Tuesday, May 22, 2007

  • VULCANIZATE, the same, that gum.
  • VULCANIZATION, metamorphosis of rubber into the gum, carried out including t. n. Curing agents (napr., sulfur, organic peroxide compounds, some synthetic resins) or under action of ionizing radiation. As a result of a vulcanization toughness, hardness, elasticity are increased, is warm also frost resistance of rubber, his dissolubility in organic solvents is sinked.
  • VOLCANISM, set of the phenomena stipulated by penetration of a magma from depths of the Earth on its surface.
  • VOLCANIC SIERRA (Pacific Kordiljera), a circuit of the volcanic cones, extended along the Pacific shore Center. America. Active volcanoes: Tajumulco (4217 m, a peak level Center. America) in Guatemala, Santa Ana, Izalco (El Salvador), Irazu (Costa Rica), etc.
  • VOLCANIC CHARGES, the tear-out of the cooled down lava dumped at eruption of burning mountains in fluid or plastic condition and accepting spherical, spindle-shaped and other forms. A diameter of volcanic charges from several sm up to 5-7 m.
  • VOLCANIC GASES, the gases secreted with burning mountains both during eruption - eruptivnye, and in the seasons of his hangover activity - fumarolnye. In their structure pairs H2O, H2, HCl, HF, H2S, CO, CO2 are established, etc. Passing through a zone of underground waters, form hot wells.
  • VOLCANIC ROCKS (vulcanites), the rocks derivated as a result of eruptions of burning mountains. Distinguish given vent, or effusive (basalts, andesites, trahity, liparity, diabases, etc.), vulkanogenno-detrital, or piroklasticheskie (tuffs, volcanic a breccia), volcanic rocks.
  • VOLCANIC BAY, see. Utiura.
  • VOLCANIC ASH, product of crushing and dispersion by volcanic explosions of fluid or solid lavas. The dia up to 2 mm will consist of particles of a dust and sand.
  • VOLCANIC PLATEAU, in a central part Boreal p-va It is new. Zealand. An altitude of 200-700 m. It is combined by covers of lavas, above which huge cones operational and lost volcanoes - Ruapehu (2797 ì), Tongariro, Ngauruhoe, Egmont are hoisted. Geysers, fumaroly, hot mineral sources. Crowded earthquakes. It is a lot of lakes, including the largest in Oceania an eskar. Taupo. National parks - Tongariro, Urevera, Egmont.
  • VOLCANIC GLASS, the amorphous volcanic rock which is generatrix at fast congelation of a lava. Almost bodily composes volcanic glass, a pitch stone (pehshtejn), nerlit, a pumice, etc.
  • VULKANOGENNO-SEDIMENTAL, deposits of ores Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, bauxites and the phosphorites, derivated at a deposition of products of volcanic eruptions at the bottom of ancient seas and oceans.
  • VULKANOGENNO-SEDIMENTAL, the rocks consisting of a volcanic and sedimental material. Among vulkanogenno-sedimentary rocks distinguish tuffs, tuffity, a jasper, some ore gland, manganese, phosphorites, etc.
  • VOLCANOLOGIES the INSTITUTE (WILLOWS) of the IED of the Russian Academy of Science, is built in 1963 in Petropavlovske-Kamchatka on the basis Laboratories of volcanology AN the USSR (Moscow), Kamchatka vulkanologicheskoj stations, the Kamchatka geologo-geophysical observatory of Siberian branch AN of the USSR and Pauzhetskoj the kontrolno-observation geothermal station. Probes on the modern terraneous and submerged volcanism, a geothermie, the forecast of volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. In 1991 from him the Institute vulkanologicheskoj geology and a geochemistry was secured.
  • VULKANOLOGICHESKOJ GEOLOGY AND the GEOCHEMISTRY the INSTITUTE of the Russian Academy of Science, is built in 1991 in Petropavlovske-Kamchatka on the basis several scientific subdividings of the Volcanology of institute. Probes of material structure of effusive rocks and structures of burning mountains.
  • VOLCANOLOGY, science about the causes of education of burning mountains, their development, a structure, structure of products of eruptions and regularities of disposition on a surface of the Earth. The first cramps on burning mountains fall into is grey. 1-st thousand up to n. e. See also Paleovulkanologija.
  • VULLENVEVER (Wullenwever) JUrgen (ok. 1492-1537), the burgher german Lubek; has headed in 1531 tumble, directed against patritsiata, has become (1533) burgomaster. Has conducted in city church reformatsiju. After restoration of an authority patritsiata it is executed.
  • WOLLONGONG (Wollongong), city in a southeast of Australia, pieces New JUzh. Wales. 238,2 thousand inhabitants (1990). Black and nonferrous machine industry, oil refining, a food-processing industry. Production of mineral coal.
  • VULMEN (Woolman) John (1720-72), the American priest and the writer. The writer of instructive tracts (including " Some speculations about possession of Negros ", 1754) and pithy "Diary".
  • VULSI Ò., see T.
  • VETNAMTSY (the self-title throw, twists), people, the main population of Vietnam (61 million person). The USA live also in Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, etc. The Aggregate number 62,15 million person (1992). Tongue Vietnamese. Buddhists believing main, daosisty, konfutsiantsy - a cult of ancestors, a part roman catholics and adherents of syncretic religions.
  • BLIZZARD, the same, that a blizzard.
  • MORNING-GLORY FAMILY, set of dycotyledonous plants. Grasses, dwarf semishrubs, bushes, rarely small trees; many - curling plants. St. 1500 kinds (50 stems), primarily in tropics and subtropics; including ok. 40 kinds from 4 stems (a cress, the morning glory, a bindweed and a glorybind), will grow in Compare. Asia, on Central Russian plain, Caucasus, the south of Siberia and the Far East. The greatest economic value have a sweet potato (it is used in peep) and a jalap (medicinal).
  • BINDWEED, stem of grasses and bushes of a set of a morning-glory family. Ok. 250 kinds, primarily in moderate ranges. A bindweed field (berezka) - a malicious weed of crops. As bindweeds call also kinds of a glorybind with curling stalks and grechishku vjunkovuju - a weed of a set of a buckwheat family.
  • VJUNY, a stem of fishes of order karpoobraznyh. Length up to 30 see. Some kinds, in internal water reservoirs of Europe, JUzh. And Vost. Asia. Object of laboratory probes.
  • VJURKOVYE, a set of birds of order sparrow. 133 kinds, are distributed widely. In Russia it is routine hawfinches, a goldfinch, a siskin, konopljanka, a finch, lentil, crossbills, chechotkas, etc. Erase destructive insects and seeds of weeds; some damage grain and ogorodnye crops.
  • BRAMBLING (jurok), a bird of a set vjurkovyh. It is little bit less than sparrow. Dwells in a forest zone of Eurasia. A migrant; arrives in March - April. Nests twists on trees, predominary on spruces and birches. Eats seeds of plants and hexapods.
  • VJUHI, in induizme four implementations of god Vishnu (Vasudeva, Sankarshana, Pradjumna and Aniruddha).
  • The PACK TRANSPORT, shipping goods in packs on horses, mules, camels, donkeys, etc. It is developed predominary in mountains, a taiga, deserts.
  • VJASA, the legendary old indian poet. To him the authorship of "Mahabharata", puran (canonical texts induizma) and ordering of the text ved is attributed.
  • VEJ BOREAL (Toba Vej), the state and a dynasty in 386-535 in terrain the Sowing. China. It is based Toba Guem - by the leader of nations toba.
  • VEJ THAT, in mythology of the Chinese Buddhism a saver of the law, the militant sentinel. It is figured with a sword and in an armour.
  • VEJ CHANHOJ (? - 1856), one of chiefs Tajpinskogo of revolt 1850-64 in China. Commanded large connection tajpinskoj armies; the party to a plot against JAn Sjutsina. It is killed under order Hun Sjutsjuanja.
  • VEJ SHANG - TSZJUN, in the Chinese mythology the daos-healer. Was to ill with a black dog.
  • VEJ YUAN (1794-1857), the Chinese thinker, the historian, the geographer and the poet. The writer " Maps and the description of overseas countries ", one of the first Chinese books about countries of Europe.
  • VEJ-GU, in the Chinese mythology the god - healer, the promoter of doctors.
  • WEIFANG, city in China, in prov. Shandong. 428 thousand inhabitants (1990). A machine industry; alimentary, textile, a chemical industry.
  • VEJHE, the river on the orient of China, component r. Hajhe. Ok. 600 kms, the area of basin ok. 50 thousand êì2. Weeps on Great Chinese plain. A lower reaches in system of the Great channel. It is navigable. In a mouth - Tianjin.
  • VEJSHE, in the Chinese mythology the spirit - snake with a bifurcated body and two heads in red caps.
  • VENGAPUROVSKOE the DEPOSIT petrogas condensate, in a north of the Tyumen region (the Western - Siberian oil-and-gas-bearing province). It is open in 1968. Deposits on depth of 1-2,9 kms. Beginning inventories 237 billion in m3. Center of production - a settlement. Tarko-bacon.
  • GABER (Haber) (Haber) Frits (1868-1934), the german chemist - neorganik and the technologist, foreign honorary member AN the USSR (1932). In 1933 has emigrated from Germany. For the first time has received (1908) on a halfway unit a luquid ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen on the osmic catalyst at pressure up to 20 MPa. The Nobel Prize (1918). The initiator of military application of poisonous substances.
  • GABERLANDT (Haberlandt) (Haberlandt), german physiologists of plants, father and the son: 1) Fridrih (1826-78). Transactionses on an ontogenesis and roles of physical factors in development of agricultural plants, their protection against pests, acclimatizations, to a sericulture. 2) Gotlib Iogann Fridrih (1854-1945), foreign corresponding member AN the USSR (1925; foreign corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science with 1924). One of founders of a physiological direction in a plant anatomy; has developed grading plant tissues, founded on their functions. Transactionses on tropisms; has discovered t. n. Wound hormones.
  • GABERONES (Gaberones), capital of Botswana; see. Gaborone.
  • GABES, city and port in Tunis, an administrative centre vilajeta Gabes. 92 thousand inhabitants (1984). Chemical, a flavoring industry. Fishery.
  • GABES (Small Sirt), a bay of Mediterranean m. for boreal shore Africa (Tunis). Length of 41 kms, width ok. 68 kms, depth ok. 50 m. A large island - Dzherba. Primary ports: Gabes, Sehira.
  • GABION (frants. gabion), a box from a gauze, the filled a broken stone; it is used in reguljatsionnyh and bank protected structures.
  • HABIT (an armour. habitus), external appearance of the person, his constitution, bearing; an exterior, appearance animal, plants, a crystal.
  • GABIJA (Gabie), in the Lithuanian mythology the godhood of fire, personification of sacred fire of a home.
  • GABO (Gabo; an ice-film. fam. Pevzner) Nahum Abramovich (1890-1977), the artist and the theorist of art. Brother N.A.Pevznera. The native of Russia, in 1917-22 worked on Rhodinum, then - in Germany, France, the Great Britain and the USA. One of leaders of constructivism, osmysljal it predominary as the abstract art, is only indirectly the bound with social-political problems. Created stable compositions and mobiles, it is strict geometrichnye or more loose, representing do-it-yourself worlds of regional forms; masterly used plastic capabilities of diverse materials - from metals and plastics materials up to a stone.
  • GABOVICH Michael Markovich (1905-65), the Russian ballet dancer, the national actor of Russia (1951). In 1924-52 at Major theatre. The first initiator of consignment Romeo (" Romeo and Dzhuljetta " S.S.Prokofjeva), etc. The State premium of the USSR (1946, 1950).
  • GABON (Gabon), Republic Gabonskaja (Republique Gabonaise), the state in Center. To Africa. 268 thousand êì2. The population 1,3 million person (1993); fang, mpongve, mbete, punu, etc. The Urban population of 45,7 % (1993). The official language - French. Believers - christians (primarily roman catholics and protesters), ok. 3 % hold on to traditional convictions, etc. Administrative territorial division: 9 provinces. Capital - Libreville. The chief of state - the president. The body of legislation - unicameral National assembly. An interior of Gabon - a tableland and a mountain (an altitude up to 1580 m. Ibundzhi); along Atlantic ok. - lowland. A climate subequatorial; in a north equatorial. A rainfall of 1800-4000 mm annually. Mean temperatures of April 25-27 °S, July 22-24 °S. The main river - Ogooue (navigation in the lower flow). Tropical forests. On a shore - mangroves. National parks - Wong - Wong, Okanda. Terrain of Gabon in 19 century. It has been seized by France. The Berlin conference 1884-85 has recognized the right of France on new colony. About 1886 Gabon - separate French colony, in 1888 it is merged from Congo in one colony, in 1910-58 entered in the French Equatorial Africa; in 1958-60 - the independent state. Since August 1960 independent republic. The party in power - Gabonskaja democratic party (it is based in 1968), supports the close union with France. The basis of economy - a mining industry (under the supervisory control primarily the French capital). A lobe in a runway (1990, %): an industry 52,8, including mining 47; village and a forestry 11,4. Main export agricultural crops: a cane, cocoa, a peanut. The main consumer crops: maniocas, bananas, corn, fig. Fishery. Timber loggings. A crude production, manganous and uranic ores. Manufacture of the electric power 914 million kVt·ch (1991). Length of railways of 668 kms, motorways of 6,9 thousand. Km (1993). The tonnage of a marine merchant marine fleet of 30,2 thousand t deadweight. Main seaports: the Port - ZHantil and Libreville. Export: petroleum, wood, a manganese ore, uranic concentrates. The main foreign trade partners: France, the USA, Japan, Germany, etc. Monetary unit - franc KFA (the African financial community).
