Tuesday, May 8, 2007

Technorati Profile

  • ARGENTITES (bright-polished carbon tool steel), stem of marine fishes of order lososeobraznyh. Length up to 60 see 12 kinds{views}, in boreal and moderate waters Quiet, Atlantic and Indian ok. Object of a craft.
  • ARGENTIT (from an armour. argentum - silver) (argentite), a mineral of a class of sulphides, cubic a-updating Ag2S. Impurity{additives} Cu, Pb, Fe, etc. Lead-coloured up to black with a metallic appearance of mass, a vein, an impregnation. Hardness 2-2,5; firmness of 7,3 g / sm3. Routinely meets in the cold hydrothermal deposits. Ore of silver.
  • ARGENTOMETRY (from an armour. argentum - silver and... metrija), a titrimetric method of a quantitative analysis, founded on education slightly soluble in water of connections of silver, napr. AgCl, AgSCN. Gauges chromate of a potassium, eosine minister, etc.
  • ARGILLITE (from grech. argillos - clay and lithos - a stone), the sedimental rock derivated as a result of condensation, a dehydration and case hardening of clays; from last differs the greater hardness and disability razmokat in water.
  • ARGININE, NH-C (NH2) NH (CH2) 3CH (NH2)-COOH, an aliphatic amino asid. In an organism is present at a loose kind{view} and in structure of proteins (a lot of arginine in protamines). Participates in synthesis of a urea (ornitinovyj a cycle), etc. processes of a nitrogen metabolism.
  • ARGISHTI I (1-n a floor. 8 century up to n. e.), tsar of Urartu, son Menua. Has considerably strengthened the state, has kept a number{series} of cuneiform inscriptions about victories above Assyria and construction of cities.
  • ARGISHTIHINILI, city in Urartu. It is based ok. 776 up to n. e. At Argishti I. On his{its} place in 4 century up to n. e. There was Armavir.
  • ARGON (an armour. Argon), Ar, the chemical element of VIII group of a periodic system, atomic number 18, atomic weight 39,948, falls into to rare gases. The title from Grecian argos - inactive. Firmness 1,784 g/l, têèï = 185,86 °C. Apply as an inert atmosphere at a weldment of aluminium and other metals and at obtaining ultra-pure substances, to fillup of electric lamps and gas-discharge tubes (sine-blue-glow).
  • ARGONAUTS, in the Grecian mythology the heroes who are departed{sending} on the ship{spacecraft} "Slang" under leadership JAsona to Colchis behind a golden fleece which was guarded by a dragon.
  • ARGONAUTS, a stem of Cephalopoda of mollusks of order of octopuses. Samki argonauts live in a shell (a diameter up to 20 sm); samtsy small-sized, without a shell. Some kinds, in tropical seas. Sometimes argonauts call as ships.
  • ARGONNSKAJA the NATIONAL LABORATORY of Steering of power probes the USA, is based in 1942 (. Lamont, bliz Chicago). Probes on many branches of science, the bound with use of a nuclear energy, activity on building the first atomic bomb.
  • ARGOS, ancient greek city on p-ove Peloponnesus (Greece). It is based in nach. 2-nd thousand up to n. e. In 5 century up to n. e. The large trading - craft centre. In 3-4 centuries n. e. It eroded by Gotha.
  • ARGOTIZMY (frants., a unit of hours argotisme), words and the turns of speech borrowed from this or that slang and used as a stylistic means (is more often for performance of speech of the character in a piece of art).
  • ARGUMENT (an armour. argumentum).. 1) the judgment (or set{combination} of judgments), presented confirming a truth of other judgment (the concept, the theory)... 2) the Grounding (a part of the grounding) proofs... 3) In mathematics argument of function - explanatory variable value on which values values of function depend. An amplitude of complex number z = x + iy = r (cosj + isinj), figured by a point with coordinates x and y, - an angle j a position vector r this point with an axis of abscisses.
  • ARGUN, city (with 1967) in the Russian Federation, the Chechen Republic. A depot. 27,6 thousand inhabitants (1992). Factories: an alimentary machine industry, sugar; a meat-packing factory, integrated house-building factory.
  • ARGUNOV Paul Aleksandrovich (1862-1944), the Russian revolutionary. One of osnovatelej and chiefs " Societies of translators and publishers " in Moscow (1882), is banished in Vost. Siberia. After October revolution the historian.
  • ARGUNOVY, Russian serfs àðõèòåêòîðû:.. 1) Feodor Semenovich (ok. 1732 - ok. 68). Baroque a kitchen courtyard house (1755), pavilion " Fuselage spine fairing " (1755-75) in farm Kuskovo... 2) Paul Ivanovich (ok. 1768-1806). With 1793 headed construction of wooden palace - theatre in farm Ostankino (classicism), the writer of some interiors.
  • ARGUNOVY, Russian serf painters - portraitists, father and ñûí:.. 1) Ivan Petrovich (1729-1802), the writer of representative ceremonial and chamber portraits... 2) Nikolay Ivanovich (1771 - after 1829), has tested{experienced} influence of a classicism ("P.I.Kovaleva-Zhemchugova", 1802-03).
  • ARGUN, the river in the Russian Federation and China, dextral component of Amur. 1620 kms, the area of basin of 164 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water 340 m3 / with.
  • ARBUDA, vedijskoe the demonic godhood presented by the way of the snake; opponent Indry.
  • WATERMELON, stem one and perennial plants of a set of a gourd family, a vine crop. 3-5 kinds{views}, in the south of Europe, in Africa, Asia, Australia. Dining rooms of the form of a watermelon edible (in fruits of Saccharum,) cultivate redoxon, pectins on all continents. Productivity 150-300 ts with 1 ga.
  • WATERMELONS Alexander Erminingeldovich (1877-1968), Russian chemists - organics, the founder of scientific school fosfororganikov, academician AN the USSR (1942), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1957). Probes also on dynamic isomerism, a chemical technology, a history of a domestic organic chemistry. The state premium of the USSR (1943, 1947).
  • WATERMELONS Alexey Nikolaevich (1908-86), the Russian playwright. In plays "Tanja" (1938), " Years of journeys " (1954), " the Irkutsk history " (1959), " the Old-fashioned comedy " (1975), " Severe games " (1978), "Winner" (1983) hoisted the important morally - ethical problems. The state premium of the USSR (1980).
  • WATERMELONS Anton Petrovich (1797 or 1798-1843), the decembrist, the lieutenant. The member of Boreal society. The participant of revolt on December, 14 1825. It is sentenced to transportation for life. With 1827 in Nerchinskih mines, with 1839 on a settlement in Yenisei lips.
  • WATERMELONS Boris Aleksandrovich (1903-91), Russian chemists - organics, academician AN the USSR (1953), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1969). Son A.E.Arbuzova. Transactionses on chemistry of terpenes also it is diene, to synthesis and stereochemistry fosfororganicheskih connections. The lenin premium (1978), the State premium of the USSR (1951).
  • ARVAD, ancient the city - state in the Sowing. Phoenicia. For the first time it is mentioned in egyptian sources nach. 15 century up to n. e. In 8 century up to n. e. It is subordinate by Assyria, then Babylonia. In ellinistichesko-Roman time had self-management.
  • ARVAJHERE, Arbaj-Here, city in a central part of Mongolia, adm. ts. Uverhangajskogo ajmaka. St. 12 thousand inhabitants. The alimentary, sewing, boot enterprises.
  • ARVAK (dr .-èñë. early waking up), in the Scandinavian mythology a horse, zaprjazhennyj in a chariot of the Sun.
  • ARVALSKIE BROTHERS (an armour. Arvales Fratres), board of sacrificers in Other. Rome which responsibilities included prays to gods about sending a crop and prosperity of a community of citizens.
  • ARGAND (Argand) Emil (1879-1940), the Swiss geologist. Has offered the scheme of development of the alpine geosyncline and has proved a wide circulation in her of large overthrust sheets.
  • ARGA-BACON, the river, primarily in Yakutia, the left-handed in-leak{influx} r. Olenek. 503 kms, the area of basin of 47,7 thousand êì2. Porozhista.
  • ARGASOVYE MITES (argazidy), a set of mites of order parazitiformnyh. Length of 3-13 mm. Ok. 100 kinds{views}, in countries with a warm climate. Dwell{live} in holes, nests and other shelters animal, eat their blood. Carriers of causal organisms of some diseases.
  • ARGEDAS (Arguedas) Alsides (1879-1946), the Bolivian writer. The realistic novel " Creole life " (1912) about aristocracy. In the novel " Bronze strain " (1919) has denounced discrimination of Indians.
  • ARGEDAS Hose Maria (1911-1969), the Peruvian writer. Realistic compositions from life of Indians: novels " the Steep rivers " (1958), " Blood of all strains " (1964), stories.
  • ARGEZI (Arghezi) Tudor (an ice-film. Name Jon Teodoresku, Teodorescu) (1880-1967), the Romanian writer. Lyrics. Anticlerical (" Wooden icons ", 1930) and antibourgeois (" Notes from country Booze ", 1933) collections of satirical prose.
  • ARGELANDER (Argelander) Fridrih Wilhelm Avgust (1799-1875), the german astronomer. In 1823-36 corresponding member Petersburg AN (1826) worked in Russia. Transactionses on an astrometry and probes of variable stars. Has emited the check list and the atlas over 320 thousand asters of boreal root - t. n. Bonnskoe a review (1859-62).
  • ARGENTITIS, the Argentina Republic (Republica Argentina), the state in southeast JUzh. America. 2767 thousand êì2. The population 33,5 million person (1993), over 90 % - argentintsy. A urban population over 86 % (1990). The official language - spanish. The majority of believers - roman catholics. Argentina - federation in structure of 22 provinces, the Federal (metropolitan) district and national terrain Tierra del Fuego. Capital - Buenos Aires. The chief of state - the president. The body of legislation - a two-chamber National congress. Eastern part of Argentina flat, in the west - Andes, on a southwest - the Patagonian tableland. A climate in a north tropical, to the south subtropical, in the south moderate. Mean temperatures of January in a north 28 °S, in the south 10 °S, July accordingly 18 and 1 °S. A rainfall from 100-300 mm in the west up to 1400-1600 mm annually on the orient. The main rivers - Parana, Paraguay, Uruguay, Chubut, Rio-Negro, Rio Colorado. The wet meadow steppes, savannahs, laurilignosas (predominary in mountains). National parks: Nauel-Uapi, Los-Glasjares, Los-Alerses, Lanin, etc. In an antiquity the terrain of Argentina was populated by Indians. In 1-st floor. 16 century of her{it} have conquered spanish konkistadory; in country the large feudal landholding with use of a slave labour was affirmed. In 1816 in a course of war for independence of spanish colonys in America 1810-26 the independent state Consolidated provinces of La Plata (in 1826 are converted to Federative Republic Argentina) is built. In 20 century in Argentina items of the foreign capital have become stronger (with it is grey. 19 century - primarily English, then the USA). With 1930 country steered primarily military, pursued{adopted} a policy in interests of latifundists, upper class and foreign monopolies. After 2-nd world war by major influence in Argentina used X. D. Peron (it is selected the president of Argentina in 1946), combining populism with measures, directed on strengthening of items of the national capital. In 1955 Peron was will overthrow military, however influence peronizma in broad masses was saved (in 1974 Peron has been again selected the president). With 1976 the board military was placed{installed}. In this season{term} (in 1982) Argentina which is not admitting the British sovereignty above Falkland (Malvinskimi) by the islands, has undertaken an abortive attempt to take possession of them. Argentina - industrial - agrarian country with vysokotovarnym an agriculture. A lobe in the internal gross product (1990, %): an industry 23,6, an agriculture and fishery 16,7. Production of lead and zinc, petroleum and a natural gas, uranic and other ores. Manufacture of the electric power 50,9 billion kVtCHch (1990). Alimentary (predominary mjasohladobojnaja), textile, a leather and foot-wear industry, a machine industry, black both nonferrous machine industry. Oil processing and petrochemistry. In an agriculture the large landholding overtops{prevails}. The main{basic} agricultural crops: wheat, corn, barley, an oat, sunflower. A fruit growing. Main branches of animal husbandry - cattle breeding and a meat - wool production. A livestock (1990, one million) a large horned stock 51, ovets 29. Fishery. Length (1988, one thousand in km) railways 34,1, motorways 211,4. The tonnage of a marine merchant marine fleet 2,5 million register gross tons (1991). Main seaports - Buenos Aires, Rosario, La Plata. Export of farm products (ok. 80 % of cost - meat, a wool, leathers, a grain). The main{basic} foreign trade partners: the USA, Brazil, Germany. Monetary unit - peso.
