Thursday, May 10, 2007

  • LIPKIN Semen Izrailevich (r. 1911), the Russian poet, a translator. In verses (the collection "Eyewitness", 1967, " the Writing-book of life ", 1977, "Lira", 1989) - rigid signs of the modern life with its deviations from standards of morality, speculation about unity of the world and human destiny. Transfers klassikov eastern poetry (including. Firdousi, Dzhami, Rudaki, A.Navoi), national eposes ("Dzhangar", "Manas", Nartsky (nartovsky) the epos, "Geseriada"); from "Mahabharata". The story "Decade" (1983) about tragedy of deported Caucasian peoples within stalinshchiny. Memories.
  • LIPMAN (Lippmann) Gabriel (1845-1921), French physics, foreign corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1917; foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN with 1912). Has developed a method of a colour photography, founded on interference of light waves (1891), a method of an integral photo (1908). The Nobel Prize (1908).
  • LIPMAN (Lipmann) Frits Albert (1899-1986), the American biochemist. By origin the German. With 1939 in the USA. The main transactionses on a metabolism and powers in a cell. Has placed role ATF as generalpurpose carrier of power. Has secured a coenzyme And, probeed his chemical structure and a biological role. The Nobel Prize (1953).
  • LIPOVETSKY Mark Naumovich (r. 1964), the Russian critic, the literary critic, the Doctor of Philology (1996). The main orb of interests: the literature of the Soviet season, the modern literary process, Russian postmodernism. Books: " Freedom manual labour " (1991), " Poetics of a literary fairy tale " (1992).
  • ACIDUM LIPOICUM, monocarboxylic sulfur-containing acid. Participates in the capacity of a coenzyme in oxidizing reactions in an organism. A growth factor (vitamin) for some microorganisms.
  • LIPOMA (from grech. lipos - fat and... An ohm), the same, that a lipoma.
  • LIPOPROTEIDS, group of conjugated proteins which structure includes lipids. The main structural components of biological membranes animal and plant cells; are contained in a blood plasma and a nervous tissue of the person and animal.
  • LIPPERSGEJ (Lippershey) Hans (1587-1619), the Netherlands optician. Has created (1608 one of the first telescopes.
  • LIPPI (Lippi), italian painters, representatives of Early Revitalization, father and the son: 1) Fra Filippo (ok. 1406-69), the writer of religious patterns and frescos, proniknutyh society cheerfulness, zhanrizmom (" Adoration the baby ", kon. 1450 - nach. 1460th). 2) Filippino (ok. 1457-1504), in religious patterns and frescos introduced features of stylistic refinement, the note of disturbing, intensity (" Vision over. Bernarda ", ok. 1486).
  • LIPPIJA, a stem of bushes and subshrubs (less often than grasses) sets of a vervain family. St. 200 kinds, primarily in tropics of America. Lippija citric (a verbena citric) - efirnomaslichnoe a plant. Some kinds - ornamental plants.
  • LIPPS (Lipps) Teodor (1851-1914), the german philosopher, the psychologist, aesthetics; alongside with V.Vundtom and G.Ebbingauzom sistematizator german psychology kon. 19 century.
  • LIPSET (Lipset) Sejmur Martin (r. 1922), the American sociologist. Activities on social stratification, social mobility, a history of public idea, youth motion.
  • LIPSKEROV Konstantin Abramovich (1889-1954), the Russian poet. In verses (collections " Turkestani verses ", " the Golden palm ", " Day sixth ", all 1922), noted by classical strictness of the form, - an atmosphere and colour of the Orient, biblical and Buddhist motives. Patterns of the Moscow life in poetic stories "Other" (1922). Plays. Transfers.
  • LIPSKY Vladimir Ippolitovich (1863-1937), Ukrainian botanik, the academician (1919) and the president (1922-28) AN Ukraine, corresponding member AN the USSR (1925; corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science with 1924). Transactionses after a taxonomist and geography of seed plants, a history and the bibliography of botany. The writer of reports on a flora of Caucasus (t. 1-2, 1899-1902) and Compare. Asia (t. 1-3, 1902-05).
  • LIPSKOM (Lipskomb) (Lipscomb) William Nann (r. 1919), American fizikohimik. Probeed a nature of a chemical bond in boron hydrides. Transactionses on kvantovo-chemical simulation of metamorphosises of molecules in enzymatic processes. The Nobel Prize (1976).