  • GABOR Andor (1884-1953), the Hungarian writer. Satirical plays and feuilletons " Peshtskie sobbings. The book about ill city " (1912), the collection of verses "Orgovan" (1920), anti-fascist stories and articles. Roman " the Doctor anybody " (t. 1-2, 1946).
  • GABOR Dennis (Denesh) (1900-79), physics. Was born in Hungary. With 1927 in Germany, with 1934 in the Great Britain, with 1967 in the USA. Has constructed a general theory of a holography and has received the first holograms. The Nobel Prize (1971).
  • GABOR Miklosh (r. 1919), the Hungarian actor. From 1941 National theatre master the actor and Theatre him. I.Madacha. It was taken out in films: "Bear - aristocrat", " Albian stage Regija ", "Wall", etc.
  • GABORIO (Gaboriau) Emil (1832-73), the French writer, one of initiators of a detective genre. Ò. n. Criminal novels: " Business Leruzh " (1866), " the Crime in Orsivale " (1867), " Slaves to Paris " (1868).
  • GABORONE (Gaberones) (Gaborone, Gaberones), capital of Botswana, an administrative centre of the Southeast district. 134 thousand inhabitants (1991). The alimentary enterprises. University.
  • GABRIADZE Revaz Levanovich (r. 1936), the Georgian prose writer, the playwright, the producer, the artist, the honored worker of arts of Georgia (1979). Art Gabriadze is organically connected to national art traditions. In 1981 has organized the Tbilisi theatre of puppets. Productions (Gabriadze - the writer of plays, the producer and the artist): " Alfred and Violetta " (on motives of opera Dzh. Verdi "Traviata" (1981), " Autumn of our spring " (1985), etc. The Writer of scripts of films " Not gorjuj! ", "Mimino" (from V.S.Tokarevoj and G.N.Danelia), etc. The State premium of the USSR (1989).
  • GABRIELS (Gabrieli), italian composers: Andrea (between 1510 and 1520 - after 1586) and his nephew Giovanni (between 1553 and 1556-1612 or 1613), representatives. The venetian school. Organists of a cathedral the Dignity - Marko in Venice.
  • GABRIEL (Gabriel) Jacque Anzh (1698-1782), the French architect. The representative of a classicism. Rational on grading, legible and clear under the form, refined products on furnish (Small Trianon in Versailles, 1762-64, a square. The consent in Paris, 1753-75).
  • CONVEX SURFACE, see in an item. A convex body.
  • *ÂÛÏÓÊËÎÅ the BODY, a geometric object having that property, that the cutting bridging his two any point is contained in a nem bodily (napr., the body a is convex, the body is not convex). A sphere, a cube - examples of a convex body. Any cohesive part of border of a convex body calls as a convex surface.
  • *ÂÛÏÓÊËÎÑÒÜ And the CONCAVE CAMBER, properties of the plot of the function y = f (x) (curve), consisting in a volume, that each arch of a curve is not higher (buldge from top to bottom, or a concave camber up) or is not lower (a concave camber from top to bottom, or buldge up) than its subtending chord.
  • LEVELLING, in statistics - a method through which receive analytical and actuarial expression of the regularity basing the given empirical lines of statistical data.
  • INDICATIVE MOTIONS, express mental (especially emotional) conditions animal and the person, intonations of a voice, gestures, etc. show in a facial expression, pantomimike.
  • VYREZUB, a fish of a set karpovyh. The length up to 72 sm, weighs up to 8 kg. In basins of Black and Azov seas. In a bass. The Caspian m. the subspecies vyrezuba - kutum dwells. Object of a craft.
  • VYRY, in vostochnoslavjanskoj mythologies paradise where birds and showers died dwell. Keys from Vyrija remain deposited for a bird.
  • DEGENERATES Ivan Grigorjevich (?-1564), the clerk, the chief of construction Svijazhska in 1551, siege towers near Kazan (1552), of some strengths in 1557. Voevoda in Astrakhan in 1558-60. It is executed in the season oprichniny.
  • DEGENERATION, - consists of physics in a volume, that value of some physical quantity defining system, napr., powers, it is equal to different system conditions; the figure of such conditions calls as a degeneracy multiplicity. Degeneration testifies to a fixed symmetry of object (system) and is removed by external actions.
  • DEGENERATION the TEMPERATURE, temperature, is lower which in gases quantum effects, the bound with identity of particles (see show. Identity a principle). For a Bose gas of degeneration temperature Tâ is peer to temperature, is lower which descends Boze - the Einstein condensation, for Fermi gas of phase change does not descend, and Tv = EF/k, where EF - maximum power of particles at T = 0 (fermi-power), k - Boltsmana a stationary value.
  • The DEGENERATE GAS, quantum gas at the temperature of is lower than degeneration of temperature Tv. In a theoretical degenerate gas of bosons descends Boze - the Einstein condensation. Degeneration occurs, when a wavelength de Brojlja, conforming to a thermal-motion energy of particles, becomes comparable with mean distance between them. In routine nuclear or molecular gases of degeneration does not descend. For electrons in metals Tv 10000 To, therefore electronic gas in metals - always a degenerate gas.
  • VYRTSJARV, lake in a central part of Estonia. The area 270 êì2. An average depth of 2,8 m. Into lake runs r. Vjajke-Emajygi, escapes r. Emajygi. It is navigable. Landing stage Jyesuu.
  • SLASH, in metal working - the operation of a sheet-metal forming - obtaining of flat component parts by branch of a material from preparation on a close circuit in a dinking die (napr., circular preparations for an extrusion of pans).
  • VYRUBOVA Anna Aleksandrovna (1884-1964), the maid of honour of empress Aleksandry Fedorovny (with 1904). Posrednitsa between imperial family and G.E.Rasputinym. With 1920 in emigration. Memories: " Pages from my life ". Ò. n. " Diary Vyrubovoj " - a forgery.
  • TRANSPLANTATION, in metal working - the forge operation - building of joint thickenings on rod or tubular billets by reduction of their length (the partial upsetting). Transplantation receive bolts, rivets, flanges on pipes, etc.
  • SALTING - OUT, secretion of substance from his solution gaining of other substance (salt more often), having the greater dissolubility. A salting - out apply at a soap manufacture, dyes and many other products.
  • VYSELOK (vyselki), in Russia village settlements, which all inhabitants have moved from other occupied point. Routinely saved the title of a former settlement with add-on of word "Vyselok".
  • SCRAPING of the UTERUS, surgical operation abortions (abortion) or with other medical or diagnostic purpose (napr., obtaining of a scraping of a mucous membrane of a uterus for consequent histological probe). Carry out in a hospital.
  • VUOKSA (fin. Vuoksi, Vuoksi), the river in Finland and the Russian Federation. 156 kms, the area of basin of 52,4 thousand êì2. Escapes from an eskar. Saimaa, runs in Ladoga an eskar. Average discharge of water over 600 from a river plant. On r. Vuoksa - a waterfall Imatra; Imatra (Finland).
  • VUOLIJOKI (Wuolijoki) Hella (psevd. JUhani Tervapjaja and Feliks Tuli) (1886-1954), the Finnish writer, the participant of Resistance movement. Wrote in the Estonian and Finnish tongues. Roman " Inhabitants Zatumannogo " (hours 1-2, 1914-33), plays ("Kojdula", 1932, etc.) from the Estonian life. A cycle of realistic plays about generic manor Niskavuori, including "Women Niskavuori" (1936), showing crash of a patriarchal household activities, the play of "Justin" (1937). The autobiographical trilogy (1945-53).
  • VUPPERTAL (Wuppertal), city in Germany, ground the Sowing. Rhine - Vestfalija. 372,4 thousand inhabitants (1989). A machine industry, textile, chemical, a food-processing industry. The Barman and Elberfeld is derivated in 1929 interflow of cities.
  • VURGUN Samed (an ice-film. A name and fam. Samed JUsif ogly Vekilov) (1906-56), the Azerbaijan poet, the national poet of Azerbaijan (1943), the public figure, academician AN of Azerbaijan (1945). The collection of verses on construction of new life; poetic dramas "Vagif" (1937), " Farhad and Breadths " (1941), "Person" (1945); a cycle of the verses dedicated Great Domestic war; poems about contemporaries "Mugan" (1949), "Ajgjun" (1951), " the Standard-bearer of eyelid " (1954). Transferred products of the Russian literature and literatures of peoples of the USSR. The state premium of the USSR (1941, 1942).
  • The VAMPIRE, see. The vampire.
  • VURUNSEMU, in hettskoj mythologies htonicheskoe the godhood, the marital partner of the god of a thunder-storm.
  • VUSTEJNE (Woestijne) the Karelian van de (1878-1929), the Belgian writer. Wrote in the Netherlands tongue. It is close to symbolists. In the basis of many scenes - arcaded legends and natural life of the poet. The poetic trilogy " the Person is built from clay " (1920), " the God on the pest " (1926) and " Mountain lake " (1928).
  • WORCESTER (Worcester), city on north-east the USA, pieces. Massachusetts. 169,8 thousand inhabitants (1990), with suburbs over 400 thousand inhabitants. Metal working and a machine industry, a glass industry. 2 universities. Publishing.
  • VUTTIG (Wuttig) Iogann Fridrih Christians (1783-1850), the Russian chemist - technologist and the pharmacist, corresponding member Petersburg AN (1810). By origin the German. Has constructed in 1805 first factory in Russia on manufacture of sulfuric acid (of sulfur in selfcontained lead chambers). In 1811 has placed the fact of metamorphosis of starch in sweeteners under action of inorganic acids. In 1812 has returned to Germany.
  • VUCHETICH Eugeny Viktorovich (1908-74), the Russian sculptor, the national artist of the USSR (1959), the full member AH the USSR (1953), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1967). In geroiko-symbolical (monument - band to soldiers of the Soviet Army in Treptov-park in Berlin, 1946-49), sometimes hypertrophied - monumental (monument - band on Mamayev a tumulus in Volgograd, 1963-67, the Lenin premium, 1970, - with co-authors) modes aspired to reflect exploit of Soviet people in Great Domestic war, extirpation for the world (" we Shall reforge swords on shouted ", 1957). Portraits ("I.D.Chernjahovsky", 1945). The state premium of the USSR (1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950).
  • VUE (Vouet) Simon (1590-1649), the French painter. It is more 10 flying has conducted in Italy; having returned home, has headed court school. In creativity Vue, bridged color oof of venetians, classical composition Pussena, decorative effect and dynamism of baroque painting, the French version klassitsizirovannogo Baroque was formed.
  • VHUTEIN, the Maximum artistic - technical institute, in 1922-30 educational institutions in Leningrad (it is based in 1922 on the basis AH) and Moscow (is based in 1926 on the basis Vhutemasa).
  • VHUTEMAS, the Maximum artistic - technical workshops, the Moscow educational institution, it is based in 1920. Had art and industrial faculties; prepared basically artists - stankovistov and architects, has created a fundamentals of preparation of artists - designers. In 1926 Vhutemas it is transformed in Vhutein.
  • VTS, see. Computer center.
  • VTSIK, see the All-Russia Central Executive committee.
  • " YESTERDAY AND TODAY ", the Russian literary collection constituted by V.A.Sollogubom; left in Petersburg in 1845-46 (kn. 1-2). V.F.Odoevsky, A.K.Tolstogo, I.S.Turgeneva, N.M.Jazykova, M.J.Lermontov products were typed, etc.
  • VCHK, see the All-Russia Extraordinary Commission.
  • VSHI, order blood-sucking vtorichnobeskrylyh hexapods. Ok. 300 kinds. Parasites of the person and mammals. On the person parasitize head vosh, length up to 4 mm, platjanaja vosh, length up to 4,7 mm, and also a crab louse, or pubic vosh, length up to 1,5 mm. Can minister carriers of contagions (a sapropyra, a typhinia, etc.). Vshi animal per capita do not pass.
