Friday, May 25, 2007

  • BADGERS MAJOR AND SMALL, sand deserts northward from the Aral m., in Kazakhstan. B.Barsuki in length ok. 200 kms, M.Barsuki - ok. 100 kms.
  • BADGERS Valery Leonidovich (1928-92), the Russian geochemist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1987). Transactionses on a geochemistry of processes rudoobrazovanija, magmatic breeds and lunar soils.
  • BARSUKOVY, the Russian historians, brothers: 1) Alexander Platonovich (1844-1914). Transactionses on a genealogy and histories of the Russian nobility... 2) Ivan Platonovich (1841-1906), arheograf. Transactionses on a history of Russian church... 3) Nikolay Platonovich (1838-1906). Transactionses under the bibliography, arheografii and historiography, old russian writing. The main{basic} composition - " Life and M.P.Pogodin transactionses " (t. 1-22).
  • BART (Barth) Genrih (1821-65), the german historian, the philologist, the geographer - traveller. In 1850-55 participant of expedition Dzh. Richardson to Africa; doubly has crossed Sahara. In 1858-64 probeed Balkan p-ov and M.Aziju. Transactionses on a history of peoples the Sowing. And Center. Africa.
  • BART (Barth) John Simmons (r. 1930), the American writer. The adventurous - parody novel " Kozlojunosha Dzhajlz " (1966), a grotesque epopee "Chimera" (1972), the novel of "Letter" (1979) - prose of " black humour "; transmit attitude of nonsense and social nihilism. Roman " Day otdohnovenja " (1982).
  • BART (Barth) Charles (1886-1968), the Swiss Protestant theologian, one of osnovatelej dialectic theology. The adherent of Christian socialism, the inspirer of Christian resistance to a hitlerite mode.
  • BART (Barthes) Rolan (1915-80), the French culturologist of a semiotics direction (see. A semiology, Structuralism). The explorer of tongues of the literature, a mode, advertising, a photo, the writer of books of "Mythology" (1957), " System of a mode " (1967), "S/Z" (1970), " Fragments of a love discourse " (1977), " the Chamber lutsida " (1980).
  • BART (Barth) Thomas Fredrik Vejbej (1899-1971), the Norwegian petrographer and the geochemist. Transactionses on genesis of rocks, volcanologies, to geochemical cycles.
  • BARTANG (on the average flow Murghab, in upper - Oksu), the river on Pamir, in Tadjikistan (verhovje in Afghanistan), dextral in-leak{influx} Pjandzha. 528 kms, the area of basin of 24,7 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water 128 m3 / with. On Bartange - SHudzhanskaja a river plant.
  • BARTANGTSY, one of pripamirskih peoples.
  • BARTELEMI (Barthelemy) Ogjust (1796-1867), the French poet - satirist. In iroikomicheskih poems "Jesuits" (1826), " Rome in Paris " (1827) ridiculed a royal yard and church.
  • BARTELS Iogann Martin Christians (Martin Fedorovich) (1769-1836), the Russian mathematician, corresponding member Petersburg AN (1826). The German by origin. In 1808-20 professor Kazan, with 1820 - Derptskogo universities. Transactionses on a function theory and an analytical geometry.
  • BARTENEV Victor Ivanovich (1838-1918), the Russian revolutionary, in 1870 member - founder and the secretary of Russian section of 1-st Internatsionala. In 1872 has returned to Russia, with 1874 ministered on railways.
  • BARTENEV Peter Ivanovich (1829-1912), the Russian historian, arheograf. The founder and the editor of the log-book " Russian archive ". Publications of documents on a political, cultural and military history of Russia of 18-19 centuries.
  • BARTENEV (Bronevskaja) Ekaterina Grigorjevna (1843-1914), Russian revoljutsionerka, the publicist. Wi V.I.Bartenev. The member - founder of Russian section of 1-st Internatsionala, in 1871 participant of the Commune of Paris. In 1889 one of secretaries of 1-st congress of 2-nd Internatsionala. Articles on a working problem.
  • BARTER (from English barter - commodity exchange), the agreement of an exchange of fixed quantity of the goods (goods) on equivalent quantity at cost of other goods, i.e. without a cash drawdown (national or currency).
  • BARTINI Robert Ljudvigovich (1897-1974), the aircraft designer. Was born in Italy, in the USSR with 1923. Has developed and has created over 10 experimental and prototype airplanes. Transactionses on aerodynamics, theoretical physics.
  • BARTLETT (Bartlett) Nile (r. 1932), the American chemist - neorganik. The main{basic} transactionses on chemistry of connections with atoms in exotic oxidation states. First synthesized (1962) true chemical combination of rare gas - XePtF6.
  • BARTO Agnija Lvovna (1906-81), the Russian writer. Collections " Verses to children " (1949), " Behind colours in a winter wood " (1970). The prosaic book " To find the person " (1968) about searches of families of children who are were lost during Great Domestic war. The book of " the Note of the nursery poet " (1976). The lenin premium (1972), the State premium of the USSR (1950).
  • BARTOK (Bartok) It is white (1881-1945), the Hungarian composer, the pianist, the musical specialist in folklore. In products{creations} Bartoka elements national melosa with the modern methods of the letter combine{blend}. Opera " the Clasp of duke the Blue Beard " (1918), ballets " Wooden prince " (1917), " the Wonderful mandarin " (1926; all - dates of production), tool{instrument} concerts, nursery pedagogical repertoir. Transactionses on a technique of the musical education.
  • BARTHOLINITIS, inflammation major (bartolinievyh) glands of an entrance of the vagina.
  • BARTOLO yes Sassoferrato (Bartolus) (Bartolo da Sassoferrato, Bartolus) (1314-57), the italian lawyer, the chapter of school of postglossators. The writer of the commentary to Codification JUstiniana.
  • BARTOLOMEJ Adolf Aleksandrovich (r. 1934), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991). Transactionses under the elastic theory, plasticities and a creep. Probe of interaction of piles foundations with an ambient ground.
  • BARTOLOMMEO (Bartolommeo) Fra (an ice-film. Name Bartolommeo della the Port, della Porta) (1472-1517), the italian painter. The representative of High Revitalization to Florence. Majestic altarnye patterns (" Lamentation of the Christ ", 1515-17).
  • BARTOLD Vasily Vladimirovich (1869-1930), the Russian orientalist, academician AN the USSR (1925; the academician Petersburg AN with 1913, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science with 1917). Transactionses on a history Compare. Asia, Iran, Arabian halifata, moslem faith and a history of oriental studies.
  • BARTON (Barton) Derek Harold Richard (r. 1918), English chemists - organics. Transactionses on conformational analysis, photochemical metamorphosises{transformations} and synthesis of physiologically active connections. The Nobel Prize (1969, together with O.Hasselem).
  • To BART (Barthou) Lui (1862-1934), the prime minister of France in 1913, with 1894 repeatedly minister, in 1934 Minister for Foreign Affairs. The adherent of the ex - Soviet cooperation. It is killed in Marseilles (together with Alexander I Karageorgievichem) ustashami.
  • BART - CHISHINSKY (Bart-Cisinski) JAkub (1856-1909), luzhitsky the poet. One of founders of the realistic literature luzhitskih Serbs. A poem "Groom" (1876, it is published 1926), tragedy " In strength " (1880), sonnets, ballads, lyrical verses.
  • BARUZDIN Sergey Alekseevich (1926-91), the Russian writer. Verses, stories and stories for children and youthes. Lyrical products{creations} about life of simple people: " Stories about women " (1967), " I like our street " (1969), " that was yesterday " (1975), " It is time a defoliation " (1982). The collection " Verses past a flying " (1983). The book of literary notes " People and books " (1978). The managing editor of the log-book " Friendship of peoples " (with 1965).
  • BARUN-TOREJ, saltish lake in the south of Transbaikalia. 580 êì2. Rivers Uldza and Imalka run; protokoj it is bridged about an eskar. Zun-Torej. A level and the area izmenchivy; from time to time dries up.
  • CRESCENT-SHAPED SAND DUNES (turki)., 1) non-proprietary name of stripped sands of deserts;.. 2) crescent in the plan of a clump of sands (an altitude up to 150 ì), navejannyh prevailing winds; a upwind (convex) downslope cavicorn (5-14 °) and the lengthy, the leeward (concave) - abrupt (up to 30 °) and short, passing in cuspidate "horns". Move{migrate} with speed up to hundreds meters annually.
  • VELVET (velvet tree), stem of trees of a set of a rue family. Ok. 10 kinds{views}, in Vost. Asia. For the industrial purposes the external protective tissue of an Amur cork - tree, or the amurense balsa wood is used. Wood strong, goes on hand-made articles, furniture, etc.
  • VELVET, silk or a cotton with mild heavy-bodied vertical nap (1,5-2 mm) on a front face. It is applied to sewing a coat frock, furnish, the decorative purposes.
  • The VELVET BOOK, book of genealogy of notable Russian seignioral and nobiliary surnames. It is constituted in 1687. Actuated " Gosudarev rodoslovets " 1555-56, parentage materials 2-nd floor. 16-17 centuries.
  • MARIGOLD (marigold), stem of grasses of a set of a thistle family. Ok. 35 kinds{views}, in JUzh. And the Sowing. To America; numerous grades of a kind{view} diverted marigold (it come from Mexico) are cultivated as the decorative; copiously blossom up to the late fall.
  • BARHIN Grigory Borisovich (1880-1969), the Russian architect. The dwelling of the newspaper of "Information" in Moscow (1925-27), sanatorium in Sakah in Crimea (1929) - in forms of constructivism.
  • BARHUDAROV Stepan Grigorjevich (1894-1983), Russian jazykoved, corresponding member AN the USSR (1946). Probeed Russian (old russian tongue, leksikologiju, a lexicography, a spelling). The lenin premium (1970).
  • BARHUDARJAN Sergey Vasiljevich (1887-1973), the Georgian and Armenian composer, the honored worker of arts of Georgia (1936), the national actor of Armenia (1960). Fortepiannye plays, etc. The Professor of the Tbilisi conservatory (1941-54).
  • BARSHAJ Rudolf Borisovich (r. 1924), the Russian viola player, the conductor. In 1956-77 chief of the Moscow chamber orchestra built by him{it}. With 1977 abroad, acts as the symphonic conductor.
  • CORVEE, the form of a ground rent, the gratuitous forced labour of the dependent peasant working natural stock in an economy of the feudal lord. In Zap. To Europe corvee was distributed since 8-9 centuries, from 12-13 centuries began to be driven out by quitrents and to 14-15 centuries has come to naught. In countries of the Orient corvee has not received a wide circulation. In Russia has appeared in days of the Kiev state. It was widely distributed in European Russia in 2-nd floor. 16 - 1-st floor. 19 centuries. After cancellation of serfdom in 1861 it was saved for vremennoobjazannyh peasants as izdolshchina. It is cancelled in 1882.
  • The BARRISTER (English barrister, from bar - a barrier in a court-room behind which are the judge), the attorney, the representative of one of lawyer trades in the Great Britain. As against the solicitor, has the right to act in all costs, gives the conclusions under most composite legal problems, etc.
  • BARRO (Barrault) Jean Lui (1910-94), the French actor and the producer. At theatre with 1931. In 1940-46 in " Komedi Fransez " (Paris), with 1946 headed from M.Reno (with a rest) natural troupe. It was taken out in films " Children paradise apple ", etc.
  • BARRO (Barrot) Odilon (1791-1873), the French prime minister since December 1848 till October 1849. Before February revolution 1848 headed liberal - monarchic opposition. In 1872-73 chairman of the Council of state.
  • PORPOISE, the same, that a leopard.
  • BARSAK (Barsacq) Andre (1909-73), the French producer, the theatrical artist. At theatre with 1928. With 1940 headed theatre " Studio ". Put the modern incentive French and Russian classical plays.
  • BARSAKELMESSKY RESERVATION, in Kazakhstan, the Kyzyl-Orda region, on about. Barsakelmes in the Aral m. It is based in 1939. The area ok. 20 thousand ga. A saiga, a Middle Asian gazelle, an onager. A desert vegetation.
  • BARCELONA, (Barcelona), city and a port in a north of Venezuela, an administrative centre pieces. Ansoategi. 247 thousand inhabitants (1990, with suburbs). Textile, tanning, a food-processing industry. It is based in 1637.
