianes of a set vinogradovyh. Ok. 20 kinds, in the Sowing. To America, Asia, including 4 views on the Far East, in Tadjikistan. Sometimes vinogradovnik call as a Virginia creeper. Some kinds use as the decorative. Far East vinogradovnik Japanese it is guarded.
  • VINOGRADSKY Sergey Nikolaevich (1856-1953), the Russian microbiologist, one of founders of a domestic microbiology, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1917; corresponding member Petersburg AN with 1894), the honorary member of the Russian Academy of Science (1923). With 1922 chief Agrobakteriologicheskogo of branch Pasterovskogo of institute in Paris. Has discovered (1887) hemoavtotrofnye microorganisms and the phenomena of a chemosynthesis. For the first time (1893) has secured from soil nitrogen-fixing bacteriums.
  • WINE-MAKING, production process of manufacturing of wine from a grape, and also from other fruits and berries. Actuates operations: cleavage of raw material and destalking (fruit stems), obtaining of a must, a spirit fermentation of a must or a pulp, an alcoholizing (at manufacturing strong wines), aggregate exposure of wines and their special machining (a replenishment, a filtration, pasteurization, etc.).
  • VINODOLSKY the LAW, the collection of rules of law constituted in 1288 in Vinodole (Vinodol, region in Croatia), one of the most ancient monuments of the right of austral slavs.
  • WAR of AUSTRAL AND BOREAL DYNASTIES (1336-1392) in Japan. In 1333 segunat Minamoto was will overthrow, and on a short time the imperial authority was placed. Emperor Godajgo aspired to steer privately-owned, but not a smog to liquidate contraventions between aristocrats and soldiers, derogating from of interests last. One of the largest feudal lords Ashikaga Takaudzi two years later has raised rebelion which has reduced in education of the second segunata - Ashikaga (or Muromati, under the title of quarter in Kyoto where the military government placed). With a passage of power in arms Ashikaga the internecine wars proceeding almost up to the extremity of century have begun. Emperor Godajgo ran in mountains, having based in place Esino the Austral yard, and Ashikaga has landed in Kyoto on a throne of emperor to the Coma which has headed Boreal yard. Dvoetsarstvie it was prolonged up to 1392 when both dynasties were aggregated, and capital has again become Kyoto.
  • VOJNAROVSKY Andrey (? - ok. 1740), the Ukrainian cossack foreman, nephew Mazepa, the participant of his plot. Ran to Germany. In 1718 it is given to the Russian government and it is banished to Yakutsk.
  • VOJNICH (Voynich) Etel Lilian (1864-1960), the English writer. Daughter Dzh. Boulle. In 1887-89 vein in Russia, has been connected to Polish and Russian revolutionary movement. With 1920 in the USA. In the novel "Gadfly" (1897), " the Gadfly in expulsion " (1910; other transfers - " Interrupted friendship ") the heroic mode of the italian revolutionary is built. Roman " Remove thy shoe " (1945) - about ancestors of the protagonist of the previous novels. Transferred products of the Russian literature. A theme of its musical oratorio "Babylon" (1948) - an overthrow of the autocracy in Russia.
  • VOINOVICH Vladimir Nikolaevich (r. 1932), the Russian writer. In 1980-92 in emigration in Germany. In the novel " Life and unusual adventures of the soldier of Ivan Chonkina " (1969-75) and his prolongation " the Claimant for a holy table " (1979) - satirical derision of a totalitarianism; a mode "ivanushki-durachka" - the carrier of national morals and common sense. Documentary - satirical story "Ivankiada" (1976; all three products in Russia up to 1988 were not typed) - on a "room" theme, uncovers the mechanism of bureaucracy. Satirical story - anti-Utopia " Moscow 2042 " (1987). The play " the Cat domestic mean pushistosti " (1990, together with G.I.Gorinym). Verses (including " the Song of astronauts "), the story (" Two comrades ", 1967), publicism.