  • VSHCHIZH, old russian city of 11-13 centuries, on r. Desna, for the modern seconds. ZHukovskoe (the Russian Federation, Bryansk region). Residues of defensive and inhabited constructions, numerous subjects of a household activities.
  • "OUTRIGGER BOOM", the maximum officer courses him. Marshal of Soviet Union B.M.Shaposhnikova in Solnechnogorsk of the Moscow region. Are based in 1918. Execute retraining officers of arms of a land forces of a link of shelves - a batallion.
  • HIGHER MATHEMATICS, set of the mathematical disciplines, technical curriculum technical and some other special educational institutions; routinely the course of higher mathematics actuates elements of an analytical geometry, a linear algebra, differential calculus, an integral calculus and differential equations.
  • The MAXIMUM NERVOUS ACTIVITY, activity of the maximum departments of central nervous system (bark of major hemispheres and the subcortical centres), ensuring the most perfect adaptation animal and the person to an environment. In the basis of the maximum nervous activity conditioned reflexes and the composite unconditioned reflexes (instincts, emotions, etc.) lay. The availability is typical of the maximum nervous human activity not only 1-st signal system which is inherent and animal, but also 2-nd signal system, to the bound with speech and inherent only to the person. The doctrine about the maximum nervous activity is built by I.P.Pavlovym.
  • "HIGHER SCHOOL", publishing house, Moscow. It is based in 1939 (up to 1959 " the Soviet science "). The educational literature for high schools, mean special and professional educational institutions, a number of log-books.
  • HIGHER EDUCATION, level of skill of the expert, received in higher educational establishments on the basis full secondary education and confirmed by the conforming diploma.
  • The MAXIMUM NERVOUS ACTIVITY AND NEUROPHYSIOLOGY INSTITUTE (IVND) the Russian Academy of Science, is organized in 1960 in Moscow on the basis Institute of the maximum nervous activity AN the USSR (it is based in 1950). Probes on physiology of nervous system, conditioned reflexes, etc.
  • The MAXIMUM WOMEN COURSES, in Russia up to 1917 higher educational establishments for women. Prepared doctors and teachers. The first maximum women courses are open in Saint Petersburg (Alarchinskie) and in Moscow (Lubjanskie) in 1869. Courses of professor V.I.Gerje in Moscow (are based in 1872) and Bestuzhevskie in Saint Petersburg (1878 are most known; are called by name their official chief of historian K.N.Bestuzhev - Ryumin).
  • The MAXIMUM CRUSTACEA, subclass of Invertebrata of a class of Crustacea. 13 orders (ok. 19,5 thousand kinds), including tonkopantsirnye, Stomatopoda, mizidy, kumovye, ravnonogie, fresh-water shrimps, evfauzievye, decapoda.
  • HIGHER PLANTS (telomnye plants), podtsarstvo flora. As against lower plant - forms the body of higher plants separates into specialized organs - leaves, a stalk and a root. St. 300 thousand kinds. Departments: riniofity, mossy, psilotovidnye; plaunovidnye, hvoshchevidnye, paporotnikovidnye, gymnosperm and floral (pokrytosemennye) plants.
  • HIGHER EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS (high schools), plot experts with higher education for different branches of an economy, science and crop on the basis the secondary education, many conduct also a research work of theoretical and applied character, execute improvement of professional skill of teachers of the maximum and mean special school and graduated experts. Universities, institutes, the maximum schools, educational academies, conservatories concern to high schools. Periods of training 4-7 flying.
  • The MAXIMUM ARBITRATION COURT of the Russian Federation, the maximum court of justice under the sanction of economic chaffers and other businesses considered by arbitration courts. Executes in foreseen the federal act remedial forms judicial supervision behind their activity and explains on the judiciary law. The judge of the maximum arbitration court are nominated as Council of Federation on presentation of the President of the Russian Federation. The maximum arbitration court posesses the power to initiate legislation.
  • The MAXIMUM ATTESTATIVE COMMITTEE of the Russian Federation, is built in 1992, the supreme body of the federal executive authority executing judgment to scientific and scientific and pedagogical workers of scientific degrees and appropriation to science officers of academic statuses. The main task - realization of a unified state policy, a verification of compliance in range of certification of scientific and scientific and pedagogical staff of the top skills.
  • The HIGH COUNCIL of NATIONAL ECONOMY (VSNH)... 1) the maximum central organ on steering of a national economy, primarily an industry, in 1917-32. It is built at Advice of National Commissioners of RSFSR. With education of the USSR - consolidated (sojuzno-republican) narkomat (1923-32). VSNH the USSR supervised over industrial enterprises of allied value, union republics VSNH - remaining. Aboriginal organs: provincial, circumferential sovnarhozy; in 1920-29 - also regional Prombjuro (integrated some provinces). VSNH the USSR is reorganized in 3 narkomata: heavy, mild and a forest industry.... 2) the Maximum state organ on a guiding of an industry and construction at Council of Ministers of the USSR in 1963-65. Aboriginal organs - sovnarhozy.
  • DISPATCH... 1) in Russia 19 - nach. 20 centuries removal of a face on court or administratively from capitals, fixed provinces or cities with granting or without according a right of choice of domicile outside of the given district.... 2) In the Russian Federation till July, 1 1992 kind of the punishment under criminal law comprising of his habitation at a distance convicted from a place with ban to live at fixed districts.
  • VYTEGRA, city (with 1773) in the Russian Federation, the Vologda region, in 198 kms from zh.-d. Item Lodejnoe the Field. Landing stage on the Volga-Baltic waterway. 12,9 thousand inhabitants (1992). Metal working; a food-processing industry. A study of local lore museum.
  • VYTEGRA, the river in northwest of the European part of the Russian Federation. 64 kms, the area of basin 1670 êì2. Escapes from Matkozera, for a headstream it is paired by the Mariinsky channel with r. Kovzha. The eskar runs in Onega. It is sluiced. A part Volga-Baltic a waterway.
  • REPLACEMENT, the protective mechanism of psychics consisting in expulsion from consciousness of experiences unacceptable for him - appetences and pulses, and also their derivative - emotions, memories, etc.; one of the main concepts of a psychoanalysis.
  • TO HOWL... 1) unit of taxation in Russia 16-17 centuries. With transition to podushnoj podati in nach. 18 century it is substituted tjaglom.... 2) the Structural part sezzhej (prikaznoj) log huts, other title - povytje.
  • EXTENSION, method of treatment at fractures, dislocations and some diseases of extremities and a backbone by building a pull-rod - by hand-carry or with the help of special apparatuses.
  • The VOTE (from an armour. votum - desire, will), the judgement expressed voting. In state law the vote of confidence - approval by parliament of activity of government. In a number of the foreign states at rendition of the non-confidence vote the government, as a rule, leaves in demission or the parliament (lower chamber) explodes the chief of state and advance parliamentary elections are carried out.
  • VOTCHAL Eugeny Filatovich (1864-1937), the physiologist of plants, the founder of the Ukrainian scientific school, academician AN of Ukraine (1921). The main transactionses on motion of water in trees, an electrophysiology of plants, private physiology of sugar-beet.
  • ANCESTRAL LANDS... 1) the most ancient kind of a land property in Russia passing by right of succession. Has arisen in 10-11 centuries (princely, seignioral, conventual), in 13-15 centuries a prevailing land tenure. With kon. 15 century stood up to to a manor with which approached in 16-17 centuries and in nach. 18 century has drained in one kind - a manor. Hereinafter an ancestral lands - any feudal land property.... 2) the Term used in the Russian historical literature for notation of a complex of a feudal land property and bound with it of rights to dependent peasants. As a rule, it was divided into a domonical economy (domain) and country derzhanija. Within the limits of an ancestral lands to its proprietor (possessing the right of immunity) belonged administrative and the judicial authority, the right of levy. Synonyms of an ancestral lands - senjorija, the manor, a manor.
  • VOTCHINNAJA the INDUSTRY, industrial enterprises in Russia, forming by landowners in the manors on the basis of the serf of transactionses.
  • VOTCHINNAJA the THEORY, system of views of historians (primarily 2-nd floor. 19 - nach. 20 centuries), retracted to a medieval Western-European ancestral lands defining role in socio economic, political, cultural life of a Middle Ages. Representatives: Fjustel de Kulanzh, Sibom, etc. (for them an ancestral lands - one of initial institutes of a human society), Imana-SHternegg, Lamprehe, etc. (combined votchinnuju the theory with elements of the communal theory).
  • VOTCHINNYJ COURT, court of the master of an ancestral lands above the serfs (in Russia since 16 century before cancellation of serfdom in 1861).
  • VOTJAKI, the obsolete title of Udmurts.
  • IN - TSJUAN, in the Chinese mythology wise starets, aware of medicines of longevity and immortality. Lives in mountains, the body of it is coated with a wool.
  • VOSHERIJA, a stem of yellow-green algae. A thallome by the way filaments of a noncellular structure. Ok. 60 kinds, at the bottom of fresh water reservoirs, less often than seas, on crude soil.
  • VOSHCHAK JAroslav Antonovich (1921-89), the Byelorussian conductor, the national actor of the USSR (1979). With 1953 main conductor of opera theatres of Lvov, Odessas, Voronezh, Kazan. With 1972 main conductor, with 1980 conductor of the Byelorussian theatre of opera and ballet.
  • WAX CLOTH, Byelorussian ãðàâåðû:... 1) Maxim Jarmolinich (? - 1708), the chalcographer, headed a printing house Mogilyov Bogojavlenskogo brotherhoods (23 gravures for the book " Akathists and canons ", 1693).... 2) Vasily Maksimovich, son Maxim Jarmolinicha. Worked in Mogilyov in 1694-1730. A xylographer (leafs "John Damascene", "Christmas" â "Osmoglasnike", 1730).
  • WAXED Vasily, the chief of revolt of peasants and poors 1740-44 in Belarus. Has declared itself grandson Bogdana Khmelnitskiy. After rout of revolt by a troops of Polish king ran to Ukraine.
  • FOUNDATION, the thin waxen leafs with squeezed out 6-coal bedplates of a honey-bee family of cells. It is produced at factories on a thorough revision of waxen raw material. It is fixed in a frame which is interposed into a beehive that gear ups construction of honeycomb by bees.
  • "VOYAGER" (English Voyager, characters. - the traveller), the American space vehicle for probes of long-distance planets of the Solar system. Mass of 733 kg. Are started "Voyager - 1" è "Voyager - 2" (1977). Probes from a drift trajectory of the Jove, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune are conducted.
  • VOYAGE (frants. voyage), trip, traveling (obsolete or ironical).
  • VOJACHEK Vladimir Ignatjevich (1876-1971), Russian otorinolaringolog, the founder of scientific school, academician AMN (1944), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1961), the general - lieutenant of a medical service (1943). The main transactionses on physiology, a pathology and research techniques of an internal ear and surgical treatment of his diseases, on an air medicine.
  • HOLLOWS, kickdowns of a surface within the limits of a dry matter, and also a bottom of oceans and seas, mostly tectonic an origin.
  • "FORWARDS", bolshevistskoe legal publishing house, 1906-07, Saint Petersburg. It is routed by police.
  • "FORWARDS"... 1) first bolshevistskaja the weekly newspaper, Geneva, 22.12.1904 (4.1.1905) - 5.5.1905, 18 numbers. An organ of Office of committees of the majority. Edition was headed by V.I.Lenin.... 2) Legal bolshevistskaja the daily newspaper, Saint Petersburg, 26.5 (8.6) - 14.6.1906, 17 numbers. Preemnitsa - the newspaper "Echo".... 3) Bolshevistskaja the clandestine working newspaper, Vyborg, 10.9.1906-19.1..1908, 20 numbers.
  • ROTATED FURNACE (a drum furnace, a pipe-still heater), a commercial furnace of a cylindricity with rotary movement of a body around of a centerline. It intended for heating materials with the purpose of their physico-chemical machining (in metallurgy, cement and a chemical industry).
  • The ROTATED MAGNETIC FIELD, magnetic field, which magnetic displacement vector is spun in the space from a stationary value by frequency. Receive build of 2 and more variable magnetic fields shifted in time and the space. It is used in many ac machines, probing devices, etc.
  • DRIVING TORQUE, measure of the external action changing angular rate of the rotated body. Driving torque Mvr is peer to a sum moment of all forces operational on a body concerning a fulcrum pin and is connected to an angular acceleration of a body? Equality Mvr = I?, where I - a moment of inertia of a body concerning a fulcrum pin.