  • The LORDLY CONFEDERATED STATES, in 1768-72 armed union Polish shljahty against king Stanislav Ponjatovskogo and Russia. It was formed in. A bar (Podolia). Depressing{supression} by a royal troops of the Lordly conference has created soil for 1-st unit (1772) of Speech Pospolitoj.
  • PORPOISES Alexey Kirillovich (1673-1736), spravshchik a synodal printing house in Moscow, the pupil of brothers Lihudov.
  • PORPOISES Anton Alekseevich (1730-91), Russian jazykoved, the member of the Russian academy (1783), the professor of the Moscow university (with 1755). The writer of grammar, the explorer of syntax of Russian.
  • PORPOISES Elpidifor Vasilyevich (1836-1917), the Russian specialist in folklore, the explorer of old russian writing. Transactionses: " Lamentations of Boreal edge{boundarouse} " (hours 1-3, 1872-86), " the Word about shelf Igoreve as an art monument Kiev druzhinnoj Russia " (t. 1-3, 1887-89, it is not concluded). Has collected an extensive collection of ancient manuscripts.
  • PORPOISES Nikolay Ivanovich (1839-1903), the Russian spiritual writer, the professor of homiletic theology of the Petersburg spiritual academy (1869-89). The writer of numerous compositions on homiletic theology, poimenics, histories of church.
  • PORPOISES Nikolay Pavlovich (1839-89), the Russian historian, the professor of the Warsaw university (with 1888). Transactionses on historical geography of Russia, a history of slavs.
  • BARSOVA (an ice-film. fam. Vladimirova) Valery Vladimirovna (1892-1967), the Russian singer (a coloratura soprano), the national actress of the USSR (1937). In 1920-48 at Major theatre. The large representative of domestic vocal school. The professor of the Moscow conservatory (with 1952). The state premium of the USSR (1941).
  • BARSTOU (Barstow) Stanley (r. 1928), the English writer. The realistic trilogy " Love... Love? (1960), " Look-outs on coast " (1966), " truely valid end " (1976), the novel " the Event with the brother " (1980), stories from life of democratic layers. Main themes - influence per capita a unfavorable social surrounding, the conflict of strong feeling to norms{standards} of moral.
  • BADGER, mammalian sets kunjih. Length of a body up to 90 sm, a tail up to 24 see. Dwells{lives} primarily in woods of Eurasia. The trade value is insignificant.
  • BATYR SRYM (Srym Datov) (?-1802), the chief of revolt of peasants and parts patriarchal - generic znati in Kazakhstan against a press of tsarism, khan and anthuruses Junior zhuza (1783-97). Revolt has sufferred a defeat because of split among rising.
  • BATYRAJ (1831-1910), darginsky the poet. One of initiators realistic darginskoj literatures. Cycles of songs " About life ", " About the hero ", " About love " (gathered and published in 1928).
  • BATYRMURZAEV Zejnalabidin Nuhaevich (1897-1919), kumyksky the writer. Son N.Batyrmurzaeva. One of organizers of guerilla motion within the Civil war in Dagestan. Plays "Danijalbek", " Counter to mulls " (1916-17) have put in pawn a fundamentals kumykskoj dramatic art. Together with the father rasstreljan White Guards.
  • BATYRMURZAEV Nuhaj (1869-1919), kumyksky the writer - educator. Stories " Unfortunate Habibat " (1910), " Garun and Zubajda, or Unfortunate ZHanbike " (1910), " Davud and Lajla " (1912) have put in pawn a fundamentals of realistic prose in kumykskoj to the literature. Together with the son rasstreljan White Guards.
  • BATYRSHA Aliev (Abdulla Aleev) (ok. 1710-62), a mull. The participant of the Bashkir revolt 1755. With 1756 in SHlisselburgskoj strengths where has died.
  • BATYJA IRRUPTION, aggressive marchings the mongolo-tartar in Vost. And Center. Europe under leadership of khan Batyja. In 1236-41 seizure of the Volga Bulgaria, in the winter 1237-1238 marching in Sev.-Vost. Russia, in 1238-40 lingering war with half-sheeps, lactamic acids, Circassians. In the autumn - in the winter 1240 seizure JUzh. Russia. In 1241-42 marching through Poland, Hungary, etc. to Adriatic sea. Mongolo-tartars, loosened heroic resistance Russian and other peoples Vost. Europe, could not be consolidated in Central Europe and have receded. Earth Vost. Europe have been destroyed, in Russia the mongolo-tatar yoke was placed{installed}.
  • BATYUSHKOV Konstantin Nikolaevich (1787-1855), the Russian poet. The chapter anakreonticheskogo directions in Russian lyrics (" Cheerful hour ", " my penates ", "Vakhanka"). Has gone through spiritual crisis ("Hope", " To the friend ") later; in a genre elegii - motives of one-way love ("Separation", " Wash the genius "), high tragic element (" Dying TASS ", " Saying Melhisedeka ").
  • BAUGINY (Boen) (Bauhin), the Swiss biologists, brothers: 1) Iogann (1541-1613), in " the New generalpurpose history of plants " (t. 1-3, 1650-61) has described 5000 kinds{views} of plants... 2) Kaspar (1560-1624), for the first time has applied a binominal nomenclature in a taxonomist of plants (1620). Has described t. n. bauginievu a shutter in an intestines animal.
  • BAUMAN Vladimir Ivanovich (1867-1923), the Russian scientist. The writer of basic transactionses on mine surveying.
  • BAUMAN Nikolay Ernestovich (psevd. A rook) (1873-1905), the figure of the Russian revolutionary movement since 90th. A veterinarian. In 1904 chief of the Moscow committee and Boreal office of a Central Committee of a consignment. It is killed on October, 18 1905 chernosotentsem. Bauman funeral on October, 20 in Moscow were poured out in mass political demonstrating.
  • BAUMANABAD, the title of. Pjandzh in Tadjikistan in 1931-36.
  • BAUMANIS (Baumanis) JAnis Fridrih (1834-91), the Latvian architect. In a decora of constructions used forms of different architectonic styles (the Dwelling lifljandskogo nobility, nowadays the building of parliament of Latvia in Riga, 1863-67).
  • BAUMGARTEN (Baumgarten) Alexander Gotlib (1714-62), the german philosopher of school of H.Volf, an ancestor of an aesthetics (has entered the term) as special philosophical discipline - " sciences about sensual knowledge ".
  • BAUR (Baur) Ferdinand Christian (1792-1860), the german Protestant theologian, the hegelian, the founder and the chapter tjubingenskoj schools; the professor of university in Tjubingene (with 1826).
  • BAURU (Bauru), city in a southeast of Brazil. 221 thousand inhabitants (1985). Alimentary, textile, a chemical industry.
  • BAUSKA (Bauska), city (with 1609) in Latvia, for interflow rr. Musa and Memele, in 26 kms from zh.-d. An item. Ietsava. 11,9 thousand inhabitants (1991). An alimentary and textile industry. Study of local lore and art museums. It is known with 1443.
  • BAUTS (Bouts) (Bouts) Dirk (ok. 1415-75), the Netherlands painter. Kept traditions Rogira van der Vejdena. Combined conditionality of Gothic art with a vitality of component parts, survey accuracy (an altar " Ordinance of a sacrament ", 1464-67).
  • "BAUHAUZ" (Bauhaus), the higher school of construction and art designing, is based in 1919 in Weimar (Germany), in 1925 is transferbed{translated} in Dessau, in 1933 is abolished by fascists. Chiefs (V.Gropius, H.Mejer, L.Mis van der the Roe) developed an aesthetics funktsionalizma, principles of the modern morphogenesis in the architecture and design, formations of financially - household medium by a means of plastic arts.
  • BAUTSEN (Bautzen) (Bautzen; luzhitskoe - Budishin), city in a southeast of Germany, ground Saxony, on r. SHpre. 52 thousand inhabitants (1988). A machine industry. Center of national crop luzhichan (sorbov). Institute sorbistiki. Clasp Ortenburg (15 century).
  • BASUTO (Basuto), a plateau in Drakensberg mountains, in terrain Lesotho, in JUzh. To Africa. An altitude up to 3482 m. Zlakovo-fruticose vegetation and dry steppes.
  • BASUTOLAND, in 1884-1966 possession of the Great Britain in Africa. About 1966 state Lesotho.
  • BASUTCHAJSKY RESERVATION, in the south of Azerbaijan, in Zangelanskom r-not, in a bass. r. Basutchaj. It is based in 1974. The area 107 ga. A unique grove European plane.
  • "BASF" (" Badishe aniline und soda of factories "), the chemical company of Germany. It is based in 1865. Up to 1952 entered{included} in German chemical concern " I.G.Farbenindustri ". Sales volume 25 billion dol., a net profit 802 million dol., figure occupied in 135 thousand person (kon. 1990th).
  • BATH (Bath), city in the Great Britain. England, on r. Avon, bliz Ivory a hall. Atlantic ok. 80 thousand inhabitants (1981). A balneal health resort (thermal radon waters were used still by Romans, it is based in 1 century, settlement Akve-Sulis). A machine industry, mild, a printing industry. Annual musical festivals.
  • " BATH INDASTRIS " (BAT Industries), the English alimentary company, one of master TNK in the world. It is based in 1902. Issues tobacco items (1-n in the capitalist world), alimentary, cosmetic, impregnated-paper and other goods. Sales volume 14,1 billion dol., a net profit 1,8 billion dol., figure occupied in 157 thousand person (kon. 1990th).
  • BATH (Bata), city and a port in Equatorial Guinea, an administrative centre of terrain of the Rio-Mooney - a continental part of country. 24 thousand inhabitants (1985). Cement and sawing factories.
  • BATH, in egyptian mythology one of the most ancient gods, was honored in a mode{an image} of the bull.
  • BATAVIA (Batavia), the title of capital of Indonesia of Jakarta.
  • The REPUBLIC BATAVSKAJA, is professed in terrain of Netherlands in 1795 after occupation by their French republican troops. It is called on nation batavov. It is transformed{turned into} by Napoleon I into the Dutch kingdom dependent on France (1806-10).
  • BATAVY, the German nation in delta of Rhein. With kon. 1 century up to n. e. Under an authority of Rome, against which in 69 n. e. Have raised revolt led by TSivilisom (it is suppressed{quenched} in 70).
  • BATAJ (Bataille) George (1897-1965), the French writer and the philosopher. Denial of any prescribed allowances of human conduct, the statement{confirmation} of the sovereignty of will, "scandalous" forms of self-implementation of the personality in cultural - philosophical compositions (including the essay " Internal experience ", 1943, " the Literature and is angry ", 1957), in novels and stories (" the History of an eye ", 1928; "Madam Edward", 1941; " Washing mother ", it is published in 1966), gap-filling by the blasphemies shocking with patterns of erotic experience, resulting in to autodestruction and bent for of mors.
  • BATAYSK, city (with 1938) in the Russian Federation, the Rostov region. A railway junction. 93,7 thousand inhabitants (1992). The enterprises of a railway transport. Energomehanichesky, assembly preparations and other factories; alimentary, a light industry.
  • BATAKI, group of peoples (toba, karo, pakpak, simalungun, mandajling, angkola) in Indonesia (basically on about. Sumatra). 4,5 million person (1992). Tongues will derivate group in structure of the Indonesian tongues. Believers - moslems - sunnity, toba - protesters, karo hold on to traditional convictions.
  • BATALER (frants. batailleur), a face knowing on the ships{spacecrafts} and bases food, ware and other supply.
  • BATALIST (from fight), the artist working in a battle genre.
  • FIGHT (frants. bataille) (ustar.), battle.
  • BATALOV Alexey Vladimirovich (r. 1928), the Russian film actor and the producer, the national actor of the USSR (1976), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1989). Played the main{basic} the contemporaries - clear, it is sincere the thin people which are peculiar an internal force, restraint. It was taken out in films: " cranes Fly ", "Mother", " Major family ", " Business Rumjantseva ", " Lady with a click ", " Nine days of one year ", "Trot race", " Moscow does not believe in teardrops ", etc. Professor VGIKA (with 1979). Has delivered films: "Overcoat" (1960), " Three fat men ", "Player". The state premium of the USSR (1981).
  • BATALOV Boris Vasiljevich (1938-89), the Russian scientist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1987). Transactionses on simulation, optimisations and to synthesis of wiring schemes and topology of major and super-large-scale integrated circuits and an electronic equipment on their basis{fundamentals}. The state premium of the USSR (1975).