  • VOJNORALSKY Porphyrias Ivanovich (1844-98), the revolutionary populist. One of organizers " boatings in people ". In 1878 it is sentenced to 10 years of penal servitude.
  • VOJSI (Voysey) CHarlz Frensis Eksli (1857-1941), the English architect. Designed small country houses for middle class. Developed a theme of a traditional English cottage (unified rectangular volume with a deckhouse and a high gable roof). In furnish of the building and registration of interiors a major role retracted to different kinds of an ornamental art.
  • TROOPS of air defence, intended for reflectance of impacts of the opponent from air. Will consist of service arms: a zenith rocket-propelled troops, an air defense aviation and a radio troops, and also a special troops of different destination.
  • ARMY CIRCLE, combined-arms collection for Don, Volga, jaitskih, grebenskih and terskih cossacks in 16-18 centuries. Was the supreme body of an authority and selected officials.
  • The ARMY FOREMAN, officer grade in the Cossack troops of Russian army; with 1775 corresponded a peavine of the sec - major, with 1798 - the major, with 1884 - the lieutenant colonel.
  • VOJSLAV Sigizmund Grigorjevich (1850-1904), the Russian mining geologist. Has invented a jumper for investigation of deposits. One of osnovatelej Russian Society of mining geologists.
  • VOJTES (Voites) Margarita (r. 1936), the Estonian singer (a coloratura soprano), the national actress of the USSR (1979). With 1964 solistka Estonian theatre " Âàíåìóéíå ", with 1969 at theatre of opera and ballet "Estonia".
  • VOITSEKHOVSKY Bogdan Vjacheslavovich (r. 1922), the Russian scientist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991). The main transactionses on theoretical and applied hydrodynamics, a knocking in gases. The lenin premium (1965).
  • VOCALESE (frants. vocalise, from an armour. vocalis - a vowel sound), a piece of music for singing without words on a vowel sound; the exercise for development of vocal technique is routine. Vocaleses for concert performance (S.V.Rakhmaninov, M.Ravel, etc.) are known also.
  • VOCALISM, structure of vocal phonemes of this or that tongue, dialect or family, group of tongues. Sometimes speak also about vocalism of the radical, the word, etc.
  • VOCAL MUSIC, products for one, several or many voices (with tool tracking or without him), behind few eliminations the bound with the word, the poetic text.
  • VOCAL ART, see. Singing.
  • VOKANSON (Vaucanson) Jacque de (1709-1782), French the mechanics. Has constructed a mechanic silk loom, has created a number of automatic control units with clock mechanisms (including known toys - flitting a filling and the playing flutist).
  • PASSENGER DEPOT (from English Vauxhall), 1) pleasure establishment bliz the London (17 century); in Russia originally - a place of public amusements. 2) the Building (group of buildings), structures and devices for a catering, mission controls of the transport and disposition of service staff. Distinguish road service stations, air terminals, railway, marine, river, and also consolidated, or complex (napr., railway - bus).
  • VOKLEN (Vauquelin) Lui Nikola (1763-1829), the French chemist. Has discovered (1797) and has secured (1798) in a free state a chromium; has discovered (1798) beryllium.
  • VOZNITSYN Procopies Bogdanovich, the Russian diplomat kon. 17-íà÷. 18 centuries the Participant of Great embassy 1697-98 and Karlovitskogo a congress 1698-99. In 1699 Voznitsyn has concluded advantageous Russia armistice with Ottoman empire. The chief of the Apothecaries order (with 1699).
  • VOZNICHY (an armour. Auriga), mia maid of Boreal hemisphere with a bright aster the Chapel.
  • ITERATED ENERGY SOURCES, sources continuously iterated in ecumene of the Earth of kinds of power - solar, wind, oceanic, hydraulic power of the rivers. Iterated energy sources are non-polluting; they also do not result in a makeup heat of a planet (therefore call not adding).
  • VOZOK, an arcaded covered winter carriage on sabots.