  • ROTATION, in geometry - a motion pattern at which there is fixed at least one point.
  • OPTICAL ROTATION, turning movement of a polarization plane linearly polarized light at his transit through substance. Optical rotation is supervised in optically active substances, and also in the substances placed at a magnetic field.
  • VREVSKY Michael Stepanovich (1871-1929), Russian fizikohimik, corresponding member AN the USSR (1929). The main transactionses on thermodynamics of solutions. Has placed (1911) laws expressing relation of structure of fallow of a solution from evaporation heat of his components and temperature (laws Vrevskogo). The premium him. V.I.Lenina (1929).
  • Roman Romanovich (1867-1934), the founder of the Russian surgical orthopedics, the organizer and the chief (1906-34) first in Russia orthopedic institute, the writer of the first Russian guiding HARMFUL. Has offered and has inserted many orthopedic operations wearing his name.
  • PESTS of AGRICULTURAL PLANTS, animal, damaging cultivated plants or triggering their death. More than 60 thousand kinds, predominary hexapods, mites, grease irons, birds and mammals (napr., rodents). Sink productivity and a product quality.
  • HARMFUL LEATHERJACKETS, hexapod of a set of leatherjacketses; the pest of many agricultural and wild - plants in Europe and the Sowing. To America. Grey, length of 22-32 mm. Eats (larvas) roots, stalks, root leaves.
  • PENTATOMID, bug of a set shchitnikov; the pest of small crops in Eurasia. Fallow with dark drawing, length of 7-13 mm. Damages ears and a grain.
  • TEMPORARY INCAPACITY FOR WORK, temporary disablement, and also capabilities to perform the job (napr., at quarantine, at maintenance behind falling ill member of family). In Russia at temporary incapacity for work workers and employees are released of activity and ensured with allowances at the expense of a means of state social insurance.
  • The PROVIDING GOVERNMENT in Russia, the first democratic government derivated after overthrow of emperor Nikolay II. It generated after February revolution by Interim committee of members of the State Duma with the consent of leaders Petrosoveta for the season before convocation of Constitutional assembly. The maximum executive organ, executed also legislative functions. Acted from March, 2 till October, 25 (on November, 7) 1917; 4 structures of the Providing government were replaced: 1-st structure (2 oktjabrista, 8 cadets and adjoining to nymas, 1 trudovik, then - eser; the chairman - cadet G.E.Lvov) till May, 6 (19); 2-nd (1 oktjabrist, 8 cadets and adjoining, 3 esera, 2 menshevika; the chairman - Lvov) - till July, 24 (on August, 6); 3-rd (7 cadets and adjoining, 5 eserov and national socialists, 3 menshevika; the chairman - eser A.F.Kerensky) - till September, 1 (14) (has transmitted an authority of "Directory"); 4-th (6 cadets and adjoining, 2 esera, 4 menshevika, 6 non-parties; the chairman - Kerensky) - till September, 25 (on October, 8). In the program stated in the declaration [it is published 3 (16) March] and the circulation to citizens of Russia on March, 6 (19), has proclaimed a principle " successions of an authority " and " continuities of the right ", has declared the tendency to finish war with " the victorious extremity " and to execute all contracts and agreements with the allied mandatory powers. Has legalized rout of the apparatus of police, arrest of councilors of ministers, has abolished penal servitude and the reference, has declared political amnesty. Promised to enter political freedoms, to call Constitutional assembly, to substitute police national militia. Has passed the law on freedom of assembly and the unions; has emited decrees about drive to the state of the grounds belonging to an imperial surname, about working committees on industrial enterprises; has declared about introduction of grain monopoly. On September, 1 (14) has proclaimed the Russian republic. Svergnuto October revolution.
  • " The PROVIDING GOVERNMENT of BOREAL RANGE ", government in Boreal range (September 1918 - February 1920, Arkhangelsk, led by N.V.Chajkovskim, then general E.K.Miller). It is derivated at support of Anglo-American interventionists. Opposed the Soviet authority.
  • TEMPORARY the LAG, see. The lag.
  • VREMENNOOBJAZANNYE PEASANTS, in Russia in 1861-83 former serfs, not translated on the repayment (see. The redemption operation) after country reform 1861. Bore duties (izdolshchina, a tax) for use by ground.
  • TEMPORARY RULES, kind of the act in Russian empire. Adjusted problems of state and public life before acceptance of the law. Were considered in Committee of ministers, affirmed emperor. Many years (napr sometimes acted., temporary rules about a seal instead of censorial charters in 1865-1917).
  • CASUAL WORKERS, under the Russian right workers and the employees who have been given an employment for the term of up to 2 mes, and for replacement of temporarily missing workers behind which the place of work - till 4 months is saved. Action of the labour legislation is distributed to casual workers with some withdrawals (napr., casual workers have not right on holiday).
  • ARMED FORCES, part of structure of the state, the bound with fulfilment of his external functions (national defense, etc.). One of the major elements of military organization of the state. Till 20 century. Armed forces actuated overland army and a VTR. The modern Armed forces will consist of different kinds of Armed forces (a land forces, air force, a VTR, etc.), some military organizations of the state (napr., in the USA - national guards), the supreme bodies of military steering, organs of back. Kinds of Armed forces are divided on service arms (a stem of forces in a VTR, an aviation category) and a special troops. Armed forces are completed on the basis of an overall conscription or on the contract basis.
  • ARMED FORCES of the United Nations, form by the United Nations according to the Charter for maintenance or restoration of an international peace and safety within the framework of system of collective security. The Security Council can create Armed forces of the United Nations in different areas of a terrestrial globe for an avoidance of resumption of armed conflicts, assistance to restoration and conservation of the law order, recurring to normal conditions of life, and also with the purposes of unlocking and acknowledgement of withdrawal of troops of the conflicting parties, overseeing by a cessation of fire and truce agreements. Armed forces of the United Nations were directed to Palestine (1948), to Cyprus (1964), to Lebanon (1978), to Iraq (1991), to Yugoslavia, in a number of other locales. The Nobel Prize of the world (1988).
  • " ARMED FORCES of the SOUTH of RUSSIA " (VSJUR), a White Guard troops during the Civil war. Are built in January 1919 by association under a command of general - lieutenant A.I.Denikina of Volunteer army and belokazachjej the Don army. In structure VSJUR entered also the Krymsko-Azov volunteer army (January February 1919), Turkestani army (January 1919 - February 1920), 3-rd separate army body (March - December 1919), a troops of Boreal Caucasus (since March 1919), the Caucasian army (since May 1919), the Black Sea fleet. In kon. July 1919 VSJUR totalled over 160 thousand person. In 1919-20 have been routed; residues VSJUR have departed to Crimea where on their basis by general - lieutenant P.N.Vrangelem it has been built t. n. " Russian army ".
  • ARMED NEUTRALITY... 1) Armed neutrality 1780-83, the union of Russia, Denmark and Sweden with the purpose of guarding a merchant shipping of neutral countries in a course of war of the English colonys in the Sowing. To America for independence.... 2) Armed neutrality 1800, the same including Prussia, built under the initiative of Paul I after an output of Russia from 2-nd antiFrench coalition. It is directed against England. After mors of Paul I has lost force.
  • VOPRA, the All-Russia society (All-union association) of proletarian architects in 1929-32. Members VOPRA (K.S.Alabjan, A.V.Vlasov, A.G.Mordvinov), close on conceptually - creative installations RAPPu and Proletkultu, declared building the class proletarian architecture, invoked to maintain a new collective household activities.
  • QUESTION MARK, the punctuation mark (?) staked in the extremity (in some tongues, napr., in spanish, and in the beginning, in an inverted kind) a question.
  • SEAL OIL, the obsolete title of marine animal oil and some fishes (rattles, etc.).
  • VORVULEV Nikolay Dmitrievich (1917-67), the Byelorussian and Ukrainian singer (baritone), the national actor of the USSR (1956). With 1946 in Byelorussian, with 1957 at the Ukrainian theatre of opera and ballet.
  • VORDSVORT (Uordsuort) (Wordsworth) William (1770-1850), the English poet - romantik. The representative of " lacustrine school ". " Lyrical ballads " (together with S.T.Kolridzhem, 1798), a poem "Prelude" (it is published in 1850). Has approximated poetic tongue to informal conversation.
  • VORKUTA, city (with 1943) in the Russian Federation, Republic Komi, behind the Polar circle, on r. Vorkuta. A depot. 116 thousand inhabitants (1992.) Center of the Pechora coal basin (combine " Âîðêóòàóãîëü "). Mechanic, mechanical-repair, cement, wood-working and other factories. 2 theatres.
  • VORMSI (Vormsi), an island in Moonzundskom arh., in Baltic m., in structure of Estonia. 93 êì2. Fishery.
  • VORMSSKY the CONCORDAT 1122, is encased in german. Vorms, has finished extirpation for investiture. Emperor of " Sacred Roman empire " was refused for the benefit of Roman dads from spiritual investiture; in Germany (but not in Italy and Burgundy) to emperor the right of sharing in election of diocesans and abbes was ensured.
  • VORMSSKY EDIKT 1521, it is issued by emperor of " Sacred Roman empire " Charles V; declared Luther the heretic and put it outside of the law. It is disclosed on rejhstage in. Vorms.
  • SPARROWS Alexey Alekseevich (r. 1931), the Russian physics - experimenter, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991). Transactionses on nuclear physics and fundamental particles. The state premium of the USSR (1983).
  • SPARROWS Arcady Nikitich (r. 1924), the Russian sportsman (weightlifting), the deserved master of the sport (1952), the deserved trainer of the USSR (1964), the doctor of medical sciences (1970). The champion of Olympic Games (1956, 1960), the repeated champion and the champion of the world, Europe and the USSR in 1950-1959.
  • SPARROWS Vladimir Vasiljevich (r. 1929), Russian ekonomikogeograf, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1990). Transactionses on economic geography, geography of the population and cities of Siberia.
  • SPARROWS Vladimir Petrovich (1876-1937), the Ukrainian anatomist, academician AN of Ukraine (1934). Probes on anatomy of nervous system. Has developed stereomorphological methods of preparing. The writer of " the Atlas of anthropotomy " (t. 1-5, 1938-42). Participat in an embalming of a body of V.I.Lenina. The premium him. V.I.Lenina (1927).
  • SPARROWS Vladimir Petrovich (r. 1912), the Russian shipbuilder, the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1963). The chief designer of designs of combat ships. The lenin premium (1970), the State premium of the USSR (1949).
  • SPARROWS Eugeny Zaharovich (1911-90), the Russian writer. Novels "Altitude" (1952) about builders of large factory, " the Hunt to vicissitude of places " (1978). The book " Moscow. Close to heart " about the defence of city in 1941-42.
  • VOLKOVYSK, city in Belarus, Grodno region, on r. It was grown. A railway junction. 42 thousand inhabitants (1991). Factory of the foundry equipment, etc.; a software of a building materials; a food-processing industry. A military - historical museum him. P.I.Bagration. It is known from 13 century.
  • VOLKOGONOV Dmitry Antonovich (1928-1995), the Russian historian, the doctor of historical and philosophical sciences, the professor, the general - colonel (1986). With 1984 deputy chief of Main political steering the Soviet Army and a VTR. In 1988-91 chief of Institute of a military history of the Ministry of Defence of the USSR. With 1991 chairman of some commissions of government of the Russian Federation and the President of the Russian Federation. Transactionses on a history, philosophy, problems of policy.
  • VOLKONSKAJA Zinaida Aleksandrovna (1789-1862), princess, the Russian writer. Interior Volkonskoj in Moscow in 1826-27 was visited by A.S.Pushkin. In 1829 has leaved for Italy. Verses, poems, stories in Russian, French, italian tongues.
  • VOLKONSKAJA Maria Nikolaevna (1805-63), princess, the daughter of general N.N.Raevskogo, the wife of decembrist S.G.Volkonsky, the friend A.S.Pushkin which devoted to her verses. In 1827 has followed the husband in Transbaikalia. The writer of "Notes".
  • VOLKONSKY Andrey Mihajlovich (r. 1933), the Russian composer. Acted as klavesinist both the organist. The organizer and the artistic administrator of band of arcaded music "Madrigal" (1964-73, Moscow). Chamber cantatas " the Suite of mirrors " (1960), " Petitions SHCHazy " (1964), compositions for a chamber orchestra, tool band, a piano.
  • VOLKONSKY Mihail Nikolaevich (1860-1917), prince, the Russian writer, the playwright. Parody opera " Vampuka, princess African " (1900; see an item " Vampuka... "). Historical novels and stories (" Maltese a circuit ", 1891; " Will of destiny ", 1893; " the Ring of the empress ", 1896, etc.); stories, feuilletons, plays.