  • BATALOV Nikolay Petrovich (1899-1937), the Russian actor, the honored artist of Russia (1933). With 1916 in Moskovsk Art Academic theatre. It was taken out in films: "Mother", "Start in life", etc.
  • BATT (Butt) Isaak (1813-79), the figure of irish national motion. In 1869 has put forward idea gomrulja. One of leaders of irish opposition in the English parliament.
  • BATTALJA (Battaglia) Roberto (1913-63), the italian historian. Transactionses on a modern history of Italy.
  • BATTAMBANG, city in Cambodia, adm. ts. prov. Battambang. 45 thousand inhabitants (1987). A thorough revision of agricultural production. Manufacture of phosphate fertilizers.
  • BATTANI, al-Battani (abu Abdallah Mohammed ben Dzhabir) (858-929), the Arabian astronomer and mathematician. (Syria) comes Battana. First has offered methods of calculation of orbicular triangles, has conducted flock of astronomical supervision{observations}, has constituted tables of motion of the Sun and moon, has defined{determined} an inclination of an ecliptic and value of precession. Has put into practice trigonometrical ratioses (a sine, tangent, a cotangent).
  • BATTE (Batteux) Charles (1713-80), French aesthetics, the representative of a classicism. As the philosophy of art considered{counted} mimesis.
  • BATTENBERG (Battenberg) Alexander (1857-93), german prince, prince of Bulgaria (1879-86). The explorer of austro-german influence on the Balkans, has abdicated under pressure the Bulgarian officers - Russophiles.
  • BUTTERFLY STROKE (English butterfly, characters. - the butterfly), a way of sporting float on a breast, defined by simultaneous rabble by arms{hand} with consequent their offset from water; motion of legs, as in breaststroke. Has arisen from breaststroke in 1934 in the USSR and the USA.
  • BATTICALOA, city in Sri Lanka. Ok. 50 thousand inhabitants. A port in a lagoon on eastern coast of an island. Center of a farming area. Fishery. It is known t. n. " Singing of fishes " (the acoustic effect originating at night from a bottom of a lagoon).
  • BATTJANI (Battjani) (Batthyany) Lajosh (1806-49), the chairman of Council of Ministers (March - September 1848) in the season{term} of Revolution 1848-49 in Hungary. The adherent of conservation of Hungary in structure of empire Gabsburgov. Rasstreljan under the sentence of the Austrian military court.
  • BATUMI, city in Georgia, capital Adzharii, a port on Black m. A depot. 137 thousand inhabitants (1991). An industry: oil refining, a machine industry (the equipment for a tea industry, shipbuilding, electrotechnical items), mild (boot, sewing); a tea family and tobacco factories, caffeinic factory, etc. University. 2 theatres. 2 museums. An aquarium - delphinarium. A climatic health resort. It is known from 11 century as strength. Bliz Batumi - the Batumi botanical garden.
  • BATUMI BOTANICAL GARDEN AN of Georgia. It is located bliz Batumi (a settlement cape Verde). It is based in 1912 A.N.Krasnovym. The area ok. 120 ga. A scientific institute on cultivation on Black Sea a shore of Caucasus of tea, citrous and other subtropical crops. St. 5 thousand kinds{views}, versions and forms of plants. In herbariums of aboriginal and strange plants - more than 40 thousand leafs.
  • The BATUMI UNIVERSITY, is based in 1990 on the basis Pedagogical institute by him{it}. SHota Rustaveli. Plots staff{frames} on physical, chemical, mathematical, biological, geographycal, philological, historical, pedagogical and other trades. In 1990 over 2 thousand students.
  • WELSH ONION, perennial herbaceous plant of a stem an onions of a set onions. In I peep use pullet{young man} leaves (a green feather), sheared{cut} off some times for a vegetation.
  • BATURIN, a urban settlement on Ukraine, the Chernigov region, on r. Parliament. 3,9 thousand inhabitants (1991). A flax primary treating plant. An Istoriko-study of local lore museum. In 17-18 centuries a residence of the Ukrainian hetmen. Kochubey dwelling (17 century), Razumovsky palace (kon. 18 - nach. 19 centuries).
  • BATURIN Vladimir Petrovich (1902-45), the Russian geologist, the doctor of geologo-mineralogical sciences. Transactionses " Paleogeography on terrigene components " (1937). The state premium of the USSR (1948, posthumously).
  • BATURIN Pafnuty Sergeevich (ok. 1740-1803), the Russian educator, the adherent deizma; has criticized the doctrine of Saint Martin popular among masons.
  • TRAMPOLINE (batud) (frants. batoude, from ital. battuta, characters. - impact), the springing device for jumps - jumpings up. Jumps on a trampoline (personal and synchronic twin) - a kind{view} of sport. In International federation (it is based in 1964) ok. 40 countries (1991). World championships with 1964, Europe with 1968. It is applied in circus acrobatics.
  • BATYJ (Bath) (1208-55), the Mongolian khan, grandson Chingishana. The leader obshchemongolskogo a marching in Vost. And Center. Europe (1236-43), with 1243 khan of Golden Horde.
  • BATYR (bahadur) (the turki. - a bogatyr, the athlete, hrabrets), title of honour for turkis and the Mongols, produced for military exploits.
  • BARAN, city (with 1972) in Belarus, Vitebsk region, on r. Adrov, in 9 kms from zh.-d. An item. Orsha. 14,1 thousand inhabitants (1991).
  • BARATAEV Michael Petrovich (1784-1856), prince from stem Baratashvili, the Georgian historian. Main transactionses - " Numizmaticheskie the facts of the Georgian kingdom " (t. 1-2, 1844-45).
  • BARATASHVILI Nikoloz Melitonovich (1817-45), the Georgian poet - romantik. Problems of the Georgian history, belief in the future of people, psychologism and steep lyricism in a poem " Destiny of Georgia " (1839), verses "Merani", " the Tomb of tsar Iraklija " (both 1842). Has rendered the considerable influence on development of the Georgian poetry.
  • BARATYNSKY (Boratynsky) Eugeny Abramovich (1800-44), the Russian poet. Original development of genres elegii and messages ("Finland", "Razuverenie", "Confession", " Two lobes "); poems ("Eda", "Dancing party"), noted by lyricism, psychologic and philosophical depth. In the collection "Twilights" (1842) - the contravention of historical advance and the spiritually - aesthetic human nature, refracted through tragical consciousness of the poet.
  • BARBADOSTSY (the self-title - bedzhenz), people, the main{basic} population of Barbados (250 thousand person), primarily descendants of the slaves exported from Africa in 17 - nach. 19 centuries. An aggregate number of 350 thousand person (1992), including in the USA 35 thousand person, the Great Britain 35 thousand person, Canada 30 thousand person. Speak on a dialect of the English tongue. The majority of believers anglikane, is methodists, moravian brothers, roman catholics.
  • BARBERRY, stem of bushes of a set of a barberry family. Ok. 500 kinds{views}, primarily in Boreal hemisphere. The decorative, berrylike (fruits use in a food-processing industry as seasoning), dyeing and medicinal (apply at parent bleedings and as a cholagogue means) plants. Honey plants.
  • "BARBAROSSA" (Barbarossa), the code name of the plan of aggressive war of fascist Germany against the USSR. It is developed in 1940. Provided fulminant rout of the main{basic} forces of Red Army to the west of the rivers Dnepr and Zap. Dvina, and then an output on a line Arkhangelsk - Volga - Astrakhan. War was supposed to be scored within 2-3 months. Implementation of the plan " Barbarossa has been thwarted by heroic extirpation of peoples of the USSR.
  • BARBARUS É., see J.
  • BARBASHIN-SHUJSKY Vasily Ivanovich (? - ok. 1571), prince, voevoda in a marching to Astrakhan 1554 and in Livonskoj to war. In 1560 has routed konnitsu Livonskogo orders. Oprichnik.
  • BARBER (Barber) Semjuel (1910-81), the American composer. Operas " Âàíåññà " (1957), " Anthony and Kleopatra " (1966), ballet "Medea" (1946), orchestral, kamerno-tool{kamerno-instrument} compositions.
  • BARBERA (Barbera) Joseph (r .1911), the American film director - intensifier and the artist. In 1937-57 at studio " Underground Goldvin Mayer " (after to him it refused in-process at U.Disney studio). Together with U.Hanna " the Bear of Yoga ", "Flinstony" creates popular heroes of cartoon films of the cat of Thom and young mouse Dzherri, and then, in 1957, studio " Hanna-Barbera Prodakshnz " where popular multiplication serials "Family Dzhetsonov" have been removed{have been taken off}, etc.
  • BARBERINO (Barberino) Franchesko yes (1264-1348), italian kurtuaznyj the writer (see. Kurtuaznaja the literature). The writer of encyclopaedic tracts " About regulations of conduct and tempers the seigneur " and " Instructions of Love " (italian verses in tracking latin commenting prose; are issued in 1640).
  • BARBES (Barbes) Armand (1809-70), the French revolutionary. Together with L.O.Blanki participat in 30th in building secret republican societies.
  • BARBIZONSKAJA SCHOOL, group of the French painters - landscape writers (T.Russo, Z.Djupre, N.Diaz, S.F.Dobinji, K.Truajon), working in d. Barbizon (Barbizon) bliz Paris in 30-60-Ñ of 19 century. Have addressed to the direct plotting of a nature, light and air, have played the important role in development of a realistic landscape.
  • The BARBITURIC ACID, colourless crystals, tïë 248 °S (with decomposition). Derivative the barbituric acid - eurysynusic hypnagogues (barbituraty).
  • BARBOZA remote control BOKAZHE (Barboza do Bocage) Manuel Maria (1765-1805), the Portuguese poet. It was pursued{chased;run} by the state and church as the freethinker. The preromantic lyrics was included in the book of "Poem" (t. 1-3, 1791-1804).
  • BALLI (Baji) (Bally) Charles (1865-1947), French jazykoved, follower Ô. de Sossjura. Activities on general both French leksikologii and stylistics, a general theory of tongue.
  • BALLISTA (from an armour. ballista), the propellant machine in an antiquity (up to kon. 5 century); comprised of a horizontal frame with the gutter and a vertical timber frame with a side rail from braided filaments (tendons, etc.), with which help gear (the stone, a log, a boom, etc.) was issued in the purpose. Distance of throwing of 400-800 m, light booms up to 1000 m.
  • BALLISTICS (a nem. Ballistik, from grech. ballo - I throw), science about motion of the ammunition gears, unguided missiles, mines, charges, bullets at shooting (start-up). The interior ballastics studies a shot travel (or in other conditions limiting motion) under action of powder gases, external - after his{its} flying out from a bore.
  • The BALLISTICS JUDICIAL, section of criminalistics, studies a technique of investigation of crimes, the bound with application of fire-arms and an ammunition to it{him}.
  • BALLISTITES (ballistitnye powders), nitroglycerol smokeless powders.
  • The BALLISTIC MISSILE, after cutoff of engines flies on a ballistic curve.
  • BALLISTIC CURVE, mechanical trajectory loosely a projectile under action only gravity. A mechanical trajectory of such body in an atmosphere at equal or close to zero attitude{relation} of a upward force to an aerodynamic drag also call as a ballistic curve.
  • The BALLISTIC GALVANOMETER, has concerning a major moment of inertia of a movement; it is applied to measurement of trace amounts of an electricity at short-time pulses of a current. Outcome read out on t. n. To a ballistic maximum deflection - to the greatest deviation{rejection} of the index{indicator}.
  • BALLISTOCARDIOGRAPHY (from grech. ballo - I throw, kardia - heart and... grafija), one of research techniques of activity of heart. Consists of registration of mechanic motions of a body of the person, stipulated by cordial reductions and motion of blood on large vessels.
  • BOTTLE (frants. ballon, from ital. pallone - a ball), the gas-tight environment made depending on destination from metals, polymers, tissues, glasses, etc., napr., a bottle of the automobile{car} (t. n. The chamber), a bottle of the electronic device, a bottle (vessel) for a storage and transportations of gases.
  • BALLONNAJA ASTRONOMY, astronomical probes from the air balloons raised on an altitude from 20 up to 40 km, where influence of an atmosphere on outcomes of supervision{observations} insignificantly.