  • LIPSCHITZ (Lipchitz) Jacque (1891-1973), the French artist. The native of Lithuania, from 1911 cable cores predominary in France. Having acquired methods of a cubism, it was put forward in figure of master sculptors of 20 century. In 1920-30-Ñ kubistichesky "angulate" laconism of forms, genre singleness of motives give up the place for Lipschitz to more continuous and majestic rhythms. In modes emotional lyricism, the bound with broad use of antique and biblejsko-gospel motives strengthens.
  • LIRA (ital. lira from an armour. libra - pound), 1) monetary unit of Italy, Vatican. 2) Monetary unit of Turkey, equal 100 kurusham (piasters).
  • LIRA (grech. lyra), 1) one of the most ancient phylums of the musical shchipkovyh instruments which catguts are stringed in bridge to a reverberatory body. 2) Ancient greek string shchipkovyj the instrument of type kifary. 3) the Grecian string stringed instrument, affine Bulgarian godulke, Yugoslavian liritse. 4) In Zap. To Europe 15-18 centuries string stringed instruments, close viole, a lute, a violin. 5) Wheel lira - the string friction instrument (Ukrainian relja, rylja, Byelorussian lera), widespread approximately since 11 century in Zap. And Vost. To Europe.
  • LIRA (an armour. Lyra), mia maid of Boreal hemisphere with bright aster Vega.
  • LYRICS (from grech. lyrikos - a uttered baking plate notes of lira), a stem literary (alongside with the epos, a drama), which subject of map - the content of internal life, natural "n" the poet, and the voice form - an internal monologue, predominary in verses. Envelops flock of poetic genres, napr.: elegija, a romance, a gazelle, a sonnet, a song, a poem. Any the phenomena and event of life in lyrics are replicated in the form of subjective experience. However "self-expression" of the poet finds in lyrics due to scale and depth of the personality of the writer universal value; to her all completeness of expression slozhnejshih problems of life is accessible. High samples of lyrical poetry were created Anakreont, Katull, by Arabian poets of 6-8 centuries, Lie Bo, Saadi, F.Petrarca, Dzh. Byron; in Russia - A.S.Pushkin, A.A.Blok.
  • WHETHER BONDS (ok. 510-548), the chief of revolt in 541-544 in Vietnam against the Chinese aggressors. After their expulsion (544) has proclaimed itself emperor.
  • WHETHER (Lee) Bruce (1941-73), the American film actor. For the first time acted in a film in the age of 6-òè months (" the Girl of a golden gate ", 1941). In 1946 under an alias of Lie Sjao Kung (the Small dragon) has executed the first main part in film "Beginning". Studied battle art kun-fu in Hong Kong, has discovered natural school in the USA. " The green bornet " (1966) was taken out in a teleserial. In Hollywood debuted film "Marlou" (1969). It was taken out in films: " Kulaks of fury " (1972), " Recurring of a dragon " (1973).
  • WHETHER (Leigh) Vivien (1913-67), the English actress. On the scene with 1935 (theatre " Old Vick ", etc.). It was taken out in films: " Blown by a wind ", " Most of Waterloo ", " Lady Hamilton ", " the Ship of fools ", etc.
  • WHETHER GVANSU (1892-îê. 1951), the Korean writer. One of initiators of the modern Korean prose (the novel "Callousness", 1917). Ideas of nationalism are reflected in historical novels " the Genuine history of king Tandzhona " (1928-29), the "Earth" (1932-33). Autobiographical novels. With 1939 cooperated to Japanese colonial authorities. From 1945 cable cores in JUzh. To Korea.
  • WHETHER HYENAS (1895-1984), the Korean writer. One of organizers of the Korean federation of proletarian art. The educational novel. " The native party " (1934); in the novel "Earth" (hours 1-2, 1948-1960) - understanding of vicissitudes in village after an agrarian reform in the Sowing. To Korea (1946); the trilogy " River Tumangan " (1954-64) - the annals of ideological and political life of Korea kon. 19 - it is grey. 20 centuries.
  • WHETHER GJUBO (1169-1241), the Korean poet. Wrote on hanmune. First in the Korean literature epicheskaja a poem "Sovereign Tonmen" (1194); verses.
  • WHETHER DACHZHAO (1888-1927), one of osnovatelej KP China. It is executed by militarist authorities.