  • The ARGENTINA HOLLOW, submerged hollow on a southwest Atlantic ok. Depth up to 6681 m.
  • ARGENTINTSY, people, the main{basic} population of Argentina (28 million person). An aggregate number 28,3 million person (1992). Speak on the Argentina dialect of spanish tongue. Believers - basically roman catholics.
  • ARAHNA (grech. arachne - a spider), in the Grecian mythology lidijskaja the girl, the skilful needlewoman, derznuvshaja to call Afinu on a contest{race} in weaving and transformed{turned into} for it the goddess in a spider.
  • ARAHNOZY, invazionnye diseases animal, called by parasitic mites (napr., demodekoz).
  • ARACHNOIDITIS, inflammation of an arachnoid membrane head or a spinal cord. The causes: infections, traumas, an intoxication. The arachnoiditis of a brain shows a head pain, a vomiting, convulsive attacks, drop of sight, ear and so forth, an arachnoiditis of a spinal cord - pains in extremities, distresses of sensitivity, etc.
  • ARACHNOLOGY (from grech. arachne - a spider and... logija), section of the zoology, investigator arachnids.
  • ARAHOSIJA, ancient range in a bass. Rivers Argandab, Argastan and Ghazni with the main centre in area of Kandahar (the modern Afghanistan). For the first time it is mentioned in Behistunskoj inscriptions. ARASHA (Araxa), tantaloniobievoe and a rare earth deposit in Brazil (pieces. Minas-ZHerajs). It is maintained with 1961. Geologic reserves ok. 462 million t ore. Ore also contain Th, U. The main{basic} metallic mineral - pirohlor.
  • ARBA (turki)., a carriage in Compare. Asia (2-wheel high), on Caucasus and the south of Ukraine (the 4-wheel lengthy).
  • ARBALET (frants. arbalete), propellant weapons in european countries in Middle Ages: a steel or wooden onions, reinforced on the wooden rig (box); the side rail was stringed by a capstan{winch}. In Russia called samostrelom.
  • ARBATOV George Arkadjevich (r. 1923), the Russian historian and the economist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1974). The main{basic} transactionses on problems of economic and international attitudes{relations}.
  • ARBENS GUSMAN (Arbenz Guzman) Hakobo (1913-71), the participant of Guatemalan revolution 1944-54, the president of Guatemala in 1951-54, Minister of Defence in 1945-50. Government Arbensa Gusejna has conducted an agrarian reform, attempted to limit influence of the American monopolies and messages independent foreign policy; was svergnuto as a result of the American intervention.
  • ARBER (Arber) the Werner (r. 1929), Swiss genetics. Has discovered in bacteria restriktazy - the ferments, specificly fissionable hitted in a cell stranger DNK. The Nobel Prize (1978, together with D.Natansom and H.Smith).
  • ARBETNOT (Arbuthnot) John (1667-1735), the English satirist. Pamphlets against war for the Spanish patrimony (1701-14). In " Memoirs Martina Pisaki " (are published 1741; together with Dzh. Swift, A.Popom, etc.) has derided a pedantry, scholasticism and pseudo-learning.
  • The DAYSMAN (an armour. arbiter).. 1) the intermediary, the member of an arbitration tribunal, arbitration... 2) the Sporting judge.
  • ARBITRATION (frants. arbitrage).. 1) a way of the resolution of disputes at which the parties revert to daysmen (arbitration judges), elected by the parties or quoted under their agreement or in the order statutory... 2) Under the Russian right the council of conciliation - the second, after a conciliation commission, mandatory instance on consideration of collective chaffers (conflicts)... 3) the International body under the nonpredatory resolution of disputes between the states (see, napr., the Stationary value chamber of an arbitration tribunal).
  • ARBITRATION COURT.. 1) in the Russian Federation an organ executing the sanction of chaffers originating during enterprise activity, escaping from civil matters (economic spores) or from legal relations in an orb of steering. The law on arbitration court is adopted on July, 4 1991. See also the Maximum arbitration court... 2) Permanent public organization at Chamber of commerce and industry of the Russian Federation for the resolution of disputes which escape from contractual and civil-law attitudes{relations} at implementation external economic and scientific and technical links.
  • ARBOVIRUSES (in abbreviated form from English arthropod borne viruses), group of the RNK-KEEPING viruses born by blood-sucking arthropods (mites, mosquitoes) and triggering arbovirusnye diseases (napr., a hemorrhagic fever, a yellow fever).
  • WOOD CONCRETE (from an armour. arbor - a tree and grech. lithos - a stone), a version of a lightweight-aggregate concrete. It is produced from a mix of organic fillers (ground industrial wood residue, a common reed, etc.) and mineral binding (routinely portland cement). Stenovoj a material of low-rise buildings.
  • ARBORETUM, the same, that an arboretum.
  • ARBORICIDES (from an armour. arbor - a tree and caedo - I kill), chemical drugs for destruction of undesirable mallee vegetation, napr. A bush on a pasture; fall into to herbicides.
  • "ARANDA" ("Aranda"), a research vessel of Institute of marine probes (Finland). It is constructed in 1953; displacement 1100 t. Biological and ihtiologicheskie probes in Baltic m. and the Sowing. To Atlantic.
  • ARRANGEMENT (from frants. arranger, characters. - to put in order).. 1) transposition of a piece of music for performance{fulfillment} on other instrument or other voice, other structure of instruments or voices... 2) the Alleviated exposition of a piece of music for performance{fulfillment} on the same instrument... 3) In variety music - harmonization and instrumentation of a new or well-known melody... 4) In a jazz a way of fixation of general premeditation ansamblevoj and orkestrovojinterpretatsii and glanyj the carrier of style qualities.
  • ARANHUES (Aranjuez), city in Spain, on r. Tagus, suburb of Madrid. St. 35 thousand inhabitants. The metal-working, photochemical and pharmaceutical enterprises. Center of tourism. A former residence of spanish kings. An architectonic monument of 18-19 centuries.
  • ARAN (Arany) JAnosh (1817-82), the Hungarian poet. The participant of Revolution 1848-49. Poem - trilogy "Toldi" (1846-79), patriotic verses and ballads (" the Welsh malt - residues ", 1857), epicheskie and satirical poems, lyrical and philosophical verses.
  • ARANJAKI (sanskr. Wood books), in ancient India books of manuals for wood hermits.
  • ARANJANI (sanskr. Wood), the old indian goddess of a wood and trees.
  • ARAPOV Pimen Nikolaevich (1796-1861), the Russian playwright, the historian of theatre. Has constituted " the Annals of Russian theatre " (1861) - the chronicle of theatre life with 1673 on 1825 (cramps on repertoir, troupes, a theatrical household activities and so forth). Articles about theatre. Vaudevilles.
  • ARARAT (arm. - Masis), the highest volcanic mass of the Armenian mountains on the orient Turkey, bliz borders{limits} with Armenia and Iran. Will consist of 2 cones of lost volcanoes of Major Ararat draining by the groundings (an altitude 5165 ì) and Small Ararat (an altitude 3925). Ok. 30 icehouses. On one of versions, on Ararat it was intercepted, according to the biblical legend, Noys kocheg during a Flood.
  • ARARAT, city (with 1962) in Armenia, on plain Araratskoj. A depot. 20,1 thousand inhabitants (1989). Cement - slate combine, factory on spreading capacity of mineral waters.
  • PLAIN ARARATSKAJA, on the average flow r. Araks, between mountains Ararat in the south and Aragats in a north (a large part of plain Araratskoj in Armenia, smaller - in Turkey). An altitude of 850-1000 m. Irrigation agriculture.
  • ARARKTSJAN Babken Gurgenovich (r. 1944), chairman VS of Armenia since December 1991. With 1966 on teaching and scientific activity. From 1986 Yerevan state universities managing by stand. Since August 1990 1-st vice-president VS of Armenia. Since July 1995 chairman of National assembly of Armenia.
  • ARAT from Sikiona (271-213 up to n. e.), in Other. Greeces chief Ahejskogo of the union (the strategist with 245 more than 17 times). At a nem the union has reached{achieved} independence of Macedonius.
  • ARATY, in Mongolia and areas of moving of Mongols in China workers - breeders, in a broad sense - workers generally, people. In the Russian Federation aratami peasants of Tuva call.
  • ARAUKANSKY TONGUE, falls into andskoj to group of tongues (see. Ando-equatorial tongues).
  • ARAUKANY (the self-title - mapuche), American Indian people in Chile (800 thousand person, 1992) and in the west of Argentina (70 thousand person). Tongue araukansky. Save traditional convictions, a part - roman catholics.
  • ARAUCARIA, stem of coniferous trees of a set araukarievyh. Ok. 20 kinds{views}, primarily in Australia and JUzh. To America. Are decorative. Seeds are edible, wood use in construction, for manufacture of furniture. Some kinds cultivate as the decorative on Black Sea a shore of Caucasus.
  • ARAFURA SEA (English Arafura Sea), in Indian ok., between Australia, It is new. Guinea and Tanimbar islands and Kaj. 1017 t. êì2, depth predominary up to 200 m, the greatest of 3680 m. A large bay gulf of Carpentaria.
  • ARACHIDONIC ACID, CH3 (CH2) 4 - (CH-CHCH2) 4 (CH2) 2COOH, a colourless liquid, tïë = 49,5 °S. Falls into to essential fatty acids.
  • ARACAJU, city and port on north-east of Brazil, adm. ts. Pieces. Serzhipi. 288 thousand inhabitants (1980). An international airport. A sugar, textile, tanning industry. University.
  • ARAKAN (Rakhajn), range on a southwest of Myanma (Burma); in terrain Arakana in the first eyelids n. e. - 1785 there was a like state.
  • ARAKANSKIE MOUNTAINS (Rakhajn), on southwest Manjamy. Length ok. 800 kms, an altitude up to 3053 m (. Victoria). Parallel meridional hrebty with acute tops and abrupt downslopes. Evergreen (in the west) and deciduous (on the orient) woods.
  • ARAKELJAN Sedrak Arakelovich (1884-1942), the Armenian painter, the honored worker of arts of Armenia (1935). Lyrical landscapes and zhanrovopejzazhnye patterns.
  • ARAKAS Sadao (1877-1966), the Japanese political figure. In 1931-34 military minister, in 1938-39 minister for enlightenment. The ideologist of an expansionism and militarization of a country. In 1948 it is sentenced by International military tribunal in Tokyo to life imprisonment. It is free in 1955.
  • ARAKISHVILI (Arakchiev) Demetrios Ignatjevich (1873-1953), the Georgian composer, the musicologist, the national actor of Georgia (1929), academician AN of Georgia (1950). One of founders Georgian kompozitorskoj schools and the musical folkloristiki. The state premium of the USSR (1950).
  • ARAKS, the river in Transcaucasia (verhovja in Turkey, a lower reaches in Azerbaijan; on the considerable stretch across Araks pass borders{limits} of Armenia and Azerbaijan with Turkey and Iran), dextral in-leak{influx} of the Hen. 1072 kms, the area of basin of 102 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water 285 m3 / with. It is used for an irrigation. On Araks - the azerbajdzhano-Iranian hydroscheme.
  • ARALIA, stem of plants of a set aralievyh. Trees, bushes, high perennial grasses. Ok. 35 kinds{views}, in tropics and subtropics of Boreal hemisphere; in Russia 3-5 kinds{views}, on the Far East. An aralia manchurian - a drug plant (drugs from roots have tonic action). Many - ornamental plants. As an aralia call also an indoor plant of a stem fatsija.
  • ARAL-PAJGAMBAR, reservation in Uzbekistan, the Surkhan-Darya region. An island on Amu Darya (20 kms are lower than Termez). It is based in 1960. The area 3094 ga. Riparian forests of Central Asia from a poplar (turangi) and an elaeagnus; a tamarisk, a saxaul. A Bukhara deer, the cane cat, a wild boar, a jackal; the Tadjik pheasant; gjurza, etc.
  • ARALSOR.. 1) drainless bitter and salty an eskar. In Kazakhstan, on Prikaspijskoj nizm. 101 êì2. Salt-making process... 2) the Drainless bitter lake in Kazakhstan, on Uralo-Embinskom an interfluve. The area 72 êì2.