  • BALLOT (from ital. ballotare - to elect spheres), a kind{view} of voting. In 18-19 centuries implemented omitting in a special litter bin of black and white spheres (balls). To run for - to exhibit the candidature at elections.
  • BALMASHEV Stepan Valerianovich (1881-1902), eser, the student. 2.4.1902 has shot Minister of Internal Affairs of Russia D.S.Sipjagina. It is hung up.
  • BALOBAEV Veniamin Tihonovich (r. 1930), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1994). Transactionses on a geothermie of a zone of permafrost of a lithosphere of the Earth.
  • BALOBAN, a predatory bird of a set of a falcon family. Length up to 60 see. In steppes, forest steppes and mountains of Eurasia. It is appreciated, especially in the Near East, as a trap bird; it is guarded.
  • BALODIS (Balodis) Andrejs (1908-87), the Latvian poet. The participant of underground revolutionary movement in Latvia. Collections of verses " In rays of extirpation and victories " (1945), " Winged years " (1958), " the River of time " (1968), " the Ocean wind " (1971).
  • BALOR, in the Celtic mythology one of leaders formorov which could strike the whole army a killing view of the unique eye.
  • BALTA, city (with 1797) on Ukraine, the Odessa region, bliz zh.-d. An item. Balta. 23,6 thousand inhabitants (1991). Dairy - canning and furniture combines, the enterprises of a light industry, etc.
  • BARNARD (Barnard) Christian (r. 1922), juzhnoafrikansky the surgeon. For the first time has made replanting (1967) and a place (1974) hearts ill. In the co-authorship from Z.Standerom has published the antiracist novel " Undesirable elements " (1974).
  • BARNARD Edward Emerson (1857-1923), the American astronomer. Has received numerous snapshots a Milky Way, galaxies and sidereal clumps. Probeed dark nebulosity. The guide of Jove Amalteju (1892), some comets has discovered.
  • BARNAUL, city (with 1771), in the Russian Federation, the centre Altay kr., landing stage on r. Ob. A railway junction. 606 thousand inhabitants (1992). A machine industry (factories: motor, boiler, mechanical presses, a transport machine industry, etc.), chemical, mild (cotton, blend combines), a food-processing industry. 6 high schools (including. The Altay university). 4 theatres. A museum graphic and an applied art. It is based in 1730.
  • BARNET Boris Vasiljevich (1902-65), the Russian film director, the honored artist of Russia (1935). Skilful combination of lyrics, buffoonery, elements satyrs gives special colour to films: " the Girl with a box " (1927), "Surburb" (1933), " Exploit of the scout " (1947), "Optional stop" (1963), etc. The State premium of the USSR (1948).
  • BARNETT (Barnett) Semjuel Jackson (1873-1956), American physics. In 1909 has discovered the effect called as his{its} name. Activities on study of the electrical and magnetic phenomena, gyromagnetic effect, a geomagnetism.
  • BARNETTA the EFFECT, rotation of a ferromagnetic sample increases his{its} magnetization lengthwise axis rotations. S.Barnettom (1909) is open{discovered}. Indicates communication{connection} of nuclear magnetic moments with mechanical moments. The boomerang effect calls the Einstein - de Haaza as effect.
  • BARNOVI (Barnaveli) Vasily Zaharjevich (1856-1934), the Georgian writer. Historical novels " Dawn Isani " (1901), " Great Mouravi " (1925), " Fall Armazi " (1926), "Revenge" (it is published in 1938). Realistic stories and sketches about the modern Georgia.
  • BARNS (Barnes) Dzhulian (r. 1946), the English prose writer. Novels " Flaubert Parrot " (1985), " the History of the world in 10 and a half chapters " (1989), "Porcupine" (1992).
  • BARODA, see. Baroda.
  • ALTITUDE CHAMBER (from grech. baros - gravity and the chamber), the sealed chamber in which there is the under (altitude chamber) or heightened (copression chamber) an air pressure. It is used for different experiments in aircraft, astronautics, in medicine; for test air and weather instruments, etc.
  • BAROMETER (from grech. baros - gravity and... Meter), a gauge meter of an atmospheric pressure. In a mercurial (liquid) barometer the atmospheric pressure is measured on an altitude of a mercury column in soldered from above to the tube lowered{omitted} by the open extremity in a vessel with mercury. Mercurial barometers - most precision instruments, are equipped with them meteorological stations and on nymas activity of other kinds{views} of aneroids and a hypsothermometer is checked.
  • The BAROMETRIC HIGHT FORMULA, determines relation of an atmospheric pressure to an altitude. It is used, napr., for graduation of altimeters, in barometric a levelling procedure, at construction of a standard atmosphere.
  • PRESSURE OBSERVATION, method of approximated definition of an altitude difference between 2 points on values of an atmospheric pressure in these points.
  • BARON (from sr .-eyelid.s of an armour. baro, a stem. Item baronis), in Zap. To Europe in Middle Ages the direct vassal of king, later a nobiliary title (in Russia it is entered by Peter I for the maximum Baltic nobility of a german origin).
  • BARON BRAMBEUS, see Senkovsky About.
  • BARON MJUNHGAUZEN, see. Mjunhgauzen.
  • BARONET (English baronet), a hereditary nobiliary title in England.
  • BARONY (Baronius) Caesar (1538-1607), the roman catholic church historian, the member of a monastic Roman congregation oratoriantsev, a cardinal bird. The writer of " the Church annals " (t. 1-12, 1588-1607) - a monumental history of Christian church (envelops twelve centuries n. e.), the Protestant 13-languid tserkovno-historical compilation written in a balance weight " Magdebourg tsenturii ".
  • BARKER (Barker) George (r. 1913), the English poet, the prose writer and the playwright. Collections of verses " News from all light " (1950), " Dreams in summer night " (1966), " Anno Domini " (1983).
  • BARQUISIMETO (Barquisimeto), city in northwest of Venezuela, an administrative centre pieces. Lara. 724 thousand inhabitants (1990). Alimentary, textile, cement, a leather and foot-wear industry. University. It is based in 1552.
  • BARKLA (Barkla) CHarlz (1877-1944), English physics. Has executed{has come true} (1904) polarization of X-rays. Has discovered (1906) characteristic X-radiation. The Nobel Prize (1917).
  • BARCLAY - DE-TOLLI Mihail Bogdanovich (1761-1818), prince (1815), the Russian general - field marshal (1814). The division commander and bodies in wars with France and Sweden. In 1810-12 military minister. In Domestic war 1812 commander-in-chief 1-st army, and in July - August actually all reacting{working} Russian armies. In 1813-14 commander-in-chief russko-Prussian army, with 1815 - 1-st army.
  • " BARKLEJS BANK " (Barklays Bank), the largest business bank of the Great Britain. It is based in 1694. Enters into " the Major four " English banks. 2900 branches and agencies in country, more than 2000 branches and affiliated companies in 80 foreign states (kon. 1980th). Total assets 104,7 billion pounds sterling (189,4 billion dol. The USA), an ownership capital (billion dol. The USA) 10,6, profit 2,5 (kon. 1980th).
  • BARKS Lion Mitrofanovich (r. 1928), Russian physics, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1984). The main{basic} transactionses on a nuclear physics and an elementary particle physics. The state premium of the USSR (1989).
  • BARKOVA Anna Aleksandrovna (1901-76), the Russian poetess. The first collection "Woman" (1922) was recognized contemporaries. It has been repressed; a considerable proportion of life has conducted in the conclusion (1934-39; 1947-56; 1957-65). In serotinal{late} poetry (cáîðíèê "Recurring", 1990) reverts to travails and degradings of women in the Soviet camps.
  • BAR - KOHBA, the leader of antiRoman revolt 132-135 in Judea.
  • BARKROFT (Barcroft) Joseph (1872-1947), the English physiologist. Basic researches of respiratory function of blood. Transactionses on theoretical physiology.
  • BARKULABOVSKAJA the ANNALS, western - Russian, about events 1563-1608. It is constituted in nach. 17 century the priest of seconds Barkulabovo F. Filippovichem. Cramps: aboriginal, about the Lithuanian and Polish policy, Lzhedmitrii II, etc.
  • BARLAH (Barlach) Ernest (1870-1938), the german sculptor, the schedule{chart} and the writer. Humanistic, antimilitarist, full emotional pressure{voltage;stress} of product{creation} Barlaha (the monument gorged in a cathedral in Gjustrove, 1927, it is deleted by fascists) under the art solution are close ekspressionizmu.
  • BARMA, the Russian architect of 16 century, has created a temple together with Postnikom Vasily Blazhennogo.
  • The BARMAN (Barmen), see in an item. Vuppertal.
  • BARMIN Vladimir Pavlovich (1909-93), the Russian scientist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1966), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1956). Transactionses on launch systems of many missiles. The lenin premium (1957), the State premium of the USSR (1943, 1967, 1977).
  • BARMITSA.. 1) in Other. Russia kolchuzhnaja an iron grid; it was attached to a top section of the soldier for protection of a neck... 2) In a Western-European medieval armour metal oplechje to which an armour and a top section fastened.
  • BARMY, precious oplechja, decorated with plotting of religious character, for the byzantian emperors, Russian princes and tsars 14 - nach. 18 centuries. Were mounted during crowning and solemn outputs.
  • The BARN (English barn), unit of an efficient lateral section of processes of crash nuclear or nuclear particles, would be meant. 1. = 10-24 ñì2=10-28 m2.
  • BARNAV (Barnave) Antoine (1761-93), the French sociologist, one of chiefs feljanov. Asserted{approved}, that public advance depends on a geographic situation: economic changes called by her{it} result in redistribution of oofs and an authority. It is executed in the season{term} jakobinskoj dictatorships.
  • BASSANI (Bassani) Dzhordzho (r. 1916), the italian writer, the participant of movement of Resistance. The collection of anti-fascist neo-realist stories " Five ferrarskih histories " (1956), the autobiographical novel " Garden Fintsi-Kontini " (1962); movie scripts; the collection of stories " the Odor of hay " (1972), dedicated Ferrara.
  • BASSANO (Bassano) (an ice-film. A name yes Pontus, da Ponte) JAkopo (ok. 1517-82), the italian painter. The representative of Serotinal{Late} Revitalization. Into religious patterns introduced{uptook} scenes of a country household activities, a landscape and a still-life, has affected manjerizma (" Adoration of shepherds ", 1568).
  • BASSARA, in Other. Greeces the lengthy livery vakhanok, was considered as clothes{clothing} lidijskogo god Bassareja identified with Dionisom.
  • BASSAREJ, see. Bassara.
  • BASIN, city in Myanma, in delta r. Irrawaddy, adm. ts. Region. Irrawaddy. 144 thousand inhabitants (1985). Marine and a river harbor. Risoochistitelnaja, a sawmilling industry.
  • BASIN of the MINERAL, selfcontained range continuous or nearly so continuous distribution{propagation} of sheet{layer} sedimental mineral wealths (napr., basins oil-and-gas-bearing, coal, salt, ore deposits, etc.) and underground waters (napr., an artesian basin).
  • BASIN RIVER, a part of a surface from which the run-off of water acts{goes} in river system.
  • The BASIN SPORTING, actuates baths for float and water polo (50 h 21 m, depth 1,8-2,3 ì), jumps from a springboard and a tower (18-20 h 14-21 m, depth 3,5-5,5 ì), educations{learnings} to float (the arbitrary form and the dimensions, depth up to 1 ì).
  • BASSO KONTINUO (ital. basso continuo, characters. - a continuous bass), see. A general - bass.
  • BASSO OSTINATO (ital. basso ostinato, characters. - a persistent bass), the form of variation development in music, founded on repeated repetition in a bass of an invariable theme at varying upper voices. It was applied in passakalje, a chaconne, etc. It is used in music of 20 century.
  • BASSES - MEGAMEGAS (Basse-Terre), city, adm. ts. The French possession Guadeloupe on about. Guadeloupe in West Indies. 53 thousand inhabitants (1990), seaport. A sugar industry. It is based in 1643.
  • BASSETERRE (Basseterre), city, capital of the state Sent-Keats and Nevis, on about. Saint Christopher (Sent-Keats). 18,5 thousand inhabitants (1985). Seaport. An international airport. A sugar factory, manufacture of beverages. Tourism.
  • BASTIA (Bastiat) Frederik (1801-50), the French economist. One of writers of the theory of harmony of interests of transactionses and the capital.