  • INCREASE AND DECREASING of FUNCTION, concept of a calculus. Function f (x) calls increasing on a cutting [a, b], if for any pair of points x1 and x2, a? x1
  • AGE STRUCTURE of the POPULATION, ratio of number of miscellaneous age groups of the population. Depends on levels of birth rate and mortality, lifetime of people. In 1990 population in the age of up to 15 flying compounded (in the world) 32 %, 15-64 flying - 62 %, 65 flying and is more higher - than 6 %.
  • "REVITALIZATION", 1) Russian periodical, the London: the weekly newspaper (1926-35), a weekly journal (1936-40). Editor P.B.Struve, the master literary critic - V.F.Khodasevich (with 1927). 2) Russian literary - political magazine, " an organ of Russian national idea ", 1949-74, Paris. Among editors - I.I.Thorzhevsky, S.P.Melgunov, S.S.Obolensky.
  • REVITALIZATION (Renaissance), the season in cultural and ideological development of countries Zap. And Cent. Europe (in Italy 14-16 centuries, in other countries kon. 15-16 centuries), transient from medieval crop to crop of new time. Distinctive features of crop of Revitalization: society, anticlerical character, humanistic world outlook (see. Humanism), the circulation to a cultural heritage of antiquity, as though his "revitalization" (from here the title). Revitalization has arisen and was most brightly exhibited in Italy, where already on a boundary of 13-14 centuries (see. Protorenessans) it provozvestnikami poet Dante, artist Dzhotto have acted, etc. Creativity of revivalists proniknuto belief in boundless capabilities of the person, his will and reason, denial of scholasticism and asceticism (humanistic ethics of Italians Lorentso Vally, Piko della Mirandoly, etc.) . The fervor of the statement of an ideal of the harmonic, liberated creative person, beauty and harmony of a real, the circulation to the person as to the divine principle of life, sensation of integrity and orderly regularity of universe give art of Revitalization major ideological significance, a majestic heroic scale. In the architecture the leading part society structures - become to play public buildings, palaces, urban houses. Using order partitioning of a wall, arch passageways, collonnades, vaults, domes, architects (Brunelleski, Alberti, Bramante, Palladio in Italy, Lescaut, Delorm in France) have given the block constructions majestic clearness, a harmonicity and a proportionality to the person. Artists (Donatello, Mazachcho, the Pierrot della Francheska, Mantenja, Leonardo yes Vinci, Rafael, Mikelandzhelo, Titsian, Veronese, Tintoretto in Italy; JAn van Ejk, Rogir van der Vejden, Brejgel in Netherlands; Djurer, Nithardt, Holbejn in Germany; Fuke, the Screw rivet, Klue in France) in succession took possession of art reflectance of all oof of a real - drive of volume, the space, light, the plotting of a human figure (century t. Hours exposed) and substantial medium - an interior, a landscape. The literature of Revitalization has created such monuments of lasting value, as " Gargantjua and Pantagrjuel " (1533-52) Rabelaises, Shakespeare dramas, the novel " Don Kihot " (1605-15) Servantesa, etc., organo united interest to antiquity with the circulation to national crop, fervor of comic life with tragic element. Petrarca sonnets, short stories Bokkachcho, heroic poem Ariosto, a philosophical block type (tract Erazma Rotterdamskogo " the Praise of Nonsense ", 1511), Montaigne essay in miscellaneous genres, personal forms and national versions have embodied ideas of Revitalization. In the music inpouring humanistic attitude, vocal and tool polyphony develops, there are new genres society vocal (frottola and villanella in Italy, viljansiko in Spain, a ballad in England, a madrigal) and tool music; epoch is finished by occurrence of such musical genres, as a solo song, a cantata, an oratorio and the opera, contributing the statement of a homophony. In Renaissance philosophical ideas neoplatonizma (Fichino) and panteizma (Patritsi, were distributed by Bruno, etc.), given away discoveries in range of geography (Great geographycal discoverings), astronomies (development of heliocentric world system by Kopernik), anatomy (Vezaly) have been made.