  • ARALSK, city (with 1938) in Kazakhstan, the Kyzyl-Orda region. A depot (Aral sea). 31,4 thousand inhabitants (1991). Combine " Àðàëñóëüôàò ", a clothing factory, etc.
  • ARAL PEST (Aral), drainless brine lake the pest in Uzbekistan (Kara-Kalpak) and Kazakhstan. To 1990 area has constituted 36,5 thousand êì2 (including t. n. Major the pest - 33,5 thousand êì2). Prevailing{dominating} depths 10 - 15 m, the greatest - 54,5 m. St. 300 islands (the largest - Barsakelmes and Revitalizations). With nach. 60th of 20 century a level of Aral sea hardly drop in connection with an intensive fence of waters of the running rivers on agricultural requiring: waters of Syr-Darya and, in separate years, Amu Darya do not reach up to starving. Aral sea - a zone of ecological disaster. There is a desertification of accumbent terrains, change of socio economic structure Priaralja.
  • ARAM (pastushkovyj a crane), a unique kind{view} of a like set of order zhuravleobraznyh. Length up to 65 see. Flies hardly, well runs. In America (from the south the USA up to Argentina) and on the Antilles islands.
  • ARAMEI (aramejtsy), semiticheskie nations, natives of Arabia. In 14-11 centuries up to n. e. Were settled across Forward{Front} Asia.
  • ARAMAIC TONGUES, group of Semitic tongues (dialects). The most ancient season{term} is submitted{shown} staroaramejskimi by inscriptions of 9-7 centuries up to n. e. Hereinafter branch on western and eastern dialect groups.
  • The ARAMAIC LETTER, kind{view} konsonantnogo the letter which have arisen in nach. 1-st thousand up to n. e. On the basis of the Phoenician letter for arameev. The most ancient monuments fall into 9-7 centuries up to n. e. To the aramaic letter ascend syrian, jewish square, Arabian, pehlevijskoe, the Uigur, Mongolian letter.
  • ARAMIL, city (with 1966) in the Russian Federation, Sverdlovsk region, on r. An Inet. A depot. 13,8 thousand inhabitants (1992). A woollen-goods factory, factory of plastics materials.
  • ARAMKO, see. The Arabsko-American petroleum company.
  • ARANAUSKAS Leonas Semenovich (r. 1921), the Russian architect. One of writers of site development of area New CHeremushek (1950-60-Ñ), the exhibition building on Red Presne (1973), a sport center "Olympic" (1980) - in Moscow. The lenin premium (1982).
  • " ARE NUVO " (frants. art nouveau - new art), widespread{distributed} in some european countries and in the USA the title of style "modernist style".
  • "ARE" (ARA, in abbreviated form from English American Relief Administration - " the American administration of the help ") (1919-23; chief G.Guver), it is built for rendering assistance to the european countries damaged in 1-st world war. In 1921 in connection with famine in the Volga region activity of "ARE" has been permitted{solved} in RSFSR.
  • ARE, the title of 2 stems dlinnohvostyh is bright rastsvechennyh parrots. Length up to 1 m (blue an are). 17 kinds{views}, in America (from Mexico up to Paraguay), in boscages. Flights assault fruit plantations. Are easily tamed and can "speak".
  • ARABATSKAJA the SCAPE, a sand - bar in eastern part Crimean p-ova, separable a hall. Sivash from the Azov m. Length of 113 kms, width from 270 m up to 8 kms.
  • ARABESQUE (frants. arabesque, characters. - Arabian), one of the main{basic} items of classical dance (with a raised and elongated back leg). It is recasted at different rules{situations;positions} of a reference leg, arms{hand}, heads, bodies.
  • ARABESQUE, the musical play, primarily for a piano, with whimsical, it is affluent ornamentirovannym melodic drawing. Writers of arabesques: R.Schuman, A.K.Ljadov, K.Debjussi, etc.
  • ARABESQUE, the european title of the decorative pattern which has been usual in art of Muslim countries. It is constructed by a principle of infinite development and rhythmic repetition geometrical, vegetative or epigraficheskih motives. Differs repeated rhythmic lamination of uniform{homogeneous} forms that creates an impression of a saturated whimsical pattern.
  • ARABIKA, a hills in Gagrskom hr. On Caucasus, raising above. Gagra (Abkhazia). An altitude of 2661 m. Broad-leaved and coniferous forests.
  • ARABINOSE, monosaccharide (pentose); is part some reserve polysaccharides of plants, and also resins, mucilages. For some bacteria - a unique source of carbon.
  • ARABI-PASHA, see. Orabi-pasha.
  • ARABISTIKA, set{combination} of the scientific disciplines investigator a history, tongue and crop of Arabian peoples.
  • ARABLINSKY (an ice-film. fam. Halafov) Gusejn Mamed ogly (1881-1919), the Azerbaijan actor and the producer. On the scene with 1905. One of founders of the Azerbaijan professional theatre.
  • ARABS Jury Nikolaevich (r. 1954), the Russian writer, the poet, the film writer, the publicist. Has acquired popularity as the writer of scripts to A.N.Sokurov films (" the Lone voice of the person " on A.P.Platonovu, " Mournful loss of consciousness " on B.Shou, " Rescue and save " on G.Flaubert, " Days of eclipse ", "Stone", " Quiet pages "). Has written also the script to a TV movie "Nikolay Vavilov" (1990). The story "Cruiser" (1993).
  • The ARABO-ISRAELI WAR 1948-1949 (the Palestinian war), between the Arabian states (Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Yemen) and the state Israel. Israel has trapped 6,7 thousand êì2 terrains of Palestine which under the solution of General Assembly of the United Nations from 29.11.1947 was intended for the Arabian state, and a western part of Jerusalem. Other part of Palestine, retracted to the Arabian state, and eastern part of Jerusalem have been adjoined by Jordan. From terrain, entrapped Israel, it has been ejected over 900 thousand Arabian inhabitants. Truce agreements (1949) have not settled the middle East conflict which has arisen as a result of the arabo-Israeli war.
  • ARABIAN BREED of horses, high, is introduced in 1-st thousand n. e. On Arabian p-ove. Animal mean growth, it is harmonic are combined, with light motions, are wanton, hardy. Were used at breeding many european breeds. Cultivate everywhere, except for Australia.
  • ARABIAN SEIZURES, military marchings of arabs in it is grey. 7 - nach. 9 centuries finished by seizure of countries Short-range and Compare. The orient, the Sowing. Africa, JUgo-Zap. Europe. During Arabian seizures has been built Halifat - the theocratical state. Interaction of arabs and conquered peoples has reduced in a folding of medieval Arabian crop. Liberation extirpation of peoples Compare. Asia, Iran, Transcaucasia (2-n a floor. 9 - 10 centuries), and also Spain (Rekonkista 8 - 15 centuries) has reduced in their discharging of Arabian domination. Hereinafter on a considerable proportion Short-range and Compare. The orient and the Sowing. Africa were formed the Arabian states.
  • ARABIC NUMERALSES, see. Digits.
  • ARABIAN TONGUE, falls into a Semitic branch afrazijskoj families of tongues. The modern speech Arabian disintegrates on 5 groups of dialects: eastern (mesopotamskaja), Arabian, tsentralnoarabskaja, egipetsko-Sudanese, severoafrikanskaja (magribskaja). A literary language unified. Figure speaking in Arabian tongue 190 million person (1990). Writing on the basis of the Arabian alphabet. Official and a working language of General Assembly of the United Nations and some other organs of the United Nations. The official language of all Arabian countries, the Somali Democratic Republic, Republic Djibouti.
  • The ARABSKO-AMERICAN PETROLEUM COMPANY (ARAMKO; English Arabian-American Oil Company - ARAMCO), it is based in 1933 largest petroleum companies the USA for operation of oil deposits of Saudi Arabia. About 1973 government of Saudi Arabia gradually redeemed its{her} shares, in 1980 has become privately-owned master ARAMKO. Steering of its{her} enterprises and operation of deposits execute, under special agreements with government of country, American petroleum companies " Ýêñîí ", "Chevron", "Teksako", "Mobile" which receive a part of petroleum got{procured} by her{it}. A crude production ok. 200 million t, a thorough revision - 23 million t (kon. 1980th).
  • The ARABIAN LETTER, the kind{view} of the letter distributed in Zap. Asia and the Sowing. To Africa. Has arisen till 4 century in Arabia on the basis of the aramaic letter. Will consist of 28 characters used for notation agree and long vocal. To notation brief vocal can be applied overline and subscript signs. It is read from right to left.
  • APTE Hari Narajan (1864-1919), the indian writer. The initiator of realism in the literature on marathi. A series of novels " the Modern histories " (1890-95), historical novels " the Tiger of Mysore " (1890-91), "CHandragupta" (1902-04).
  • DRUGSTORE (from grech. apotheke - a warehouse), establishment (or subdividing of hospital), executing manufacturing and holiday of medicines. The first drugstore is open{discovered} in 754 in bagdad; in Russia - in 1581 (t. n. tsareva a drugstore).
  • APOTHECARIES WEIGHT, the measurement of mass used at weighing of medicines. The basic unit - an apothecaries pound, is divided on 12 ounces, 1 ounce on 8 drachmas, 1 drachma on 3 skrupula, 1 skrupul on 20 granov. 1 Russian apothecaries pound - 358,323 g, 1 ounce - 29,860 g, 1 drachma - 3,732 g, 1 skrupul - 1,244 g, 1 gran - 62,209 mg. The system is cancelled in the USSR on January, 1 1927.
  • APTEKMAN Vasilyevich (1849-1926), the revolutionary populist Has got hoarse. The participant " boatings in people ", the member " the Earth and will ", one of osnovatelej " Black repartition ". In 1880 it is banished to Yakutia. In 1893 participat in building a consignment " the National right ". In 90th the participant of Revolution 1905-07 is close to a social democracy. Memories: "Society" the Earth and will " 70th on personal memories " (2 issuings, 1924).
  • APTERIGOTY (Apterygota), the lowest hexapods. Length up to 5 see. Dwell{live} in soil, a duff, a rotten wood, etc. Orders: bessjazhkovye, diplura, collembola, shchetinohvostki. Nowadays 3 first orders fall into entognatnym a hexapod, and the last order and all flies - to ektognatnym.
  • APTERIUMS (from grech. apteros - featherless), epines of a leather the birds which are not having feathers. An arrangement and the form an apterium - a regular attribute.
  • APULEJ (Apuleius) (ok 125 - ok. 180 n. e.), drevnerimsky the writer. The adventurous - allegorical novel " Metamorphosises in XI books " (" the Golden donkey "), proniknutyj erotic motives, elements household satyrs and religious mysticism. "Apologia" - speech in natural protection against the charge in magic.
  • APULEJ SATURNIN (Apuleius Saturninus) (?-100 up to n. e.), in Other. Rome populjar, national tribunes 103 and 100 up to n. e. Has conducted through public assembly the law on vesting by ground of veterans G.Maria; it is killed by adherents optimatov.
  • APULIA (Puglia), range in the south of Italy. 19,4 thousand êì2. The population 4 million person (1991). Adm. ts. - Bari. It separate on prov. Bari, Brindisi, Lechche, Taranto, Foggia.
  • APULIA, peninsula in Italy; see. Salentina.
  • APURE (Apure), the river in Venezuela, the left-handed in-leak{influx} of Orinoco. 1580 kms, the area of basin of 147 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water ok. 2000 m3 / with. It is navigable on 600 kms, in a rainy season - on all stretch.
  • APURE, staff on a southwest of Venezuela. The area of 76,5 thousand êì2. The population of 305 thousand person (1990). Adm. ts. - the Dignity - Fernando-de-Apure.
  • APURIMAC (Apurimac) (in the lower flow - Ene, Tambo), the river in Peru, the left-handed component of Ucayali (bass. Amazon). 1250 kms, the area of basin ok. 125 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water ok. 2,9 thousand m3 / with.
  • APUHTIN Alexey Nikolaevich (1840-93), the Russian poet. The main{basic} motives of lyrics - grust, disappointment, grievance life. On words of a poem " Nights mad ", " To forget so it is fast ", whether " Day reigns ", etc. P.I.Chajkovsky has written romances.
  • APFIJA (Appija) Kolosskaja (mind{wit}. Between 54-68), the Christian martyress, ravnoapostolnaja; the marital partner of apostle of Philemon (the Message to Philemon 1:2). Has suffered in Colossuses in persecution of emperor Nerona. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on February, 19 (on March, 4) and on November, 22 (on December, 5), in Roman catholic on November, 22.
