Friday, May 11, 2007

  • LEJ-GUN, in the Chinese mythology the god of a thunder. It represented by the way the person born on the root on a chariot and fragile in drums.
  • LEM (Lamb) CHarlz (1775-1834), the English writer. " Stories from Shakespeare " (together with sister Mary Lem, 1807) - retellings of plays of U.Shakespeare for children; the anthology " Samples of creativity of the poets - playwrights living approximately in days of Shakespeare " (1808). In an essay - combination of socially precise sketches and performances to romantic fiction (" Sketches of Eliah ", 1823-33).
  • LEMB (Lem) (Lamb) Uillis Eugene (r. 1913), American physics. Probeed fine structure of levels of power of atoms of hydrogen and deuterium methods of radio spectroscopy, has found alteration of levels of the power, called as his name. The Nobel Prize (1955).
  • LAMB ALTERATION of levels of power, small distinctions of powers of an electron in atom of hydrogen and hydrogen-like atoms for some conditions in which, it agrees the Dirac to an equation, powers should coincide; in a quantum electrodynamics speaks that, that influence on an electron of a field generated by him depends on a condition of an electron. Experimentally U.J.Lembom and R.Rezerfordom in 1947 is established.
  • LANG (Laing) Ronald David (1927-89), the British doctor - psychiatrist. Has developed the psychologic concept of a schizophrenia (" Forcipate I ", 1960).
  • The LEND-ART (from English land art - earth art), a direction in from - art of the last third of 20 century, founded on use of a substantial landscape in the capacity of a main art material and object. Enthusiasts lend-arta (Ó. de Maria, R.Smitson, M.Hajzer in the USA, R.Long in the Great Britain) break through trenches, create bizarre pileups of stones, color rocks, etc., electing for the shares routinely lonely, "pristine" and "feral" landscapes, as though aspiring to return art in a nature. Due to the "virgin" appearance many shares and such objects approach with arheologizmom, and also (as the majority of the public can behold them only in a series of photos) with a photo - artom.
  • LJU BAN (247-195 up to n. e.), one of chiefs of revolt in China in 209-206 up to n. e. The founder of dynasty Han.
  • LJU BINJAN (r. 1925), the Chinese writer. Ostrokriticheskie documentary stories " People and oborotni " (1979), " the Person and his shade " (1980), " Two types of devotion " (1985), etc., unmasking corruption, the bureaucratism shadowing victims of a cultural revolution 1966-76. With 1988 lives in the USA.
  • LJU SINU (r. 1942), the Chinese writer. Realistic prose, including the story "Class teacher" (1977), stories with elements bytopisatelstva " the Token of happiness " (1979) about events of a cultural revolution 1966-76; " the Vertical outcome " (1982) and " the Drum tower " (1984) - about the modern Peking.
  • LJU FUTUN (? - 1363), one of chiefs of " the Red troops " revolts 1351-68 in the Sowing. China. Has perished in fight.
  • LJU FIND FAULT, in Chinese daosskoj mythologies the god of coins. It figured by the way the laughing person with a sheaf of coins and a three-pad a toad.
  • LJU HENVON (1622-73), the Korean thinker, the representative of flow sirhakpha. Has put forward the program of reforms in range of an agriculture (a uniform distribution of ground among peasants), on an industrial development, trade.
  • LJU TSZUNJUAN (773-819), the Chinese writer. Allegories, proniknutye humanism and belief in simple people (" the Story about the carpenter ", " the Gardener the Go-camel ", etc.).
  • LJUBAVSKY Matvej Kuzmich (1860-1936), the Russian historian, academician AN the USSR (1929). The rector of the Moscow university in 1911-17. Transactionses on a history, historical geography, historiography of Russia and Lithuania up to kon. 16 century.
  • LJUBAK (Lubac) Anri de (r. 1896), the French roman catholic seminary student, the jesuit, the representative of " new theology "; a cardinal bird (with 1983). Together with Z.Danielju has based a multivolume series " Christian sources ". The main transactionses - " the Catholicism: social aspects of a tenet " (1938), " Tragedy of atheistic humanism " (1944), "Supernatural" (1946), " Meeting of the Buddhism with the West " (1952), " the Paradox and secret of Church " (1959).
  • LJUBAN, city (with 1968) in Belarus, the Minsk region, in 25 kms from zh.-d. An item. Urechje. 11,6 thousand inhabitants (1991). A food-processing industry, a flax primary treating plant.
  • LJUBAN, city (with 1912) in the Russian Federation, the Leningrad region, on r. Tigoda. A depot. 4,7 thousand inhabitants (1992). Wood-working combine.
  • LYUBARSKY Vasily Vasiljevich (1795-1852), the Russian metallurgist. Together with P.G.Sobolevskim has developed (1826) way of obtaining by a shoeing of platinum and manufacturing from it items, having laid foundation a powder metallurgy.
  • BAST, the same, that a phloem (sometimes as a bast call only a secondary phloem).
  • BAST (baluba), people in Zaire (7,1 million person). Live also in a north of Zambia, in Tanzania and Ruanda. An aggregate number 7,15 million person (1992). Tongue of a bast. Roman catholics believing main, are moslems - sunnity and adherents of traditional convictions.
  • BAST, tongue of people of a bast. Falls into to tongue to a bow. Writing on the basis of the latin alphabet.
  • LUBANGO (Lubango) (up to 1975 Gardens - Bandejra), city in Angola, an administrative centre prov. Uila. 105 thousand inhabitants (1990). A traffic centre.; by the railway it is connected to port Namibe. A flavoring industry.
  • LUBARDA (Lubarda) Petar (1907-74), chernogorsky the painter. Ekspressivnye, sonorous on I blossom landscapes, still-lifes, patterns on themes of a national history (" Battle on Kosovo of a field ", 1953).
  • BAST (Loubet) Emil (1838-1929), the president of France in 1899-1906. Promoted education Antanty.
  • LUBENCHENKO Konstantin Dmitrievich (r. 1945), the Russian statesman With 1973 on scientific - teaching activity in the Moscow State University. With 1990 vice-president of Committee VS of the USSR under the legislation. In 1991 chairman of Advice of Soyuz VS of the USSR. Since January 1992 general director of the Parliamentary centre of the Russian Federation.
  • LUBKIN Alexander Stepanovich (1770 or 1771-1815), the Russian philosopher - deist (see. Deizm). In " Letters on critical philosophy " (1805) for the first time in Russia has criticized the theory of knowledge of I.Kanta from items of a sensationalism. Transactionses on logic.
  • LUBNY, city (with 1783) on Ukraine, the Poltava region, on r. Sula. A depot. 60,3 thousand inhabitants (1991). A machine industry and metal working, himiko-pharmaceutical, textile, a food-processing industry; furniture combine. A study of local lore museum. It is based in 988 as sentry strength.
  • LUBOK (a national picture), a kind schedules, the plotting with a signature, distinguished by singleness and availability of modes. Originally a kind of national creativity. It was executed in technique of a xylography, a gravure on copper, lithographs and it was supplemented by painting by hand.
  • LUBUMBASHI (Lubumbashi) (up to 1966 Elisabethville, Elisabethville), city in a southeast of Zaire, an administrative centre of region. SHaba. 739 thousand inhabitants (1991). An international airport. Medeplavilnaja, textile, a chemical industry. University. Center on probe of industrial development of Central Africa. Center on study of ethnography and the African tongues.
  • The BAST FIBRES, the lengthy cells denuded alive contents in stalks of plants. Are used for a yield of a yarn.
  • BAST CROPS, the plants cultivated for obtaining of a bast fibre from stalks - raw material for a textile industry. In world agriculture the greatest areas are taken with a jute, a hemp, a flux - dolgunets, a kenaf.
  • LUVE DE KUVRE (Louvet de Couvray) ZHan-cambric (1760-97), the French writer. The writer of the known novel " Love affairs of the gentleman de Foblasa " (1787-89).
  • The LOUVRE (Louvre), in Paris, originally a royal palace; it is erected at-sight the aged clasp in 16-19 centuries (architects P.Lesko, K.Perro, etc.), about 1791 art museum; the richest collection drevneegipetskogo, antique, Western-European art.
  • LUVUA (Louvois) Francois Michel Le Telje (Le Tellier) de (1641-91), marquis, the French state and military figure. In 1666-83 military minister. Has conducted the large military reforms which have converted the French army in regular. Built Luvua military establishments have served as a sample for european countries.
  • The MEADOW, biogeocenose, which vegetative component compound communities of perennial grasses. The large part of meadows has arisen at-sight shown woods and the shrubs, drained bogs and lakes. Take the area ok. 150-200 million ga, in a moderate belt of Boreal hemisphere (primarily in Europe). Distinguish lowland (flooded) and continental (napr., suhodolnye), and also mountain meadows. Luga - valuable hay fields and pastures.
  • MEADOW (Lleu), in the Celtic mythology the god from nations of the goddess to Dan, grandson Diana Kehta, svedujushchy it is simultaneous in all handcrafts, the skilful player on a harp. A meadow - the owner of a spear, razjashchego without a gross error with which help he has conquered Balora.
  • LOVAT, the river in northwest of an european part of the Russian Federation. 530 kms, the area of basin. 21,9 thousand êì2. Runs into an eskar. Ilmen. Driveable. It is navigable on stray patches (112 kms). On Lovati - Velikie Luki, the Hill.
  • LOVEJKO Joseph Ignatjevich (r. 1906), the Russian architect, the national architect of the USSR (1975), corresponding member AH (1983). In 1955-60 chief architect of Moscow. Activities with collective of writers: hostel " Soviet " (1952), grading and site development of residential district Bibireva - Pleasant, highway Altufjevskogo - in Moscow. The state premium of the USSR (1951).
  • LOVELL (Lovell) James (r. 1928), an astronaut the USA, the captain of 1-st rank Naval Forces in demission. Flights on "Äæåìèíè-7" (decks. 1965) and "Äæåìèíè-12" (nojab. 1966), flights to moon on "Apollo - 8" (decks. 1968) and "Apollo - 13" (apr. 1970).
  • LOVELL (Lowell) (Lowell) Persival (1855-1916), the American astronomer. The main transactionses on probe of Mars. Has received a major observation material, has stated a hypothesis about an artificial origin of "channels". In 1915 has calculated an orbit and has organized searches zaneptunnoj planets (Pluto, it is open in 1930).
  • LOVETT (Lovett) William (1800-77), one of leaders chartizma in the Great Britain. The adherent of moderate tactics. To kon. 40th has departed motion.
  • LOVECH, city in Bulgaria, administrative centre Lovechskogo of a district of 48 thousand inhabitants (1992). An autostructure, electrotechnical, plodokonservnaja, tanning, textile, a woodworking industry.
  • LOVITS Tobiases (Iogann Tobias) Egorovich (1757-1804), the Russian chemist and the pharmacist, the academician Petersburg AN (1793). By origin the German. With 1768 in Russia. Has discovered (1785) and has studied an adsorption of dissolved solids wood charcoal. For the first time has received ice acetic acid (1789) and many other connections.
  • LOVOZERO, on Kola peninsula. 200 êì2, depth up to 35 m. With a structure on r. Crown and ravens Serebrjanskoj a river plant (1970) Lovozero has become water reservoir.
  • TUNDRA LOVOZERSKIE, a hills on Kola peninsula, in Murmansk region. An altitude up to 1120 m. Deposits of rare metals.
  • LOVUA (Luvua) (Lovua, Luvua), the river in Zambia (upper. Flow; the aboriginal title - CHambeshi) and Zaire, dextral in-leak r. Lualaba (basin r. Congo). St. 1500 kms, the area of basin 265,3 êì2. Average discharge of water over 600 m3 / with. It is navigable on 145 kms from a mouth and the eskar is higher. Mweru. A river plant.
  • TRAPS, 1) instruments and adaptations for catching feral beasts and birds, i.e. for a hunt. Automatic traps (self-hauls) - mouthes, kulemy, cutting dies, traps, hinge strains, sadki, trap holes, etc. and operational with the participation the person - networks. 2) Adaptations for catching pests of agricultural plants, napr. Large yellow underwing moths (light traps), other hexapods (sticky bands and flutes), rodents (traps).
  • TRAP, 1) chiefs of a hunt, the servant (hunters, psari, Spanish brooms, etc.) for Russian feudal lords 11 - nach. 20 centuries 2) the Court position and a grade in Russian state of 16-17 centuries, since 18 century egermejstery.
  • TRAP BIRDS, predatory birds (a golden eagle, falcons, buzzards), used for sporting both commercial hunting on a beast and a bird. The hunt with trap birds is known from the most ancient times (has engendered, probably, in India).
  • VALLEY, gully with cavicorn matted downslopes and a flat bottom.