  • VOLKONSKY Peter Mihajlovich (1776-1852), the Russian general - field marshal (1850), svetlejshy prince (1834), the honorary member Petersburg AN (1813). The participant of Domestic war 1812. With 1826 minister for an imperial yard and destinies.
  • VOLKONSKY Sergey Grigorjevich (1788-1865), the decembrist, prince, the general - major. The participant of Domestic war of 1812 and oversea marchings. The member of " Soyuz of prosperity " and the Austral society, one of directors Kamenskoj of justice. It is convicted on 20 flying of penal servitude. With 1826 in Nerchinskih mines, in 1835-56 on a settlement in Irkutsk lips. In 1861 abroad it was pulled together to A.I.Gertsenom and N.P.Ogarevym.
  • VOLKONSKY Sergey Mihajlovich (1860-1937), prince, the Russian writer, the art critic, the theatrical figure. Grandson S.G.Volkonsky and M.N.Volkonskoj. Activities on problems of a general aesthetics; articles about theatre. Books " my memories " (t. 1-2, 1923-24), " About decembrists. On family memories " (1921). With kon. 1921 in emigration in Paris.
  • VOLLASTON (Vullaston) (Wollaston) William Hyde (1766-1828), the English scientist. Has discovered (1801) irrespective of I.Rittera a ultraviolet radiation, has constructed the refractometer (1802) and a goniometer (1809). Has discovered a palladium (1803) and rhodium (1804), for the first time has received (1803) in the pure state platinum.
  • WOLLASTONITE (table spar), mineral of subclass of chain silikates, Ca3 [Si3O9]. White, radiative and shelly units. Hardness 5-5,5; firmness of 2,9-3,0 g / sm3. By origin kontaktovo-metamorphic. Raw material for the thin ceramics; zvuko-and a heat insulator.
  • CORRUGATED PARROT, bird of order of parrots. Length ok. 20 sm (about half - a tail). In Center. Australia. It is well multiplied in a captivity. A plumage predominary green. White, yellow, light-blue, violet and other corrugated parrots are introduced.
  • VOLNOVAHA, city (with 1938) on Ukraine, Donetsk region. A railway junction. 26,4 thousand inhabitants (1989). The enterprises alimentary, a building materials of an industry, etc.
  • WAVE OPTICS, section physical the opticians, investigator set of such phenomena, as a diffraction of light, interference of light waves, polarization of light in which the undular nature of light shows.
  • UNDULAR DRIVE, mechanic drive (gear, friction, screw); will consist of rigid and nonrigid elements (one of which is made fast) and t. n. The generator of waves. Due to a special kinematics of interaction between them undular drive ensures the considerable transmitting attitudes (> 100).
  • The WAVE FUNCTION (state vector), in a quantum mechanics a fundamental quantity circumscribing a system condition both permitting to find probabilities and average values of physical quantities defining her. The square of a module of wave function is peer to probability of the given condition, therefore wave function call also as a probability amplitude.
  • The WAVEGUIDE, the channel, having a sharp cut-off along which are distributed electromagnetic (radio waveguide) or acoustical (acoustic waveguide) of a wave. A radio waveguide the metal tubing, the dielectric rod, etc. can minister; the acoustic waveguide - an acoustic tube on courts, layers of air in an atmosphere and waters in the ocean, distinguished on temperature (terrestrial waveguide).
  • SURGE RESISTANCE... 1) in soundman: in gas and a liquid - attitude of a noise load in a running flat sound wave to vibratory speed of particles of medium, it is equal to product of firmness of medium on a speed of sound in her; in solids for longitudinal waves surge resistance - attitude of the mechanic pressure taken with the sign reversed, to vibratory speed of particles of medium.... 2) In hydromechanics - a part gidro-and an aerodynamic drag, defining energy consumption on wave development, napr., the waves which are generatrix on a water plane at motion of the ship, the shockwaves originating at ultrasonic flight of an airplane, and t. d.... 3) In an electrodynamics surge resistance of transmission lines - attitude of pressure to current intensity in any point of a line on which electromagnetic waves are distributed; surge resistance of medium - attitude of voltages of electrical and magnetic fields of the electromagnetic waves extending in medium.
  • WAVE EQUATION, differential equation with partial derivatives of 2-nd order, circumscribing a spreading mud process of disturbances in some medium. Napr., small oscillations of the stretched catgut are described by wave equation where u (h, t) - required function - deviation of a catgut from static baycenter in a point with coordinate h in the moment t, a - rate of propagation of a disturbance along a catgut.
  • WAVE NUMBER, module of a wave vector; it is connected to a circular frequency w, a phase velocity of a wave vô and its length a ratio: k=2?/?? w/vô. In optician and spectroscopies often call as a wave number value, revertive to a wavelength: k=1/?.
  • FUNNELS (house martin), a bird of a set of swallows. Length ok. 13 see In Eurasia, the Sowing. To Africa. Exterminates destructive insects.
  • VORONSKY Alexander Konstantinovich (1884-1937), the Russian critic, the writer. The editor of the log-book " the Red virgin soil " (1921-27). In articles about the Soviet literature (collections " Art to see the world ", 1928, " Literary portraits ", t. 1-2, 1928-29) settled realism, classical traditions; accented a role of intuition in art creativity. The autobiographical story " Behind alive and dead water " (1927), "Bursa" (1933). It is repressed; it is rehabilitated posthumously.
  • VORONTSOV Alexander Romanovich (1741-1805), columns, the Russian statesman and the diplomat. In 1762-64 minister plenipotentiary in England, in 1764-68 in Holland, in 1773-94 president of Kommerts-board, in 1802-04 chancellor.
  • VORONTSOV Vasily Pavlovich (1847-1918), the Russian economist, the sociologist, one of ideologists of liberal populists 80-90-Õ of 19 century. Opposed Russian marksistov.
  • VORONTSOV Michael Illarionovich (1714-1767), columns, the Russian statesman and the diplomat. In 1741 participant of palace tumble and arrest pravitelnitsy Annas Leopoldovny. With 1744 vice-chancellor, in 1758-62 chancellor.
  • VORONTSOV Michael Semenovich (1782-1856), the Russian statesman, general - field marshal (1856), svetlejshy prince, the honorary member Petersburg AN (1826). In 1823-44 Novorossisk and bessarabsky the general - governor. Promoted economic development of an edge. In 1844-54 viceroy on Caucasus.
  • VORONTSOV Seeds Romanovich (1744-1832), columns (1797), the Russian diplomat. With 1782 minister plenipotentiary in Venice, in 1784-1806 in the London.
  • VORONTSOV Feodor (Demid) Semenovich (? - 1546), boyar, with 1543 actual governor of the Russian state at Ivan IV. Actuated extirpation with Kazan hanstvom. It is accused of change. It is executed.
  • VORONTSOV July Mihajlovich (r. 1929), the Russian diplomat. With 1952 on diplomatic activity. About 1977 salting of the USSR in India, with 1983 - in France. With 1986 1-st deputy minister of foreign businesses of the USSR, in 1988-89 simultaneously a salting of the USSR in Afghanistan. With 1990 resident representative of the USSR at the United Nations. About 1994 salting of the Russian Federation in the USA.
  • VORONTSOV-VELJAMINOV Boris Aleksandrovich (1904-94), the Russian astronomer, the professor (1934), the member the correspondent of NPA of the USSR (1940). Has proved existence of the interstellar medium absorptive a starlight (together with R.Tramplerom, 1930), rotation of nucleus of comets (1930), has offered methods of definition of distances up to epicyclic fogs and temperature of their nucleus (1933), has discovered 1200 systems of interacting galaxies (after 1958). Has executed detail morphological study of galaxies (1960th). The writer of many monographies and tutorials on astronomy.
  • VORONTSOV-DASHKOV Illarion Ivanovich (1837-1916), columns, the Russian statesman, the general from a cavalry (1880), general - aide-de-camp (1875). In 1881-97 minister for an imperial yard and destinies, one of organizers of " the Sacred team ". In 1905-15 viceroy on Caucasus. In 1914-15 commander-in-chief the Caucasian front.
  • The CROWS, two close kinds of birds of a set voronovyh - grey and black crows. Length up to 56 see In Europe, Asia (except for JUzh. And JUgo-Vost.) and Severo-Vost. To Africa. Are capable to the composite forms of conduct.
  • VORONKO Platon Nikitovich (1913-88), the Ukrainian poet. Collections of verses " Karpatsky road " (1944), " dear friends " (1959), " In the name of thy will " (1974), "Rapids" (1983), verses for children. The state premium of the USSR (1951).
  • CROWN AND RAVENS, the river on Kola p-ove. 155 kms, the area of basin 9940 êì2. Average discharge of water 114 m3 / with. Escapes from Lovozera, runs in Barentsevo m. Thresholds and cataracts. On r. A crown and ravens - Serebrjanskoe, water reservoirs Padunskoe.
  • VOROPAYEV Grigory Vasiljevich (r. 1932), the Russian hydrobroad gully, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1976). Transactionses on meliorative hydrology and water resources management.
  • GATE, the elementary hoisting machine consisting of a drum hand-operated and a chain cable or a circuit, wound.
  • GATE... 1) fine-bored mountain pass or waist of a river valley with high abrupt downslopes (napr., the Iron Gate on Danube).... 2) the Short marine channel (napr., Kara straits).
  • VOROTAN (Bargjushad), the river to Transcaucasia, the left-handed in-leak of Araks. 178 kms, the area of basin 5650 êì2. A coordinated hydroelectric system. It is used for an irrigation.
  • COLLARS Vitaly Ivanovich (r. 1926), the Russian political figure, the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1986). With 1975 1-st vice-president of Council of Ministers of RSFSR. About 1979 salting of the USSR in Republic Cuba. With 1983 chairman Council of Ministers of RSFSR. In 1988-90 chairman of Presidium VS of RSFSR. The member of the Political bureau of a Central Committee of the CPSU in 1983-90.
  • CRAZE, defect of a rolled or wrought metal goods (primarily steel) by the way the thin, legiblly delineated treshchinok, located along a set of the current of metal at a strain (along a fiber).
  • VOLOSTEL, in Russian principalities (since 11 century) and in Russian state (up to it is grey. 16 century) a face heading volost and executed administrative, financial and judicial functions.
  • VOLOST BOARD, organ of aboriginal country self-management in Russia 2-nd floor. 19 - nach. 20 centuries. Comprised from volost foremen, village wardens and other officials, izbiravshihsja a volost tails.
  • The VOLOST FOREMAN, in Russia the elective official of village steering. Headed a volost tails. It was elected on 3 years by a tails, affirmed the consiliator, then zemskim the chief. Had an administrative - police authority.
  • VOLOST COURT, elective judicial country organ for an analysis small-sized civil and criminal cases in Russia 2-nd floor. 19 - nach. 20 centuries. Could sentence to corporal punishment, the fine, the short-lived conclusion.
  • VOLOST TAILS, organ of aboriginal country self-management in Russia 2-nd floor. 19 - nach. 20 centuries. Comprised of elective village and volost officials and peasants - domohozjaev. Executed restricted administrative - judicial, fiscal and police functions, it was monitored by consiliators and zemskimi chiefs.
  • VOLOST, administrative and territorial unit of Russia. In Other. Russia - all terrain of ground (principality); polusamostojatelnyj destiny; village terrain, subject to city. With kon. 14 century - a part of district. With 1861 - unit of class country steering. It has been abolished by Administrative-territorial reform 1923-29.
  • HAIR, the horn derivative leathers which are generatrix a coat for mammals and the person. Contain the pigments defining their colour. Protect a body from bruises and heat wastes. The lower storey of a coat for many mammals will derivate a undergrowth of fur. For some animal (elephants, rhinoceroses) the leather almost denuded a hair. To a hair are routinely connected grease, and sometimes and sweat glands. Many mammals in the spring and have molting in the autumn. Lifetime of a hair for the person on the average 2-4 years.
  • HAIR VERONIKI (an armour. Coma Berenices), mia maid of Boreal hemisphere; in Hair Veroniki there is visible to a naked eye a dissipated sidereal clump.
  • HAIR MITES, set of mites of order akariformnyh. Length of 0,1-0,7 mm. Stomatic organs adapted to affixion to a hair of an animal - host. 300 kinds. Parasitize in a mammalian hair fiber. Can invoke chesotkopodobnoe an irritation of a leather.
  • VOLOTOVO, village bliz Novgorod; in Volotovo a given away monument of Russian art - church of assumption of the Birth-Giver of God (1352, paintings between 1363 and 1390). An one-headed cubic temple with two frame ledges; it eroded by german aggressors, it is recovered (after 1964), including paintings.