  • APSHERONSK, city (with 1947) in the Russian Federation, Krasnodar territory, on r. Psheha. A depot. 34,9 thousand inhabitants (1991). Wood-working, a food-processing industry, metal working. A recreation area and tourism. In area - a crude production.
  • APSHERON, eastern tip of Caucasus, in Azerbaijan. The m. on 60 kms presses in Caspian; width up to 30 kms, an altitude up to 165 m. Oil fields and gas (see. The Baku oil-and-gas-bearing area). On austral a shore - Baku. Climatic and balneal health resorts - Bilgjah, Pirshaga, Mardakjan, etc.
  • ARE (from an armour. area - the area), a unit of area in a metrical measurement, 1 are = 100 m2 = 0,01 ga.
  • ARE the EXTRA-SEC CHAMPAGNE (frants. art brut, characters. - rough, raw art), a direction in from - art of midpoint of 20 century. It is related to surrealism and primitiveness, integrates in the aggregate a race course of activity of nonprofessionals ("naive" creativity of children and insanes) with products{creations} of professional masters which contrast the expressly "barbarous", as though vyplesnuvshiesja from depths of a subconscious mind modes{images} to a hypocritical external sleek of the modern civilization. The leader of a direction Z.Djubjuffe was.
  • ARE DEKO (frants. art deco, abbr. from an ornamental art), style of decorative - design creativity and the design, eurysynusic in Zap. To Europe and the USA 1920-30-õ.. Has united features of a modernist style and constructivism, bent for of external ortamental luxury with the thought over rationality of function and structure (the etalon of are deko registration of interiors{cabins} of huge ocean liners of that season{term} has become). Has especially strongly taken roots in a mode and jeweller art.
  • APRAKSIN Peter Matveevich (1659-1728), columns, spodvizhnik Peter I. Brother F.M.Apraksin and queens of Martha, the wife of tsar Feodor Alekseevicha. In 1702-04 has gained a number{series} of victories above the Swedish troops. In 1708 has concluded the agreement for acceptance of Kalmyks in Russian citizenship. With 1722 president of JUstits-board.
  • APRAKSIN Stepan Fedorovich (1702-58), the Russian general - field marshal (1756). In the beginning of Seven-year war 1756-63 commander-in-chief Russian army. For vacillating actions in 1757 it is discharged of the position.
  • APRAKSIN Feodor Matveevich (1661-1728), columns (1709), spodvizhnik Peter I, general - admiral (1708). Brother P.M.Apraksin and queens of Martha, the wife of tsar Feodor Alekseevicha. Commanding Russian fleet in Boreal war and the Persian marching. With 1717 president of Admiralty - board, with 1726 member of the Supreme Privy Council.
  • APRELEVKA, city (with 1961) in the Russian Federation, the Moscow region. A depot. 21,1 thousand inhabitants (1992). Factory of long plays. NPO "Device", chemicals plant, etc.
  • APRIL (an armour. Aprilis), the fourth month of a calendar year (30 sut).
  • APRIL CRISIS 1917, political crisis in Russia after February revolution. Has arisen in connection with publication on April, 20 (on May, 3) the obligation of the Providing government to keep war. Mass demonstratings have arisen on April, 20 naturally (15 thousand person), on April, 21 (on May, 4) - on call-up of bolsheviks with a request of the world and a handover of power to Advices{Councils} (to 100 thousand person). The guiding of Advices{Councils} has supported the Providing government which structure included leaders eserov and menshevikov.
  • The APRIL REVOLT 1876, the largest performance{statement} of Bulgarian people against a turkish yoke. It preformed{readied} by the Bulgarian revolutionary central committee. The greatest scope{span} has received in an austral part of Bulgaria. At depressing{supression} has perished ok. 30 thousand person.
  • APRIL REVOLT 1945, national armed revolt in the Sowing. Italy against fascist occupiers and their italian henchmen; has finished discharging Italy of fascism. On April, 25 - in Italy a national holiday.
  • APRESJAN Jury Derenikovich (r. 1930), Russian jazykoved, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1992). Transactionses in range of semantics, syntax, a lexicography, structural and mathematical linguistics, machine translation, etc.
  • APRILOV Vasil (1789-1847), the Bulgarian educator, the organizer of 1-st in Bulgaria (in Gabrovo) society school (1835). Settled idea of rendezvous{approach} of the Bulgarian crop with Russian.
  • APPROBATION, in an agriculture - examination of varietal crops and plantings of agricultural crops for verification of a grade, suitability of their crop on the seed purposes, checks of fulfilment of regulations of a seed growing.
  • APPROBATION (an armour. approbatio), approval, the statement{confirmation}, founded on check, examination, test.
  • APROSH (frants. approche), a gap between characters (marks) and words in a typographical panel.
  • APSARY, in indian mythology the heavenly dancers dwelling{living} on heavens and charming with dancing of gods; beloved gandharvov.
  • APSIS, absida (from grech. hapsis, a stem. Item hapsidos - the canopy), a projection of the building, semicircular, faceted or rectangular in the plan, overlapped{blocked} by a semidome or a closed semidone. Apses have appeared in drevnerimskih basils. In Christian temples an apsis - altarnyj a projection.
  • APSIRT, in the Grecian mythology the son of tsar of Colchis Eeta and the brother of the Medea. Has been seized JAsonom and the Medea during their escape behavior from Colchis and it is killed. The Medea has scattered parts of body Apsirta on I stain, that Eet has stopped persuit of the ship{spacecraft} and has stayed for burial of the son.
  • APSISHU EKABS (an ice-film. A name and fam. JAnis JAunzemis, Jaunzemis) (1858-1929), the Latvian writer. A cycle of realistic stories about rural life, including " From national picture passageway " (1889-91).
  • APSU, see. Abzu.
  • APPALACHIAN PLATEAU, flanges a western edge{boundarouse} of a range of Appalachian mountains (USA). Length ok. 1500 kms. It is combined predominary by limestones; karst is developed. An altitude from 500 m to the west up to 1500 m to the orient where Appalachian plateau acquires character of mountains (Allegheny mountains). Broad-leaved forests.
  • The APPARATUS (from an armour. apparatus - the equipment).. 1) the device, the engineering device, the adaptation... 2) Set{Combination} of establishments, the organizations maintaining any control area, economies and t. p... 3) Set{Combination} of workers of any establishment, organization; set{combination} of the employees ensuring operation of any elected body... 4) Notes, indexes{indicators}, etc. by-products to scientific to transactionses, printed publicity material, etc. (the critical apparatus, the scientific - reference apparatus)... 5) Set{Combination} of organs of the person, animal or the plants, executing{designing} any special function of an organism (the alimentiry apparatus, a respiratory apparatus).
  • The SPREAD FUNCTION of an optical device, describes distribution of illuminating intensity in the plotting of a point source of light created by the device. The spread function allows to evaluate resolution of the device and distribution of brightness in object.
  • CONDENSER SPINNING, system of spinning for manufacturing a tag nappy yarn from short fibres, a debris trash, and also their mixes. In spinning a wool a condenser spinning call also cloth.
  • RAMP (from frants. appareil - entry).. 1) shallow descent in slopes of entrenchments and shades for entry (exit road) of military technique... 2) the Cavicorn dike (ramp) for loading technique (horse structure) in the train or on perepravochnoe a means... 3) the Device in a nose of a landing ship for a tails of staff and military technique on a coast.
  • APPASSIONATO (ital. appassionato), passionate, inspired; notation of character of the musical performance{fulfillment}. One of fortepiannyh L.Beethoven sonatas is known under the title "Appassionata".
  • APPEL (Appel) the Karelian (r. 1921), the Netherlands artist. A team member "Cobra". In 1940-50-Ñ has developed the version of the abstract ekspressionizma, gravitating to monumental, epicheskomu to style of expression with elements of znakovo-mythological symbolics.
  • APPEL (Appell) Pol Emil (1855-1930), the French mathematician, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1911), foreign honorary member AN the USSR (1925). Transactionses on mechanics, geometries, function theories.
  • APPENDIX (from an armour. appendix - an appendage), an appendix of a caecum.
  • APPENDIKULJARII, a class marine chord animal a subtype obolochnikov. The body (it is routine less than 1 sm) diaphanous, will consist of a trunk and a tail (in which passes the chord). From secretions will derivate periodically removable diaphanous "cabin". Ok. 100 kinds{views}, are distributed widely.
  • APPENDICITIS, inflammation of an appendix. Attributes of an acute appendicitis: abdominal pains, predominary in dextral ileal range, a nausea, a vomiting, etc. Complications: a perforation of a process and a peritonitis. Treatment surgical.
  • APPERCEPTION (from an armour. ad - to and perceptio - perception), concept of philosophy and psychology of the new time, clear and realized perception of any impression, sensation, etc.; it is entered by G.Lejbnitsem as against a unconscious perception. I.Kant alongside with this " an empirical apperception introduces concept "transtsendentalnoj" apperceptions - initial invariable " unities of consciousness " as conditions of any experience and the knowledge, permitting to synthesize diversiform perceptions. In founded V.Vundtom of psychology of an apperception - the perception requiring of pressure{voltage;stress} of will. In the modern psychology a synonym of perception.
  • APPETITE (from an armour. appetitus - desire), sensation, the bound with a food requirement; the physiological mechanism regulating receipt{entry} in an organism of alimentary substances. At a long absence of nutrition appetite passes in sensation of famine.
  • APPIAN (?-70-Ñ of 2 century), the historian Other. Rome, the Greek. The writer of " the Roman history " from the grounding of Rome up to nach. 2 century (in the Grecian tongue); from 24 books books 6-9 and 11-17 have reached bodily, are completely lost 18-24.
  • ROAD APPIEVA (an armour. via Appia), the first Roman paved road, is built at censor Appii Klavdii in 312 up to n. e. Between Rome and Kapuej (350 kms); in 224 up to n. e. It is finished up to Brundizija. All was saved almost.
  • Z-COORDINATE (from an armour. applicata, characters. - enclosed), one of Cartesian axials of a point in the space.
  • APPLIKATURA (from an armour. applico - I hold down, I put), a way of an arrangement and a sequence of pins at the game on a musical instrument; notation of this way in notes. Selection applikatury is connected to interpreting the composition.
  • APPLIQUE PATTERN (from an armour. applicatio - applying), building of art plotting by glueing, nashivaniem on a tissue or a paper of a motley shards of any material; the plotting, a pattern built in such a way.
  • DRESSING (from frants. appreter - finally to finish), impregnation of textiles or deposition on them at furnish of different substances - dressing (starch, glue, synthetic resins, etc.), attaching to materials stiffness, wrinkle recovery, shrink resistance, a flame resistance, etc. properties.
  • APPROXIMATING (from an armour. approximo - I come nearer), changing of one mathematical objects (napr., figures or functions) other, more simple and in this or that sense close to initial{starting} (napr., curves close to nymas polygonal lines).
  • A POSTERIORI (from an armour. aposteriori - from consequent), descending from experience; concept of the theory of knowledge, counter a priori.
  • APOSTLE, the Christian liturgucal book keeping a part of the New testament (particular act and the message of apostles) and the Apocalypse. 1-n a book of Ivan Fedorova (1564).
  • APOSTLE Daniel Pavlovich (1654-1734), the last elective hetman of Left-bank Ukraine (with 1727). The participant of Boreal war and the Persian marching 1722-23.
  • APOSTOLIKI (the Apostolic brothers), krestjansko-plebeian sect 2-nd floor. 13 - nach. 14 centuries in the Sowing. Italy. Opposed a feudal press and a latin church, invoked for poverty, failure{refusal} of property. Sect has based Segarelli (ok. 1260), with 1300 headed Dolchino.
  • APOSTOLOVO, city (with 1956) on Ukraine, Dnepropetrovsk region. A railway junction. 18,2 thousand inhabitants (1991). Factories: canning, maslodelatelnyj, concrete products, metalworks for hothouses. It is based in 18 century.
  • APOSTLES (from grech. apostolos - a salting), in early Christian writings nomadic ecclesiasts of christianity. In the New testament twelve apostles - the nearest followers ("pupils") of the Christ.
  • APOTHECIUM (from grech. apothekion - a storage room), the open fruit body of some thecasporous fungi and lichens.
  • APOTROPEJ (dr .-ãðå÷. otvrashchajushchy a trouble), a magic subject to which in an antiquity attributed properties to preserve people, animal, home units against malicious forces. Apotropei often represented plotting of frightening godhoods and beasts: Gorgony, dwarf Besa, a lion, a griffon and so forth.