  • LOGANOVSKY Alexander Vasiljevich (1810 or 1812-55), the Russian sculptor. The representative of a serotinal classicism (" the Guy playing a marlin spike ", 1836).
  • LOGARIFMIKA (logarithmic curve), a plane curve being the schedule of logistic function.
  • TAKING THE LOGARITHM, the action consisting in presence of a log of numerical, algebraic or other expression. A taking the logarithm - one of two actions, revertive to exponentiation.
  • SKULL CRACKER (Bhabha) (Bhabha) Homi Dzhehangir (1909-66), indian physics and the public figure. The founder and the first director of Nuclear centre Trombej (1957, nowadays him. A skull cracker). Transactionses on nuclear and to a nuclear physics, ultrarays, an elementary particle physics.
  • BABADAG, top Main, or Water-partite, hr. B.Kavkaza, bliz headstreams r. Karachaj, in Azerbaijan. 3629 m.
  • BABADZHAN (an ice-film. fam. Babadzhanov) Ramz Nasyrovich (r. 1921), the Uzbek poet and the playwright, the national poet of Uzbekistan (1981). Poetic collections " New rubai " (1966), " the Sun in pupils " (1969), " Yes, I am an asian " (1973), " Bow of love " (1980). Poems "Water of life" (1969; the State premium of the USSR, 1972), " JUsuf and Zulejha " (1981). Comedies. Transfers.
  • BABADZHANJAN Arno Arutjunovich (1921-83), the Russian composer and the pianist, the national actor of the USSR (1971.) " the Heroic ballad " for a piano with an orchestra (1950), fortepiannoe a trio (1952), concerts for instruments with an orchestra, songs (including " the Song of the first love ", " Think of desire "), etc. The State premium of the USSR (1951).
  • BABAYEV Agadzhan Geldyevich (r. 1929), the Turkmen geographer, the academician (1975) and the president (in 1975-86, with 1989) AN Turkmenii, corresponding member Russian AN (19913 corresponding member AN the USSR with 1976). Transactionses on physical geography, a typology and assimilation of deserts. The state premium of the USSR (1981).
  • BABAYEV Jury Nikolaevich (1928-86), Russian physics, corresponding member AN the USSR (1968); the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1962). Transactionses on a nuclear physics. The lenin premium (1959), the State premium of the USSR (1953).
  • BABAEVO, city (with 1925) in the Russian Federation, the Vologda region, on r. Kolp. A depot. 14,3 thousand inhabitants (1992). The enterprises of a railway transport; manufacture of a building materials; a food-processing industry.
  • BABAEVSKY Seeds Petrovich (r. 1909), the Russian writer. In novels " the Gentleman of the Golden Aster " (kn. 1-2, 1947-1948) and " Light above ground " (kn. 1-2, 1949-1950) - the varnishing plotting of post-war village. Novels "White light" (kn. 1-2, 1967-68), "Open space" (kn. 1-2, 1978-79). The state premium of the USSR (1949, 1950, 1951).
  • BABAKIN George Nikolaevich (1914-71), the Russian designer in range of a space technology, corresponding member AN the USSR (1970), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1970). Under guiding Babakina interplanetary space vehicles and "Moonmobile - 1" are built. The lenin premium (1966).
  • BABAKULOV Ahmad (r. 1931), the Tadjik singer (the drama tenor), the national actor of the USSR (1971). In 1954-56 and with 1966 at the Tadjik theatre of opera and ballet (in 1956-66 in the Tadjik philarmonic society).
  • BABANOVA Maria Ivanovna (1900-83), the Russian actress, the national actress of the USSR (1954). With 1920 at Theatre him. Mejerholda, with 1927 at Theatre of Revolution (about 1954 Moscow theatre him. Majakovskogo). In art Babanovoj touching sincerity, lyricism combined with ottochennostju, vyverennostju the scenic form. Having infrequent tone a high, clear ("crystal") voice, finely developed intonatsionno-melodic drawing of a role: Stella (" the Magnanimous cuckold " F.Krommelinka, 1922), Gog (" the Person with a portfolio " A.M.Fajko, 1928), Diana ("Dog in the manger" Lope de Vegi, 1937), Tanja ("Tanja" A.N.Arbuzova, 1939), the Wife (" All is over " E.Olbi, 1980), etc. Worked on a wireless. The state premium of the USSR (1941).
  • BABAHANOV Abdulla Babahanovich (r. 1910), the Uzbek architect, the national architect of the USSR (1970). The writer of architectonic parts of complexes Kattakurganskogo (1940-41) and Southern - Surkhan-Darya (the design 1964-67) water reservoirs, public buildings in Tashkent, Dushanbe and other cities Compare. Asia.
  • BABAHANJAN À., see Leo And.
  • SKULL CRACKER - JAGA, the character of Russian national fairy tales. Routinely represents itself as force hostile to the person, less often - the assistant of the hero.
  • BABAYAN Boris Artashesovich (r. 1933), the Russian scientist, corresponding member Russian AN (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1984). Transactionses on development of architectonic principles of construction of computer systems, software of a computer. The state premium of the USSR (1974).
  • BABBITS, antifriction alloys on basis Sn, Pb, intended for a filling up of liners of bearings. Are called named American inventor A.Babbita (I. Babbitt; 1799-1862).
  • BABEZIOZY, invazionnye diseases of a large horned stock and ovets, called by Protozoa - babezijami, parasitizing in blood. Symptoms: a fever, a yellows.
  • BABEK (ok. 798 or 800-838), the leader of antiArabian popular uprising in Azerbaijan and Zap. Iran (ok. 816-837). The son of a petty dealer. After a defeat of revolt it is executed.
  • BABEL Isaak Emmanuilovich (1894-1940), the Russian writer. Drama conflicts of duties of the Civil war in racy on tongue short stories of collections "Konarmija" (1926), " the Odessa stories " (1931); plays: "Lap" (1928), "Maria" (1935). It is repressed; it is rehabilitated posthumously.
  • LGOV, city (with 1779) in the Russian Federation Kursk region, on r. Parliament. A railway junction. 25,5 thousand inhabitants (1992). Reinforcing factory, etc.; the alimentary enterprises. A.P.Gajdara, N.N.Aseev memorial literary museums (were born in Lgove). It is known from 12 century as Olgov.
  • PRIVILEGE, granting of any advantages, the partial discharging of fulfilment of content regulations, responsibilities or facilitation of conditions of their fulfilment, napr., tax privileges.
  • ICE GENERATOR, the heat-exchange apparatus for an ice-making industry (technical and alimentary) with the help of a refrigerator. Distinguish ice generators with a direct cooling (ice is frozen on surfaces of the evaporator) and rassolnye (ice moulds are chilled by a brine with temperature from-10 up to-12 °S).
  • FLUX the INSTITUTE All-Russia research (VNIIL), is organized in 1931 in Torzhok (the Tver region). Selection, development of technology of cultivation and slaughtering of a flux.
  • FLAX BOLLWORM, the same, that ljutsernovaja columbine borers.
  • TOADFLAX, stem of grasses of a set of a figwort family. Ok. 150 kinds, in extratropical range of Boreal hemisphere, are usual on Caucasus and in Compare. Asia. A toadflax dace - a weed; a honey plant. Some kinds are decorative. 1 kind is guarded.
  • LINSEED OIL, the vegetative fat oil received from seeds of a flux. It is applied to preparation of a drying oil, oil varnishes, medical ointments, and also in I peep.
  • LEWIS (Lewis) Arthur (1915-91), the English economist. Compositions on an economics of underdevelopment. The Nobel Prize. (1979, in unison. With T.Schultz).
  • LEWIS Gilbert Njuton (1875-1946), American fizikohimik, the founder of scientific school, foreign honorary member AN the USSR (1942). Transactionses on chemical thermodynamics. Has offered the electronic theory of a non-polar chemical bond (1912-16) and one of the modern acid-base theory (1923). For the first time has received a heavy water (1933, together with R.McDonald).
  • LEWIS (Lewis) Dzhuljet (r. 1973), the American film actress. Acts in film with 1989. The liberated and multiplane actress who has organically played and cool prestupnitsu (" Born killers " O.Stouna, 1994) and a daughter of the pastor (" From a lap till a dawn " R.Rodrigesa, 1996). It was taken out in films " Headland of pavor ", " the Strange days ", etc.
  • LEWIS Charles (r. 1961), the American sportsman (track and field). The champion of Olympic Games 1984 (trot race of 100 and 200 m, relay race 4 · 100, broad jumps), 1988 (trot race of 100 m, broad jumps) and 1992 (broad jumps, relay race 4 · 100 ì). The sevenfold world champion: 1983 (trot race of 100 m, broad jumps, esstafeta 4 · 100 ì), 1987 (broad jumps, relay race 4 · 100 ì), 1991 (trot race of 100 m, relay race 4 · 100 ì). The tenfold champion of the world.
  • LEWIS (Lewis) Klajv Stejplz (1898-1963), the English writer, the philologist, the Christian thinker and the publicist. During 1-st world war served in France, with 1918 on 1954 in Oxford, in 1954-63 professor medievistiki in Cambridge. Has written over 40 books, including about creativity Dzh. Benjana to lead in a genre of a fantasy. World popularity to him " Letters of the Mackerel " (1942), filosofsko-religious tracts "Love", "Travail", "Miracle" in which the Lewis have acted the vigorous apologist of christianity have brought the story. The cycle for children of " Chronicle Narnii " is written in 1950-56.
  • LEWIS Klarens Irving (1883-1964), the American philosopher, close to a pragmatism, logik. The founder of the modern modal logic.
  • LEWIS Sinclair (1885-1951), the American writer. Novels of 20th are most significant: "Principal street" (1920), about zashtatnom a small town and the protest of the pullet girl against obyvatelshchiny; satyr "Bebbit" (1922) - sociological "probe" of life of the American inhabitant; "Errousmit" (1925), about refractory ways of the honest pullet scientist to confession. Roman " For us it is impossible " (1935) about threat of fascism in the USA. The Nobel Prize (1930).
  • LLULLAILLACO (Llullaillaco), an active volcano in Central Andes, on border of Chile and Argentina. An altitude of 6723 m. Is in solfatarnoj stages.
  • LJAJMA (Llaima), an active volcano in Andes of Chile. An altitude of 3060 m. In structure of park Los-Paraguas. Tourism.
  • LJALOVSKAJA CROP, one of archeologic jamochno-edge ceramics of crops (4-3-Ñ one thousand up to n. e.) in an interfluve of Oka and Volga. It is called on parking for d. Ljalovo in verhovjah r. Klyazma. Parking with tracks of terraneous home units, ceramics, stone and bone instruments. An economy: a hunt and fishery.
  • LJALJAGUA (Llallagua), olovorudnoe a deposit in Bolivia (prov. Potosi). By origin hydrothermal. It is maintained with 1903. Reserves of 200 thousand t metal with mean content Sn in ore ok. 27 %. Manufacture of tin in concentrates.
  • LLANOS - ORINOKO (Llanos del Orinoco), natural region in north JUzh. America, plain on a left bank r. Orinoco. Savannahs prevail. Animal husbandry.
  • POLES Vladimir Afanasjevich (r. 1941), the Russian astronaut. A pilot - astronaut of the USSR (1979), the colonel, doubly the Hero of Soviet Union (1979, 1983). Flights on "Soyuz - 32" and orbital station " Salute - 6 " (February August 1979), "Soyuz T-9" and orbital station " Salute - 7 " (June - November 1983), " Soyuz TM-5,-6 " and an orbital complex "World" (August September 1988).
  • POLES Ivan (? - ok. 1800), the Russian industrialist, the explorer of Novosibirsk islands. In 1770 has committed traveling north-up from headland St.. Naze, has described the islands called as his name. In 1773 has discovered about. Boiler.
  • LJAHOVICHI, city (with 1940) in Belarus, the Brest region. A depot. 10,7 thousand inhabitants (1989). Factories: lnoobrabatyvajushchy, canning, maslosyrodelnyj.
  • LJAHOVSKIE ISLANDS, austral group in archipelago of Novosibirsk islands (Russian Federation) consisting of B.Ljahovskogo (the area ok. 5,3 thousand êì2, an altitude up to 270 ì), M.Ljahovskogo (the area 1325 êì2) and Long-pillar (the area 170 êì2) islands on border in m. Laptevyh and the East - Siberian m. Are called named I.Ljahova.
  • LJASHKO (an ice-film. fam. Ljashchenko) Nikolay Nikolaevich (1884-1953), the Russian writer. The story "Blast furnace" (1925) about the beginning of industrialization in the USSR. The autobiographical novel " Sweet penal servitude " (hours 1-2, 1934-36).
  • LJASHCHENKO Peter Ivanovich (1876-1955), the Ukrainian economist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1943), academician AN of Ukraine (1945). The main transactionses on agrarian problems and histories of a national economy of the USSR. The state premium of the USSR (1949).