  • SOLDIERS Konstantin Naumovich (r. 1918), the Russian film director, the national actor of the USSR (1989). Productions of films: " to Troy have quitted from a wood " (1958), "is young - is green" (1962), " Marriage Balzaminova " (1965), " Djadjushkin dream " (1967), "Rudin" (1977), a documentary " the Holiday of sport and the world " (1985).
  • The COMPULSORY SERVICE, the statutory responsibility of the population (it is routine about 18 flying) to bear a military service in armed forces of the country. For the first time compulsory service is entered in 1798 in France (konskriptsija).
  • MILITARY UNIT, organizational do-it-yourself battle and an administrative unit in all kinds of armed forces (shelves, the ship of 1-st, 2-nd and 3-rd rank, a separate batallion, a division, a squadron, a company). Military unit are appropriated the true name (napr., 3-rd tank shelves) and a code name (napr., an army part 55555).
  • MILITARY HONOURS, development of respect (respect) on the part of servicemen or military units. Military honours can be returned at meeting and wires of representatives of foreign states. For rendering military honour the guard of honour and an orchestra are nominated.
  • MILITARY HONORARY NAMES, one of kinds of awards of military connections, parts, the ships, establishments, military schools. To military honorary names concern: names in commemoration of historical events, in honour of state and public organizations, state, military figures, under titles of cities, the rivers, etc. where data of connection, parts were distinguished in breakages.
  • MILITARY PRESENCE, at Russia at 1874-1917 provincial (regional), district (circumferential) and urban establishments, vedavshie affairs of compulsory service.
  • The MILITARY CHIEF, in Russia about 1874 face heading an organ of aboriginal military steering in province (up to 1881) and district (up to 1918); knew an aboriginal troops, military - mobilization and registration - draft activity.
  • VOIN, old russian city of 10-13 centuries on Dnepr. Residues detintsa with wooden walls, the bank and a pit, housing economic constructions (site Voini is overflowed with waters Kremenchug vdhr.).
  • FELTED CLOTH (turki)., a textile, receive a felting woollen (less often mineral and chemical) filaments, and also from a mineral wool (on a bituminous sheaf). Use primarily as flimsy, it is warm also a sound-insulating material.
  • The WAR, the organized armed extirpation between the states, the nations (peoples), social groups. In war armed forces as a main and decisive means, and also economic, political, ideological and other means of strife are used. War between social groups inside country for the government calls as a civil war. For last in 5,5 thousand flying was ok. 14,5 thousand major and small wars (including two world) during which has perished, has died of epidemies and famine over 3,6 billion person. In the modern conditions in connection with the terminal of " cool war " danger of world nuclear war has decreased. However are prolonged t. n. Local wars - military conflicts, the bound with religious, territorial and national spores, breeding roznju, etc. The International community, the United Nations aspire to building a system of relations between the states, eliminating a threat of force and its application.