  • APOFATICHESKAJA THEOLOGY (from grech. apophatikos - negative), aspires to express nature absolute potustoronnego the god by serial jettisoning ("denial") of all definitions relating it{him} as incommensurable with his{its} nature. It was developed by Grigory Nisskim and in "Areopagitikah", in Middle Ages - Nikolay Kuzanskim. Often it was supplemented katafaticheskoj by theology, however was considered as more perfect way of knowledge of the god.
  • APOFEGMATY (from grech. apophthegma - saying), arcaded collections of witty and moralizing sayings or short instructive stories (" Apophthegmata Laconica " Plutarha).
  • APOTHEM (from grech. apotithemi - I lay off).. 1) a cutting (and also his{its} length) a perpendicular and, a regular polygon lowered{omitted} from the centre on any of his{its} parties... 2) In a regular pyramid an apothem - an altitude of a lateral face.
  • DEIFICATION (from grech. apotheosis - obozhestvlenie).. 1) obozhestvlenie ancient greek statesmen, hereinafter Roman emperors... 2) Glorifying, vozvelichivanie any face, event, the phenomena... 3) the Final solemn crowd scene of performance or the celebratory concert program.
  • APOENZYME, protein part of ferments for which development of catalytic activity presence and a nonprotein component - a coenzyme is necessary. The apoenzyme determines specificity (selectivity) of action of a ferment and a capability of a regulation of his{its} activity.
  • APOPHYSIS (from grech. apophysis-), in geology - zhilopodobnoe branch from magmatic bodies, communication{connection} with which it is possible to trace a process, shoot directly.
  • APOFONIJA, the same, that ablaut.
  • APOCHROMAT (from apo... And grech. chroma - colour), a lens in which selection of grades of an optical glass fits a spherical aberration, and the chromatic aberration is small.
  • APOFOCUS (from apo... And the centre), a point of an orbit of the heavenly body, the most remote from the centre of a body around of which there is a circulation.
  • APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS (Appalachian Mountains), a range on the orient the Sowing. America, in the USA and Canada. Length of 2600 kms. A sowing. Appalachian mountains (northward from rr. Mohok and Hudson) - a corrugated tableland with separate masses an altitude up to 1916 m (Washington); tracks of an ancient glaciation. JUzh. Appalachian mountains in an axial zone will consist from parallel hrebtov and masses, disjointed broad valleys; to an axial zone fit to from the orient of Piedmont plateau, from the west - Appalachian plateau. An altitude up to 2037 m (. Mitchell). Deposits of mineral coal, petroleum and gas, iron oxides, a titanium. Broad-leaved, conifers and mixed forests.
  • APPALACHSKY the COAL BASIN, on the orient the USA, along Appalachian mountains, in Predappalachskom a forward sag. Broad assimilation with 1840. Ok. 180 thousand êì2. Uglenosny adjournments permi and Carbon. Common stocks up to depth of 900 m 1600 billion t. Carbons basically bituminous. Combustion heat of 28,9-35,4 MDZH/KG. Production open{discovered} and underground ways.
  • APOLLO, the butterfly of a set of sailing vessels. Side panels in scope{span} of 7-9 sm, white, for tops diaphanous, with black and red spots. Meets predominary in mountain areas of Europe, Caucasus and Zap. Siberia. In many countries it is guarded. In the Red Data Book.
  • "APOLLO", the literary and art log-book, 1909-17, Saint Petersburg. Has been connected to symbolism, later with acmeism.
  • APOLLO BELVEDERSKY, the statue located in a hall the Belvedere in Vatican. A Roman copy of a bronze first copy of activity of ancient greek sculptor Leohara (ok. 330-320 up to n. e.). Long time was considered as top of the Grecian art.
  • APOLLONIAS Antinojsky (mind{wit}. 286), the Christian martyr, the reader damaged in persecution of emperor Diokletiana. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on December, 14 (27), in Roman catholic on July, 6.
  • APOLLONIAS ATHENIAN (nach. 1 century up to n. e.), the ancient greek sculptor, son Nestora. The signature of this master was saved on t. n. " Belvederskom a torse " in Rome and a bronze statue kulachnogo the fighter (the National museum, Athenes).
  • APOLLONIAS FROM TRALL (2-1 centuries up to n. e.), the ancient greek sculptor, son Artemidora, brother Tavriska. It agrees Pliniju to the Higher, together with the brother has created sculptural group " Execution Dirki " (see. Farnezsky the bull) on Rhodes.
  • APOLLONIAS Nikopolsky (Armenian) (mind{wit}. ok. 319), one of a magpie of five Christian martyrs damaged in Nikopol Armenian in the persecution of emperor Litsinija. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 10 (23).
  • APOLLOS (Apelly) (1 century), apostle from 70-òè; the jew from Alexandria, spodvizhnik apostle Paul (Particular act of apostles 18:24-28; 1 epistle to the corinthians 3:4-6). Some explorers attribute to him authorship of the Message to Jews. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on January, 4 (17), on March, 30 (on April, 12), on September, 10 (23) and on December, 8 (21).
  • APOLOGISTS (from grech. apologeomai - I protect).. 1) the collective title rannehristianskih writers, primarily 2-3 centuries shadowing principles of christianity from criticism of christless philosophers. Among apologists - Justin the Martyr, Origen, Tertullian... 2) Figuratively - jaryj the adherent of any idea, a direction, the social device.
  • APOLOGIA (grech. apologia), unlimited, excessive eulogy somebody or something, protection (routinely prejudiced).
  • APOMIXIS (from apo... And grech. mixis - mixture{mixing}), different ways of an asexual reproduction animal and plants; in more fine-bored value - education of a germ without fertilization. Napr., a parthenogenesis and an apogamy - versions of an apomixis. Compare. An amphimixis.
  • APONEVROZ, soedinitelnotkannaja a plate with which help muscles are fixed. For the person aponevrozom call also penetrated as tendinous filaments of a fascia of a sole and a palm.
  • APOP, in egyptian mythology the huge snake to whom Ra combats every night during the float on underground waters; the collective mode{image} of enemies of the Sun.
  • The APOPLEXY, subitaneously developing extravasation in any organ. See, napr., the Insult.
  • APORIJA (grech. aporia, characters. - hopelessness), a refractory or insoluble problem, the bound with originating the contravention, with availability of argument against apparent, conventional. See. Zenon from Elei.
  • APORT, rannezimnie grades of an apple tree in austral areas of a fruit growing: aport blood-red, aport Alexander, or Alma-Ati (an arcaded Russian grade), aport Kuban, etc. Fruits very large, vinnosladkie with a pleasant{sweet} acid. Productivity of 200-400 kg from a tree.
  • APLASIA (from a - a negative prefix and grech. plasis - education), a malformation, inborn absence of any part of a body or an organ. An aplasia of one of twin organs (napr., one kidney) can not result in to the functional violations{disturbance}. Compare. A hypoplasia.
  • APLANAT (from grech. aplanetos - correct), a lens in which a number{series} of optical aberrations is removed; it is driven out by more perfect lens - an anastigmat.
  • APLIZII, the same, that marine hares.
  • APLITE, uniformly and fine-grained zhilnaja a rock, poor colour minerals, routinely structure of granites.
  • APLOMB (frants. aplomb), redundant self-righteousness in conduct, in speech.
  • APLU (an armour. Aplu, Apulu, Aplun), in etrusskoj mythologies the godhood, in many respects corresponds{meets} to god Apollo.
  • APNOE (from grech. apnoia - absence of respiration), suspend of respiration at a depletion of blood a carbonic gas (napr., after reinforced synthetic or arbitrary respiration). False apnoe occurs at the strong irritation of a leather (napr., cool water).
  • APO (Apo), a burning mountain on about. Mindanao, the highest on Philippines (2954 ì). National park.
  • APO... (from grech. apo - from, from, without), the part of the composite words meaning: denial, loss, absence something (napr., an apomixis), an origin from something (napr., Apomorphinum), removal.
  • APOGAMY (from apo... And grech. gamos - spoilage), development of a germ from cells of a prothallium or a foetal sac for some seed plants and ferns. A version of an apomixis. APOGEE (from apo... And grech. ge - the Earth).. 1) the point of an orbit of moon most remote from the Earth or an artificial satellite of the Earth... 2) the Top gear, bloom (napr., apogee of glory).
  • APOCRYPHAS (grech. apokryphos - secret, secret), products{creations} judaic and early Christian writings, not live in a biblical canon.
  • STATELESS PERSONS, see. Stateless persons.
  • APOLLINARY Junior (ok. 310 - 382/392), diocesan of. Laodikii, pupil Afanasija Alexandria. Shadowed the orthodox doctrine against arians, however hereinafter, having put forward the thesis about " the unified embodied nature of the God of the Word ", has become the founder of the christological heresy convicted on a cathedral in Rome (374-380) and on Ecumenical council in Constantinople (381).
  • APOLLINER (Apollinaire) Guillaume (an ice-film. A name Wilhelm Apollinary Kostrovitsky, Kostrowicki) (1880-1918), the French poet. Lyrics Apollinera (a cycle " Life to devote to love ", 1917) combines courageous sincerity, acute, sometimes sarcastic sensation of cruelty of life (a cycle " the Bestiary, or Tuple Orfeja ", 1911) and pleasure of its{her} acceptance, opposition to losses and time (poems " Most Mirabo ", 1912; " Alkogoli. 1898-1913 ", 1913). Collections of short stories " Eresiarh and To ° " (1910.) " Kalligrammy. Poems of the World and War. 1913-1916 " (1918) - the lyrical chronicle of tragical perception of 1-st world war which participant was Apolliner. Meditation about tragical time and the personality - passion play - buff " Colour of time " (1918, it is published 1920).
  • APOLLODOR from Damascene, drevnerimsky the architect and the engineer 1-st floor. 2 century. Has constructed a grandiose forum of Trajan, odeon, a circus and terms of Trajan in Rome, the bridge through Danube.
  • APOLLODOR (the last third of 5 century up to n. e.), the ancient greek artist, from Athenes. On Pliniju to the Higher (the Roman scientist and the writer), has received a nickname skiograf, i.e. tenepisets, t. To. First began to transmit shades and to use demitints.
  • APOLLODOR ATHENIAN (ok. 180 - after 119 up to AD), ellinistichesky the philologist, religioved and the chronologist, the writer of "Chronicle" (from fall of Troy, 1184, up to 119 up to AD) - the main{basic} source of our datings. Reached under his{its} name " the Mythological library " (the most popular tutorial of the Grecian mythology in new time) - serotinal{late} compilation of 1 or 2 centuries.
  • APADANA, a main hall in imperial palaces Ahemenidskogo of Iran, mnogokolonnyj, with a flat wooden ceiling.
  • APANAZH (frants. apanage), the part of royal domain given in France (up to 1832) and some other european monarchy sovereigns to the junior sons, brothers (it is routine for life).
  • APANASENKO Joseph Rodionovich (1890-1943), the commander, the general (1941). In the Civil war the commander kavalerijskoj divisions in 1-st Horse Army. In 1938-43 commanding a troops Central Asian IN and a troops of Far East front. Since June 1943 deputy of Voronezh front commanding by a troops. Has died of wounds.
  • APART (frants. aparte, from a part - aside), scenic monologue or the replicas uttered "aside", for the public, and, on premeditation of the writer, "inaudible" to partners on the scene.
  • APARTMENTS (from frants. appartement - a dwelling unit), a major magnificent room.
  • APARTHEID (aparthejd) (on a language afrikaans apartheid - separation), the most marginal form of racial discrimination. Means forfeiting fixed groups of the population depending on their race political, socio economic and civic rights, down to territorial isolation. Some certificates{acts} of apartheid can compound{make} genocide. The modern international law considers{counts} apartheid as crime against humanity. In 1973 the International convention on suppression of crimes of apartheid and punishment for him{it} is adopted.
  • APAS (sanskr. Water), vedijskie godhoods of waters; easygoing in relation to people salutary waters.
  • APATITE, mineral of a class of phosphates, Ca5 [PO4] 3. (F, Cl, OH) 2. Content P2O5 - 41-42 %. Impurity{additives} CO2-, Mn, rare-earth elements, U, Sr, etc. White, light-blue, yellow, violet both other crystals and acinose units. Hardness 5; firmness ok. 3,2 g / sm3. An origin magmatic, hydrothermal, pnevmatolitovoe. Raw material for fertilizers, manufactures of a phosphoric acid and its{her} salts; it is applied in metallurgy, a ceramic and glass industry. The synthetic apatite with an impurity{additive} of rare-earth elements is used in optician.