  • , the second character of the Russian alphabet; goes back to the cyrillic character ("beeches").
  • BA, in the Chinese mythology spirit of the drought dwelling in the south; it is figured by the way woman volant by air. Bears a drought, famine and mors.
  • BA GUA, art work of universe, designed in drevnekitajskom tract "Itszin". Will consist of eight (ba) three gramme (gua); from them each is combination of three lines and symbolizes the party of light correlated to different natural phenomena, animal, etc.
  • BA TSZIN (an ice-film. A name of Lie Fejgan) (r. 1904), the Chinese writer. The trilogy " Precipitant flow " (1933-40) about disintegration of feudal family, the patriotic novel "Fire" (1943), the novel " Chamber N 4 " (1945).
  • BAADE (Baade) Walter (Uolter) (1893-1960), the german astronomer. In 1931-58 in the USA. Has placed a sidereal nature of a nucleus of a galaxy of the Andromeda and its different bright guides, existence of two phylums of a stellar population in galaxies. Probeed variable and novas, has discovered asteroids Gidalgo and an Icarus.
  • BAADER (Baader) Frants Ksaver a background (1765-1841), the german religious philosopher, the doctor, the scientist, the representative of philosophical romanticism and not orthodox catholicism.
  • BAAL (to the Dancing party, the Baal), ancient obshchesemitskoe the godhood of fertility, waters, wars. It was honored in Phoenicia, Palestine and Syria, then his cult was distributed to the west (to Egypt, Greece, etc.).
  • BAAL-SHEM-TOV ISRAEL BEN ELIEZER (abbr. BESHT) (ok. 1700-60), the jewish thinker - mistik, the founder of sect of Chassids and the largest authority hasidizma.
  • BAALBEK, city in Lebanon, for foot hr. Anti-Lebanon. Ok. 20 thousand inhabitants. Debris ancient (since 18 century up to n. e.) Heliopolis, Julia - Avgusty-Feliks the latest Roman colony. Residues of temples and public constructions.
  • BAAS (the arab., characters. - revitalization), the title of the Consignment of Arabian socialist revitalization used in the literature.
  • SKULL CRACKERS (naturally Sejid Ali Mohammed) (1819-50), the founder of sect babidov. In 1844 has declared itself Babom, i.e. "gate" through which the will of the prophet - deliverer (mahdi) should be transmitted to people. In 1847 it arrested; in time babidskih revolts in Iran rasstreljan.
  • SKULL CRACKER, in technique - a working impact part of tups, rum engines and other machines; a wooden pig for a manual pile driving.
  • SKULL CRACKER (Baba) Korneliu (r. 1906), the Romanian painter, the honorary member AH the USSR (1958). Psychologic portraits, landscapes, scenes of country life ("Peasants", 1958) differ the steep zoetic truth, expressiveness of a constrained gamma and the pastose pattern.
  • LJAOSI (ZHehe), a mountains on north-east of China, ok. 120 thousand êì2, prevailing altitudes of 500-1300 m, the greatest - 2050 m. In northwest - a corrugated plateau and low-level masses, in a southeast - rocky mountains. Steppes, a dense bushes. Valleys densely colonized. Deposits of mineral coal.
  • LIAO, the river on north-east of China. 1430 kms, the area of basin of 231 thousand êì2. Weeps on plain Ljaoheskoj, runs in Ljaodunsky a hall. Yellow m., derivating delta. Average discharge of water 630 m3 / with; there are floods. In a lower reaches - a tidal effect. It is navigable about one . SHuanljao. Water reservoirs. In a mouth - seaport of Yingkow.
  • LJAOJUAN, city in Severo-Vost. China, a province Girin (Jilin). 354 thousand inhabitants (1990). A coal mining; metallurgy, a machine industry, a chemical, textile industry.
  • LIAOYANG, city in Severo-Vost. China, a province Liaoning. 492 thousand inhabitants (1990). A petrochemical industry; a machine industry, strojindustrija.
  • LJAOJANSKOE BATTLE, 11.8-21.8.1904, about Liaoyang in Severo-Vost. China during russko-Japanese war. Russian Manchurian army (general A.N.Kuropatkin) has sufferred a defeat from three Japanese armies (marshal I.Ojama) and has departed for r. SHahe.
  • LJAPIDEVSKY Anatoly Vasiljevich (1908-83), the pilot, the Hero of Soviet Union (1934), the general - major of aircraft (1946). In 1934 participat in salvage of crew of motorship " ×åëþñêèí ". In Great Domestic war the director of an aircraft manufacturing plant.
  • SILVER NITRATE, see. Silver nitrate.
  • SILVER NITRATE - GLAZING, the same, that lazurite.
  • LAPSE (an armour. lapsus - fall, an error), obmolvka, involuntary omission, a gross error.
  • LYAPUNOV Alexander Mihajlovich (1857-1918), the Russian mathematician and the mechanics, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1917; the academician Petersburg AN with 1901). The brother. Ì. and S.M.Ljapunovyh. Has created the modern stability theory of balance and motion of mechanical systems with a finite number of parameters. Transactionses on differential equations, hydrodynamics, theories of probabilities.
  • LYAPUNOV Alexey Andreevich (1911-73), the Russian mathematician, corresponding member AN the USSR (1964). Transactionses on a set theory, mathematical problems of cybernetics, mathematical linguistics.
  • LYAPUNOV Boris Mihajlovich 1862-1943), the Russian jazykoved-Slavist, academician AN the USSR (1925; the academician of the Russian Academy of Science with 1923). The brother And. Ì. and S.M.Ljapunovyh. Activities on comparative phonetics and grammar, a history and ethymology of slavonic tongues.
  • LYAPUNOV Zahary Petrovich (? - after 1612), the organizer of overthrow of Vasily Shujskogo in 1610. Brother P.P.Lyapunov.
  • LYAPUNOV Prokopy Petrovich (? - 1611), dumnyj nobleman (1607). Brother Z.P.Lyapunov. Headed order of the Ryazan noblemen who have adjoined revolt Bolotnikova. In November 1606 has transfered to Vasily Shuisky. In 1610 participant of overthrow of Shuisky and organizations first zemskogo home guards 1611, the chapter zemskogo governments. It is killed by cossacks.
  • LYAPUNOV Sergey Mihajlovich (1859-1924), the Russian composer, the pianist, the conductor. The brother And. Ì. and B.M.Ljapunovyh. It is connected to traditions " Mighty kuchki ". In fortepiannom creativity and a performing art developed M.A.Balakirev kontsertno-masterly style. The professor of the St.-Petersburg (Petrograd) conservatory (with 1910).
  • LYAPUNOV the THEOREM, one of limiting theorems of a theory of probabilities. Establishes rather general conditions of convergence of distribution of the sum of independent random values to a normal distribution. A.M.Ljapunovym (1901) is proved.
  • LJAROSH (Laroche) Sofia a background (1737-1807), the german writer. Sentimentalistsky the novel " Satisfactory traveling " (1783).
  • LJASS Abram Moiseevich (1911-76), the Russian metallurgist, one of founders of the modern science about molding materials, Dr.Sci.Tech. (1961), the professor (1962). The main proceedings are connected to building and an introduction in foundary of fluid self-hardening sand for manufacturing forms and rod stock. The lenin premium (1967).
  • LJATOSHINSKY Boris Nikolaevich (1894/95-1968), the Ukrainian composer, the national actor of Ukraine (1968). Operas " Golden hoop " (1930, 2-n edition 1970), "SHCHors" (1938); 5 concordances, etc. The Professor of the Kiev conservatory (with 1935). The state premium of the USSR (1946, 1952).
  • LJAUDININKI (lits. - populists), a political trend of Lithuania in kon. 19 century - 1930th. Leaders - V.Belskis, K.Grinjus, A.Rimka, M.Slezhjavichjus, etc. - repeatedly headed government. Have formed the Lithuanian democratic party, Soyuz of peasants of Lithuania, the Consignment of revolutionary socialists ljaudininkov, Soyuz of the Lithuanian youth, etc.
  • LJABURB (Labourbe) ZHanna the Goosefoot (1877-1919), the organizer and the secretary of the French communist group in Moscow in 1918. Member RKP (á) with 1918. One of chiefs of " Foreign board " in Odessa. Rasstreljana the French interventionists.
  • LJAGIN Victor Aleksandrovich (1908-43), the scout, the captain, the Hero of Soviet Union (1944, posthumously). In organs of a state security with 1938. In Great Domestic war 1941-45 chief of razvedyvatelno-subversive group in Nikolaev. It is executed by fascists.
  • The FROG - BULL, anurous amphibian. The length up to 20 sm, weighs till 600 In the Sowing. To America; it is delivered in JUzh. America, Japan and other countries. Dwells in coastal thickets. Samets loudly "lows". Use in I peep (object of a craft and cultivation in nurseries).
  • FROGS (true frogs), set of anurans. Length from 3 up to 32 see. St. 550 kinds. Are distributed widely (except for south JUzh. America, JUzh. Australia also It is new. Zealand). Large frogs (goliath, the frog - bull, a lake frog) in many countries use in I peep. In the broad sense of the word as frogs call all anurans. Classical laboratory animal. 1 kind in the Red Data Book of International Soyuz of nature protection and natural resources.
  • LJAGUSHKOZUBY, a stem caundal amphibian. Length up to 25 see 3 kinds, 2 - in China (Shaanxi, Sichuan); Semirechensky ljagushkozub, Dzungarian Ala Tau dwelling in mountains - is guarded.
  • DAKOTA VETCH, stem of grasses, basically perennial, sets of pod-bearing plants. More than 100 kinds, in Eurasia, Africa and America. A Dakota vetch uliginose, etc. - fodder plants (sow in a mix with other grasses).
  • LJADOV Anatoly Konstantinovich (1855-1914), the Russian composer, the conductor. Participant Beljaevskogo a mug. The master symphonic and fortepiannoj miniatures. Symphonic patterns "Skull cracker - JAga" (1904), "Fright" (1909), etc. (on fantastic scenes), machining of Russian national songs. The professor of the St.-Petersburg conservatory. (with 1886).
  • LJAKISHEV Nikolay Pavlovich (r. 1929), the Russian metallurgist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1987). Transactionses on metallurgy of steel and ferro-alloies. The lenin premium (1976), the State premium of the USSR (1970).
  • LJAKROSS (from frants. la crosse - a stick), the sporting command game (on 10 person for men, on 12 - for women) with a ball and raketkami-sticks on a grassy field (100? 64 m for men and 110? 73 m for women) with a gate (an altitude 1,83 ì). The purpose - to score a goal in a gate of rivals. Rules are similar with adopted in field hockey and to a hollow disk. Has engendered in France in 14 century. With it is grey. 19 century it is distributed in Canada, the USA, the Great Britain, Australia, etc. In International federation - IFAL (IFAL; it is based in 1928) over 10 countries (1991). In the program of Olympic Games it was actuated in 1904 and 1908.
  • LALLEMANTIA, stem of annual grasses of a set of a mint family, oil-yielding crop. 6 kinds. Cultivate a lallemantia iberijskuju and lallemantia Rojlja; in seeds of 35-38 % of a technical oil. The main areas - in Iran, India, Pakistan.
  • LJAMBLII (zhiardii), a stem parasitic zhgutikonostsev. Dl. 8-30 microns. St. 100 kinds. Dwell in an intestines of the person, and also of some mammals.
  • LAMBLIASIS, invazionnoe the disease of the person called ljamblijami. Weeps more often asymptomatically; it can be accompanied by an enteritis, a cholecystitis.
  • LJAN (whale)., a unit of weight (masses) in China and some adjacent states, equal 31,25.
  • LJANI, an administrative and territorial unit (province) in Finland.
  • LJANTOR, city (up to 1992 settlements. Ljantorsky) in Khanty-Mansiysk and. About., in 95 kms from zh.-d. An item. Surgut. 22,1 thousand inhabitants (1989.) Center of oil producing area.
  • LJANTORSKOE the DEPOSIT petrogas condensate, in the Tyumen region (the Western - Siberian oil-and-gas-bearing province). It is open in 1966. Deposits on depth of 2 kms. Flush production of petroleum in chinks of 20-150 m3 / sut. Beginning inventories of gas over 250 billion in m3.
  • LJAO, the state idanej in 10 - nach. 12 centuries.
  • GULF OF LIAODONG of Yellow sea, is limited from orient Ljaodunskim p-ovom. Dl. 220 kms, width at an orifice of 175 kms. Depth of 10-50 m. A port - Yingkow (China).
  • LIAOTUNG PENINSULA, on north-east of China, between Ljaodunskim and Zap.-Korean a hall. Yellow m. Length of 225 kms, an altitude up to 1132 m. Major ports - Dalian (Long-distance) and Liushung (Port Arthur).