  • WAR IN VIETNAM the Widespread title of the second indokitajskoj wars (1965-75) including Democratic Republic Vietnam (DRV) and the United States of America. First indokitajskaja war (1945-54) has concluded a defeat of France, a time division of Vietnam under Geneva agreements 1954 on Indochina on two parts in which terrain independent states with a different political formation - Democratic Republic Vietnam with capital in Hanoi in a north afterwards have been professed and Republic Vietnam with capital in Saigon - on juge.------the Beginning of war------the Prologue of war become events in gulf of Tongking bliz coasts of Vietnam in August 1964 when, under the statement of official Washington, motor torpedo-boats DRV attacked the ships of a VTR the USA, and a congress the USA has adopted a resolution, giving to the president of L. The right to use the American armed forces in Southeast Azii.------In March 1965 administration of a Johnson has directed a Johnson military quota on terrain of Austral Vietnam for his protection against measures received by Boreal Vietnam on association of Vietnam by force of arms. In bridge 1965 USA have begun massive bombings terrain DRV with February to force communist leaders to refuse in Hanoi support of forces, consolidated in December 1960 in National front of discharging of Austral Vietnam (NFOJUV), acting against a pro-Western mode in Saigon. Afterwards act of war have covered terrain not only naturally Vietnam, but also adjacent from nymas of Laos and Cambodia (from here and its second title).------From party DRV act of war have taken the form of large-scale guerilla operations in terrain of Austral Vietnam with the participation active armed forces DRV against armed forces of Austral Vietnam and his ally the USA. Besides massive bombings Boreal Vietnam the USA lent support to Saigon in realization of military operations against the guerrilla, granted economic pomoshch.------the Parisian peace talks------To the beginning 1968 war has reached the deadlock: any of the parties did not manage to decide tasks in view. In May 1968 in Paris, originally only between the USA and DRV, and then, peace talks have begun from January 1969, including representatives sajgonskogo a mode and NFOJUV. However act of war in terrain of Vietnam kept and during the Parisian peace talks on Vjetnamu.------After more than four flying of negotiations, on January, 27 1973 administration the USA headed by R.Nixon, loosened internal political crisis (" Uotergejtskoe business "), has gone on a signing of an agreement with DRV about conditions of a breeding of the troops from Vietnam. In February - March 1973 in Paris the international conference across Indochina, consolidated the Parisian nonpredatory agreements on the arrest of war and maintenance of the world in Vietnam, the signed USA and by Republic (Austral) Vietnam, on the one hand, both DRV and NFOJUV, with other was comprised. The unsuccessful and long-lived act of war accompanied with major loss, have generated in the American society t. n. " The Vietnamese set of symptoms ", i.e. sharp neprijatie sharing of the American soldiers in foreign military conflicts, what purposes this sharing not obosnovyvalos.------War in Vietnam would keep, however, during two flying, already between Boreal Vietnam in the union with NFOJUV and sajgonskim a mode headed by general Nguen Van Thieu. She was finished in April 1975 years as a result of vernal approach of armed forces DRV both battle parts NFOJUV and fall of capital of the South - Saigon. The authority in terrain of Austral Vietnam has passed to temporary revolutionary government of Republic Austral Vietnam.------the Role of the USSR------During all ten flying of the conflict of the USSR rendered DRV the diversiform help, aspiring to intensifying the influence in Indochina and to slackening the USA, the main rival in " cool war ". If up to the introduction the USA in war the Soviet support DRV limited basically economic complementation since the spring 1965 in the aggregate volume of an eaid has become to build up specific weight of military deliveries to Hanoi. Already to 1968 USSR has taken a leading rule among the countries supporting DRV, having pushed aside the Chinese National Republic on the second place. Simultaneously the USSR made efforts for the resolution of conflict in Vietnam a diplomatic way, being afraid of possible global crisis and being is interested (in conditions of an exacerbation of dissents with the Chinese communists) in "discharge" international naprjazhennosti.------Ëèòåðàòóðà:------Cats of L. Â., Egors R.S.Boevaja solidarity, the brotherly help. Ì., 1970.------Mhitarjan Ñ., Mhitarjan T.Vjetnamskaja revolution: Problems of the theory and practice. Ì., 1986.------Cooper Ch. The Lost Crusade: America in Vietnam. New York, 1970.------Kolko G. Anatomy of a War: Vietnam, the United States, and the Modern Historical Experience. New York, 1985.------Smith R. B. An International History of the Vietnam War. London, 1985.------Kahin G. M. Intervention: How America Became Involved in Vietnam. New York, 1986.------Pike D. Vietnam and the Soviet Union: Anatomy of an Alliance. Boulder, 1987.------Gibbons W. C. The U. S. Government and the Vietnam War: Executive and Legislative Roles and Relationships. Washington, 1988. P. 3.------I.V.Gajduk
  • EXALTATION, in biology - reaction of living cells to influence of different factors external and an internal environment. At exaltation the alive system passes from a condition of relative physiological dormancy to activity. In the basis of exaltation the composite physico-chemical processes lay. Fullestly exaltation is studied in nervous and muscle cells where it is accompanied by originating of an extending bioelectric potential - nervous impulse. Ability of cells to exaltation calls as an excitability. Compare. Braking operation.