  • APATITOVYE ORE. The greatest industrial value magmatic deposits have, the bound with masses nefelinovyh sienitov. Content P2O5 in such apatitovyh ores of 16-19 %. Main storages apatitovyh ores - in the Russian Federation (Kovdorskoe and Hibinskie deposits); abroad the considerable reserves apatitovyh in Brazil, Vietnam, the republic of South Africa, Finland, Uganda, Canada.
  • APATITOSIS, the pneumokoniosi stipulated by influence apatitovoj of a dust.
  • APATITES, city (with 1966) in the Russian Federation, Murmansk region, close an eskar. Imandra. A railway junction. 88 thousand inhabitants (1991). Apatito-nefelinovaja ore dressing factory, etc. The Kirov state district power station. The Kola centre of science of the Russian Academy of Science. Has arisen in 1935 as a settlement in connection with development Hibinskih of deposits.
  • APATHY (from grech. apatheia - impassivity).. 1) indifferent, indifferent attitude{relation} to ambient; a condition at which are reduced or internal drives{excitings}, interests, emotional reactions are completely lost... 2) One of the main{basic} concepts of ethics of stoicism, uncontrolled liberty showers from passions and hot bloods. It is pushed Stilponom (megarskaja school), it is developed stoikom Zenonom from Kitiona, Epiktetom.
  • APATOZAVRY (brontosaurs), a stem extinct huge kowtowing order jashcherotazovyh dinosaurs. Lived in a Jurassic in the Sowing. To America and, probably, in Europe. Length up to 25 m. of 5 kinds{views}. Rastitelnojadnye.
  • STATELESS PERSONS (stateless persons) (from grech. apatris and apolis - denuded the fatherland, denuded Rhodinums), the faces which are not having citizenship (citizenship).
  • APACHES (the self-title - a dyne), group atapaskskih peoples (navaho, meskalero, hikarilla, etc.) in the USA (pieces. Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma). 20 thousand person (without navaho, 1992). Tongues compound{make} an austral branch atapaskskih tongues. Believers - christians.
  • APASH (frants. apache - under the title of American Indian nation apaches).. 1) deklassirovannyj an element in France; the hooligan, the thief. The word has become to be used in France from time of its{her} sharing{participation} in colonization the Sowing. America... 2) Otlozhnoj the open not clasped{buttoned} collar under which it is impossible to put on a cravat; the jacket with such collar.
  • UPWELLING (from English up - upward and well - to rush), a upwelling from depth of a water reservoir to a surface. It is invoked{produced} by resistantly blowing winds which drive surface waters aside the high sea, and return{in exchange} on a surface waters of subjacent layers are hoisted.
  • APDAJK (Updike) John (r. 1932), the American writer. Social - psychologic and ironical prose (stories, pov. "Fermat", 1965; the tetralogy " the Rabbit, run ", 1960, " the Rabbit healed ", 1971, " the Rabbit has grown rich ", 1981, " the Rabbit has comforted ", 1990) about attempts of redemption of the modern bezduhovnoj life and finding by " the mean American " moral supports zhiznestojkosti and good will. The mythological novel "Centaur" (1963) about immortality of goods and tragedijnosti his{its} destinies; " the novel of ideas " about religious belief " Ðîäæåðà Version " (1986).
  • APE (Ape) (up to 1917 official title Oppekaln), city (with 1928) in Latvia, in 57 kms from zh.-d. An item. Valga. 1,6 thousand inhabitants (1991). Wood-working, metal-working and a food-processing industry.
  • ANSHLJUS (a nem. Anschlu - apposition), policy of violent apposition of Austria to Germany, carried out{spent;conducted;performed} by Germany after 1-st world war. It was finished by capture of Austria by Germany on March, 11-12 1938. Independence of Austria recovered{restored} in April 1945, after its{her} discharging during 2-nd world war, and legalized by the State agreement (1955) forbidding anshljus.
  • ANSHJUTS Genrih (1785-1865), the Austrian actor. One of founders of scenic realism at the Austrian theatre. Worked in Germany, with 1821 in "Burgteatre" (Vienna).
  • AN LUSHAN (?-757), the Chinese commander. Has raised (755) anti-government mutiny and has proclaimed itself emperor (756). It is killed by the son.
  • ANDUN, the title of. Dandun in China up to 1965.
  • " ANELLI - NAZI " (Agnelli - Nasi), industrial group of Italy. Has developed in nach. 20 century. A nucleus of group - concern " ÔÈÀÒ " effecting 90 % of automobiles{cars} in country. Monitors also the enterprises of other industries.
  • ANHUI (Anhuej), province in Vost. China, in a bass. Yangtze. Ok. 140 thousand êì2. The population 56 million person (1990). Adm. ts. - Hefei.
  • ANHOJSKAJA the CLIQUE (anfuistskaja a clique), in 1916-20 in the Sowing. China one of groupings bejjanskih militarists. The title has received from prov. Anhui which natives were leaders of a clique - Duan TSizhuj, etc. In 1918 anhojskoj the clique had been built political club Anfu (from here its{her} other title). It was sustained by Japan.
  • ANCHING (Huajnin), city and port in China, in prov. Anhui, on r. Yangtze. 240 thousand inhabitants (1987). Alimentary, textile, a petrochemical industry. The large centre of manufacture of tea.
  • ANSHAN, city on north-east of China, in prov. Liaoning. 1,2 million inhabitants (1989.) Center of production of iron oxide and iron and steel industry. Heavy engineering. The oil refining, chemical, cement enterprises.
  • ANJALSKY the UNION, in 1788-89 plot of the Swedish and finnish officers [the title on d. Anjala (Anjala, Finland) where program documents] against the Swedish king Gustava III have been constituted; the part of conspirators achieved state branch of Finland from Sweden. In nach. 1789 participants Anjalskogo of the union have been repressed.
  • ANYANG (CHzhande), city in Central China, in prov. Henan. 389 thousand inhabitants (1989). Textile, a food-processing industry. Bliz Anyang - residues of settlements from a neolith before epoch Shang - In (till 11 century up to n. e.), including the last capital of kingdom In (a palace, temples, inhabited and craft quarters, tombs).
  • ANJUJ, the river on north-east of the Russian Federation, dextral in-leak{influx} of Kolyma. Length of 8 kms (the area of basin of 107 thousand êì2); it will be derivated by interflow Major Anjuja (693 kms, the area of basin of 57 thousand êì2) and Small Anjuja (750 kms, the area of basin of 50 thousand êì2). Average discharge of 650 ms. It is used for navigation, a floating, fishery.
  • PANSIES, grassy 1-2-ëåòíåå a plant of a set of a violet family. Basically in Eurasia. Grades with large flowers of the miscellaneous form and colour use in an ornamental gardening.
  • Joint-stock company, in the Chinese mythology a turtle, carrier on I stain three sacred mountains on which live immortal; ministers a numeral of wisdom and learning.
  • AOMORI, city in Japan, on about. Honshu, adm. ts. Prefectures of Aomori. 288 thousand inhabitants (1990). Wood-working, a fishing industry. A train ferry on about. Hokkaido.
  • AORIST (grech. aoristos), the aspectual-temporal form of a verb. In a number{series} indoevropejskih tongues (Grecian, old church slavonic, old russian, etc.) means the action referred to past, napr. Old church slavonic polozhih - " I have put ".
  • AORTA (grech. aorte), a main artery of the blood system, coming out of a left ventricle of heart; supplies with an arterial blood all tissues and organs of a body. For the person, mammals and birds an aorta the main{basic} vessel of a great circle of a blood circulation.
  • AORTITIS, inflammation of a wall of an aorta; a chronic aortitis - predominary at a lues.
  • ANFIM Nikomidijsky (mind{wit}. 302), diocesan, the martyr damaged in persecution of emperor Maksimiana. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on September, 3 (16), in Roman catholic on April, 27.
  • ANFIMOV Nikolay Apollonovich (r. 1935), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1984). Transactionses on heat exchange and mass transfer. The state premium of the USSR (1980).
  • ANFINOGENTOVA Anna Antonovna (r. 1938), the economist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991), corresponding member of Russian Academy of Agrarian Sciences, 1991. Transactionses on theoretical problems of construction of interbranch balance models and their uses in steering.
  • ANFINSEN (Anfinsen) Christian Bemer (r. 1916), the American chemist and the biochemist. Basic transactionses on decoding primary structure of a ferment of ribonuclease. Probeed relation of activity of ferments to their structure, has put in pawn a fundamentals of an evolutionary biochemistry. The Nobel Prize (1972).
  • ANFIJA Roman (mind{wit}. 120), the Christian martyress damaged in Rome in persecution of emperor Adriana, mother of martyr Elevferija Illirijskogo. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on December, 15 (28).
  • ANHEL (Angel), a cataract in verhovjah r. CHurun, in Venezuela. An altitude of fall of 1054 m (the highest on the Earth).
  • ANHIZ (Anhis), in the Grecian mythology and for Vergilija tsar dardanov, the grandson of Trojan tsar of the Ooze, beloved the Aphrodites, given birth to him of son Eneja. Has divulged the mortal about love of the goddess, for what have been punished Zevsom by blindness (or has become weakened). In an impact time of Troy Enej has born the father from burning city on the shoulders{arms}. Anhiz has died on about. Sicily during wanderings Eneja.
  • ANHRA-MAJNJU, in zoroastrizme the main malicious godhood, olitsetvorenie the malicious beginning, antagonist Ahuramazdy.
  • ANHUR, see. Onuris.
  • ANTSENGRUBER (Anzengruber) Ludwig (1839-89), the Austrian writer. In social - critical dramas " the Priest from Kirhfelda " (1870), " the Fourth precept " (1878), etc. first in the Austrian literature has shown life of village.
  • ANTSERANANA (Antseranana), former Diego-Suares (Diego-Suarez), city and seaport on Madagascar, adm. ts. prov. Antseranana. 53 thousand inhabitants (1986). Shopping center of a farming area. The textile, flavoring enterprises. A ship repair. Branch of university.
  • ANTSILUSY, a stem of freshwater Castropoda of mollusks of order sidjacheglazyh. A shell kolpachkovidnaja, a diameter of 5 mm, an altitude of 4 mm. Some kinds populate fast brooks and the rivers. Antsilusy have denominated Antsilovomu an eskar. - I stain, existing at-sight the modern Baltic the m. ok. 7,5-6 thousand flying back.
  • ANTSIRABE (Antsirabe), city on Madagascar. 150 thousand inhabitants (1985). Textile, flavoring, etc. the enterprises. Jeweller manufacture. Center of a farming area.
  • ANTSIFEROV Vladimir Nikitovich (r. 1933), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991). Transactionses under the theory and technologies of sintered materials, foam materials on the basis of metals, metal composites, etc. The State premium of the USSR (1982).
  • UPAS - TREE, stem of trees and bushes of a set of a mulberry family. 5-6 kinds{views}, in tropics of Asia, Africa. One of the Asian kinds{views}, t. n. The upas-tree, contains the toxicant milky juice used for a poisoning of booms.
  • UPAS - TREES Michael Leonidovich (1923-90), the Russian writer. To be typed the beginnings in 1964 (the story " the Austrian wood "). In prose, partly close to science fiction, reverts to filosofsko-ethical problems. Novels: " the Theory of inconceivability " (1965), " This blue April " (1967), "Box forest" (1979). Books: " it is dear through chaos " (1983), " the Note of the wandering enthusiast " (1988), " As bird Garuda " (1989), etc.
  • ANCHISHKIN Alexander Ivanovich (1933-87), the Russian economist, academician AN the USSR (1984). The main{basic} transactionses under the theory of a breeding, macromodeling and forecasting of development of a national economy. The state premium of the USSR (1989, posthumously).
  • ANCHOVIES, set of fishes of order seldeobraznyh. Flocking fishes. Length up to 20 sm, weigh till 19 of 15 stems, over 100 kinds{views}, in marine and fresh waters of moderate and tropical latitudes, including in Black, Azov and Japanese seas. Object of a craft.
  • ANSHAKOV Gennady Petrovich (r. 1937), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1983). Has created guidance systems of space complexes of sounding{probing} of the Earth, the theory and methods of construction of adaptive automatic guidance systems of the spacecraft. The lenin premium (1988), the State premium of the USSR (1977).