  • LIAONING, province in Severo-Vost. China. 151 thousand êì2. The population 39,5 million person (1990). An administrative centre - SHenjan.
  • CROWFOOT FAMILY, set of dycotyledonous plants. Ok. 2000 kinds (50 stems), primarily in moderate and cool belts of Boreal hemisphere. The aconite, a crowfoot, a larkspur, an adonis, a weather shake, a drainage basin concern to a crowfoot family, etc. Many crowfoot family are toxicant.
  • LJUTICHI (velety), the union of nations polabskih slavs of 8-12 centuries on austral a shore of Baltic m.
  • LUTE (polsk. lutnia, the protosource: the arab. al-ud - a tree), 1) string shchipkovyj a musical instrument of a middle East origin (see. Ud), widespread for miscellaneous peoples Vost. And JUzh. Europe (kobza, etc.), Africa and Asia. In Zap. To Europe has appeared in a serotinal Middle Ages. 2) Non-proprietary name of group of the string instruments having as mandatory reverberatory a body and strunonositel.
  • BACKLASH (a nem. Luft, characters. - air), a spacing between mated surfaces of parts of machines. The device for definition of value of a backlash in a steering mechanism of the automobile calls as a dial test indicator.
  • LUFFA, stem of annual grasses of a set of a gourd family. 5-8 kinds, in tropics and subtropics. A luffa cylindrical or ljuchalnuju a pumpkin, and a luffa granistuju cultivate in warm countries (occasionally on Caucasus, in Crimea and Compare. Asia). Pullet ovaries are edible, ripe fruits give t. n. A vegetative sponge (goes on basts). Seeds contain oil, fit for the technical purposes.
  • LUCERNE (Luzern), city in Switzerland, on lake Firvaldshtetskom, an administrative centre of the canton Lucerne. 61 thousand inhabitants (1985, with suburbs of 161 thousand inhabitants). A machine industry, sewing, polygraphic, a food-processing industry. Annual musical festivals, the Health resort. Art and historical museums, treasury Hofkirhe. It is based ok. 1180. Urban strengthening with towers (nach. 15 century), Renaissance church Hofkirhe (17 century) and a town hall (nach. 17 century), houses in style of Baroque (17-18 centuries).
  • LUCERNE, stem one and perennial grasses of a set of pod-bearing plants. Ok. 100 kinds, in Eurasia and Africa. Cultivate in the pure state and in a mix with cereals lucerne blue, lucerne yellow, lucerne hybrid, etc. - a fodder grasses (for 2 hay cutting 60-90 ts hay with 1 ga).
  • LJUTSERNOVAJA COLUMBINE BORERS (flax bollworm), the butterfly of a set of columbine borers; the pest of lucerne, a flux, a soya bean in Eurasia. Front fenders zelenovato-grey with dark cross stripes. Eats (caterpillars) leaves and seeds.
  • LJUTSERNOVYJ the WEEVIL (major), the bug of a set of weevils; the pest of lucerne, a clover, a sainfoin in Eurasia. Black, dl. 9-14 mm. Eats leaves, larvas - roots.
  • LJUTSIN, the official title of. Ludza in Latvia up to 1917.
  • The LUCIFER, in Christian mythology the fallen angel, a devil.
  • The LUCIFER, see. Phosphorum.
  • LUCIFERINS (from an armour. lucifer - svetonosnyj), the organic compounds participating in a bioluminescence. On a chemical nature - heterogeneous ring compounds, terpenoidy, etc.
  • LJUCHZHOU, city in the south of China, Guansi-CHzhuansky independent area. A railway junction. 609 thousand inhabitants (1990). The timber industry centre. Metallurgical, machine-building, a chemical industry.
  • LJUCHIANI (Luchani) (Luciani) Luigi (1840-1919), the italian physiologist. The main transactionses on physiology of heart, respiration, nervimuscular system, influence on an organism of the long-lived hunger. Has put forward the theory about an auxiliary role of a cerebellum in a regulation of functions of an organism major hemispheres.
  • LJUES, the same, that a lues.
  • LJA, one of the musical notes, VI stage of the main diatonicheskogo zvukorjada. An alphabetic designation - latin And.
  • LJAANEMAA (Vick), drevneestonsky maakond (ground) in northwest of the modern Estonia, with cities Haapsalu, Lihula, Soontaga. In 13 century it is seized by german crusaders (Ezel-Vikskoe bishopric), with 1561 in Poland, with 1629 in Sweden, part Lifljandii. In Russian empire with 1710 - Gapsalsky for. Estljandskoj lips. And Pernovsky for. Lifljandskoj lips. (Pjarnumaa).
  • LJUNEVILSKY the MIR 1801, is encased in. Ljunevil (France) between France and Austria after rout of the Austrian troops by Napoleon I. Basically confirmed conditions Kampoformijskogo of the world 1797.
  • LUNATTE (ljunetta) (frants. lunette, characters. - the hollow), an arch opening in the canopy or a wall, bounded below by a horizontal. In through lunattes windows seat, dead lunattes stud with paintings and a sculpture.
  • The LUNATTE, the strengthening discovered from back comprising routinely from 1-2 frontal shafts (fasov) with a pit ahead and lateral shafts. It was applied up to nach. 20 century.
  • LUPIN, stem one and perennial grasses of a set of pod-bearing plants. Ok. 100 kinds. Cultivate everywhere more than 10 kinds. Feed (productivity of a green material 300-400 ts with 1 ga), an ornamental plant, a green manure crop (see. A green manuring).
  • LUREX, filament by the way a fine-bored strip shining (a coated foil or metallized) a film (napr., a tissue with lurex).
  • LJURSA (Lurcat) Andre (1894-1970), the French architect and the town-planner. Designs of owner-occupied dwellings it is grey. 1920 reflect entrainment funktsionalizmom A.Loosa (the design of a country house " the Sky coast ", 1917). In 1934-36 traveled across the USSR. In post-war designs the tendency to monumentalism and legible structural secretion of regional units (the Palace of sport, Saint-Denis, 1962) is planned.
  • LJURSA Jean (1892-1966), the French painter and the master of an ornamental art. Brother A.Ljursa. Has revived art of the French gobelin tapestries in simvoliko-fancy, decorative - ortamental lyrical compositions (" the Ode of the world ", 1957-63). Keramist.
  • LJUSTERNIK Lazarus Aronovich (1899-1981), the Russian mathematician, corresponding member AN the USSR (1946). The main transactionses on a functional analysis, calculus mathematics. The state premium of the USSR (1946).
  • CHANDELIERS (from frants. lustre - luster), the pigment superimposed on stonewares atop of burnt glaze, a metal as a result of reduction muffle furnacing metal or nacreous glare.
  • LJUSTRATSII (from an armour. lustratio - refinement by means of immolation), 1) religious - magic solemnities, directed against diseases and other disasters. For many peoples cleaning force was attributed to fire (a fumigation of people, home units), to water, salt, gland, etc., 2) the interdiction to functionaries of a high rank of the forbidden in the given country of the political party during fixed time to take the position in state machinery to be elected in representative bodies to be judges, etc.
  • LJUSTRATSII (polsk. lustracja), in Poland (16-18 centuries), in Lithuania, Belarus and Right-bank Ukraine (18-19 centuries) the periodic list of the state-owned properties for definition of their yield, it was taken into account also podatnoe the population and his duties.
  • LUSTRINE (frants. lustrine), the thin dark woollen or a cotton with luster. Has become popular since 18 century. From lustrine sew primarily summer jackets.
  • LUTHER (Luther) Martin (1483-1546), figure Reformatsii in Germany which beginning has put his performance (1517) in Wittenberg with 95 theses against the indulgences, rejecting the main tenets of a catholicism. The founder of a lutheranism. Has translated into on german tongue the Bible, having affirmed norms obshchenemetskogo a literary language.
  • The LUTHERANISM, the largest direction protestantizma. It is based by M.Luther in 16 century. In a lutheranism main rules protestantizma for the first time are formulated, but the lutheranism has realized them (especially in church organization) less in succession, than calvinism. It is distributed in the Scandinavian countries, Germany, the USA, countries of Baltic.
  • LUTECIUM (an armour. Lutetium), Lu, the chemical element of III group of a periodic system, atomic number 71, atomic weight 174,967, falls into to lanthanoids. The title from Lutetia. Siver-white metal. Firmness of 9,849 g / sm3, tïë 1660 °S.
  • LUTECIUM (an armour. Lutetia), an ancient settlement pariziev, at-sight which the modern Paris (on is located about. A screen).
  • LJUTIENS (Lutyens) Edvin (1869-1944), the English architect. Plotted, primarily, private residences and small country houses in style, close palladianstvu (private residence "Neshdom", 1905). Worked in India (" the Palace of viceroy " in New Delhi, 1923-31).
  • CROWFOOT, stem of grasses of a set of a crowfoot family. St. 600 kinds, are distributed widely, but in a moderate belt of Boreal hemisphere; are usual predominary on wet meadow lands and in woods. Are toxicant. Some are decorative. The crowfoot sajansky - is guarded.
  • LUXEMBOURG, the title of. Bolnisi in Georgia in 1921-43.
  • LUXEMBOURG (a nem. Luxemburger), a dynasty of emperors of " Sacred Roman empire " in 1308-1437 (with rests), taken also Czech (1310-1437) and the Hungarian (1387-1437) holy tables.
  • The LUXEMBOURG COMMISSION (" the Governmental commission for workers "), is established in France after February revolution by 1848 Providing government, should develop measures on improvement of a rule of working class. Sat in Paris in the Luxembourg palace in March - May 1848, not having accepted any solutions (her called "govorilnej"). Headed luxembourg commission Lui Blan.
  • LJUKSEMBURZHTSY, people, the main population of Luxembourg. Live also in Italy, Germany and France. An aggregate number of 285 thousand person (1992). Roman catholics believing main, are protesters.
  • LUXIMETER (from an armour. lux - light and... Meter), a gauge meter of illuminating intensity, one of kinds of photometers. The elementary luximeter will consist of a photo cell and the microammeter prograduated in luxs.
  • LUX - SEC, unit of a light exposition (quantity of illumination) of a SI; it is meant lk.s. 1 lk·s = 10-4 fot·s.
  • LJULLI (Lully) Jean Batist (1632-87), the French composer. By origin the Italian. The founder of the French opera school. Has created classical phylums of lyrical tragedy ("Altsesta", 1674; "Tezej", 1675) and the French opera overture. Music to Moliere comedies.
  • LJULEV Lion Veniaminovich (1908-85), the Russian scientist and the designer, Dr.Sci.Tech., doubly the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1966, 1985). The lenin premium (1967), the State premium of the USSR (1948, 1977).
  • SWING BOLSTER Arhip Mihajlovich (1908-84), the Russian designer of aero-engines, academician AN the USSR (1968), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1957). Under a guiding of the Swing bolster the first Soviet turbojet (1947) is built. The lenin premium (1976), the State premium of the USSR (1948, 1951).
  • LUMEN (from an armour. lumen - light), unit of a luminous flux of a SI; lm is meant. 1 lm - a luminous flux released by a point source in solid angle 1 sr at light intensity 1 candela.
  • The LUMENMETER (from an armour. lumen - light and... Meter) (the photometer integrant), a gauge meter of a luminous flux. It is based on comparison of the given luminous flux with known. It is calibrated in lumens in 1 seconds.
  • LUMEN-SECOND, unit of a light energy of a SI; the lm / seconds 1 lm / with - a light energy conforming to a luminous flux 1 lm, radiated or accepted during 1 seconds is meant.
  • LJUMET (Lumet) Sydney (r. 1924), the American actor and the film director. Appeared on stage about 4 flying. Worked on a television, with 1951 creator t. n. " Golden era of a TV movie ". In 1957 debuted in " major kino " film " 12 angry men ". Works in different genres, consolidated steep social - psychologic dramatic nature ("Television network", 1976; " Prince of city ", 1981; "Verdict", 1982; "Daniel", 1983; " For a following morning ", 1986, etc.).
  • LUMINESCENCE FLAW DETECTION, method of a capillary non-destructive testing, founded on penetration into surface macrodefects of special tracer materials (penetrantov) which structure includes luminophores.
  • The FLUORESCENT LAMP, discharge light source of a low pressure, which luminous flux is determined basically by a luminescence of luminophores under influence of a ultraviolet radiation of electric discharge. A luminance factor up to 85 lm / VT, life cycle more than 104 hours. Are applied primarily for general and local lighting.
  • FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS, chemical analysis of substance on character of his luminescence. The quantitative fluorescence analysis effect on intensity of lines in a luminescent spectrum, quality - by the form its spectrum. To fluorescence analysis attribute also the varietal analysis, permitting to distinguish outwardly similar objects (napr., cancer cells from able-bodied) on character of their luminescence.