  • VOLOF (uolof), people in Senegal (4,1 million person). Mali live also in Mauritania, Gambia, etc. The Aggregate number 4,36 million person (1992). Tongue volof. Moslems - sunnity believing main.
  • VOLOF, falls into zapadnoatlanticheskim to tongues. Writing on the basis of the latin alphabet.
  • VOLOHI (vlahi), an east - Romanesque nationality, ancestors of the modern Moldavians and the Romanian.
  • VOLOHONSKY Anri Girshevich (r. 1936), the Russian writer. With 1973 in emigration in Israel, then in Germany. To verses (collections of "Poem", 1983, " Writing-book Igrejny ", 1984) and prose (the novel "Novel - pokojnichek", 1982) are peculiar irony, a block type and parodijnost. Books " the Skin bubna ", "Form" (both 1986), etc.
  • VOLOCHAEVKA, a depot ok. Khabarovsk (nowadays urban settlement Âîëî÷àåâêà-2; 2,1 thousand inhabitants in 1991). 5-12.2.1922, during the Civil war, about Volochaevki the National - revolutionary army of Far East republic (the commanding V.K.Blucher) has broken through defensive items of a White Guard troops then has taken possession of Khabarovsk (on February, 14).
  • DRAGGING, stretching out of rolled or pressed metal preparations circular or a shaped section (primarily it is pebble, rolled wires, pipes) through an aperture portages for reduction of their lateral section or collimating by him more down sizes and a smooth surface.
  • DUAL-CHAIN DRAWBENCH, the machine for machining metals by a dragging. Will consist from portages and the withdrawal-roll facility. Distinguish mills with a rectilinear movement of metal and with winding metal (drum).
  • VOLOCHISK, city (with 1970) on Ukraine, Khmelnitskiy region, on r. Zbruch. A depot. 25,1 thousand inhabitants (1991). A machine industry, alimentary, a light industry.
  • VOLOCHNAJA POMERA, measurement and repartition of grounds in the Great principality Lithuanian on " the Charter on portages " (1557). Has strengthened feudal operation.
  • VOLSKY Victor Vatslavovich (r. 1921), the Russian economist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1984), the Hero of Soviet Union (1945). The main transactionses on economy of Latin America and problems of economic. The state premium of the USSR (1987).
  • VOLT, SI unit of an electric pressure, electric potential difference, electromotive force (generated voltage). It is called named A.Volty. It is meant Century 1 In = 108/ñ by a unit. C.G.S.E.? 1/300 units. C.G.S.E. = 108 units. C.G.S.M., with - value of speed of light in air void.
  • VOLT PER METER, a SI unit of electric field strength. It is meant V/m. 1 V/m = 1/3·10-4 units. C.G.S.E.? 106 units. C.G.S.M.
  • VOLT (Volta), the river in Zap. To Africa, primarily in Ghana. It will be derivated by interflow White and Black Volta. 1600 kms (from headstreams of Black Volta), the area of basin of 394 thousand êì2. Runs into the Guinean hall. Main in-leak - r. Oti. Average discharge of water 1288 m3 / with. It is navigable on 400 kms from a mouth. A river plant. Main ports - the Siberian salmon - Krachi, Akosombo.
  • VOLT, see in an item. The musical letter.
  • VOLT, a mild silky cotton.
  • VOLT (Volta) Alessandro (1745-1827), italian physics and the physiologist, one of founders of the doctrine about an electricity. Has created the first chemical current source (1800, the voltaic pile). Has discovered a contact potential difference.
  • VOLT the ELEMENT, a galvanic cell, for which positive electrode - a copper plate, negative - zinc, an electrolyte - a solution of Sodium chloridum or sulfuric acid; electromotive force of 1,0 Century A.Voltoj Is offered.
  • The VOLT-AMPERE, SI unit of total power of an electric circuit alternating-current, i.e. power of an electric circuit at effective values of current intensity 1 And and pressure of 1 Century Is meant V·A. Consider also the active power expressed in watts, and a reactive power expressed in pitches.
  • E-I CHARACTERISTIC, relation of pressure to a current (or a current from pressure) on a circuit portion; expresses routinely by the way the schedule or the table.
  • VOLTAMPEROMETRIJA, set of electrochemical methods of the quantitative and a qualitative analysis, is based on definition of relation between current intensity and polarization potential at an electrolysis of a solution or a melt of studied substance.
  • VOLTERRA (Volterra) Vito (1860-1940), italian mathematician, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1908), foreign honorary member AN the USSR (1926). Transactionses on mathematical physics, integral and integro-differential equations, a functional analysis.
  • VOLTIZHERY (frants. voltigeurs), a kind of a mild infantry in France in 1804-71, trained in neat shooting and management of investigation.
  • EQUESTRIAN VAULTING (voltizh)... 1) a kind of equestrian sport and a horse circus (pereprygivanie, flight of a rider-type brush to the partner from the horse on the horse, etc.).... 2) the Kind of dynamic acrobatics, gymnastics (belching of partners, flight from a trapezoid on a trapezoid, etc.).
  • The VOLTAGE METER, gauge meter of electromotive force or pressure (in mkV, mV, In, kV) in electric circuits; it is actuated in bridge to a load.
  • VOLTAIC ARC, the same, that an electric arc.
  • The BOOSTER TRANSFORMER, the electrical variable-ratio transformer which is powered up by the secondary coil in succession in a circuit of a secondary coil of other (main) transformer for regulation or a constant-voltage regulation in the load circuit.
  • VOLTURN, see. Evr.
  • REPRODUCTION, continuous motion and resumption of a process of manufacture of life of any system - biological (napr., an individual, a population, biogeocenose, an ecosystem) or social (napr., the individual, family, a community, country, the capital). Actuates reproduction of system components, attitudes between them and interactions with an environment. In economy at simple reproduction manufacture is renewed in invariable, at amplate - in increased, at reduced - in decreasing scales.
  • REPRODUCTION of the POPULATION, in fine-bored sense - process of digenesis as a result of natural motion (a birth and mors), in broad - permanent resumption of the population on the basis of natural motion, migration, transitions of people from one social groups in other.
  • REPRODUCTION of NATURAL RESOURCES, natural (adjustable and noncontrollable) and synthetic process of increment of environmental resourse bases, restoration of their quality performances. The water resources protection and an airshed actuates such kinds, as a recultivation and land-reclamation, agrotechnical measures on improvement of soils, reforestation activities, cultivation ryboposadochnogo a material, biotechnical measures on conservation and reproduction of feral beasts and birds.
  • NUCLEAR FUEL BREEDER, education in nuclear reactors of secondary nuclear fuel - 239Pu (or 233U). Descends because nucleus t. n. A raw product 238U (or 232Th) seize the neutrons secreted at "burning" of primary nuclear fuel 235U. Implements in reactors - razmnozhiteljah (breeders).
  • RESTORATION, see. Redox reactions.
  • The "ORIENT", the Russian polar station in area of Austral geomagnetic pole in Vost. To Antarctica, at the altitude 3488 m, in 1250 kms from a coast. Works since December 1957. A cold pole of the Earth (ok.-90 °S). It is called in honour shljupa the "Orient".
  • The "ORIENT"... 1) a series of single-seat spacecrafts for flights on an earth orbit. Under the program "Orient" the capability of outer-space flight of the person was studied, scientific both biomedical probes and technical experiments were conducted. The "Orient" will consist of a descent vehicle and an equipment compartment with a braking propulsion system. Maximum mass of "Orient" 4,73 t. With 1961 on 1963 have committed flights of 6 ships "Orient" with 6 astronauts. The maiden flight of the person in cosmos is carried out (J.A.Gagarin, 1961), for the first time is accomplished formation flying two spacecrafts (A.G.Nikolaev, P.R.Popovich, 1962) and the first outer-space flight of woman (V.V.Tereshkova, 1963).... 2) 3-stepwise the carrier rocket for start of spacecrafts; on all stages liquid fuel is used.
  • The ORIENTS (an ice-film. fam. Ostenek) Alexander Hristoforovich (1781-1864), the Russian philologist, the poet, the academician Petersburg AN (1841). The explorer Russian tonic stihoslozhenija, monuments of old slavic writing, grammar slavonic, including Russian, tongue, has put in pawn a fundamentals of comparative slavonic linguistics in Russia. For the first time has emited " Ostromirovo gospels " (1843).
  • ORIENTAL STUDIES (orientalistika), set of the scientific disciplines investigator a history, economy, tongues, the literature, ethnography, art, religion, philosophy of countries of the Orient. Inside oriental studies there were regional branches (napr., arabistika, sinologija, indologija).
  • ORIENTAL STUDIES INSTITUTE of Russian Academy of Science (IVRAN) (in 1960-70 - Institute of peoples of Asia), the research establishment investigator a history, economy, the literature, crop, tongues of countries of the Orient. It is based in 1930 in Leningrad on the basis the Asian museum and some other vostokovedcheskih research establishments. With 1950 in Moscow; has branch in Saint Petersburg.
  • EASTERN ASIA, the part of Asia adjoining to Quiet ok. In moderate, subtropical and tropical belts from 20 up to 60 °s. sh. Mountains in combination to broad plains. A climate monsoon. A natural vegetation - in a north broad-leaved and mixed forests, in the south subtropical and tropical. Actuates eastern areas of the Russian Federation and China, Japan, KNDR and Republic Korea.
  • EASTERN WAR 1853-56, see. The Crimean war 1853-56.
  • EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE, see. Byzantium.
  • EASTERN RUMELIJA, the autonomous region (main Plovdiv) in structure of Ottoman empire, is built in terrain Juzh. Bulgaria the solution of the Berlin congress 1878. As a result of popular uprising in September 1885 Bulgaria is reunified with the principality.
  • EASTERN SIBERIA, eastern part of Siberia from Yenisei up to hrebtov a pacific watershed. The area 7,2 million êì2. The large part is occupied in Central Siberian plateau. In a north - a strip of lowlands, in the south - mountains JUzh. Siberia, on the orient - the JAno-Kolyma mountains. See also Siberia.
  • EAST - AUSTRALIAN MOUNTAINS, see Major Water-partite backbone.
  • EAST - AUSTRALIAN WRINKLED GEOSYNCLINAL BELT, pozdnedokembrijskij-paleozoic wrinkled belt, part of the Pacific geosynclinal belt. Reaches from eastern part p-ova Cape York peninsula in a north up to about. Tasmania in the south inclusively, on 3500 kms at width of 1500 kms.
  • VJATSKAJA the HORSE, legkouprjazhnaja aboriginal, is introduced and long since gets divorced in terrain of boreal forest regions of the Russian Federation. Animal stunted, hardy, unpretentious. In past were glorified by fast driving (troechnaja the horse).
  • VJATSKIE GLADES, city (with 1942) in the Russian Federation, the Kirov region, landing stage on r. Vyatka. A depot. 46 thousand inhabitants (1992). Machine works; wood-working, a food-processing industry. It is known with 1595.
  • VJATSKY UVAL, a high ground in Republic of Maries El and the Kirov region. An altitude of 284 m. It is combined by dolomites, limestones and gypsums; karst is developed. It is traverseed by a valley r. Vyatka. Coniferous forests.
  • VJATSKO-KAMSKOE the DEPOSIT of phosphorites, in the Kirov region. It is developed with 1917. The area 1900 êì2. Known reserves ok. 2100 million t ore; content P2O5 in ore of 11-17 %. An opencast mining. The main centre of production - a settlement. Miner.
  • WOOD PIGEON (wood pigeon), bird of a set of pigeons. Length ok. 45 see In Eurasia and Severo-Zap. To Africa. Lives primarily in coniferous forests, sometimes lodges in parks.
  • VYACHESLAV (Vaclav, Ventseslav) Czech (mind. 935), prince, the passion bearer, the grandson of the martyress of princess Lyudmila. Memory in Orthodox and in the Latin church on September, 28.
  • VJACHKO (Vyacheslav) (?-1224), prince Kukejnosa. Struggled against german knights, but has been compelled (1207) to leave to Russia. Has perished at the defence from Germans of. JUrjev.
  • G, the fourth character of the Russian alphabet; goes back to cyrillic A character (speak), having, except for acoustical, also digital value 3.
  • The HAGUE CONVENTIONS.. 1) international conventions on laws and customs the wars adopted on 1-st (3 conventions) and 2-nd (13 conventions) nonpredatory conferences in Hague in 1899 and 1907. The Hague conventions contain regulations about the nonpredatory sanction of state differences, neutrality, about protection of nonpredatory inhabitants, a mode voennoplennyh, speed up injured and ill and t. d... 2) the Convention 1954 about a protection of cultural objects in an event of armed conflict... 3) Conventions on international private law 1902-05, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1961, etc.