  • ANSHLIF (a nem. Anschliff), a non-transparent microsection, a piece of ore, a rock or a petrification with the slicked and finished shear surface, intended for probe under a microscope in an indirect light.
  • To PARASTAS (Ì), women correspondence Anu, shumero-akkadskogo the god of the root.
  • ANTOINE the BURBON (Antoine de Bourbon) (1518-62), duke Vandomsky with 1537, king Navarry with 1555. First one of leaders of huguenots, at the end of life (in Religious wars in France) commanding roman catholic army. Father of the French king Genriha IV.
  • ANTUNISH (Antunes) Antoniu Lobu (r. 1943), the Portuguese writer. Novels " Knowledge of a hell " (1980), " the Tract about birds " (1981), " Mors Karlosa Gardelja " (1990), etc.
  • PARASTASES (an armour. antae), projections of longitudinal walls the buildings enclosuring an orifice (napr., in ancient greek " a temple in parastases ").
  • PARASTASES, the title of association of slavonic nations for the byzantian and gothic writers 6 - nach. 7 centuries. Lived predominary between Dnestr and Dnepr. A chief business - agriculture. The social system - military democracy. Wared against Gotha, Byzantium, avars.
  • ANTEROT (grech. Counter Erotu), in the Grecian mythology the god inspiring to the person hostility to liking it{him}. The guide of the Aphrodite.
  • ANU (An), in shumerskoj mythologies one of three supreme godhoods (alongside with the Enka and Enlilem), the promoter Uruk.
  • ANUBIS, in drevneegipetskoj mythologies the god - the promoter dead, and also necropolises, funeral solemnities and an embalming. It was figured in appearance of the wolf, a jackal or the person with a head of a jackal.
  • ANUKET, in egyptian mythology the goddess of fertility and thresholds of Nile, was honored in V.Egipte and in Nubia. It was figured by the way women in a corona from feathers.
  • ANUNNAKI, in shumero-akkadskoj mythologies gods of ground and the underground world, opredeljajushie human destinies.
  • ANURADHAPURA, city in a north of Sri Lanka. Ok. 40 thousand inhabitants. A thorough revision of farm products, handicraft industries (wood carving); tourism; a place of pilgrimage of Buddhists. Ancient Anuradhapura (5 century up to n. e. - nach. 11 century n. e.) - capital of the first Singhalese state. Architectonic reservation; residues of Buddhist temples and monasteries of 3-1 centuries up to n. e. With stone statues of the Buddha of 5 century, cave monastery Isurumunija (5-8 centuries, reliefs), palaces, etc.
  • ANURIA (from grech. an--a negative prefix and uron - urine), the arrest of secretion wet at renal failure (a "true" anuria), and also in connection with pressure drop in renal vessels at krovopotere, a shock (an extrarenal anuria), with an interrupting to out flux wet (napr., at a prelum of ureters a tumour) or reflex influences on renal vessels (napr., at a mental trauma, an acute pain). The long-lived anuria conducts to a uremia.
  • FUNDAMENT, the same, that an anal aperture.
  • ANUCHIN Dmitry Nikolaevich (1843-1923), the Russian anthropologist, the geographer, the ethnographer and the archeologist, one of founders of anthropology in Russia, the academician (1896) and the honorary member (1898) Petersburg AN. The president (with 1890) Societies of fans{amateurs} of natural sciences, anthropology and ethnography. Has based domestic school of geographers. Transactionses on ethnic anthropology and anthropogenesis, ethnography, virgin archeology, general physical geography, regional geography and a history of science.
  • ANUSHA (? - ok. 1686), Khivan khan (with 1663), the adherent of establishment trade and diplomatic relations with Russia.
  • FULLFACE (frants. en face, characters. - to face), a face to looking; a kind{view} of a face, a subject endways, in front.
  • ANFELCIA SEAWEED, stem of red algae. A thallome by the way branched cords in length 10-20 see. In a coastal belt, primarily cool seas of Boreal hemisphere. Use for obtaining an agar (in a number{series} of countries cultivate).
  • ENFILADE (frants. enfilade), a number{series} of rooms adjoining to each other, which doorways are located on one shaft that creates a through perspective of interiors (napr., in palaces of Baroque and a classicism).
  • MAN IMPACTS on a nature, different forms of influence of a human activity on a nature. Man impacts envelop separate components of a nature and natural complexes. The quantitative and a qualitative behavior of man impacts is the anthropogenic load. Man impacts can wear both positive, and negative character; the latter causes in application of special nature protection measures.
  • ANTROPOGENOVAJA SYSTEM (SEASON{TERM}) (antropogen), the same, that quarternary system (season{term}).
  • ANTROPOGEOGRAFIJA, flow in the socio economic geography, leaning{basing} on ideas of geographycal school (in sociology), admitted behind natural environments defining role in disposition of the population and an economy. Has arisen in kon. 19 century.
  • ANTROPOLOGIZM (an anthropological principle), the philosophical concept seeing in concept "person" the main{basic} grade and coming from it{her} in argument of a nature, a society and intellection. The anthropological principle in philosophy has entered and has justified L.Fejerbah for whom he has become the basis{fundamentals} of criticism of german classical idealism. In Russia the adherent of ideas of Feuerbach N.G.Chernyshevsky was. Antropologizm it was developed in different philosophical concepts (F.Nitsshe, A.Schopenhauer, a number{series} of representatives of existentialism). In temporal sense the word antropologizm - a constituent part of philosophical doctrines about the person. See also Philosophical anthropology.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY INSTITUTE him{it}. D.N.Anuchina of the Moscow State University, is based in 1922. Probes on all sections of anthropology. At institute a museum (it is based in 1879; anthropological, archeologic and ethnographic collections).
  • The ANTHROPOLOGICAL SCHOOL in cultural science, has developed in the Great Britain in 1860th (E.Tajlor, A.Lang, Dzh. Fraser, in Russia - A.N.Veselovsky), explained similarity of mythology and folklore of miscellaneous peoples identity of a human nature and unity of virgin intellection (an animism, process of analogy); proved, that, having arisen, similar scenes become perpetually guides ("vestiges") of crop.
  • The ANTHROPOLOGICAL PHYLUM, historically usual complex genetically resistant attributes of a physical structure which defines groups of people in fixed terrain. The term " anthropological phylum " mean both major strains, and their subdividings.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY (from antropo... And... logija), science about an origin and evolution of the person (see. Anthropogenesis), education of human strains and about normal variations of a physical structure of the person. As the do-it-yourself science was formed in is grey. 19 century. The main{basic} sections of anthropology: structural botany of the person, the doctrine about anthropogenesis, rasovedenie. With it is grey. 20 century strengthened the complex of disciplines, consolidated under the title "human biology" (study physiological, biochemical and the genetic factors influential in variations of a structure and development of a human body) develops.
  • ANTHROPOLOGY PHILOSOPHICAL, see. Philosophical anthropology.
  • ANTHROPOMETRY (from antropo... And... metrija), in anthropology - the instrumentation system of a human body and his{its} parts.
  • ANTHROPOMORPHISM (from antropo... And grech. morphe - the form, a kind{view}), likening to the person, vesting by human properties (napr., consciousness) subjects and the phenomena of a nonliving nature, heavenly bodies, mythical entities.
  • ANTROPONIMIKA (from antropo... And grech. onyma - a name), section onomastiki, investigator an origin, change, geographycal distribution{propagation}, social operation, etc. sobstvenyh names of people.
  • ANTROPONOZY (from antropo... And grech. nosos - disease), the group of contagions, which causal organisms are capable to strike only the person (a typhoid, a malaria, a scarlatina, etc.).
  • ANTROPOSOFIJA (from antropo... And grech. sophia - wisdom), flow in spiritual life of 20 century, coming from founded R.Shtejnerom " sciences about spirit " - supersensual knowledge of the world through self-knowledge of the person as space entity. In 1913 it is based Antroposofskoe a society (in 1988 ok. 47 thousand members in different countries), in 1923 - " Loose university of science about spirit " (Geteanum) in Dornahe (Switzerland). Ideas antroposofii have received realization in pedagogics (Valdorfskie schools), art (evritmija), medicine (including pharmaceutics), an agriculture, etc.
  • ANTHROPOSPHERE (from antropo... And grech. sphaira - a sphere), a constituent part sotsiosfery, enveloping mankind as set{combination} of individuals.
  • ANTROPOFAGIJA (from antropo... And grech. phagein - is), ljudoedstvo; see. A cannibalism.
  • ANTHROPOCHORIA (from antropo... And grech. choreo - I advance), inadvertent distribution{propagation} of plants by the person (by different transportations and so forth). Napr., the weed a ragweed is delivered to Europe in 19 century from the Sowing. America.
  • ANTHROPOCENTRISM (from antropo... And the centre), view according to which the person is the centre and a prime target of universe.
  • ANTSLA (Antsla), city (with 1938) in Estonia. A depot. 1,7 thousand inhabitants (1990). Manufacture knitted, garments and furniture. It is known with 1405.
  • ANTSON (Antson) Alexander (1899-1945), the Estonian writer. In pre-war creativity (collection "Epigrammy", 1-3, 1927-33, plays) unmasked german and Estonian fascists. The historical novel "Victory" (it is issued 1946).
  • ANTONIN the Maccabee (mind{wit}. 166 up to n. e.), under the legend, - antiquated martyrs, killed for failure{refusal} to break a law one of seven brothers Moiseyev in persecution of Antiochus IV Epifana (2 Maccabean, 7). Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on August, 1 (14).
  • ANTONIN PY (Antoninus Pius) (86-161), Roman emperor with 138, from dynasty Antoninov. Prolonging policy Adriana, escaped wars and erected shore fortifications on borders{limits}.
  • ANTONIN Sirakuzsky (mind{wit}. ok. 886), the Christian martyr, killed in Africa arabs - moslems; the son of martyr John Sirakuzskogo. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on September, 23 (on October, 6).
  • ANTONIN Syrian (mind{wit}. Up to 440), the Christian outlet box - ascetic, podvizavshijsja in Syria on a knap. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on February, 23 (on March, 8).
  • ANTONIN Uglichsky, Pokrovsky (mind{wit}. 1609), the abbot, the martyr who has perished at ruin of Uglich by Poles in Vague time. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on May, 23 (on June, 5) (a cathedral Rostovo-Yaroslavl sacred).
  • ANTONINY (Antonini), a dynasty of Roman emperors in 96-192. The title by name Antonina Pija. Are most significant{sizeable}: Trajan, Adrian, Mark Avrely. At Antoninah the monarchic authority and the bureaucratic apparatus were issued. The aggressive foreign policy (especially by Trajan) was conducted.
  • ANTONIONI (Antonioni) Mikelandzhelo (r. 1912), the italian film director. Has expanded a problematics of neo-realism, having included in it{her} motives of tragical loneliness of people, their spiritual spiritual bankruptcy, uncommunicativeness. Films: "Adventure" (1960), "Night" (1960), "Eclipse" (1961), " Red desert " (1964), "Zabriski-point" (1970), " the Trade: the reporter " (1975), " Identification of woman " (1982), etc.
  • ANTONOV Alexander Stepanovich (1888-1922), the chief of revolt of peasants Tambov and parts Voronezh lips., dissatisfied with policy of " military communism " (1920-21), t. n. antonovshchiny. A party member eserov with 1906. After February revolution 1917 the chief of district militia has returned to Tambov from the reference. In the autumn 1918 has raised revolt in villages Rudovka, Vasiljevka and Nikolskoe, soon suppressed{quenched}; in the summer 1919 has organized order, fast razrosshijsja up to 2 armies in 50 thousand person with whom assaulted warehouses with weapons, militia, krasnoarmejskie parts. In November 1920 has headed main operating headquarters rising, acting under slogans " Doloj prodrazverstku!, " Long live a free market!, etc. After liquidation of revolt (Red Army, troops VCHK, VOHR and Special purpose units (CHON), under M.N.Tukhachevsky general guiding) has concealed{hidden}. It is killed at arrest.
  • ANTONOV Alexey Innokentjevich (1896-1962), the commander, the general (1943). In Great Domestic war the chief of headquarters of some fronts, 1-st deputy the chief of the General Staff (with 1942), the chief of the General Staff (with 1945). In 1946-48 and with 1954 1-st deputy chief of the General Staff, and with 1955 and the chief of headquarters of Consolidated Armed forces of the state-participants of the Warsaw agreement.