  • LUMINESCENCE (from an armour. lumen, a genitive epizooty luminis - light and-escent - the suffix meaning weak action), a luminescence of substances, exuberant above their heat radiation at the given temperature and exited any energy sources. Arises under action of light, radioactive and x-ray radiances, an electric field, at chemical changes and at mechanic influences. Examples of a luminescence - a luminescence of a decaying tree, some hexapods, a screen of the television receiver. On the mechanism distinguish reverberatory, spontaneous, enforced and recombination luminescence, on duration - a fluorescence (a short-lived luminescence) and a phosphorescence (the long-lived luminescence).
  • LUMINOPHORES (from an armour. lumen - light and grech. phoros - bearing), organic and the inorganic matters, capable to glow (to luminesce) under action of external factors (see. A luminescence). The major kind of luminophores - crystalline phosphors. Luminophores use in fluorescence analysis, manufacture of luminescent paints, etc.
  • LJUMPEN-PROLETARIAT (from a nem. Lumpen - a tatter), the term is entered by K.Marksom for notation of the lowest layers of proletariat. Later "ljumpenami" all become to call deklassirovannye layers of the population (the wanderer, poor, criminal elements, etc.). " Ljumpenizatsija societies " increase of a lobe of these layers in the population and means distribution of psychology ljumpenov in conditions of social crisis.
  • LJUMER Lui Jean (1864-1948), the French inventor; in 1895 with the participation brother Ogjusta (1862-1954) the apparatus for filming and has created projections of " driving photos " - the first fit motion-picture camera to the practical use, received the title of a cinematograph.
  • The LUI XII (1462-1515), the French king with 1498, from dynasty Valua. A marching 1499 has reinstated Italian wars 1494-1559. Has conducted reforms on reorganization a troops, on ordering of court, the taxation, moneys.
  • The LUI XIV (1638-1715), the French king with 1643, from a dynasty of Burbons. His board - apogee French absoljutizma (the legend attributes to Lui XIV saying: " the State is I "). Numerous wars (Devoljutsionnaja war 1667-68, for the Spanish patrimony 1701-14, etc.), heavy expenses of a royal yard, high taxes invoked popular uprisings.
  • The LUI XVI (1754-93), the French king in 1774-92, from a dynasty of Burbons. From the beginning of Great French revolution invoked the foreign mandatory powers for intervention. Will overthrow 10.8.1792. It is convicted by the Convent and it is executed.
  • The LUI XVIII (1755-1824), the French king in 1814-15 and 1815-24, from a dynasty of Burbons. In the season of Great French revolution one of chiefs of the French counter-revolutionary emigration. Has taken a holy table after fall of Napoleon I.
  • The LUI DEVOUT (Louis le Pieux, Ludwig der Fromme) (778-840), franksky emperor with 814. In vain attempted to save a wholeness of empire inherited from the father (Charles Velikogo), has divided steering of her between synovjami in 817; has made repartition of empire in 829.
  • The LUI HUNGARIAN, see Lajosh Great.
  • LJUDOEDSTVO, the same, that a cannibalism.
  • LEWISITE, ClCH-CHAsCl2, a colourless liquid, têèï 196,6 °S, a poisonous substance obshchejadovitogo, irritant, a blistering effect; intolerable concentration in air of 2.10-2 mg / l, fatal - at action through a respiratory organs of 0,25 mg / l (15 mines), a lethal dose at rezorbtsii through a leather of 25 mg / kg. It is offered as a poisonous substance at the end of 1-st world war.
  • LJUJ TSZI (r. 1909), the Chinese composer, the musicologist. The revolutionary battle mass songs popular during the japono-Chinese war 1937-45.
  • LJUJDA, administrative mountain terrain in Sev.-Vost. China, a province Liaoning, on Yellow m. 1,6 million inhabitants (1975). Actuates Liushung (Port Arthur) Dalian (Long-distance). Fishing base. Shipbuilding and other branches of a machine industry; chemical, cotton, a food-processing industry.
  • LJUJ-LJUJ (a whale. - 12 ljuj; ljuj - a measure, build), in music - 12-ñòóïåííàÿ the acoustical system symbolizing filosofsko-cosmological, aesthetic and ethical submissions in Other. China.
  • LIUSHUNG (Port Arthur), city and port in China, in prov. Liaoning, in a hall. Bohai Yellow m.; is part of administrative mountain terrain Ljujda. Liushung up to kon. 19 century were the Chinese perilune. It is received by Russia in the temporary lease from China under the convention 1898. In kon. 19 - nach. 20 centuries Russian marine base and Port Arthur. In 1905-45 it is occupied by Japan. It is free by the Soviet Army (August 1945). Under the sovetsko-Chinese agreements the marine base Liushung was shared the USSR and China. To 1955 USSR has introduced the military forces from Port Arthur and has free transmitted to government of China of a structure in base area.
  • LJUKARNA (frants. lucarne), a window opening in an attic roof or the cupola cover. Ljukarny, having the decorative value, outside often are decorated with clypeuses, planted borders, etc.
  • LUX (from an armour. lux - light), unit of illuminating intensity of a SI; lxat is meant. 1 lxose - illuminating intensities of a surface of a square of 1 m2 at a luminous flux dropping on it, equal 1 lm. 1 ëê=10-4 phot.
  • LUX (from frants. luxe - luxury, magnificence), notation of the best on the equipment, a degree of service, etc. shops, hostels, studio, etc.
  • LUXEMBOURG, Great duchy Luxembourg (Grand-Duche de Luxembourg), the state in Zap. To Europe. 2,6 thousand êì2. The population of 392 thousand person (1993), primarily ljuksemburzhtsy. A urban population ok. 86 % (1991). The official language - german, French and luxembourg. Believing - primarily roman catholics. Capital - Luxembourg. The constitutional monarchy. The chief of state - great duke. The body of legislation - Chamber of deputies. The terrain of country is occupied in predominary hilly plain, in a north - spurs of a mountain of Ardenness (vys. Up to 565 ì). A climate moderate, transient from marine to continental. Mean temperatures of January 0-2 °S, July 18 °S. A rainfall over 700 mm annually. The rivers fall into to basin Mozelja. Broad-leaved forests. Some wildlife reserves, a part of natural national park located in terrain of Germany. In Middle Ages a part of county (since 14 century of duchy) Luxembourg, entered in Netherlands (historical). About 1815 Great duchy (in the modern borders with 1839, up to 1890 in the personal union with Netherlands). In 1842-1919 in the customs union with Germany. In 1-¯ and 2-¯ world wars it is occupied by the German troops. Plans of Germany to annex Luxembourg have been thwarted by Luxembourg overall strike 1942. Luxembourg - highly-developed industrial country. A lobe in a runway (1991, %): an industry 24,6, an agriculture 4. The main industry - iron and steel industry; chemical, tanning, cement, faience, wood-working, sewing, a flavoring industry. Manufacture of the electric power 1,4 billion kvt.ch (1990). Dairy - meat animal husbandry, a grain - feed plant growing, wine growing, a vegetable raising. Luxembourg - the large international financial centre. Foreign tourism. About 1921 Luxembourg is in economic (including customs) the union with Belgium. Monetary unit - a luxembourg franc.
  • LUXEMBOURG, capital of the state Luxembourg. 75 thousand inhabitants (1991). Transevropejsky a traffic centre. An international airport. Metallurgy and a machine industry, chemical, flavoring, a tailoring industry. The international financial centre. The national library. A national museum. School of arts and handcrafts. For the first time it is mentioned ok. 963 as the deputy. In 1244 has received the right of city. Chapel Sen-Kiren (6 and 15 centuries), Gothic church. Sen-Michel (16 century), the Renaissance Palace of justicia (16 century), a baroque cathedral I Notr-shall give (17 century).
  • LUXEMBOURG (a nem. Luxemburg, polsk. Luksemburg) the Rose - tree (1871-1919), one of chiefs and theorists of a Polish social democracy, left-wing radical flow in the German social democracy and 2-nd Internatsionale. One of organizers of "Soyuz Spartaka" and osnovatelej (1918) KP Germany (KPG). Has organized (from K.Libknehtom) the issuing of the newspaper " Rothe the fan ". The passionate fighter against militarism. It is brutally killed (together with Libknehtom) counter-revolutionarys.
  • The TELLEGEN EFFECT interaction of two radiowaves passing through an ionosphere as a result of which at method of radiowaves of a transmitting station drive of other potent station working on other carrier frequency and located on a line between relaying and receiving stations is listened, and at method of radiowaves of potent station finds out their distortion. For the first time it was supervised in 1933 to Eindhoven (Netherlands) by activity of potent radio station " Luxembourg " and in. Bitter (nowadays Nizhni Novgorod).
  • LUDWIG (Ludwig) Charles Fridrih Wilhelm (1816-95), the german physiologist, the founder of scientific school, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1871). Has offered (1846) physical theory mocheotdelenija. Has discovered (1851) secretory nerves of salivery glands and (1866, together with I.F.Tsionom) t. n. depressornyj a nerve.
  • LUDWIG Otto (1813-65), the german writer. The tragedy " the Hereditary forest warden " (1849, it is published 1853), the story "Between heaven and earth" (1856), stories from life of petty bourgeoises and handicraftsmen distinguishes truthfulness of chronicles. " Etudes about Shakespeare " (1840-65, are issued 1871) - the investment in the theory of a realistic drama.
  • LUDWIG (Ludwig) Emil (an ice-film. fam. Kon) (1881-1948), the german writer and the journalist. Romanizirovannye biographies of Bismarck (1926), Gindenburga (1936), I.V.Stalin (1945), etc.
  • LJUDVIGSORT, the title.. Ladushkin in the Kaliningrad region up to 1946.
  • LUDWIGSHAFEN (Ludwigshafen), city on a southwest of Germany, ground Rejnland-Pfalts. 165 thousand inhabitants (1992.) Center chemical and a petrochemical industry and a chemical machine industry.
  • LJUDEVITA POSAVSKOGO REVOLT 819-823, horvatov region Posavskoj in the union with Slovenes and timochanami (the slavonic nation settled in area r. Timok) under a guiding of prince Ljudevita against an authority of francs. The revolt suppressed by francs, has undermined, however, their domination in Croatia.
  • LJUDENDORF (Ludendorff) Erih (1865-1937), the german general (1916), one of ideologists of the German militarism. In 1-¯ world war, being the mate of general P.Gindenburga, actually supervised over act of war on Eastern front in 1914-16, and in 1916-18 all armed forces of Germany. Participant Kappovskogo of putsch 1920 and the chief (together with Gitlerom) fascist putsch 1923 in Munich. In 1924-28 deputy German rejhstaga from the National socialist consignment. The writer of the concept of " total war ".
  • LJUDENSHAJD, city in the west Germany, ground the Sowing. Rhine - Vestfalija, 80 thousand inhabitants (1991). Metal working, the electrical engineer.
  • LJUDERITS, city and a port in Namibia, on a shore Atlantic ok., an administrative centre of district Ljuderits. 16 thousand inhabitants (1988). Production of diamonds. A fishing industry
  • LJUDINOVO, city (with 1938) in the Russian Federation, the Kaluga region, on coast an eskar. Lompad, derivated by a dam r. Nepolat. A depot. 44,7 thousand inhabitants (1992). Factories: teplovozostroitelnyj, aggregation, etc.
  • LJUDINOVSKAJA the UNDERGROUND KOMSOMOL GROUP, acted in Great Domestic war in 1941-42 in. Ljudinovo. Chief A.S.Shumavtsov. The majority of participants are executed by fascists.
  • LJUDKEVICH Stanislav Filippovich (1879-1979), the Ukrainian composer, the theorist, the teacher the musical figure, the national actor of the USSR (1969), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1979). Opera " Äîâáóø " (1955), cantatas, concordances, vocal products, etc. The Writer of musicological activities. The professor of the Lvov conservatory. (with 1939).
  • LYUDMILA Cheshskaja (mind. 927; under other data in 921), princess, versed in christianity the educator of slavs ravnoapostolnym Methodius, the Christian martyress; a pastern over. Vyacheslav Cheshskogo. Memory in the Orthodox church on September, 16 (29), in Roman catholic on September, 15.
  • LUI I Great see Lajosh Great.
  • The LUI IV BAVARIAN (Ludwig IV der Bayer) (1287-1347), the German king with 1314, emperor of " Sacred Roman empire " with 1328, from stem Vittelsbahov. Combated Popes, interfered with affairs of the italian states.
  • The LUI of IX Sacred (1214-70), the French king with 1226, from dynasty Kapetingov. Has conducted reforms on a centralization of the government. Has headed 7-th (1248) and 8-th (1270) crusades. Has concluded Parisian agreement 1259.