  • BASTIAN (Bastian) Adolf (1826-1905), the german ethnographer, the doctor. Has based the Berlin museum of ethnography (1868). In transactionses on spiritual crop has put forward idea of unity of human psychics to which explained unity of crop of all peoples.
  • The BASTILE (Bastille), strength in Paris, is constructed in 1370-82; since 15 century state prison. Sturm of the Bastile (on July, 14 1789) insurgent people was the beginning of Great French revolution (it is marked with 1880 as a national holiday of France). In 1790 Bastile was sryta.
  • BASTION (frants. bastion), 5-coal strengthening by the way a projection in angles of a serf railings (see. Strength) for obstrelivanija districts ahead and along fortifications and pits. Were applied up to it is grey. 19 century.
  • BASTNEZIT, a mineral, ftorkarbonat cerium, Ce [CO3] (F, OH). Yellow, reddish, brown crystals, are more often acinose units. Hardness 4-5; firmness of 4,9-5,2 kg / m3. Meets in hydrothermal deposits. Main raw material for obtaining cerium.
  • BASTEN-LEPAZH (Bastien-Lepage) ZHjul (1848-84), the French painter. Realistic patterns from country life (" Rural love ", 1882).
  • BALKHASH, closed lake in Kazakhstan, to Balkhash - Alakolskoj to a hollow. 17-22 thousand êì2, depth up to 26 m. In a western part water fresh, in eastern - saltish. The rivers run into lake Or, Karatal, etc. Navigation. Fishery. Main landing stages: Buryldajtal, Burlitobe. On Balkhash - Balkhash. An environmental setting unfavorable.
  • BALKHASH - ALAKOLSKAJA the HOLLOW, a flat selfcontained hollow in Kazakhstan, at the altitude 342-600 m. The large part is occupied an eskar. Balkhash. On the orient - an eskar. Sasykkol and Alakol, in the south - sand deserts Taukum, Mujunkum, Sarais - Ishikotrau, etc.
  • BALHI Abu SHakur (915-?), the persian and Tadjik poet. Alongside with Rudaki the founder of the didactic epos in the literature on farsi. " The book of creation " (945-948) was saved in fragments and quotations.
  • BALTSAN Joseph Lvovich (1923-75), the Moldavian poet. Collections of lyrical verses on a modernity " On the sentinel of life " (1949), " Through years " (1959), " the Choir of instant " (1973). Publicism.
  • BALCHESKU Í., see N.
  • BALIKESIR (Balikesir), city in the west Turkey, an administrative centre ilja Balikesir. 170 thousand inhabitants (1990). Textile, alimentary, cement and a woodworking industry.
  • BALBO (Balbo) CHezare (1789-1853), one of leaders of liberal wing Risordzhimento. In 1848 prime minister of the Sardinian kingdom.
  • BALBOA (Balboa) Vasko Nunjes de, see. Nunjes de Balboa.
  • BALGOS (Balgos) Mariano (1898-1954), one of osnovatelej KP Philippines (1930). During Japanese occupation (December 1941-45) one of chiefs Hukbalahap. From 1950 Liberation armies of country commanding by connection. Has perished in fight.
  • BALD (Baldus, Baldo) (1327-1400), the italian lawyer, the representative of school of postglossators.
  • BALDEN (Balden) Teo (r. 1904), the german sculptor. Humanistic products{creations} Baldena are full powers, plastic intensity ("Ernest Bush", 1962).
  • BALDR (dr .-èñë. mister), in the Scandinavian mythology one of gods - aces, the juvenile and perfect{fine} god of spring, son Odina and Frigg. The cohesive prosaic story about Baldre is contained in " the Junior Edda "; in eddicheskoj to him the poem " Dreams Baldra " is dedicated poetry. The myth about mors Baldra is connected with eshatologicheskimi submissions about death of gods and all world.
  • BALDUNG (Baldung; a nickname Green, Grien) Hans (ok. 1484/85-1545), the german painter and the schedule{chart}. The representative of Revitalization. In products{creations} Baldunga the rational beginning is discordant combines{blends} with mysticism (an altar of a cathedral in Freiburg - im-Brajsgau, 1512-16).
  • BALZAC (Balzac) Onore de (1799-1850), the French writer. The epopee " the Human comedy " from 90 novels and stories is connected by general premeditation and many characters: the novel " the Unknown masterpiece " (1831), "Shagreen leather" (1830-31), "Eugeny Grande" (1833), "Father Gorio" (1834-35), "Caesar Birotto" (1837), "Lost dreams" (1837-43), "Cousine Betta" (1846). Balzac epopee - grandiose on a latitude of scope a realistic pattern of the French society.
  • SNAPWEED, the same, that a yellow balsam.
  • EMBALMING, permeating of tissues of a corpse by the substances handicapping their decomposition. In Other. Egypt and other countries of the Orient to an embalming applied balms (from here the title).
  • BALMS (from grech. balsamon - aromatic pitch), natural substances which structure includes essential oils and dissolved pitches into them, aromatic and other connections. Will be derivated primarily in subtropical and macrotherms. Use in medicine, microscopic technique, etc.
  • BALI, in boreal part of medieval France the royal officer, the chapter of judicial - administrative division (baljazha). The position balji is abolished during Great French revolution.
  • BALMASEDA (Balmaceda) Hose Manuel (1840-91), the president of Chile in 1886-91. Opposed expansions of the foreign capital. Has committed suicide in connection with begun against him{it} under the initiative of conservative - clerical circles act of war.
  • BAMBOCHCHATA (Bambocciata), non-proprietary name of painting of some Netherlands and Flemish artists working in Rome in 1-st floor. 17 century and assorted all over again around of Peter van Lara (Bambochcho), then including in Bent. Artists bambochchaty wrote basically small patterns with small figures, amusing stsenkami from life of simple people. In Italy and on Rhodinum bambochchatu criticized as a low genre.
  • BAMBOCHCHO (Bamboccio) (ital. The alive kid, karapuz, poprygunchik), a nickname of Netherlands artist Peter van Lara (1592/95-1642) in Bente. From here - bambochchata.
  • BAMBOOS (bamboo), a subfamily of cereals (it is secreted sometimes in a separate set). A stalk - the sclerotic straw, an altitude up to 40 m, a dia up to 30 see 600 kinds{views} (ok. 50 stems), primarily in tropics and subtropics, including some wild views on Kuril islands and Sakhalin; ok. 20 kinds{views} are cultivated on Black Sea a shore. Many bamboos blossom time in life and after a fruit brearing perish. Light strong stalks go on construction and manufacturing of furniture.
  • GIANT PANDA (major panda), mammalian sets enotovyh. Length of a body up to 1,8 m, a tail ok. 12 see. In mountain forests of China. Eats primarily draws of a bamboo. It is rare, declared in China by national treasure. In a captivity it is multiplied hardly{with an effort}. In the Red Data Book of the International union of nature protection and natural resources.
  • BAMILEKE, people in Cameroon. 2,3 million person (1992). Tongue bamileko. Save traditional convictions, a part - moslems - sunnity.
  • BAN.. 1) in Croatia since 10 century up to 1921 viceroy of king; the chapter of armed forces... 2) In Bosnia 12-14 centuries sovereign... 3) In Yugoslavia in 1931-1941 governor of each of 9 ranges (banovin), in 1939-41 chapter of independent{autonomous} Croatia.
  • BAN (Ban) Fridjesh (1902-69), the Hungarian film director. Films: " the Hand of ground " (1948), "Zemmelvejs" (1952), "Lieutenant Rakotsi" (1953), " Poor richmen " (1959), "Counterfeiter" (1964), " Rotten water " (1966), etc.
  • BANA, the Georgian temple of 7 century (nowadays in terrain of Turkey), was saved in ruins. A circular multistage temple (tetrakonh), decorated on a front arkaturoj.
  • BANABA (Oshen) (Banaba, Ocean), an atoll in the west Quiet ok. In structure of the state Kiribati. Ok. 6 m2. The deposit of phosphorites, to 1980 is completely produced; the island has become sterile desert.
  • BANALITIES (frants. banalite, from banal, initial value - inhering to the seigneur), in Zap. To Europe feudal sole rights of the seigneur on any property of public value (napr., a mill), for forced use which he levied requisitions from peasants.
  • BANALITY (from frants. banal - sample), mediocrity, profanity; for a long time known, hackneyed expression.
  • BANANA, stem of perennial grasses of a set of a banana family. St. 40 kinds{views}, in tropics and subtropics of Asia and Australia; in crop - basically in Latin America. In a compound fruit up to 300 fruits (up to 60 kg). In a pulp of alimentary fruits ok. 16 % of Saccharum. Are used in I peep and for the technical purposes; ornamental plants.
  • BANAT (Banat), historical range in southeast Europe, between Transilvanskimi the Alpes on the orient, the rivers of the Yew in the west, Muresh in a north, Danube in the south. In 10-11 centuries. Banat - feudal possession. From 12 century under an authority of the Hungarian kingdom, to 16 century it is conquered by Ottoman empire, in 1718 has transfered to Gabsburgam. On Trianonskomu to the peace treaty 1920 it separate between Romania and Yugoslavia. The western part of Banat is part of Serbia, eastern - in structure of Romania.
  • BANAH (Banach) the Stefan (1892-1945), Polish mathematician. One of creators of the modern functional analysis.
  • BANAHEVICH (Banachiewicz) Tadeush (1882-1954), the Polish astronomer, the geodesist and mathematician. Transactionses on a gravitational astronomy. Has created (1925) and has advanced t. n. "krakovianskoe" calculation - version of the theory of templates. Has put in pawn a fundamentals of an orbicular survey traverse. For the first time has executed{has come true} cinema filming solar eclipses.
  • BANBU, city in China, see. Bengbu.
  • BANG (Bang) Hermann (1857-1912), the danish writer. Psychologic novels " Remediless generations " (1880) and "Fedra" (1883) - about domination of fate in destinies of people, " For road " (1886), "Slime" (1889) - about events of Danish war 1864.
  • BANGALORE (Bengaluru, Bangalur), city in JUzh. India, an administrative centre pieces. Karnataka. 2,7 million inhabitants (1991). The large centre of a machine industry; an alimentary, textile industry; handcrafts. University. Center of space probes.
  • BANGVEULU (Bangweulu), lake in Zambia, in verhovjah r. Luapula (system r. Congo), at the altitude 1067 m. The area from 4 thousand êì2 (in a dry season) up to 15 thousand êì2 (during summer rains). Depth up to 5 m. Coasts bogged up; thrickets of a common reed and a sedge.
  • BANGUI (Bangui), capital of Central African republic, a port on r. Ubangi. 452 thousand inhabitants (1988). An international airport. Textile, a food-processing industry, metal working. University. It is based in 1889 as the French military post{station}.
  • BAHMANJAR Abdul Gasan Marzuban ogly (?-1065), the Azerbaijan philosopher, pupil Ibn Siny, used aristotelizm and neoplatonizm for the substantiation Muslim dogmatists.
  • BAHMARO, gornoklimatichesky a health resort in Georgia, to a southwest from Kutaisi.
  • BAHMACH, city (with 1938) on Ukraine, the Chernigov region. A railway junction. 23,2 thousand inhabitants (1991). Factory of a chemical machine industry, molochnokonservnyj combine, etc.
  • BAHMETEV Vladimir Matveevich (1885-1963), the Russian writer. The participant of literary association "Forge" (with 1923). In prose reverts to a becoming of revolutionary consciousness for the Siberian peasants, to events of a civil war. The greatest popularity the novel has received " Crime Martyna " (1928). Books: " On ground " (1924), "Approach" (1938), etc.
  • BAHMETEV Porphyrias Ivanovich (1860-1913), Russian physics and the biologist. Probeed influence of overcooling on an organism animal. First experimentally has called an anabiosis for mammals (bats).
  • BAHMUT, the title Artemovsk on Ukraine (Donetsk region) up to 1924.
  • BAHMUTINSKAJA CROP (in archeology), the Iron Age (3-7 centuries) in a bass. rr. Kama, Ufa, White. It is called on d. Bahmutino in Bashkiria. Settlements and burials. An economy: agriculture, cattle breeding, a hunt, fishery.
  • BAHMUTSKY Alexey Ivanovich (1893-1939), the Russian inventor. Has created a first-ever industrial design of a coal combine (1932).