  • GAAZ Feodor Petrovich (1780-1853), the Russian doctor - humanist. As the chief medical officer of the Moscow prisons (with 1828) has achieved improvement of the content encased, organizations of prison hospital (1832), schools for children of prisoners.
  • GABAJ Ilya Jankelevich (1935-73), the Russian poet. Participat in pravozashchitnom motion. In 1970 it is repressed, sentenced to three years of the conclusion. At life it was not emitted. Collections: "Crosier" (1990), " Verses. Publicism. Letters. Memories " (1990), " Elected places " (1994).
  • GABERDINE (frants. gabardine), mild woollen, half-woolen, silk or a cotton; has small-sized slope scars. From a gaberdine sew a coat and costumes.
  • DIMENSION (frants. gabarit), limiting external lineaments of subjects, structures and devices.
  • DIMENSIONAL GATE, are established on ways of depots for check of maximum moving dimensions. A dimensional gate up to 4,5 m are established by an altitude on highways from both parties of grade crossing through the electrified railway.
  • GABASHVILI George (Gigo) Ivanovich (1862-1936), the Georgian painter, the national artist of Georgia (1929). In realistic portraits - phylums of town-dwellers and peasants combined a household juiciness with features of monumentalism (" Three town-dwellers ", 1893).
  • GABBE Tamara Grigorjevna (1903-60), the Russian writer. Plays - fairy tales for children (" City of masters, or the Fairy tale on two humpbacks ", 1943), articles about the nursery literature.
  • GABBRO (ital. gabbro), an intrusive main depth rock; will consist of the main plagioklaza, piroksenov and a small amount of metallic minerals. Firmness of 2800-3200 kg / m3; compression strength 80-360 MPa. Deposits of magnetite, titano-magnetite, nickelous sulphides are connected to intrusions of a gabbro, copper, etc. Building and a covering material.
  • GABELJA (up to 1991 Kutkashen), city (with 1973) in Azerbaijan, in 63 kms from zh.-d. An item. Ljaki. 13,4 thousand inhabitants (1991). Canning, tabachno-fermentative factories, etc. The Istoriko-study of local lore museum.
  • GABEN (Gabin) Jean (1904-76), the French film actor. At kino with 1930. Has brought on the screen spirit of democracy merged with the strong-willed, effective beginning and respect for the human personality. It was removed in films: " Great illusion ", " Embankment of fogs ", " For walls Malapagi ", " the Strong of the world this ", " the Thunder celestial ", " Two in city ", "Cat", etc.
  • VJAZEMSKY Alexander Alekseevich (1727-93), prince, the Russian statesman, the honorary member Petersburg AN (1776), close confidant Ekaterina II. With 1764 general - public prosecutor of the Senate, in 1767 chairman of the Commission on drawing up of a new Establishment, with 1769 councilor at the highest yard.
  • VJAZEMSKY Afanasy Ivanovich (? - ok. 1570), prince, oruzhnichy, approximated Ivan IV, influential oprichnik. It is accused of change. Has died in the conclusion.
  • VJAZEMSKY Paul Petrovich (1820-88), prince, Russian arheograf, the historian of the literature. Son P.A.Vjazemskogo. The publication of materials about A.S.Pushkin; memories. Literary mystification " Letters and note Ommer de Gell " (are published in 1933) in which Vjazemsky acts in a role of an imaginary translator, - attempt to create the risky novel, in a skandalno-sensational key drawing " unknown pages " M.J.Lermontov biographies, peculiar deflecting of natural memories Vjazemskogo and family legends.
  • VJAZEMSKY Peter Andreevich (1792-1878), prince, the Russian poet, the literary critic, the academician Petersburg AN (1841). In early lyrics - combination of civil traditions of 18 century and " mild poetry ". Since 40th - poetry of memories, tragical motives; held on to conservative public views. Memoirs (" the Aged notepad ").
  • VJAZEMSKY Jury Pavlovich (r. 1951), the Russian writer. In stories and stories - problems of a becoming of the personality, moral conflicts of duties. Collections: "Fool" (1982), " Pappuses have brought " (1985), etc.
  • VJAZEMY (Major Vjazemy), village in the Moscow region, in 45 kms to the west from Moscow, bliz zh.-d. An item. Golitsyno. Former farm of Russian tsar Boris Godunova (16 - nach. 17 centuries), with kon. 17 century - princes Golitsynyh. Preobrazhenskiy church and a belfry (kon. 16 century).
  • The VISCOUS VACUUM GAUGE, the manometer, which action it is based on change of viscosity of a dilute gas with pressure variation. A range of gauged pressures 1-10-5 Pa.
  • VYAZNIKI, city (with 1778) in the Russian Federation, the Vladimirskiy region. Landing stage on r. Klyazma. A depot. 45,4 thousand inhabitants (1992). A textile industry, factories: "Tehmash", automotive lighting fitting. Branch of the Vladimiro-Suzdal istoriko-architectonic and art museum - reservation.
  • VJAZ... 1) the decorative letter at which characters are bridged in a continuous decorative pattern (some kinds of the old slavic, Arabian letter).... 2) Connection of two or several characters in one constituent mark or combined group (napr., in devanagari).
  • VYAZMA, city in the Russian Federation, Smolensk region, on r. Vyazma. A railway junction. 59,9 thousand inhabitants (1992). Machine-building, graphitic items, tanning factories; lnokombinat. It is known with 1239. Church Odigitrii Smolensk, Troitsky a cathedral (both - 17 century). An Istoriko-study of local lore museum. In Domestic war 1812 ok. Vyazma Russian troops on October, 22 (on November, 3) have defeated receding napoleonic army.
  • VYAZMA, the river in Smolensk region, the left-handed in-leak of Dnepr. 147 kms, the area of basin 1350 êì2. In ancient times - a part the ways, connected verhovja a bass. Volga, Oka and Dnepr.
  • VJAJNAMERI (the Fly, the Fly - Vjajn, Moonzund), a channel between islands of Hiiumaa, the Fly and mainland (Estonia). Bridges a north-east part of Baltic m. with Riga a hall. Length ok. 83 kms, width of 6-27 kms, the greatest depth of 3,8 m. Solidifies in the winter.
  • VJAJNJAMEJNEN (Vjajnamejne, Vejnemejnen), in the karelo-Finnish mythology wise starets, the created world with the help of spells.
  • VJALBE Elena Valerjevna (r. 1968), Russian sportsmenka, the deserved master of sport (1989). CHempionka Olympic Games (1992, 1994), the world (1989, 1991, 1993, 1995) in different kinds of cross-countr. Obladatelnitsa the Cup of the world (1989, 1991, 1992).
  • VJALTSEVA Anastasy Dmitrievna (1871-1913), the Russian variety singer (soprano), the performer of gipsy romances, the actress of an operetta.
  • VJATICHI, the union of east - slavonic nations of the upper and mean flow of Oka. In the Kiev Russia with it is grey. 10 century. Since 12 century terrain vjatichej in the Chernigov, Rostovo-Suzdal and Ryazan principalities.
  • VYATKA, the title of city Kirov (regional) in 1781-1934.
  • VYATKA, the river in the European part of the Russian Federation, dextral in-leak of Kama. 1314 kms, the area of basin of 129 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water 890 m3 / with. Driveable. It is navigable up to Kirov (700 kms), in the spring up to landing stage Kirs (1000 kms). On Vyatka - cities Kotelnich, Sovetsk, Vjatskie Glades, etc.
  • VYATKIN German Platonovich (r. 1935), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1987). Transactionses in range of the physico-chemical bases of metallurgical processes.
  • GROUND VJATSKAJA (Hlynovskaja), the historical title in 12-18 centuries of terrain in basin upper and parts of mean flow r. Vyatka. From 6 century it inhabited Komi and Udmurts, from 10 century also by maris. Accustomed the Novgorod republic. In 1489 it is adjoined to the Russian state.
  • GABRILOVICH Eugeny Iosifovich (1899-1993), the scripter, the honored worker of arts of Russia (1969), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1979). Scripts of films: "Mashenka" (1942), "Dream" (1943), "Communist" (1958), " Lenin in Poland " (1966), " thy contemporary " (1968), "Declaration of love" (1978), " Lenin in Paris " (1981), etc. Them the attention to psychologic deployment of characters distinguishes, soul interest in display of human destinies at the moment of acute historical events. The state premium of the USSR (1943, 1967, 1983).
  • GABRICHEVSKY George Norbertovich (1860-1907), a microbiologist, the founder of scientific school, one of organizers of manufacture of bacteriological drugs in Russia. Has organized in Moskovsk university bacteriological laboratory and Bacteriological institute, has based the Russian bacteriological society. Together with N.F.Filatovym has entered wheyish treatment of a diphtheria.
  • GABROVO, city in Bulgaria, on r. JAntra. 81 thousand inhabitants (1988.) Center textile and a leather and foot-wear industry. A machine industry. Tourism (Shipka pass). A dwelling - museum of humour and satyrs. Festivals of humour.
  • GABSBURGI (Habsburger), a dynasty setting in Austria (with 1282 dukes, with 1453 ertsgertsogi, with 1804 Austrian emperors). Having joined in 1526 Czechia and Hungary (where were titled by kings) and other terrains, become monarches of an extensive multinational state (in 1867-1918 Austria-Hungary). Gabsburgi were emperors of " Sacred Roman empire " (permanently in 1438-1806, except for 1742-45), and also kings of Spain (1516-1700). The most known representatives: Charles V, Phillip II (spanish), Maria Terezija, Joseph II, Frants Joseph I.
  • GABT, see. Major theatre.
  • GABJAUJA (Gabjauis), in the Lithuanian mythology the godhood of a crop of small crops, oofs and happiness.
  • HAWAII (Hawaii), an island in Quiet ok., largest of the Hawaiian islands. 10,4 thousand êì2. It is derivated by tops of 5 burning mountains (Mauna Kea, Mauna Loa, Kilauea, Hualalai, Kohala). Main city - it is sickly. Vulkanologicheskaja an observatory.
  • HAWAII, staff the USA, on the Hawaiian islands. 16,7 thousand êì2. The population of 1172 thousand person (1993). Adm. ts. - Honolulu. Before arrival of Europeans and down to midpoint of 19 century were steered by an aboriginal royal dynasty. In 1893 the USA are annexed, in 1959 the USA become 50-th staff.
  • HAWAIIAN 1941 OPERATION, see. Pearl Harbour.
  • The HAWAIIAN ISLANDS (Hawaiian Islands) (islands Sandvichevy), archipelago in Quiet ok. 24 islands (Hawaii, Maui, Molokai, Oahu, etc.) - tops of a submerged volcanic crops. An altitude up to 4205 m. Active volcanoes - Mauna Loa and Kilauea. The wet tropical forests, savannahs. A recreation area and tourism; climatic health resorts.
  • The HAWAIIAN FLORISTS, a set of birds of order sparrow. Length of 11-21 sm, 22 kinds, on the Hawaiian islands. Some kinds eat a nectar. Many views on of an edge of petering.
  • The HAWAIIAN ANTICYCLONE (Severo-pacific anticyclone), stationary value range of a heightened atmospheric pressure in subtropical and tropical latitudes of boreal part Quiet ok.
  • The HAWAIIAN TONGUE, falls into to the Polynesian tongues which are included in avstronezijskuju family. Writing on the basis of the latin alphabet.
  • HAWAIIANS, people, an aboriginal population of the Hawaiian islands (USA). 170 thousand person (1992). Tongue Hawaiian. Believers - protesters and roman catholics.
  • The HAVANA UNIVERSITY, Cuba, is based in 1728; it is reorganized in 1960. In 1990 ok. 16 thousand students.
  • HAVEN (from niderl. haven), the coastal part of the water space for parking, repair and winterings of courts is naturally or artificially protecting from a wind, waves and flows. The part of a dock space for manufacture of cargo-passenger operations calls as haven also.
  • GAVAR, gazoneftjanoe a deposit in Saudi Arabia (the oil-and-gas-bearing basin enters in Persian gulf). It is open in 1948. Deposits on depth of 1,5-3 kms. Beginning inventories of petroleum 10,14 billion t, gas 1,01 billion in m3. Firmness of petroleum of 0,85 g / sm3, content S of 1,66 %.
  • GAVARNI (Gavarnie), a cataract in verhovjah r. Gav-de-Po, on boreal downslopes Pireneev, in France. An altitude of a cataract of 422 m; it is overthrown from downslopes of the glacial circus largest in Europe. Tourism.
  • GAVARNI (Gavarni) Pol (an ice-film. A name and fam. Sjulpis Guillaume Shevalje, Chevalier) (1804-1866), the French schedule. Alive, indicative, often full humour of a lithograph, drawings, water colours on themes from life of the bourgeois, poor, bohemia.