  • The LUI VII (Louis) (between 1119 and 1121-80), the French king with 1137, from dynasty Kapetingov. One of leaders of 2-nd crusade (1147-49). In 1152 has dissolved a marriage with Alienoroj - gertsoginej Akvitanskoj, that has reduced in temporary loss of Aquitania by France.
  • The LUI VIII (1187-1226), the French king with 1223, from dynasty Kapetingov. Has won from Englishmen of Poitou, Perigor and a number of other French terrains. In 1226 has headed a marching against albigenses.
  • The LUI XI (1423-83), the French king with 1461, from dynasty Valua. Conducted tsentralizatorskuju policy, suppressed rebelions. Has joined to royal domain of Anjou, Picardy and other terrains. Patronized handcrafts, trade.
  • RAIN ORCHID, stem of perennial grasses of a set of an orchid family. More than 50 (under other data, up to 200) kinds, in Boreal hemisphere. Pullet klubni (t. n. Salepum) rain orchids vulistnoj, or the night violet growing in the south of wood and in forest-steppe zones, apply in medicine as enveloping means. The rain orchid Kamchatka is guarded.
  • LUBLIN (Lublin), city on the orient of Poland, on r. Bystshitsa, administrative centre Ljublinskogo voevodstva. 350 thousand inhabitants (1990). A traffic centre. A machine industry (including an autostructure), flavoring, kozhevenno-boot, a tailoring industry. University. Ljublinsky a museum. It is known from 10 century. The clasp (nowadays a museum; 13-19 centuries), a town hall (14-18 centuries), numerous houses and churches (14-18 centuries) in styles of a gothic, the Renaissance, Baroque.
  • LJUBLINSKAJA Alexander Dmitrievna (1902-80), the Russian historian, the doctor of historical sciences. Transactionses on a history of France of 16-17 centuries, latin paleography.
  • LJUBLINSKAJA the UNION 1569, the agreement (on June, 28) about association of Poland and the Great principality Lithuanian in one state - Speech Pospolitu. Established the uniform state structure, general parliament, a monetary system. Residues of statehood of Lithuania (courts, treasury, army, etc.) are liquidated May, third by 1791 constitution.
  • LJUBLINSKY Vladimir Sergeevich (1903-68), the Russian historian of the book. Activities on inkunabulovedeniju, preservation and restoral of products of a seal, a history of the book and its role in a society.
  • LJUBLINSKY (an ice-film. fam. Motoshnovich) Julian Kazimirovich (1798-1873), the decembrist, the landowner Volynsk lips. One of osnovatelej Societies of coherent slavs. It is convicted on 3 years of penal servitude. In 1829-56 on a settlement in Irkutsk lips.
  • LJUBLJANSKY UNIVERSITY him. E.Kardelja, Slovenia, is based in 1595-96, reorganized in 1919. In 1990 ok. 12,9 thousand students.
  • LOVE, intimal and deep feeling, tendency on other personality, a human generality or idea. In ancient mythology and poetry - space force, similar to gravity. For Platona and in platonizme love - eros - incentive force of spiritual climbing; in ordinary word usage Platonic love - love, loose from a sensual appetence. Sexual love in its modern form of individually - selective feeling - outcome of the long-lived historical development of the human personality.
  • LOVE (Agapai) Roman (mind. ok. 137), 9-years otrokovitsa, the Christian martyress damaged in persecution of emperor Adriana, one of three daughters (together with Belief and Hope) sacred Sofia Roman. Memory in the Orthodox church on September, 17 (30), in Roman catholic on August, 1 and on September, 30.
  • LJUBOMIROV Paul Grigorjevich (1885-1935), the Russian historian, the professor. Transactionses and publications on a history of intervention in 1611-13, a socio economic history of Russia of 17-18 centuries, Nizh. The Volga region.
  • LJUBOML, city (with 1939) on Ukraine, the Volynsk region. A depot. 10,4 thousand inhabitants (1991). The enterprises radio electronic, a food-processing industry. It is known from 13 century.
  • CURIOUS Paul, he Svetozarov Platon Lvovich (1772-1848), the old believe figure. Collected compositions and manuscripts of old believe writers and has constituted " the Historical dictionary and the check list, or ñòàðîâåð÷åñêîé Library of church " (it is issued 1863).
  • LJUBOTIN, city (with 1938) on Ukraine, the Kharkov region. A railway junction. 28,4 thousand inhabitants (1991). A cotton-mill, etc. It is based in it is grey. 17 century.
  • LJUBSKAJA, an arcaded Russian grade of a cherry from group of griottes. Fruits large, acescent - sweet. Productivity of 15-20 kg from a tree.
  • LJUBSHIN Stanislav Andreevich (r. 1933), the Russian actor, the national actor of Russia (1981). With 1980 in MHATe (about 1989 MKhAT him. A.P.Chehova). It was taken out in films: " to me twenty flying ", " the Board and a sword ", " Call me in a distance light " (as well the producer, from G.N.Lavrovym), " do not shoot in white swans ", " Five evenings ", "Pechki-shops", etc.
  • LUGGER (lugger) (English lugger), a three-master with rejkovym sailing arms. The mizzen mast for a lugger is located ahead of a fulcrum pin of a control surface.
  • " LJUD POLISH " (Lud Polski), 1) Political organization of the left-handed wing of Polish emigration in the Great Britain in 1835-46, 1853-56, 1872-76.2) Group, founded in 1881 in Switzerland B.Limanovskim and other Polish emigrants. The ideological progenitrix of a FIRE EXT.
  • LJUBATOVICH Olga Spiridonovna (1853-1917), revolutionary narodnitsa. One of organizers of group of "muscovites", the member of Executive committee " National will ", the participant of attempts at Alexander II. In 1881-88 in the Siberian reference. Vospominaanija " Far and recent " (1930).
  • LJUBEZNOV Ivan Aleksandrovich (1909-88), the Russian actor, the national actor of the USSR (1970). Worked in Moskovsk theatre Satyrs, with 1948 at Small theatre. The state premium of the USSR (1946).
  • LJUBER Margarita de (ok .1710-îê.1779), the French writer. Transfers of spanish tales of chivalry (including " Amadisa Gallic "). Gallant stories " Murat and Turkija " (1752), "Leonil" (1755), a fairy tale " Princess the Rose - tree and prince Seladon " (1743), "Beljanochka" (1751), etc.
  • LYUBERTSY, city (with 1925) in the Russian Federation, the Moscow region. A railway junction. 164 thousand inhabitants (1993). Manufacture of farm machines, the trade equipment, etc.; factory of musical instruments, carpet, wood-working combines, etc.
  • LJUBETKIN (Lubetkin) Bertold (r .1901), the English architect of Russian origin, the stylist, the philosopher - socialist. Has tested influence of Russian constructivism and Le Corbusier activities. In 1932 has based architectonic firm " Òåêòîí " (multifamily house Õàéïîéíò-1, the London, 1935).
  • LJUBETSKY (Lubecki) Frantsishek (1779-1846), prince, Minister of Finance (1821-30) Kingdoms Polish. Promoted an industrial development, trade, to a road construction. With 1832 member of the Council of state of Russian empire.
  • LJUBECH, old russian city (nowadays a urban settlement in Repkinskom r-not the Chernigov region. Ukraine). It is mentioned by the annals in 882. In 1097 in Ljubeche the princely cross-over was comprised. Residues of strengthening, posada, the clasp with a wooden palace.
  • We LIKE, city (with 1777) in the Russian Federation, Yaroslavl region, at a lockin r. Learning in r. Obnora. A depot. 7,1 thousand inhabitants (1989). A forest industry. It is known with 1546.
  • LJUBIMENKO Vladimir Nikolaevich (1873-1937), the Russian physiologist of plants, corresponding member AN the USSR (1925; corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science with 1922), the academician. AN Ukraine (1929). The main transactionses on a photosynthesis. Has made a hypothesis evolution of plant nutrition from a chemosynthesis to a photosynthesis. Probeed genetic relations between plastids.
  • LJUBIMENKO Inna Ivanovna (1879-1959), the Russian historian, the archivist. Transactionses on arhivovedeniju, histories of the anglo-French attitudes of 13-14 centuries, Russian-English trade relations of 16-17 centuries, histories AN and on a history of Saint Petersburg.
  • FAVOURITE KLAPPA, a summer grade of a pear, from the USA. Gets divorced in austral areas of a fruit growing. Fruits large or an average, with a vinno-sweet, thawing pulp. Productivity of 200-250 kg from a tree.
  • LJUBIMOV Alexey Borisovich (r. 1944), the Russian pianist. With 1976 soloist of the Moscow philarmonic society. Acts both as klavesinist and as the organist, executes primarily arcaded and modern music. 1-n the premium at International competition of pianists in Rio de Janeiro (1965).
  • LJUBIMOV Grigory Pavlovich (an ice-film. fam. And a name of Sentries Modest Nikolaevich) (1882-1934), the Russian initiator on a domra and the conductor, the honored artist of Republic (1925). The organizer of a quartet (1915) and the first professional orchestra of domras (1919).
  • LJUBIMOV Nikolay Mihajlovich (1912-93), Russian translator. Has transferred classical products of the world literature, including M.Servantesa, F.Rable, Ø. de Kostera, Dzh. Bokkachcho, M.Proust, Moliere, G.Flaubert, M.Meterlinka, etc. The State premium of the USSR (1978).
  • LJUBIMOV Jury Petrovich (r. 1917), the Russian producer and the actor, the national actor of Russia (1992). With 1946 at Theatre him. Vahtangova. In 1964-84 and with 1989 artistic administrator of the Moscow theatre on Taganke. Among productions: " the Kind person from Sezuana " B.Brecht (1964), U.Shakespeare (1971) "Hamlet", " And zori here quiet... " On B.L.Vasiljevu (1971), " the Dwelling on embankment " on J.V.Trifonovu (1980), "Boris Godunov" of A.S.Pushkin (1982, it is resumed 1988). In 1984 it is denaturalized by the USSR, in 1989 citizenship it recovered. Acted in film and on a television. The state premium of the USSR (1952).
  • LUBIN (Lubin), city on a southwest of Poland. 82 thousand inhabitants (1990.) Center mednorudnogo deposits, factory of musical instruments.
  • LJUBICH-MILOSH (Lubicz-Milosz) Oscar - Ventseslav de (1877-1939), the French poet - mistik of the Lithuanian origin. Uncle C.Milosha. Collections of verses of " Seven loneliness " (1906), " Ars Magna " (1924), "Lariats" (1926). Transfers of the Lithuanian national songs and fairy tales.
  • LJUBISHCHEV Alexander Aleksandrovich (1890-1972), the Russian biologist. Transactionses on an agricultural entomology, a taxonomist, structural botany. In activities under the theory of evolution acted with 1925 against a darvinism, was the adherent of a nomogenesis. In 50-60 has given sharply a walkthrough of views of T.D.Lysenko (activities were distributed "samizdatom", are in part issued - " In protection of science later. Articles and letters ", 1991). The main transactionses are published posthumously or remain in archive (including tracts on problems of science, a history, philosophy). Settling necessity of the theoretical analysis and loose not dogmatic discussion of scientific problems, remained at the same time one of carriers of classical crop among naturalists. The hero of a story of D.A.Granin " This strange life ".
  • LOJALISTY (English loyalists) (tori-colonizers), adherents of the parent state during War for independence in the Sowing. To America 1775-83.
  • LOYALTIES, group of islands of reefs in Pacific ocean; see. Luajote.
  • LOYALTY (from frants. Or English loyal - valid), 1) an accuracy to laws in force, decrees of government bodies (sometimes only formal, external). 2) Correct, goodwill to somebody or to something.
  • LOYANG, city in China, in prov. Henan. 760 thousand inhabitants (1990). A machine industry, cotton, building, rezinotehnicheskaja, a food-processing industry. It is based in 1108 up to n. e. Capital of the Chinese dynasties: Chow in 770-516 up to n. e., Serotinal Han in 25-220 n. e., etc. Neoliticheskie parking, settlements of epoch In, burials of epoch Zap. Chow and Han, buddistsky temple Bajmasy (1 century n. e.), cave temple Lunmyn (5-9 centuries).
  • LSD, derivative (diethyl amide) of a lysergic acid; has the expressed hallucinogenic action.
  • "LTV" (LTV), the company the USA. It is based in 1958 as electronic firm, in 1974 and 1984 has acquired the large metallurgical companies. Effects ferrous metals, air-space-rocket technique, the industrial equipment, gets iron oxide, coal, petroleum, a natural gas. Sales volume 7,5 billion dol., smelting become 9,5 million t, figure occupied 43,7 thousand person (kon. 1980th).
  • LU BAN, in the Chinese mythology the cultural hero, the promoter of building art.