  • "BAHOR" him{it}. M.Turgunbaevoj, band of national dance of Uzbekistan. The organizer and the artistic administrator (1957-78) M.Turgunbaeva, with 1979 artistic administrator K.Mirkarimova.
  • BAHOFEN (Bachofen) Iogann JAkob (1815-1887), the Swiss historian of the right. Has laid foundation to study of a history of family and a problem of matriarchy.
  • BAHRAH Lion Davydovich (r. 1921), Russian physics, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1966). Transactionses under the theory and technique of antennas, holographies. The lenin premium (1961), State premiums of the USSR (1951, 1976).
  • BAHRAIN, the State Bahrein (Daulat al-Bahrain), the state (emirat) in JUgo-Zap. Asia, on islands Bahreins, in Persian a hall. 0,69 thousand êì2. The population of 486 thousand person (1993), primarily bahrejntsy (arabs of Bahrein). A urban population of 83 % (1990). The official language - Arabian. State religion - moslem faith. Capital - Manama. Bahrein - the constitutional monarchy. The chief of state - emir. A climate close to tropical. Mean temperatures of January 16 °S, July 37 °S. A rainfall ok. 90 mm annually. Deserts prevail{dominate}. A wildlife reserve the Ale - Arejn. In nach. n. e. Bahrein - the small principality. In 4-6 centuries in structure of the state Sasanidov, in 7-9 centuries - Arabian halifata; in 10-11 centuries. Bahrein - the centre of the state karmatov. In nach. 16 century it is seized by Portugueses, in 1-st chetv. 17 century was part of Iran. In 1871-1971 British protectorate. About 1971 independent state. The basis{fundamentals} of economy - oil extracting and oil processing. Lobe in a gross internal product (1991, %): an industry 35,1 (including mining 18,6), an agriculture 1,2. Smelting of aluminium. Large petroleum refinery; petrochemical, repair, cement and other enterprises. Oazisnoe agriculture and cattle breeding. Fishery and production of pearl. Length of motorways of 2,6 thousand in km (1991). Main seaports: Manama, Sitra. Export: petroleum, aluminium and plastics materials, and also dates, shrimps, pearl. The main{basic} foreign trade partners: the USA, Japan, the Unionized Arab Emirates, India, Canada, Singapore. Monetary unit - a dinar Bahrain.
  • FRINGE (the turki., from the arab. mahrama - a scarf), a plain braid with filaments hanging{hovering} on the one hand; a dressing to zanavesjam, furnitures, to lamp shades. A fringe for furnish of scarfs, scarfs, etc. receive a plucking (filler breaking) of filaments on edges{boundarice} of an item.
  • BAHRUSHIN Alexey Aleksandrovich (1865-1929), the Russian theatrical figure, the collector. On the basis of the collections has created a private{an individual} literary - theatrical museum (1894), about 1918 Theatrical museum of name Bahrushina in Moscow.
  • BAHRUSHIN Sergey Vladimirovich (1882-1950), the Russian historian, corresponding member AN the USSR (1939). Pupil V.O.Kljuchevskogo. Transactionses on a history of Russia, Russian colonization of Siberia, a source study, historiography, historical geography. The state premium of the USSR (1942).
  • BAHRUSHINY, the Russian businessmen, natives of merchants of. Zarajsk. In 18 century buyers of cattle, in 19 century the largest suppliers of a leather, cloth-makers. Were enriched on defense jobs. To family Bahrushinyh belong to A.A.Bahrushin and S.V.Bahrushin.
  • BAHR-EL-GAZAL, the river in Sudan, see. An ale - Gazal.
  • BAHT, city (with 1980) in Uzbekistan, Syr-Darya region. A depot. 9,6 thousand inhabitants (1991). A ginnery; the enterprises sewing and a food-processing industry.
  • BAHTA, the river on Mid-Siberian a tableland, dextral in-leak{influx} of Yenisei. 498 kms, the area of basin of 35,5 thousand êì2. It is navigable in a lower reaches.
  • BAHTADZE Xenia Ermolaevna (1899-1978), the Russian selector, academician VASHNIL (1956) and AN Georgia (1955), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1966). Transactionses on selection and a seed growing of tea; the writer of some high-yielding and high-performance grades. The state premium of the USSR (1949).
  • BAUTSENSKOE BATTLE, 8-9.5.1813, for. Bautsen during oversea marchings of Russian army 1813-14. The French army of Napoleon I has defeated a russko-Prussian troops under a command of Russian general P.H.Vitgenstein.
  • BAUER (Bauer) Bruno (1809-82), the german philosopher - mladogegeljanets (see. Hegelianism). The critic of christianity and certainty of gospels. Considered{counted} as propulsion of a history a self-consciousness of " critical personalities ".
  • BAUER Luis Agrikola (1865-1932), American physics, foreign corresponding member AN the USSR (1925; foreign corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science with 1924). Transactionses on a geomagnetism.
  • BAUER Otto (1882-1938), one of leaders of the Austrian social democracy and 2-nd Internatsionala, the ideologist avstromarksizma. In 1918-19 state secretary on foreign affairs, supported apposition of Austria to Germany. With 1934 in emigration.
  • BAFFIN (Baffin) William (1584-1622), the English polar explorer. In 1612-16 participant of some expeditions on search of Northwest passage. Probeed Gudzonov a hall., the pest to the west from Greenland. Has discovered major epines of islands in Canadian Arctic arh., p-ov Hejs (Greenland).
  • BAFFINA the PEST (Baffin Bay), half-closed the pest the Sowing. Ledovitogo ok., between Greenland and eastern coasts Canadian Arctic arh. The prol is bridged. Davis with Atlantic ok. 530 thousand êì2. Depth up to 2414 m. Fishery (a cod, a herring, etc.).
  • GROUND BAFFINOVA (Baffin Island), the largest island Canadian Arctic arh., in structure of Canada. 476 thousand êì2. The population ok. 3,4 t. Hours. An altitude up to 2591 m. Arctic and mountain tundra. Fishery, a marine craft. The main{basic} occupied point - Frobisher-Bej.
  • BAH, family of german musicians from Thuringia, put forward in 16 - nach. 19 centuries of given away art workers, including. I.S.Baha and his{its} sons: 1) Wilhelm Frideman (1710-84), "gallic" Bah, the composer and the organist, the improvisator... 2) Charles Phillip Emanuel (1714-88), "Berlin" or "Hamburg" Bah, the composer and klavesinist; his{its} creativity, affine to literary motion " the Storm and a rush ", has exerted influence composers of the austrian classical school... 3) Iogann Christian (1735-82), "Milan" or "London" Bah, the composer and klavesinist, the representative t. n. Gallant style, has exerted influence juvenile V.A.Mozart creativity... 4) Iogann Kristof Fridrih (1732-95), "bjukkeburgsky" Bah, the composer, klavesinist, the conductor.
  • BAH Alexey Nikolaevich (1857-1946), the Russian scientist, academician AN the USSR (1929), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1945). Narodovolets; in 1885-1917 in emigration. The founder of domestic school of biochemists. Probeed a chemism of a photosynthesis and oxidation processes in a cell. Has placed{installed}, that in the basis{fundamentals} of respiration a number{series} of serial enzymatic redox reactions (the peroxide theory) lays. Has organized Physico-chemical institute him{it}. Karpova (1918) and Institute of biochemistry AN the USSR (1935, with 1944 - name Baha). The premium him{it}. V.I.Lenina (1926), the State premium of the USSR (1941).
  • BAH (Bach) Iogann Sebastjan (1685-1750), the german composer, the organist, klavesinist. Philosophical depth of the content and high ethical sense of products{creations} Baha have delivered his{its} creativity in a number{series} of masterpieces of world crop. Has extended achievements of the musical transitional art from Baroque to a classicism. The unsurpassed master of polyphony. " Well tempered klavir " (1722-44), the Mass the si-minor (ok. 1747-49), " Passions on John " (1724), " Passions on Matthew " (1727 or 1729), over 200 spiritual and society cantatas, tool{instrument} concerts, numerous compositions for an organ, etc.
  • BAHAADDIN ZUHAJR (1185-1258), the Arabian poet. Panegyrical kasydy, lyrical verses, close national poetry.
  • BAHAWALPUR, city in Pakistan, on r. Sutlej. Ok. 200 thousand inhabitants (1981). Textile, a food-processing industry. Handcrafts (a carpet weaving, earthenware manufacture).
  • BAHADUR, the same, that batyr.
  • BAHARDEN, a urban settlement in Turkmenii. A depot. 18,1 thousand inhabitants (1991). Carpet factory, etc. In 19 kms from Bahardena in a karst cave underground an eskar. Kou.
  • BAHAREV Nikita (1705 - of mors is unknown), Russian the mechanics. Worked at the Siberian mountain steering. One of initiators of production and use of the Ural semi-precious stones. Has constructed in Ekaterinburg (1748) mechanic enterprises with a water drive for machining marble and original grinding mills.
  • BOASTERS Nikolay Sergeevich (r. 1934), the Russian mathematician, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991). Transactionses on differential equations and calculus mathematics. The state premium of the USSR (1985).
  • BAH-LIJMAND (Bach-Liimand) Ajno (1901-80), the Estonian schedule{chart}, the national artist of Estonia (1961). Lyrical portraits, genre scenes, case histories (" the Latent child ", a gravure).
  • BAHLULZADE Sattar Bahlul ogly (1909-74), the Azerbaijan painter, the national artist of Azerbaijan (1964). The writer of lyrical landscapes - patterns (" Spring of mine Rhodinums ", 1967).
  • BAHMAN (Bachmann) Ingeborg (1926-73), the Austrian writer. The collection of verses (" Delayed time ", 1953), stories (" the Thirtieth year ", 1961), the novel of "Malines" (1971) differ philosophical saturation and the complicated form.
  • BAHMANIDSKY SULTANAT, the state in India, on a tableland Deccan, in 1347-1525, led by dynasty Bahmanidov. Capitals: ã. Gulbarga, since 1429. Bidar.
  • CAMBRICS - I-SALDIVAR (Batista y Zaldivar) Ruben Fulhensio (1901-73), the dictator of Cuba in 1934-44 and 1952-58; in 1940-44 and 1954-58 the post{station} of the president officially held. Will overthrow during Cuban revolution.
  • The BATHYSPHERE (from grech. bathys - steep and sphaira - a sphere), a deep-diving vehicle in the form of a sphere (it is routine from steel) for oceanographic and other probes; alights on a cable from a vessel. Crew (1-2 persons), research instrumentation, an air revitalization system, the earphone. The maximum depth reached with the help of the bathysphere, 1360 m (1948). Since 1950th instead of the bathysphere routinely apply hydrostats.
  • The BATHYTHERMOGRAPH (from grech. bathys - steep, therme - it is warm and... Columns), the device for continuous measurement of vertical distribution of temperature of water in high layer starving (up to 200 ì); allows a message of measurement on the move a vessel.
  • BATITSKY Paul Fedorovich (1910-84), Marshal of Soviet Union (1968), the Hero of Soviet Union (1965). In Great Domestic war the division commander and bodies. In 1965-66 1-st deputy chief of the General Staff. In 1966-78 commander-in-chief Signals Commands of air defence of country - the deputy minister of the defence of the USSR.
  • BATLEJKA (betlejka), a national puppet theater in Belarus (16 - nach. 20 centuries). It is close to the Ukrainian cavern, Russian theatre of the Parsley.
  • BUTLER (Butler) Nicolas Mjurrej (1862-1947), the American teacher, the professor (with 1885) philosophy and psychology of the Colombian university (in 1901-45 president of university). One of organizers of pacifist movement. The president of Fund of an international peace him{it}. Carnegie (with 1925). The Nobel Prize of the world (1931, together with Dzh. Addams).
  • BUTLER (Butler) Semjuel (1612-80), the English writer. Iroikomicheskaja poem "Gudibras" (1663-78, it is unfinished) - satyr on hypocrisy of bourgeoises - puritans of the season{term} of the English revolution of 17 century.
  • BUTLER Semjuel (1835-1902), the English writer. Antibourgeois satirical dilogija "Edgin" (an anagram of the word "anywhere", 1872) and " Recurring in Edgin " (1901); the realistic novel "Life" (it is published in 1903). Prosaic transfer{translation} of poems Gomera.