  • VEN-TUB, in the Chinese mythology the god of the literature, knizhnosti, knowledge; the passing examinations depends on him. It was figured sitting on a throne with a scepter in an arm.
  • WENCHOU, city in China, in prov. Chekiang. 402 thousand inhabitants (1990). Seaport in a mouth r. Outszjan. Center chaeobrabotki. Porcelain manufacture.
  • VENSHU, in mythology of the Chinese Buddhism the sacred soldier, ohranitel the law. Corresponds indian Mandzhushri.
  • VEN-SHEN (a whale. Spirits of epidemies), in the Chinese mythology five spirits, correspond to the parties of light (four parties + the centre) and to seasonal epidemies.
  • VEN-JUANSHUAJ (a whale. Commander-in-chief Ven), in the Chinese mythology spirit, the sovereign of spirits Tai Shan. It was figured with a wristlet and a club.
  • VJUJJAR (Vuillard) Eduar (1868-1940), the French painter. Team member "Nabi". Finely emotional, harmonic on I blossom household scenes, portraits, landscapes (" In sand bed ", 1891).
  • VJURMSER (Wurmser) Andre (1899-1984), the French writer, the publicist. The participant of movement of Resistance. The cycle of novels " the Person comes to the Earth " (t. 1-7, 1946-55) - the realistic chronicle of the French life of 1-st third of 20 century. Literary - critical and publicistic books.
  • VJURMSKOE the GLACIATION, the title of the last pleistocene glaciation in the Alpes (from 70 up to 11 thousand flying back). The Sowing is compared on time with vislinskim a glaciation. And Center. Europe, Valdai on East European plain and viskonsinskim in the Sowing. To America.
  • WURTTEMBERG, german county (with it is grey. 13 century), about 1495 duchy, in 1805-1918 kingdom (capital Stuttgart), then ground of Germany; with kon. 1951 part of ground Baden-Wurttemberg.
  • WURTZITE, mineral of a class of sulphides, polymorphic hexagonal updating ZnS. Impurity Fe, Cd. Radially - radiative units, kollomorfnye secretions. Hardness 3,5-4; firmness of 4 g / sm3. Basically a hydrothermal mineral. Ore of zinc, sometimes a cadmium.
  • VJURTS (Wurtz) Charles Adolf (1817-84), the French chemist, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1873). Has developed (1855) generalpurpose method of synthesis of paraffinic hydrocarbon action of metal natrium on alkilgalogenidy (reaction Vjurtsa). Has discovered (1872, it is simultaneous from A.P.Borodinym) aldolnuju condensation.
  • VJURTSBURG, city in Germany, ground Bavaria, a port on r. Main. 128,5 thousand inhabitants (1992). A machine industry, chemical, alimentary, a printing industry. University. Citadel Marienberg (11-16 centuries) with a circular chapel (8 century), a bishopic residence (18 century).
  • BINDERS, building timbers for manufacturing betons and solutions. Distinguish inorganic (mineral) binders (cement, gypsum, a lime, etc.) and organic (bitumens, tars, artificial asphalts). Mineral binders (routinely powdery) at commixing with water (sometimes with water solutions of salts) will derivate the flexible mass purchasing then kamnevidnoe a condition. Them divide on hydraulic, capable to solidify and save toughness on air and in water (napr., portland cement), and air, solidifying and keeping toughness only on air (gypsum, a lime).
  • ASTRINGENTS, the medicinal substances which are generatrix at a contact with an injured leather or mucous membrane a protective packed bed on their surface at the expense of interaction with albumens; render anti-inflammatory action.
  • ELM, some kinds of trees of a stem an elm.
  • KNITTING MACHINE, the same, that a knitter.
  • KNITTING, manufacturing of a fabric or finished products from continuous filaments their bending in hinge strains which interlace among themselves. Distinguish knitting manual (a peg or spokes) and engine (on knitters).
  • VJAZEMSKY, city (with 1951) in the Russian Federation, Khabarovsk kr. A depot. 18,2 thousand inhabitants (1992). An industry: a building materials, alimentary; a logging enterprise, a woodworking.
  • VYSHELESSKY Sergey Nikolaevich (1874-1958), the Byelorussian scientist - epizootologist, academician AN of Belarus (1928). Probeed many theoretical and practical problems of extirpation with communicable diseases animal, including with a plague, a Siberian plague, etc. The State premium of the USSR (1941).
  • VYSHINSKY Andrey Januarjevich (1883-1954), the deputy of the public prosecutor and the public prosecutor of the USSR in 1933-39, academician AN the USSR (1939). In 1939-44 vice-president of Advice of National Commissioners of the USSR. In 1940-53 on managing posts in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the USSR (in 1949-53 minister). The member of a Central Committee of the CPSU with 1939. Telescoped in activities Vyshinskogo of a rule have been directed on the substantiation of gross violations of legitimacy, mass reprisals, in particular by collimating value of the master proof to confession accused. Was the public prosecutor on the forged political processes of 30th.
  • VYSHNEVOLOTSKAJA WATER SYSTEM, a waterway from Volga up to Baltic m. Into structure Vyshnevolotskoj of water system enter: in-leak of Volga - r. Tvertsa, Vyshnevolotsky the water-partite channel, r. TSna, an eskar. Mstino, r. Msta, Siversov and Vishersky channels, r. Volkhov, by-pass the Ladoga channel and r. Neva. It is built in nach. 18 century.
  • WATER RESERVOIR VYSHNEVOLOTSKOE, in valleys of rivers SHlina and TSna, in the Tver region. It is filled in in 1719; supporting constructions are renovated in 1951. The area 109 êì2, volume 0,32 êì3, length of 12 kms, an extreme breadth of 9 kms. Executes seasonal flow regulation; fluctuations of level up to 3 m. It is used with the purposes of water supply, energetics and navigation.
  • VYSHNEGRADSKY Ivan Alekseevich (1831/32-95), the Russian scientist, the honorary member Petersburg AN (1888). One of founders of the theory of automatic regulation, the founder of scientific school on designing machines. In 1888-92 Minister of Finance.
  • VYSHNEGRADSKY Nikolay Alekseevich (1821-72), the Russian teacher. The adherent of mean women classless education. Has based the log-book " the Russian pedagogical bulletin " (1857-61). Has constituted the first Russian program on pedagogics.
  • VYSHNY VOLOCHEK, city (with 1770) in the Russian Federation, the Tver region, landing stage on Vyshnevolotskoj to water system (acts with 1709). A depot. 64,3 thousand inhabitants (1992). Wood-working, a building materials, mild, alimentary, etc. an industry. Theatre. A study of local lore museum.
  • LEACHING, extraction of separate components of a solid material with the help of the solvent (napr., a metallurgical extraction of metals from ores, an alkali extraction of the lignin from wood, a bacterial leaching of uranium from ores). The leaching calls also as abstraction.
  • LEACHING of ROCKS, process of selective dissolution and offset underground waters of separate components of rocks, first of all of good solubility chlorides Na, K, etc., and then sulphates and carbonates Ca (napr., the phenomena of karst).
  • " VE KOLOMBE " (Vieux-Colombier) (" the Theatre of an aged pigeon coop "), is based in Paris in 1913 Z.Kopo. In repertoir classical dramatic art, plays of modern writers.
  • VELE-GRIFFEN (Viele-Griffin) Fransis (1864-1937), the French poet. For the collection " Glowing of life " (1897), "Departure" (1899) are characteristic a cult of beauty, ljubovanie a nature, estetizm. The master of a loose verse.
  • TWISTS Ô., see Vieta F.
  • VETAN (Vieuxtemps) Anri (1820-81), the Belgian violinist, the composer and the teacher. One of osnovatelej Belgian national skripichnoj schools. Gave concerts and taught in Russia (1838-40, 1845-52). 7 concerts for a violin with an orchestra, compositions on Russian themes. The professor of the Bruxelles conservatory.
  • VETMIN (the full title Vietnam of docks - pads dong-min - League of extirpation for independence of Vietnam), in 1941-51 unified national front of Vietnam. It is built under initiative KP of Indochina. In 1951 has drained with Ljen-Vjetom.
  • VIETNAM, Socialist Republic Vietnam (Cong Hoa Xa Hoi Chu Nghia Viet Nam), SRV, the state in JUgo-Vost. Asia, on p-ove Indochina. 332 thousand êì2. The population 70,9 million person (1993); primarily vjetnamtsy (88 %), all over 60 nationalities and ethnic groups. A urban population - 20,1 % (1989). The official language - Vietnamese. Believers - 55 % Buddhists, 7 % - roman catholics. Administrative territorial division: 50 provinces, 3 cities of central subordination. Capital - Hanoi. The chief of state - the president (with 1992). The maximum body of legislation and a public authority - unicameral National assembly---the Large part of terrain take mountains an altitude up to 3143 m; on a shore - lowlands (primarily in deltas of the rivers of Songka in a north and Mekong in the south). A climate tropical monsoon. A rainfall of 1500-3000 mm annually. Mean temperatures in the south vary a little (from 26 °S in December up to 29 °S in April), in a north - from 15 °S in January up to 28 °S in July, in mountains is more cool. Typhoons, floods in the autumn are frequent. 40 % of terrain are coated with tropical forests. National park Batma-Hajvan, numerous wildlife reserves, zakazniki.---the Most ancient Vietnamese states were Vanlang and replaced it Aulak and Namvjet. In 2 century up to n. e. Aulak and Namvjet have been conquered by China. In 10 century n. e. As a result of liberation extirpation the independent Vietnamese state is professed. Since 11 century the Vietnamese state Dajvjet - one of the largest states of Southeast Asia. To 1858-84 Vietnam it is seized by France. In 1930 the Communist party of Vietnam (KPV) (later KP Indochina, with 1951 - the Consignment of workers of Vietnam - PTV is based; with 1976 - KPV). To 1941-45 Vietnam it is occupied by a Japanese troops. August revolution 1945 was finished by professing on September, 2 1945 DRV; The president and prime minister DRV has been selected Ho SHi the Min. In 1945-46 French troops have organized act of war in the south, and then have led annexationist war to scale all country. A number of serious defeats of the French troops (especially in r-not Djenbjenfu in 1954) and requests of peace loving forces have forced government of France to go on the conclusion of Geneva agreements 1954.---To 1964-65 USA have organized air war against DRV, in 1965 have entered in JUzh. Vietnam a troops, have undertaken direct management of war against patriotic forces. In 1969 the Temporary revolutionary government of Republic Austral Vjetnam.---In January 1973 signed the Parisian agreement on the arrest of war and restoration of the world in Vietnam has been built. In July 1976 state recombination of Vietnam has been completed, Socialist Republic Vietnam (SRV) is professed. 4-th cross-over KPV in December 1976 has scheduled a course on construction of socialism to scale all country. In 1980 constitution SRV is adopted. On 6-th (December 1986) and (June 1991) cross-overs KPV is determined by 7-th a course on gradual privatization of economy, building of market economy and engaging of foreign investments. In 1992 it is adopted new konstitutsija.---Vietnam - agrarian country with a developing industry. A lobe of a runway (1993, %): village and a forestry 36,6, an industry 20,9. A crude production, coal, apatites, chromites, iron oxide, tin, a tungsten. Manufacture of the electric power 10,8 billion kVt·ch (1993). Black and nonferrous machine industry, metal working and a machine industry (manufacture of diesels, agricultural machinery, precise mechanisms, assembly, etc.), A chemical industry; manufacture of a building materials. The wood-working and pulp and paper enterprises; machining of rubber. Mild and a flavoring industry. Art handcrafts. In an agriculture agriculture prevails. It is treated ok. 21 % of terrain of Vietnam. Cultivate rice (the main food crop), a sweet potato, corn, from technical crops - a cotton, a jute, a cane, tea, etc.; plantations of rubber plants. A fruit growing, a vegetable raising. A large horned stock (it is used primarily as draft force), a swine breeding. Fishery. A harvesting of wood (fine woods). Length (one thousand in km, 1992) railways 2,5, motorways 105, internal waterways 6. Main seaports: Ho Chi Minh, Haiphong, Da Nang, Honggaj, Cam Pha. Export: petroleum, coal, rice, rubber, rybo-and marine products, etc. The Main foreign trade partners: Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, JUzh. Korea, France, Australia, Germany. Monetary unit - dong.
  • The VIETNAMESE TONGUE, the official language of Vietnam, falls into avstroaziatskoj to family of tongues (vjetmyongskaja group). Writing on the basis of the latin alphabet.
  • VIETNAMESE NEWS AGENCY (VIA), Hanoi. It is based in 1945. In 1976 earlier existing in a north and the south of country VIA and News agency Discharging (it is based in 1961) are joint in a unified information organ - VIA.