  • LU TSZJUJUAN (Lu Sjanshan, Lu TSzytszin) (1139-93), the Chinese philosopher, the founder of one of two principal directions in neokonfutsianstve (school Lu Tszjuanja - Van JAnmina). Developed the views together with the higher brothers - Lu TSzjushao and Lu TSzjulinom (" the school of three teachers Lu "), was the friend and is simultaneous main opponent Chzhu Si.
  • LU JU (1125-1210), the Chinese poet. Verses on travails of people, on love to Rhodinum, a literary diary " Trip in SHu ".
  • LUA, in Roman mythology the daughter of Saturn, the goddess in honour of whom incinerated entrapped weapons for the enemy.
  • LUAJOTE (Loyalties) (Loyalty), group of coral islands and reefs in Quiet ok., to north-east from It is new. Caledonia. Possession of France. 2072 êì2. The population ok. 15 thousand person. Tropical forests; cultivation of a coconut palm.
  • LUALABA (Lualaba), the title of headwaters r. Congo (Zaire) in Republic Zaire, from a headstream up to cataracts Bojoma (dl. ok. 2080 kms). It is navigable on stray patches.
  • LUANG PRABANG, city in Laos, a port on r. Mekong, an administrative centre prov. Luang Prabang. 68 thousand inhabitants (1985). Handicraft industries. Luang Prabang is based in 14 century. Ok. 30 monasteries (16-19 centuries), that (mortar box) CHomsi, the Royal palace (kon. 19 - nach. 20 centuries).
  • LUANDA (Luanda), capital (with 1975) and a port of Angola, on Atlantic ok., an administrative centre prov. Luanda. 1,5 million inhabitants (1990). An international airport. An oil refining, alimentary, textile industry. University. Museums: Angola and Dundu. It is based in 1575.
  • LUANSHYA (Luanshya), city in Zambia. 146 thousand inhabitants (1990). Nonferrous machine industry. Manufacture of an electrocable, items from copper and aluminium.
  • LUANNJAO, in the Chinese mythology a magic bird with a beautiful plumage and a melodious voice; a symbol of peace and prosperities.
  • LUAPULA (Luapula), the title r. Lovua between an eskar. Bangveulu and Mweru.
  • LOIRE (Loire), the most lengthy river of France. 1012 kms, the area of basin of 115 thousand êì2. Headstreams in Cevennes, runs in Biskajsky a hall., derivating an estuary firth. The main inflow - SHer, Vjenna. Average discharge of water over 800 m3 / with. It is navigable from. Roan, it is paired by channels with rr. Hay, Sona. On Loire - Orleans, Tours, Nantes.
  • LOWLAND LUARSKAJA, in the west France, in basin r. Loire; it is washed against Biskajskim a hall. Length ok. 300 kms. Crops of wheat; a vegetable raising. On lowland Luarskoj - Orleans, Tours, Angers, Nantes.
  • LHASA, city in China, in a valley r. Dzhichu (Lhasa) (basin of Brahmaputra), on the Tibetan mountains (at the altitude over 3,6 thousand ì), an administrative centre of the Tibetan independent area. 90 thousand inhabitants. It is based in 7 century by the Tibetan tsar Srontszangambo. The religious centre of a Lamaism, palace - monastery Potala (a former residence dalajlamy; it is known from 7 century, the modern appearance goes back to 16-17 centuries), numerous palaces and the monasteries decorated with a thread, polychromatic paintings, a wooden, stone and golden sculpture.
  • LHOTSZE, a mauntain in B.Gimalajah. An altitude of 8545 m (under other data, 8501 ì). Icehouses.
  • LCHASHEN, a complex of archeologic monuments (from 3-rd thousand up to n. e. Till a Middle Ages) on coast an eskar. Sevan, for a seconds. Lchashen in Armenia; tsiklopicheskaja strength, settlements, kurgannye and ground burials. A large part of monuments of epoch of bronze.
  • SKIS, distinguish: slipping (polozoobraznaja the form and declinate up a nose) - sporting, tourist, hunting, special (napr., aircraft), water, etc.; stepping (the wooden rim with a grid from a nonrigid vine or belts). Skis have appeared for boreal nations in epoch of a neolith.
  • SKIING, actuates races on different distances, jumps from a springboard, a snatch (race and jumps), mountain skiing. Has engendered in Norway in 18 century In International federation - FIS (FIS; it is based in 1924) ok. 60 countries (1991). With 1924 in the program of winter Olympic Games, world championships with 1925 (officially with 1937).
  • The BAST, internal (bast) part of a bark of pullet broadleaved trees, is more often than a linden. From a bast plash baskets and other items, earlier - lapti.
  • LYNKOV Mihas (Michael Tihonovich) (1899-1975), the Byelorussian writer, the national writer of Belarus (1962), academician AN of Belarus (1953). Collections of stories; a novel - epopee " Indelible days " (hours 1-4, 1948-58) - about guerilla motion in Belarus.
  • LYSENKO Anatoly Grigorjevich (r. 1937), the Russian TV reporter, the general director All-Russia the state television and broadcasting company (with 1990). With 1968 on the Central Television. The writer of scripts of television documentaries (" our biography ", 1977, etc.). The state premium of the USSR (1978).
  • LYSENKO Nikolay Vitaljevich (1842-1912), the Ukrainian composer, the specialist in folklore. The founder national kompozitorskoj schools. The creator of some choral collectives, musical - drama school. Operas " Natalka Poltavka " (1889), "Taras Bulba" (1890), "Eneida" (1910), a vocal cycle " Music to "Kobzarju" T.G.Shevchenko " (7 series, 1868-1901), etc.
  • LYSENKO Trofim Denisovich (1898-1976), the Russian agriculturist, academician AN of Ukraine (1934), AN the USSR (1939), the academician (1935) and the president (1938-56 and 1961-62) VASHNIL, the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1945); the creator of pseudoscientific "Michurinism" in biology. Negating classical genetics (t. n. The mendelism - morganizm) as "idealistic" and bourgeois, asserted a capability of succession of acquired characters, "degeneration" of one kind in other, etc. Numerous practical recommendations Lysenko for an agriculture (ultraspeed breeding of new grades, etc.) Were untenable and have caused major economic damage. Since 30th on 1964 (especially after session VASHNIL 1948) activity Lysenko was sustained by I.V.Stalinym and then N.S.Hrushchevym, and his "marxist" doctrine and practical recommendations as directed on a revolutionary remaking of nature and promising the fast solution of food problems, were introduced administrative. As a result of monopolism Lysenko and his adherents (t. n. lysenkovshchina) have been routed scientific schools in genetics, oshelmovany honest scientists, degraded biological and the agrcultural education, was braked development of biology and an agriculture. The state premium of the USSR (1941, 1943, 1949).
  • LYSENKOVA Sofia Nikolaevna (r. 1924), the Russian teacher, the national teacher of the USSR (1990), with 1974 teacher of initial classes of high school N 587 (Moscow). Has developed a fundamentals of a technique of " perspective education " learning initial classes.
  • LYSKOVO, city (with 1922) in the Russian Federation, the Nizhniy Novgorod region, on the right to coast of Volga (CHeboksarskoe vdhr.)., in 65 kms from zh.-d. An item. Sergach. 25,2 thousand inhabitants (1992). Electrotechnical factory; a food-processing industry. On the left-handed coast of Volga - band Makarjevskogo ZHeltovodskogo of a monastery (18 century).
  • COOT, bird of a set of a ralline family. Length ok. 40 see. On a forehead a white naked plaque (from here the title). In Eurasia, the Sowing. To Africa and Australia. Object of a craft (meat).
  • BALD BADGER, the same, that a ratel.
  • LYSVA, city (with 1926) in the Russian Federation, the Perm region, on r. Lysva. A depot. 78,2 thousand inhabitants (1992). Metallurgical, turbo-generator factories, trikotazhnajaja factory. Theatre. It is based in 1785.
  • LYTKARINO, city (with 1957) in the Russian Federation, the Moscow region, on r. Moscow, in 12 kms from zh.-d. An item. Lyubertsy. 51,7 thousand inhabitants (1992). Factory of an optical glass, a shoe factory.
  • LYTKIN (psevd. Illja Vas) Vasily Ivanovich (1895-81), Komi the poet, the linguist, the Doctor of Philology. Poems, including about the Civil war - "go" (1927); fairy tales, lyrical verses. Activities on a history of the Perm tongues.
  • LYTKIN George Stepanovich (1835-1907), Komi jazykoved. The main transactionses. " Zyrjansky an edge at diocesans Perm and zyrjansky tongue " (1889).
  • LYHAVERE, the clasp estov 13 century northward from. Viljandi. Residues of shore fortifications, inhabited constructions, etc.
  • SNAPDRAGON, the same, that antirrinum.
  • LIONS (Lwoff) Andre Michel (r. 1902), French genetics and the virologist, foreign member AMN the USSR (1967). Has introduced a substantial contribution to development of the doctrine about latent viral infections, has explained the phenomena of a lysogeny. Probes of Lvov have underlain the theory of a regulation of synthesis of protein of F.Zhakoba and Z.L.Mono. The Nobel Prize (1965, together with ZHakobom and Mono).
  • LIONS George Evgenjevich (1861-1925), prince, the large landowner. The deputy of 1-st State Duma. The chairman All-Russia zemskogo the union, one of chiefs "Zemgora". In March - July 1917 chapter of the Providing government. After October revolution in emigration; in 1918-20 chapter of Russian political meeting in Paris.
  • LIONS Dmitry Semenovich (r. 1930), the Russian economist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1994). The main transactionses in a sector of the economy, organizations and steering of technological advance, and also a machine-building complex.
  • LIONS Michael Davidovich (1916/17-88), the Russian poet. Verses on war, on Rhodinum, lyrics (collections " my comrades ", 1945, " I Live today ", 1973, "Obsession", 1977, " All day and night ", 1980, "Up-and-down traffic", 1984).
  • LIONS Nikolay Aleksandrovich (1751-1803/04), the Russian architect, the artist, the poet, the musician, the member Russian AN (1783). The representative of a classicism: GPO in Saint Petersburg (1782-89), a cathedral in Torzhok (1785-96), usadebnye bands (seconds. Nikolskoe, bliz Torzhok, 1789-1804). Has emited musical collection of Russian national songs (1790, together with I.Prachem). Verses, poems spirit of sentimentalism, transfers.
  • LIONS Nikolay Nikolaevich (1867-1944), Russian zemsky the figure, the large landowner. One of osnovatelej " Soyuz of discharging ", consignments mirnoobnovlentsev and progressistov. The deputy of 1-st, 3-rd and 4-th State Dumas. The deputy chairman of 4-th State Duma. After October revolution in emigration.
  • LIONS Sergey Dmitrievich (1879-1959), the Russian physiologist of plants, corresponding member AN the USSR (1946). Probeed a metabolism for higher plants and physiological fundamentalses of a drought - resistance.
  • LIONS Feodor Nikolaevich (1823-85), petrashevets, the shtabs-captain, the chemist. In 1849 it is sentenced to the shooting substituted on 12 years of penal servitude. In 1871-82 in Saint Petersburg the secretary of Russian technical society and the editor of his "Notes".
  • The LVOV RANGE, on Ukraine. 21,8 thousand êì2. Us. 2764 thousand person (1991). An administrative centre - Lvov.
  • The LVOV POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, is based in 1844 as technical academy, in 1939 is reorganized in polytechnic institute. In 1990 over 23 thousand students.
  • The LVOV OPERA AND BALLET THEATRE him. I.Franko, is open in 1940, with 1966 academic. The building is constructed in 1900 (architect Z.Gorgolevsky). Performances in the Ukrainian and Russian tongues.
  • The LVOV UNIVERSITY him. I.Franko. It is based in 1661. In 1990 ok. 13 thousand students.
  • The LVOVSKO-WARSAW SCHOOL, group Polish logikov and philosophers (K.Tvardovsky, J.Lukasevich, T.Kotarbinsky, K.Ajdukevich, A.Tarsky, etc.), working in the season between 1-st and 2-nd world wars in Warsaw, Lvov and Krakow. Main routes of probes: the analysis of concepts, logic of scientific reasoning, development of logic semantics, etc. Representatives of school have introduced the considerable investment in a mathematical logic, the groundings of mathematics, a methodology of deductive sciences.
  • The LVOV BROTHERHOOD, national - religious association of orthodox Ukrainian petty bourgeoises of Lvov at Uspenskoj churches (80th of 16 century - 1788) (see. Brotherhoods). Had a printing house (in which Ivan Fedorov worked) and school.
  • LUCHENOK Igor Mihajlovich (r. 1938), the Byelorussian composer, the national actor of the USSR (1987). Songs (" Memory of heart ", "Khatyn", "Alesya"), cantatas, compositions for a piano, etc.