  • BATLE-I-ORDONES (Batlle y Ordonez) Hose (1856-1929), the president of Uruguay in 1903-07 and 1911-15. Since 1880th the leader of a reformist consignment "Colorado" (with nach. 20 century. Batljistskaja a consignment). Has executed{has come true} a number{series} of social reforms in protection of a national industry, has entered laws on a 8-hour working day, on pensions.
  • BATTEMENT (Batman), city on the orient Turkey. 147 thousand inhabitants (1990). Petroleum refinery.
  • BATNA, city on north-east of Algeria, adm. ts. vilaji Batna. 182 thousand inhabitants (1987). A cotton-mill, tanning manufacture. It is based as a military post{station} in 1844. In environs Batna - debris drevnerimskogo. Timgad.
  • BATOV Ivan Andreevich (1767-1841), the Russian master of musical instruments (a violin, altos, violoncelloes, gears quadrants). Up to 1822 serfs.
  • BATOV Pavel Ivanovich (1897-1985), the commander, the general (1955), doubly the Hero of Soviet Union (1943, 1945). In Great Domestic war since October 1942 up to the extremity of war by commanding 65-th army. In 1962-65 chief of headquarters of Consolidated Armed forces of the state-participants of the Warsaw agreement. In 1970-81 chairman of the Soviet committee of war veterans.
  • BATOGI, a stick, used for corporal punishments in Russia till 18 century.
  • BATOZHSKAJA BATTLE, 22-23.5.1652 (natural limit Batog, nowadays Vinnitsa region). Rout of 20-thousand Polish a troops the Ukrainian army, one of decisive battles of Liberation war 1648-54.
  • BATHYLITE (from grech. bathos - depth and lithos - a stone), a large mass (over 200 êì2) granitoidnyh the rocks, occurring{lieing} among sedimental stratas of wrinkled ranges of earth crust.
  • BATHOMETER (from grech. bathos - depth and... Meter), a sampler of water with different depths of a water reservoir.
  • LONG LOAF - RUZH (Baton Rouge), city in the south the USA, adm. ts. Pieces. Louisiana, seaport on r. Mississipi. 220 thousand inhabitants (1990). A petroleum industry, petrochemistry, nonferrous machine industry. Universities.
  • BATORY (Batory) the Stefan (1533-86), king Polish with 1576, the commander. Participant Livonskoj of war 1558-83. Has based (1579) Academy in Vilno (later - the Vilnius university).
  • HIRED LABOURERS, hired farm workers, routinely impoverished peasants.
  • BATALPASHINSK, the title Cherkessk up to 1939.
  • BATTLE GENRE (from fight), the genre of fine arts dedicated war and military life.
  • BATALLION (frants. bataillon), the main{basic} tactical subdividing in an overland, airborne troops and marines; are motorized-rifle (infantry, motor-infantry), tank, marines, communication{connection}, automobile, etc. The shelf (brigades) Routinely is part or is separate military unit in connection (association). Will consist of 3-4 companies and other subdividings.
  • BATANGAS (Batangas), city and a port on Philippines, on about. Luzon, adm. ts. prov. Batangas. 184 thousand inhabitants (1990). Textile, a woodworking industry.
  • BATTERY CYCLONE (multicyclone), the apparatus for branch of solids from their transporting gases. The dia of 100-300 mm will consist of several tens by-pass cyclones.
  • The BATTERY (frants. batterie, from battre - to beat), firing and tactical subdividing of an ammunition division (shelf); can be separate. Will consist of 2-3 firing armings{platoons}, arming{platoon} (branch) of steering. Has 2-8 instruments (mortars, battle machines of a rocket artillery or anti-tank guided weapons).
  • The BATTERY, consolidated (in fixed system) for a team work some equal devices, apparatuses, structures, devices, napr. Accumulators, coke ovens, heating radiators.
  • SWEET POTATO (sweet potato), perennial (in crop often annotinous) herbaceous plant of a stem the morning glory of a set of a morning-glory family. Rhodinum in Center. To America. Klubni (up to 10 kg, 24-28 % of starch and Saccharum) use for preparation croups, flours, starch, spirit, Saccharum, on a forage to cattle. Especially widely cultivate in the Chinese National Republic, India, Indonesia; productivity 100-120 ts with 1 ga.
  • BATASHEVY, large factory owners and landowners in Russia 18-19 centuries. From the Tula gunmakers, merchants, with 1783 - noblemen. An ancestor - Ivan Timofeevich (? - 1734). In nach. 19 century possessed cloth manufactories, 14 metallurgical and metal-working plants in core area.
  • BATENEVSKY the BLOCK, a spur of a mountain of Kuznetsk Ala Tau, in Khakassia. Length ok. 100 kms. The altitude of 1249 m. Abjoints the CHulymo-Yenisei hollow from Sydo-Erbinskoj.
  • BATENIN Vyacheslav Mihajlovich (r. 1939), the Russian scientist in range of electrophysics, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1987). Transactionses on probe of properties slaboionizirovannoj plasma, impulse electric discharges, to building of superconducting inductive energy storage units, superconducting magnet systems.
  • BATENKOV Gabriel Stepanovich (1793-1863), the decembrist, the lieutenant colonel of a body of engineering lines of communication. The participant of Domestic war of 1812 and oversea marchings. Employee M.M.Speransky. The member of Boreal society. It is convicted on 20 flying of penal servitude. In 1827-46 it was contained in Alekseevskom a ravelin. In 1846-56 on a settlement in Tomsk.
  • BATHURST, the former title of. Bandzhul - capitals of Gambia.
  • BATHYAL (from grech. bathys - steep) (bathyal zone), the zone of a seabed enveloping depths of a continental downslope (200-3000 ì). Takes an in-between position between a sublittoral and an abyss.
  • BATIK (malajsk)., technique of paintings, and also the multicolour cloth decorated with her{it}. Drawing put a flake of wax, a matter alight in a paint which imbues not wax-lined parts of a tissue. The paintings a batik is long since known for peoples of Indonesia, India, etc. In Europe - since 20 century.
  • BATHYMETRIC CHARTS (from grech. bathys - steep and metreo - I measure), map a submerged relief through isobaths together with marks of depths.
  • BATHYPLANE (from grech. bathys - steep and an armour. planum - a plane), the single-seat towed apparatus for supervision{observation} underwater. It is dipped and retained on necessary depth (some tens meters) by the pilot - look-out located in a hermetic body with the help of control surfaces.
  • The BATHYSCAPH (from grech. bathys - steep and skaphos - a vessel), an abyssal powered vehicle for oceanographic, etc. probes. Will consist from steel spheres - nacelles (crew 1-3 persons, devices) and floats - bodies, the filled lighter, than water, a filling agent (routinely petrol). Buoyancy is adjusted{regulated} by release of ballast and extension{issue} of petrol. Goes with the help of the propellers powered by electromotors. The first bathyscaph is constructed by Swiss physicist O.Pikkarom in 1948. In 1960 on bathyscaph " Trieste " the bottom of Mariana trench in Quiet ok is reached. (ok. 11 t. ì).
  • CAMBRIC (frants. batiste), the thin, translucent linen or a cotton of a calico weave. From cambric sew a lingerie, a light dress.
  • BARYKOVA Anna Pavlovna (1839-93), the Russian poetess. Daughter M.F.Kamenskoj. Satirical and social - accusatory verses in a race course nekrasovskoj traditions. The poem " the Fairy tale how tsar Ahrejan walked to the God to complain " (1883).
  • PROFIT, city (with 1954) in the Russian Federation, the Ulyanovsk region, on r. Profit. A depot. 21 thousand inhabitants (1991). Reducer factory, a woollen-goods factory, etc.
  • BARRIER REEFS, the coral patches extended alongshore of mainland or an island on distance from several kilometres up to many hundreds (the Major Barrier reef, 2300 kms). Are usual for warm waters Quiet, Indian and Atlantic ok.
  • BARJATINSKY Alexander Ivanovich (1815-79), prince, the Russian general - field marshal (1859). In 1856-62 commander-in-chief a troops and the viceroy on Caucasus at the last stage of the Caucasian war, has taken prisoner SHamilja (1859). Opposed incentive military reforms 60-70-Õ of 19 century.
  • BARJATINSKY Alexander Petrovich (1799-1844), prince, the decembrist, headquarters - captain. The member of the Austral society. It is convicted on transportation for life. With 1827 in Nerchinskih mines, with 1839 on a settlement in Zap. Siberia.
  • BASANAVICHJUS (Basanavicius) Jonas (1851-1927), the Lithuanian public figure and the scientist. Transactionses on an ancient and medieval history of Lithuania. Has collected and has emited 9 volumes of national fairy tales and songs. The organizer of the Lithuanian science foundation (1907).
  • BASANGOV Baatr (psevd. Gashuta Baatr) (1911-44), the calmuc writer. Stories " the Truth past a flying " (1931), "Bulgun" - about life of Kalmyks before October revolution; plays.
  • BASARABY, a dynasty gospodarej in the principality Walachia in 14-17 centuries (with rests). The largest representatives: Basarab I (mind{wit}. 1352) - the founder (ok. 1324) dynasties, Nikolay Alexander (mind{wit}. 1364), Njagoe (mind{wit}. 1521), Matej (mind{wit}. 1654).
  • BASARGIN Nikolay Vasiljevich (1799-1861), the decembrist, the lieutenant. The member of the Austral society. It is convicted on 20 flying of penal servitude. With 1827 in Nerchinskih mines, in 1835-56 on a settlement in Zap. Siberia. The writer of "Notes".
  • BASS, see Matsuo the Bass.
  • BASILAN (Basilan), city and a port in the south of Philippines, on about. Basilan, adm. ts. prov. Basilan. 200 thousand inhabitants (1980). Manufacture of a copra.
  • BASILEJ (vasilevs) (grech. basileus), in Other. Greeces the governor of a small settlement, the leader of nation. In Sparta and then in ellinisticheskih the states - tsar. In Byzantium - a title of emperor.
  • BASILEJA (grech. Queen), for Aristofana the goddess of an imperial authority, daughter Zevsa, hranitelnitsa his{its} lightnings.
  • BASS PLAYERS Anatoly Georgievich (r. 1920), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1984), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1968). Transactionses on synthesis of structures of aggregate signals of intelligence systems.
  • BASKAK (turki)., the representative of the Mongolian khan to the conquered grounds (in Russia in 2-nd floor. 13 - nach. 14 centuries), monitored local authorities.
  • BASKERVILL (Baskerville) John (1706-1775), the English eight-toothed engraver beetle and the publisher. The creator of fonts of the new style wearing his{its} name (many are applied nowadays).
  • BASKETBALL (from English basket - a basket and ball - a ball), sporting command ball game which bombard arms{hand} in a ring with a grid (t. n. A basket), reinforced on a board at the altitude 3,05 m. Rhodinum of basketball - the USA (1891). In International federation of basketball (FIBA; it is based in 1932) 177 countries (1991). In the program of Olympic Games with 1936; world championships with 1950, Europe with 1935.
  • BASQUES (the self-title - euskaldunak), people in Spain (950 thousand person) and France (140 thousand person). Live also in countries of Latin America. An aggregate number 1,25 million person (1992). Tongue basque. Believers - roman catholics.
  • BASQUES COUNTRY (Baskonija, Euskadi) (isp. Vascongadas), independent{autonomous} historical range in a north of Spain, for Biskajskogo a hall. 7,3 thousand êì2. The population 2,1 million person (1992), predominary Basques. Main city - Vitoria. Actuates provinces: Alava, Biskajja, Gipuskoa. In 1 century up to n. e. - it is grey. 5 century n. e. The terrain colonized with Basques, is nominally subject to Rome. In the season{term} of domination vestgotov, arabs on Pirenejskom p-ove the large part of terrain of Basques remained independent; was bulwark Rekonkisty. In 11-15 centuries of the state of Basques - under authority Navarry, Castile; in kon. 15 - nach. 16 centuries were part of the unified spanish state, saving up to 1876 some autonomy. After victory of the Popular front in 1936 the independent{autonomous} area called as Basque Provinces has been built. With fall of republic in 1939 Basques Country denuded self-management. According to the constitution of 1978 Basques Country has received all over again temporary, since January 1980 stationary value an autonomy.
  • BASQUE TONGUE, tongue of Basques. The official language (alongside with spanish) Basque Provinces. In genealogical gradings it is considered as isolated tongue. The hypothesis about communication{connection} of basque tongue with the Caucasian tongues is distributed. Writing on the basis of the latin alphabet.