  • EXITED STATE of quantum mechanical system, unstable state with the power superior power of a ground state.
  • EXPONENTIATION, the algebraic action consisting in multiplication of figure (a) most on a little bit (n) of time: a·a •... ·a = àn. Napr., 34 = 3•3•3•3 = 81.
  • RETURN of metals, the partial restoration of structural perfection and properties (in particular, a plasticity) distorted metals and alloys at their heating is lower than recrystallization temperature. Distinguish 2 stages of return - leisure time activities and poligonizatsiju.
  • RECURSIVE SEQUENCE (recurrent sequence), sequence a1, a2..., satisfying to a ratio of a kind an+p + c1an+p-1 +... + cpan=0, where c1, c2..., cp - stationary values.
  • RESIPROCAL CROSSING (bekkross), a crossing of a hybrid (animal or plants) a firstgeneration from one of parental forms for detection of a genotype.
  • TYPHINIA LOUSY (epidemic, european), an acute contagion of the person from group of spirochetoses. Flow by the way attacks (a fever, a fever, joint pains and a sacrum), alternating to remissions. It is transmitted vshami.
  • TYPHINIA TONGS, an acute contagion of the person with expressed natural ochagovostju; falls into to group of spirochetoses. It is transmitted by mites. It is clinically similar to a typhinia lousy.
  • RAISED, the grade of an aesthetics defining internal significance, majesty of subjects and the phenomena. Has become popular in an aesthetics 18 - nach. 19 centuries. In antiquity raised ("high") - special style of oratorical speech (the composition Pseudo - Longina " About raised ", 1 century n. e.).
  • HIGH GROUND, the epines of a surface elevated concerning accumbent terrains or adjacent parts of a bottom of a water reservoir (submarine elevation). Overland to high grounds attribute routinely districts with a true altitude more than 200 m.
  • SUBLIMATION, the same, that a sublimation.
  • VOZDVIZHENIE, one of religious dvunadesjatyh holidays, content in memory t. n. vozdvizhenija in 4 century in Jerusalem above crowd of believers of a cross on which, under the legend, the Christ was raspjat. It is marked by believers on September, 14 (27).
  • The AIR BLOWER, ministers for squeeze and air delivery or other gas. On a compression ratio distinguish fans and air engines. Sometimes air blowers call as air blowers or dutjevymi devices.
  • AEROSTATION (aeronautics), letanie on apparatuses lighter-than-air (air balloons). In the beginning of development of aircraft the term "aerostation" meant as well letanie on apparatuses more hardly air (airplanes, water elms).
  • VOZDUHOPODGOTOVKA, machining of air for collimating to him of the qualities adequate technological and sanitary-hygienic requests: air filtration from a dust, harmful gas impurity and odors, preheating (or refrigerating), drying (or humidifying), add-on of oxygen, aromatic substances. It is applied in warm-air heating systems, ventilation, an air handling.
  • AIR HEATER, the heat-exchange apparatus for calefaction of air passing through him. It is applied in warm-air heating systems, plenum ventilation, an air handling, in boiler installations TES and industrial enterprises.
  • AIR CURTAIN, the directed air flow given system of aboriginal plenum ventilation, handicapping access in rooms of outside cool air (or hot contaminated air from fabrication systems) through gatepost or technological openings.
  • AIR BUFFER, plenum of air between the grounding of the machine (napr., hovercrafts) and a seating, between mobile and back blocks of mechanisms (napr., the air bearing), in devices (napr., gyros).
  • AIR FILMING, in mining - establishment of character of distribution of a mine air on productions of shaft (or a plot of shaft), places and value of escapes. It is effected by anemometers, and also micromanometers in combination with vozduhomernymi tubes.