  • LUCHOW, city in JUgo-Zap. China, in prov. Sichuan, a port on r. Yangtze. 253 thousand inhabitants (1990.) Center of gas industry; factories: an agricultural chemicals, oil refining, wood-working, textile; a machine industry.
  • LUCHIZM, a direction in Russian from - art of 1910th, the bound first of all with M.F.Larionov name (as his ancestor) and N.S.Goncharovoj. One of versions of the abstract art, founded on the inking game of rays, svetoprelomleny, as though freeing internal energies of universe.
  • SHIVE JAnka (an ice-film. A name and fam. Ivan Ljutsianovich Nesluhovsky) (1851-97), the Byelorussian poet. Democratic moods proniknuty collections of verses "Bunch" (it is published 1903, in Russian), "Poems" (is published 1898, in Polish tongue), story "Verochka" (is published 1900, in Russian).
  • LUCHINSKY (Lucinsky) to Peter (r. 1940), the Moldavian statesman, the president of Moldova with 1996. With 1971 on party activity in Moldova, with 1978 in the apparatus of a Central Committee of the CPSU. With 1986 2-nd secretary of Central Committee KP of Tadjikistan. With 1989 1-st secretary of Central Committee KP of Moldova. In 1991 secretary of a Central Committee of the CPSU. About 1992 salting of Moldova in the Russian Federation, the chairman of parliament of Moldova with 1993.
  • RADIANT HEATING, kind of heating at which the large part of heat indoors is transmitted by radiance and in part a convection. Heating appliances routinely dispose in a floor, under a ceiling, in walls (panel heating).
  • RADIATIVE FIRESTONE, see. A marcasite.
  • RADIATION TRANSFER in an astrophysics, a transmission of energy of electromagnetic radiation inside space bodies and between them, stipulated by processes of his emitting, distribution, dissipation and absorption. To a radiation transfer it is connected, napr., a structure of asters and their atmospheres.
  • RADIANT FLUX, see. A radiation flux.
  • RADIANT HEAT EXCHANGE, the same, that a radiation heat exchange.
  • LUCHITSKY Vladimir Ivanovich (1877-1949), the geologist, academician AN of Ukraine (1945). Transactionses on petrography of a Pre-Cambrian of the Vost.-european ramp. The tutorial "Petrography" (1909, 1947-49).
  • LUCHITSKY Ivan Vasilyevich (1845-1918), the Russian historian, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1917; corresponding member Petersburg AN with 1908). Transactionses are dedicated the French Religious wars of 16 century, a history of peasantry before the French revolution kon. 18 century.
  • LUCHITSKY Igor Vladimirovich (1912-83), the Russian geologist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1968). Son V.I.Luchitskogo. The main transactionses on paleovulkanologii, to a tectonics and simulation tectonic processes.
  • LUCHITSY, the same, that harovye algae.
  • LUCHISHKIN Sergey Alekseevich (1902-89), the Russian artist, bordered on to proektsionizmu, then was the member of OST; one of the considerable painters of "postfuturistic" generation. His built after early, abstract - conceptual compositions of a cloth 1920-Õ-íà÷. 30th bizarrely combine elements of primitiveness and magic realism, compounding the thin ironiko-poetic commentary to the Soviet real.
  • LUCHKO Klara Stepanovna (r. 1925), the Russian film actress, the national actress of the USSR (1985). It was taken out in films: " the Kuban cossacks ", " Major family ", "Gipsy" (t/f), " Alarming Sunday ", etc. The State premium of the USSR (1951).
  • LUCHNIKI, in an antiquity and in Middle Ages the pedestrian and horse soldiers, armed onions.
  • SHELLING, cultivation by shallow ploughs (before a fall ploughing) surface layer of soil (often a stubble) with the partial oborachivaniem. Conditions for germination of the weeds effaceable by the consequent ploughing.
  • SHALLOW PLOUGH, farm implement for a shelling of a stubble and a presowing cultivation of soil. Stubble ploughs cultivate on depth of 4-10 sm, bottom - on 10-18 see.
  • LU-JUHANSON Ivar (1901-90), the Swedish writer. The representative of the realistic literature; novels about village " Kind night, ground " (1933), " Only mother " (1939), stories (collection "Statary", t. 1-2, 1936-37). An autobiographical cycle (1951-60), a cycle of "Passion" (t. 1-7, 1968-72).
  • LUTFI (1366/67-1465/66), the Uzbek poet. Lyrical verses, a romantic poem " Gul and Navruz " (1411). The lyrics has exerted influence poetry Compare. Asia.
  • LUTFULLIN Ahmat Fatkullovich (r. 1928), the Bashkir artist, the national artist of the USSR (1989), corresponding member AH (1988). In genre and historical patterns, portraits (" Three women ", 1969; " Farewell. 1941 year ", 1973; "H.Zagretdin", 1977) it is masterful interpretes emotional, composite and colour build national Bashkir art.
  • LUTCHENKO Vladimir Jakovlevich (r. 1949), the Russian sportsman, the deserved master of sport (1970). The champion of Olympic Games (1972, 1976), the repeated world champion, Europe and the USSR (in 1968-79) on ice hockey.
  • BLUEFISH, a marine fish of order okuneobraznyh. The length up to 115 sm, weighs up to 15 kg. In tropical and moderate waters, including in Black and Azov seas. Object of a craft.
  • LUKHOVITSY, city (with 1957) in the Russian Federation, the Moscow region. A railway junction. 33,3 thousand inhabitants (1992). A food-processing industry, a clothing factory.
  • LUHTA, in irish mythology the god - carpenter, assisting the art to nations of the goddess to Dan during battle with fomorami.
  • LUHJA (the self-title. - abalujja), people in Kenya (4 million person). Live also in Tanzania. An aggregate number 4,75 million person (1992). Hold on to traditional convictions. There are roman catholics.
  • LUTSY (Luky, the Onions) (1 century), apostle from 70-òè, (the Message to Romans 16:21), diocesan Laodikii Syrian (Phrygia). Memory in the Orthodox church on January, 4 (17) and on September, 10 (23).
  • LUTSIK (Lutsyk) Peter Nikolaevich (r. 1960), the Russian scripter. Together with A.Samorjadovym has written scripts to many apparent films put by producers of his generation: "Djuba-djuba" A.F.Hvana (1992); "Gongofer" B.S.Kilibaeva (1993); D.E.Yevstigneyev "Limit" (1994), etc.
  • LUTSILY (Lucilius) Gaj (ok. 180-102 up to n. e.), the Roman poet. The member mug Stsipiona African Junior. Bytopisatelnye verses "Satury".
  • LUTSKY Vladimir Borisovich (1906-62), the Russian orientalist. Transactionses on a new and off-the-shelf history of peoples of Arabian countries.
  • LUTSKY OUTBREAK, a part of Southwest front of approach (1916).
  • RAY (in mathematics), see. A ray.
  • RAY, line along which radiant energy in a ray approximation and a sound energy in an approaching geometrical soundmen is distributed.
  • RADIATION ILLNESS, arises at influence on an organism of ionizing radiations in the doses superior marginal. For the person are possible fulminant, acute, subacute and chronic radiation illness Shows primarily a defeat of organs of a hemopoiesis, nervous system, a gastrointestinal tract, etc.
  • RADIAL REACTION, changes of organs and tissues as a result of absorption of ionizing radiations by them; does not demand special treatment, peters self-contained.
  • RADIAL VELOCITY, projection of a space velocity of object to a ray of sight; it is determined on Doppler to effect. The radial velocity is positive, if the object leaves from the look-out, and is negative, if comes nearer to it. The term "radial velocity" is used basically in astronomy.
  • RADIAL THERAPY, application of ionizing radiations with the medical purpose. Istochnik of radiances devices generating them and radioactive preparations minister. The alpha, a beta, a gamma, a roentgenotherapy actuates, etc.
  • RADIOLARIA, the same, that radioljarii.
  • LURIJA Isaak ben Solomon (1534-72), the jewish thinker - mistik, the most outstanding representative of philosophy of servitude.
  • LURIJA (Luria) El Salvador Edward (1912-91), the American virologist and genetics. Was born and Italy, with 1940 in the USA. One of founders of genetics of microorganisms. Probeed structure and the mechanism of reproduction of bacteriophages, has discovered effect their multiple reaktivizatsii. The Nobel Prize (1969, together with A.D.Hershi and M.Delbrjukom).
  • LURY, people in Iran (2,8 million person, primarily historical range Small Luristan and Fars). Live also in Iraq. An aggregate number 2,86 million person (1992). Tongue of the Iranian group. Believing moslems - shiity.
  • LURE Anatoly Isaakovich (1901-80), the Russian scientist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1960). Transactionses under the elastic theory, resistance of automatic control systems, on analytical mechanics.
  • LURE Note (an ice-film. Name Natan Mihajlovich) (1906-87), the jewish writer (USSR). Wrote on a yiddish. The social - psychologic novel " calls Steppe " (hours 1-2, 1932-41) about collectivization in the USSR, " the Root and ground " (1963-64) about Great Domestic war, the story " the History of one love " (1976). The collection of stories and stories " Only the pest yes the root " (1978).
  • LURE Noys Gershelevich (1885-1960), the jewish writer (USSR). Wrote on a yiddish. Roman " Ale Jorsh " (1938) about life of Jews in Russia; the autobiographical story. " Wood silence " (transfer on Russian, 1957).
  • LURE Jacob Solomonovich (1921-96), the Russian literary critic, the Doctor of Philology (1962). In a centre of attention development of public idea in Russia, the old russian literature. Books: " Ideological extirpation in Russian publicism kon. 15 - nach. 16 centuries " (1960), " the Story about Drakule " (1964), " Headstreams of Russian fiction " (1970), " Obshcherusskie annals of 14-15 centuries " (1977), etc.
  • LUSAVAN, the title of. CHarentsavan in Armenia up to 1967.
  • LUSAKA (Lusaka), capital (with 1964) Zambia, an administrative centre of a province Lusaka. 972 thousand inhabitants (1990). An international airport. An alimentary, sewing, chemical, car assembly industry. University. Lusaka is based in 1905. Has arisen as station of the created railway. In 1935-64 administrative centre of the British protectorate the Sowing. Rodezija.
  • LUSAKERT, cave parking ashelskoj and mustjerskoj crops for a like settlement (with 1991 Argel) in Armenia. Nukleusy, minced also other instruments.
  • LU-SIN, in the Chinese mythology the god - the promoter of officers. It figured by the way startsa on a deer.
  • LUSMA (Lousma) Jack (r. 1936), an astronaut the USA, the lieutenant colonel of marines. Flights on "Apollo" and orbital station " Ñêàéëýá " (July - September 1973); on the reusable transport spacecraft. " Spejs a shuttle " (March 1982).
  • LUZON (Lyzon), the largest island of Philippines. 104,5 thousand êì2. The relief predominary sredne-mountain, is active volcanoes. An altitude up to 2934 m (. Pulog). Typhoons are often. Ever-green forests; in valleys - savannahs. Tropical agriculture. On Luzon - manilla, Quezon City.
  • LUSPEKAEV Paul Borisovich (1927-70), the Russian actor, the honored artist of Russia (1965). Worked at Russian theatres of Tbilisi and Kiev. In 1959-64 at the Leningrad Major drama theatre. Acted in film " the White sun of desert ", etc.
  • LUSS Edward Eduardovich (1912-80), the designer. With 1940 worked on building of the first Soviet turbojet in OKB A.M.Ljulki, in 1957-69 in Moscow in Machine-building design office " Granite ". The state premium of the USSR (1951).
  • LUTON (Luton), city in the Great Britain (in England), northward from B.Londona. 175 thousand inhabitants (1991). An international airport. An autostructure: manufacture of household aplliances, felt hats, etc.
  • LUTS (Luts) Oscar (1886/87-1953), the Estonian writer, the national writer of Estonia (1945). The trilogy: the story about the Estonian youth "Spring" (1912-13), "Summer" (1918-19), " Wedding Tootsa " (1921), about life of urban fringes " Life Andresa " (1923), " On boondocks " (1933). The writer of a 13-languid series of memories.
  • LUTUGIN Leonid Ivanovich (1864-1915), the Russian geologist, the founder of scientific school of geologists - coal miners. One of the first explorers of geology of coal basins of Russia. Probeed Donbass (over 20 flying), Kuzbass, etc.
  • LUTUGINO, city (with 1960) on Ukraine, Lugansk region. A railway junction. 19,2 thousand inhabitants (1991). Factory of mill rolls. Production of mineral coal. It is based in 1896. It is called named L.I.Lutugina.
  • LUTULI (Luthuli) Albert Dzhon (1898-1967), the public figure of the republic of South Africa, the president of African National congress (ANK) with 1952. In 1935-52 leader of a community zulu in prov. Natal. With 1959 actually was under domestic arrest. The Nobel Prize of the World (1960).