  • BASKUNCHAK, salinous self-charge lake in the Astrakhan region, to the orient from Volga, bliz mountains Major Bogdo. 106 êì2. Salt-making process.
  • BASMA (bajsa, pajtsza), 1) a plate given by mongolo-tatar khans in 13-15 centuries as the letter of credence... 2) Thin plates of metal (mostly silver) with textured patterns. Basmennoe stamping has been distributed in Russia in 13-17 centuries.
  • BASMA, powder from leaves indigofery. It is applied together with a henna to colour of a hair in black colour.
  • BASMANOVY, Russian boyars and voevody 15-17 centuries from stem Ïëåùååâûõ:.. 1) Alexey Danilovich (?-1570), one of inspirers oprichniny. It was distinguished in the Kazan marchings, Livonskoj to war, extirpation with the Crimean tartars. It is killed under the order of Ivan Terrible by the natural son... 2) Peter Fedorovich (?-1606), the grandson previous, approximated Boris Godunova, commanding Russian troops. In 1605 has come over to on party Lzhedmitrija I, has become his{its} close confidant, it is killed together with nymas.
  • BASMACHESTVO (from the turki. basmak - to commit a bloom), after October revolution armed motion, directed against the Soviet authority in Compare. Asia. The main{basic} forces basmachestva are routed by Red Army in 1922, separate orders are finally liquidated in 1933.
  • BASNER Veniamin Efimovich (r. 1925), the Russian composer, the national actor of Russia (1982). Ballet, 4 operettas, vokalno-symphonic products{creations}; music to films (over 40, including "Blockage", 1979), songs " At an anonymous altitude " ("Tishin" film, 1964), " From what starts Rhodinum " (film " the Board and a sword ", 1968).
  • FABLE, short, quite often comic story in verses or prose, with the direct intellectual breeding attaching to the story allegorical sense. Characters animal, plants, things routinely act. Many scenes go back to Ezopu, to indian collection "Panchatantra". Bright national originality in basnjah Z.Lafontena, G.E.Lessing, I.A.Krylov.
  • BASS Vasily Aleksandrovich (1812-79), the Russian surgeon. For the first time has made imposing{superposition} of a fistula on a stomach of a dog (1842).
  • BASS Vladimir Pavlovich (1923-87), the Russian film director and the actor, the national actor of the USSR (1983). Has delivered films: " the First pleasures " (1956), " Battle underway " (1961), "Tishin" (1964), " the Board and a sword " (1968), etc. Played the films and films of other producers.
  • BASS Nikolay Gennadievich (r. 1922), Russian physics, one of founders of a quantum electronics, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1966), doubly the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1969, 1982). Has created (together with A.M.Prohorovym) the first quantum generator - a maser. Transactionses on semiconductor lasers, theories of high-power pulses of solid-state lasers, to quantum standards of frequency, interaction of potent laser light with substance. The chairman of board of the All-Union society "Knowledge" in 1978-90. The lenin premium (1959), the State premium of the USSR (1989), the Nobel Prize (1964, together with Prochoral and C.Taunsom). A golden medal him{it}. Lomonosov AN the USSR (1990).
  • BASON (from frants. passement - a galloon, a braid{tape}), the textiles intended basically for a dressing: paintbrushes, a braid{tape}, a fringe, laces, etc. Bason with a fine end from non-ferrous alloys calls as a galloon.
  • BASRA, city in a southeast of Iraq, seaport on r. Shatt al Arab. 617 thousand inhabitants (1985). An international airport. Center of production and petroleum refining. The chemical, textile enterprises. University. Ruins of aged Basra (it is based in 630th).
  • BASS the CHANNEL (Bass Strait), between Australia and about. Tasmania, bridges Tasmanovo m. with Indian ok. Length of 490 kms, the least width of 213 kms, depth up to 51 m. the Port Melbourne.
  • BARONS (Barons) Krishjanis (1835-1923), the Latvian specialist in folklore, the writer, the leader mladolatyshej. Stories, verses, feuilletons. Has emited " the Latvian national songs " (1894-1915).
  • BARONSK, the informal title of. Ekaterinenshtadt (nowadays Marks of the Saratov region) up to 1920.
  • BARORECEPTORS (from grech. baros - gravity and receptors), sensing nerve terminations in walls of blood vessels; accept changes of a blood pressure and reflexly adjust{regulate} his{its} level.
  • BAROTHERAPY (from grech. baros - gravity and therapy), use in the medical purposes heightened or a underpressure of air. The general barotherapy is carried out{conducted} in altitude chambers. Banks concern to methods of an aboriginal barotherapy.
  • BAROTRAUMA (from an armour. baros - gravity and a trauma), damage of an acoustic organ, lungs, etc. at sharp differential of an atmospheric pressure; can arise at explosions, and also for pilots, parachuters, divers.
  • BARRAGAN (Barragan) Luis (r .1901), the mexican architect. Using a flame brick, a stucco moulding and a raw tree, tried to achieve harmonic connection of a house and an ambient garden (a residence Dignity Kristobalt, 1967-68; private{individual} construction in Mexico and his{its} suburbs).
  • BARRAGE (from frants. barrage - an obstacle), a way of protection of shafts and pits from underground waters by full or partial protection{enclosure} of productions with the help of water-proof devices.
  • LOITERING, flight of airplanes - fighters above fixed area with the purposes of cover of terraneous objects. Since 60th the term "air alert" is used.
  • BARRACUDAS (barracudas), set of marine predatory fishes of order kefaleobraznyh. Length up to 3 m. Ok. 20 kinds{views}, in tropical and subtropical seas Atlantic, Indian and Quiet ok., including on 1 kind{view} in Black and Japanese seas. Eat only fishes. Hunt often together with sharks; assault people.
  • BARRAND (Barrande) Joahim (1799-1883), the French geologist and a paleontologist, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1877). From 1831 cable cores in Czechia. Transactionses on a stratigraphy nizhnepaleozojskih adjournments of Czechia. Has secured{discharged} (having dismembered on departments and storeys) Silurian system. The writer of the capital multivolume monography on paleontology (1852-94).
  • BARRANCABERMEJA (Barrancabermeja), city in northwest of Columbia. 137 thousand inhabitants (1992). A port on r. Magdalena. Center of production and petroleum refining. Petrochemistry.
  • BARRANQUILLA (Barranquilla), city in northwest of Columbia, an administrative centre of department Atlantiko. 1,35 million inhabitants (1985, with suburbs). A port on r. Magdalena, available for ocean goers. An international airport. Textile, oil refining, metal-working, cement, chemical, a flavoring industry. Universities. It is based in 1629.
  • BARRANKOSY (isp. barrancos), the steep erosive furrows gashing in a radial direction downslopes of cones of burning mountains.
  • SCRAPE (Barras) Pol (1755-1829), one of organizers termidorianskogo tumble 1794 (France). In 1792 it is selected in the Convent, has adjoined to jakobintsam; entered{included} in the Directory later, promoted coming to power of Napoleon Bonaparte.
  • To BARRA Mohammed Siad (r. 1919), the president of Somalia in 1976-91, the general - major (1966). With 1965 commanding army. In 1969 - June 1976 presidents of Supreme revolutionary advice{council} and the head of government.
  • BARREL (English barrel, characters. - a barrel), a measure of capacity and volume in system of the English measures. In the USA distinguish barrel dry - 115,628 dm3 and petroleum - 158,988 dm3. The English barrel (for loose substances) is peer 163,65 dm3.
  • BARRICADE (frants. barricade), a synthetic defensive obstacle from logs, a B/S with sand, stones, etc. across streets, roads, for bridges, in mountain passes, etc.
  • BARRINDZHERA the CRATER, the same, that Arizonsky a crater.
  • BARRIOS (Barrios) Husto Rufino (1835-85), the president of Guatemala with 1873; in 1871-1873 commander-in-chief army. Has placed{installed} a mode of dictatorship, at the same time promoted economic development of country, has achieved slackening influence of church. Aspiring to aggregate the central - American countries in the confederated states, Barrios began war from El Salvador in which has been killed.
  • BARDOJTS, in Prussian mythology the god of navigation.
  • BARDHAMAN (Burdvan), city on the orient India, pieces. Zap. Bengal. 245 thousand inhabitants (1991). A food-processing industry, a general machine industry.
  • BARDHAN SHanti (1916-54), the indian choreographer. In 1943 has organized troupe " Small ballet ". Has created national ballets " Spirit of India " (1944), " India is immortal " (1946), " Discovering of India " (1947). In productions used forms of indian classical and national dance.
  • BAREILLY, city in India, pieces. Uttar Pradesh. 583 thousand inhabitants (1991). An alimentary, chemical, textile industry.
  • BAS-RELIEF (frants. basrelief), a low relief in which the convex plotting acts above a plane of a background no more than on half of the volume.
  • BARENBOJM (Barenboim) Daniel (r. 1942), the conductor and the pianist. Acts in chamber bands. In 60th the chief of the London chamber orchestra, in 1975-89 main conductor of the Parisian orchestra, with 1989 acts with the Chicago symphonic orchestra.
  • BARENTS (Barents, Barendsz) Willem (ok. 1550-97), the Netherlands seafarer. In 1594-97 supervised over 3 expeditions on the Sowing. Ledovitomu ok. In searches of north-east pass from Atlantic ok. In Quiet. Expedition 1596-97 has discovered islands Ursine and Spitsbergen (repeatedly). It is buried on It is new. To the Earth.
  • BARENTSBURG (Barentsburg), city and a port in the west about. Spitsbergen (Svalbard, Norway). Production of mineral coal.
  • BARENTS SEA, marginal sea the Sowing. Ledovitogo ok., between boreal coast of Europe and islands Spitsbergens, Franz Josef land also It is new. The Earth. 1424 thousand êì2. It is located on a shelf; depth predominary from 360 up to 400 m (the greatest - 600 ì). Large about. Kolguev. Bays: the Porsanger-fiord, Varanger Fjord, Motovsky, Kola, etc. The Strong influence of warm waters Atlantic ok. Stipulates nezamerzaemost a southwest part. A salinity of 32-35 ‰. Into Barents sea runs r. Pechora. Fishery (a cod, a herring, a haddock, a flounder). An environmental setting unfavorable. Has major transport value. Major ports: Murmansk (Russian Federation), Varde (Norway).
  • The BARRETTER (English barretter), the electronic device by the way the filled hydrogen of a glass bottle inside which there is a fine wire. The current of the barretter in a fixed range of values of pressure{voltage;stresses} is practically constant. Use for a constant-current regulation.
  • The BARGE (frants. barge), the non-propelled cargo vessel transposed{dragged;moved;migrated} by a towing line or a mule.
  • BARI (Bari), city and a port in JUzh. Italy, an administrative centre prov. Bari. 355 thousand inhabitants (1990). Oil processing and petrochemistry, metallurgy. University. A national archeologic museum, picture passageway.
  • BARI (Barye) Antoine Lui (1795-1875), the French sculptor and the painter. The representative of romanticism. Full dramatic nature and plastic power of the plotting animal ("Lion", 1836).
  • BARI (De Bari, de Bary) Genrih Anton de (1831-88), german botanik, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1880). Transactionses on a mycology. Has placed{installed} a role of parasitic fungi in diseases of higher plants.
  • BARI Nina Karlovna (1901-61), the Russian mathematician, the doctor of physical and mathematical sciences, the professor. Transactionses on a function theory, including under the theory of numbers{series}.
  • BARIBAL (black bear), mammalian sets of bears. Length on the average 1,75 m. A coat routinely black. In woods the Sowing. America. It is small. In national parks the USA number is recovered{restored}.
  • BARIUM (an armour. Barium), Ba, the chemical element of II group of a periodic system, atomic number 56, atomic weight 137,33, falls into to earth metals. The title from grech. barys - heavy. Siver-white mild metal; firmness of 3,78 g / sm3, tïë 727 °C. it is chemical very awake, at calefaction ignites. Minerals: barite and witherite. Apply in a vacuum technology as a gas absorber, in alloys (typographical, bearing); salt a barium - in manufacture of paints, glasses, enamels, in ordnance, medicine.
  • BARINAS (Barinas), staff in northwest of Venezuela. 35,2 thousand êì2. The population of 456 thousand person (1989). Adm. ts.-. Barinas.