  • ANTONOV Vladimir Konstantinovich (1927-92), the Russian chemist - bioorganik, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1990). Probeed structures and functions of proteolytic enzymes and capabilities of their use in gene engineering. The state premium of the USSR (1984).
  • ANTONOV Ivan Zaharovich (1919-60), the Mordovian writer. Roman " In family unified " (1954) about cohesion of Soviet people within Great Domestic war, sketches and stories.
  • ANTONOV Oleg Konstantinovich (1906-84), the aircraft designer, academician AN the USSR (1981) and AN Ukraine (1967), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1966). Under guiding Antonova a number{series} of airplanes is built, including. Àí-124 ("Ruslan"). The lenin premium (1962), the State premium of the USSR (1952).
  • ANTONOV Sergey Petrovich (1915-1995), the Russian writer. Stories and to lead predominary about the modern village: " Poddubenskie chastooshkas " (1950), " Business was in Penkove " (1956), " Chipped rouble " (1966), " From the first person. Stories about writers, books and words " (1973). Stories about drama destinies of people in 1930th: "Vasyok" (1987) about builders of underground railway; "Gullies" (1988) - about collectivization. The state premium of the USSR (1951).
  • ANTONOVICH Vladimir Bonifatjevich (1834-1908), the Ukrainian historian, the ethnographer, corresponding member Petersburg AN (1901), the professor. Transactionses on the Ukrainian archeology, a history of the Great principality Lithuanian, Ukraine. The publisher of " Archive of Southwest Russia ".
  • ANTONOVICH Daniel Isidorovich (1889-1975), the actor, the national actor of the USSR (1954). On the scene with 1919. With 1926 at the Ukrainian theatre him{it}. Shevchenko (Kharkov). The state premium of the USSR (1948).
  • ANTONOVICH Maxim Alekseevich (1835-1918), the Russian literary critic, the publicist. In 1860-66 employee of "Contemporary". Supported the democratic literature. Propagandized materialism, a darvinism. The writer of memories.
  • ANTONOVKA, winter grades of an apple tree: antonovka dace, antonovka kamenichka (arcaded Russian grades), antonovka shestisotgrammovaja, etc. Fruits large and an average, tartrate, with characteristic aroma. Productivity of 500 kg and more from a tree.
  • ANTONOV-OVSEENKO Vladimir Aleksandrovich (1883-1939), the political figure. During October revolution the secretary of Petrograd revolutionary-military committee (VRK), supervised over taking of the Winter palace. In 1917-19 one of organizers of the Red Army, commanding the Soviet troops of the South of Russia. In 1922-24 chief of Political department RVS of the USSR. With 1924 ambassador in Czechoslovakia, Lithuania, Poland. With 1934 public prosecutor of RSFSR. With 1936 consul-general in Barcelona. With 1937 narkom justicia of RSFSR. It is repressed; it is rehabilitated posthumously.
  • ANTOFAGASTA (Antofagasta), city and seaport in a north of Chile, adm. ts. Region. Antofagasta, 219 thousand inhabitants (1990). Alimentary, a chemical industry. Nonferrous machine industry. University. It is based in 1870.
  • ANTIQUE STIHOSLOZHENIE, see. Metrical stihoslozhenie.
  • ANTIQUITY (from an armour. antiquus - ancient), in the broad sense of the word the term equivalent Russian "antiquity", in fine-bored and more common value - a greko-Roman antiquity (a history and crop Other. Greeces, etc. Rome).
  • ANTIQUE CITIES in Black Sea Coast; have arisen during the Grecian colonization since 6 century up to n. e. The largest antique cities: in a north - the Shooting gallery, Olvija, Chersonese, Feodosiya, Panticapaeum, Fanagorija, Tanais; on Caucasian a shore - Gorgippija, Dioskuriada, Fasis. Did business cities Other. Greeces and M.Azii, skiffs. In 5 century up to n. e. The part of cities was aggregated in the state Bosporskoe. Since 3 century up to n. e. Exposed to offences of skiffs, Sarmatians. In 2 century up to n. e. Under an authority of the state Pontijskogo, then Rome. After encroachment it is ready and gunnov (it is grey. 3 - kon. 4 centuries n. e.) came in decline.
  • ANTOKOLSKY Paul Grigorjevich (1896-1978), the Russian poet. Poems " the Commune 71 years " (1933), "Son" (1943; the State premium of the USSR, 1946), " In a narrow passage for Arbatom " (1954), collections of verses "Workshop" (1958), "Time" (1973), the book " About Pushkin " (1960; verses and an essay) differ tendency to historical and cultural generalizations. Transfers{translations}.
  • The ANTHOLOGY (grech. anthologia, characters. - collection of colours), the collection of selected products{creations} (literary, philosophical, the musical) miscellaneous writers.
  • ANTONELLO YES MESSINA (Antonello da Messina) (ok. 1430-79), the italian painter of Early Revitalization. In plastic clear, poetic patterns, distinguishing portraits used technique of lubricated painting, achieving a color depth, saturated light ("Crucifixion", 1477, " St. Sebastjan ", 1476).
  • ANTONESKU (Antonescu) Jon (1882-1946), the dictator of Romania in 1940-44, marshal (1941). The participant of depressing{supression} of Country revolt. 1907, interventions against the Hungarian Soviet republic 1919. Government Antonesku has cast into 1941 Romania in war against the USSR. In 1946 it is executed under the sentence of the tribunal.
  • ANTONIADI (Antoniadi) Ezhen Michel (1870-1944), the French astronomer. During great opposition of Mars (1909) has found, that dark strips on his{its} surfaces, "channels", are derivated separate spots and cannot be outcome of reasonable activity.
  • ANTHONY (in world Dobrynja JAdrejkovich) (mind{wit}. 1232), archbishop Novgorod, the writer " Books the Pilgrim " about traveling to sacred places.
  • ANTHONY Great (ok. 250-356), the founder of Christian monasticism, a hermit in Egypt. It is sainted by church.
  • ANTHONY Mark (Marcus Antonius) (ok. 83-30 up to n. e.), the Roman commander. Adherent Caesar. In 43 with Oktavianom and Lepidomas has formed 2-nd triumvirate, having divided troops Bruta and the Senna (42). In 42 has received in steering Oriental regions Roman the mandatory powers. It was pulled together to egyptian queen Kleopatroj. After the declaration a senate of war Kleopatre and defeats of egyptian fleet for headland of Shares (in 31) has committed suicide.
  • ANTHONY Nikopolsky (Armenian) (mind{wit}. ok. 319), one of a magpie of five Christian martyrs damaged in Nikopol Armenian in the persecution of emperor Litsinija. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 10 (23).
  • ANTHONY PADUANSKY (1195-1231), a sacred Latin church, the outlet box - franciscan, the well-known ecclesiast. Memory{remembrance} in the Latin church on June, 13.
  • ANTHONY PECHERSKY (983-1073), the founder (1051) Kievo-Pecherskogo a monastery. In 1069 ran from anger Izjaslava JAroslavicha to Chernigov where has based a monastery. It is sainted by Russian orthodox church.
  • ANTONYMS (from anti... And grech. onyma - a name), words with a converse. Napr.: " the truth - lie ", " poor - affluent ".
  • ANTONIN Kesarijsky (Palestinian) (mind{wit}. 308), the presbyter, the martyr damaged in persecution of emperor Maksimiana Galerija. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on November, 13 (26).
  • ANTI-BODIES, globular proteins (immunoglobulins) of a blood plasma of the person and warm-blooded animal, having specificly to contact ability antigens. Interacting with microorganisms, hinder with their reproduction or neutralize toxicants secreted with them. At some morbid conditions in an organism there are anti-bodies to natural antigens that damages different organs. Reactions of anti-bodies with an antigen apply to diagnosis of different diseases, identification of microorganisms and some substances.
  • ANTITOXINS (from anti... And toxins), the specific proteins (anti-bodies) decontaminating toxins of microorganisms (napr., tetanic, diphtheritic), plants (ricin, abrine) and animal (a poison the snake, karakurta).
  • ANTITRINITARII (from anti... And an armour. trinitas - a Trinity), adherents of flows, sects in the christianity, not accepting one of the main{basic} tenets of christianity - a tenet of the Trinity.
  • ANTI-FASCIST COMMITTEE of SOVIET WOMEN (AKSZH), public organization in 1941-56, represented women of the USSR in International democratic federation of women. It is renamed into Committee of Soviet women; about 1992 Russian union of women.
  • ANTIFERROMAGNETISM, magnitouporjadochennoe the condition of a crystalline matter in which magnetic moments of all or parts of atoms (ions) in adjacent cross-links of a crystal lattice are oriented so (as a rule, is antiparallel), that the magnetization of substance is as a whole peer to zero. Under action of an external magnetic field antiferromagnets acquire a weak magnetization. Temperature rise up to Neelja results points in loss of a magnetization and transition in a paramagnetic condition (see. A paramagnetism).
  • ANTIFERROMAGNET, the substance having antiferromagnetic orderliness of magnetic moments of atoms at the temperature of is lower Neelja than point QN (see. Antiferromagnetism). To antiferromagnets belong solid oxygen (the a-updating existing at T <24 Ê), a chromium, a number{series} of rare-earth elements and ok. 1000 connections of metals (sample: NiF2, CoCl2, FeO, MnCO3, CuSO4).
  • ANTIFERROMAGNETIC MAGNETIC TRANSFORMATION TEMPERATURE, the same, that Neelja a point.
  • ANTIFERROMAGNETIC RESONANCE, selective absorption by antiferromagnet of electromagnetic waves, which frequency (10-1000 GHz) it is close to natural frequencies of precession of vectors of a magnetization of sublattices magnetic.
  • ANTIFIL from Egypt (2-n a floor. 4 century up to n. e.), the ancient greek artist, pupil Ktesidema. Worked at a yard of egyptian tsars of Ptolemies. Has written patterns: " Alexander the Great - the boy ", " Alexander, Phillip and Afina ", "Grilly" (connection of features of a human face with features animal), " the Boy fanning fire ", " Workshop of a yarn ", etc.
  • ANTIHUM SINGING (from grech. antiphonos - sounding in the answer), serial singing of two choruses. It is used in Christian church music.
  • ANTIFONT from Athenes (5 century up to n. e.), an ancient greek philosopher - sophist, under certificate Ksenofonta, - opponent Sokrata. In the main{basic} composition "True" of conditionality of social establishments and moral standards contrasted as something true human nature, his{its} natural tendencies and instincts.
  • ANTIFREEZING AGENTS (from anti... And English freeze - to solidify), water solutions of some substances (ethylen glycol, glycerine, inorganic salts, etc.), not solidifying at low temperatures. Apply in cooling systems of internal-combustion engines at ambient temperatures from-75 up to 0 °S.
  • ANTIFRICTIONAL MATERIALS (from anti... And an armour. frictio - abrasion), have a low friction coefficient and are applied to manufacturing the component parts working primarily in conditions of a sliding friction (bearings, barrels, liners, etc.). To antifrictional materials concern: alloys on basis{fundamentals} Sn or Pb (babbits), Cu (bronzes), Fe (gray iron), etc.; plastics materials (laminate, fluoroplastic - 4, etc.); sintered materials (bronzografit, iron graphite); some kinds{views} of wood and improved laminated woods; gums.
  • ANTIFRICTION GREASES, the flexible lubrications used for reduction of wearing and drop of a sliding friction in mechanisms. Eurysynusic antifriction greases - solid oils.
  • ANTI-CHRIST, the opponent of the Christ who will be on the eve " the extremity of the world " and will be defeated by the Christ Christian mythology.
  • ANTICYCLONE, plenum in an atmosphere with a maximum at the centre (sea-level 1050-1070 gPa). A diameter of an anticyclone - about thousand in km. The anticyclone is defined by system of the winds blowing clockwise in Boreal hemisphere and against - in Austral, slightly overcast both a dry weather and gentle winds.
  • ANTITSIPATSIJA (an armour. anticipatio).. 1) anticipation... 2) Anticipatory approach any the phenomena.
  • ANTIPARTICLES, the fundamental particles having same mass, a spin, survival time and some other internal performances, as their "half-and-halfs" particles, but distinguished from particles marks of an electric charge and a magnetic moment, a baryon charge, a leptonic charge, strangeness, etc. All fundamental particles, except for absolutely neutral{inert}, have the antiparticles. At crash particles and antiparticles there is their annihilation.