  • WHETHER (Leigh) Dzhennifer Dzhejson (r. 1958), the American film actress. Originality of Lie creates contrast of brittle appearance and an internal force and temperament. It was taken out in films: " the Last output to Brooklyn " U.Edelja (1989), " Lone white woman " B.Shredera (1992), "I.O.Hadsakera" br. Cohen (1994), etc.
  • WHETHER IK (1682-1764), the Korean scientist, the representative of flow sirhakpha. Acted with criticism of philosophy neokonfutsianstva, buddistskoj and daosskoj mysticism. Was the adherent of improvement of a rule of peasantry.
  • WHETHER KUAN JU (r. 1923), the prime minister of Singapore in 1959-90.
  • WHETHER KEZHAN (r. 1907), the Chinese painter, the master gohua. Lyrical landscapes and genre compositions differ acute perception of the world, dynamism of a manner.
  • WHETHER (Lee) Nataniel (1653-92), the English playwright. Tragedies on antique scenes " Queens - competitors, or Mors Alexander the Great " (1677), "Edip" (in the co-authorship with Dzh. Dryden), etc.
  • WHETHER the PAN (r. 1928), prime-minister of the Council of state of China April 1988 (acting prime-minister November 1987). With 1985 in guiding KP of China. In November 1983-87 deputy of prime-minister of the Council of state of China.
  • WHETHER (Lee) Robert Edward (1807-70), the American general. In the Civil war in the USA the commander-in-chief army juzhan. Has gained a number of victories, but has been battered at Gettysburg (1863), and in 1865 capitulated.
  • WHETHER (Lee) Robert Edward (1807-70), the American general. In the Civil war in the USA the commander-in-chief army juzhan. Has gained a number of victories, but has been battered at Gettysburg (1863), and in 1865 capitulated.
  • WHETHER SONGE (1335-1408), the Korean governor with 1392, the founder of a dynasty of Lie. Has conducted reforms, directed on strengthening of a central authority.
  • WHETHER (Lie) Sofus (1842-99), the Norwegian mathematician, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1896). Has created the theory of continuous groups important for many sections of mathematics and its appendices.
  • WHETHER (Lee) Spajk (r. 1956), the American film director and the actor. A key figure of the afro-American crop of 1990th. Has delivered films: " the Blues of the best life " (1990), " the Fever in jungle " (1991), " Malkolm Iks " (1992; about the charismatic black Muslim leader), " the Girl number 6 " (1995), etc.
  • WHETHER SUNSIN (1545-98), the Korean military figure, the national hero. In time Imdinskoj of war 1592-98 under his command the Japanese fleet is routed. Has perished in fight.
  • WHETHER SYGUAN (Lie Chzhunkuj) (1889-1971), the Chinese geologist, foreign member AN the USSR (1958). Transactionses on a stratigraphy and a tectonics of China.
  • LESHNO (Leszno), city on a southwest of Poland, administrative centre Leshnenskogo voevodstva. 58 thousand inhabitants (1990). A food-processing industry, a machine industry. The international centre on glider sport.
  • LESHCHENKO Lion Valerjanovich (r. 1942), the Russian crooner, the national actor of Russia (1983). In repertoir songs of the modern composers. Participates in performance of vokalno-symphonic products and in concert productions of operas.
  • LESHCHENKO Peter Konstantinovich (1898-1954), the Russian crooner. From 1918 cable cores basically in Romania. In repertoir Russian, Ukrainian, gipsy national songs, songs of the natural composition. It is repressed in it is grey. 40 - nach. 50th.
  • BREAMS, stem of fishes of a set karpovyh. Length up to 50 sm, weigh up to 5 kg. 3 kinds, in water reservoirs of Eurasia, including in basins Baltic, White, Barentseva, Black, Azov, Caspian and Aral seas. Valuable object of a craft and cultivation.
  • FILBERT (filbert), stem of bushes, less often than trees of a set of a birch family. Ok. 20 kinds, in Eurasia and the Sowing. To America; will derivate a underwood in mixed coniferous-broadleafed forests. The greatest distribution and economic value has common hazel (hazel). On Caucasus and in Crimea cultivate a filbert large, or a giant filbert, which as sometimes and common hazel, call as a filbert. The filbert treelike is guarded.
  • LESHCHINSKAJA (Leszczynska) Maria (1703-68), the daughter of Polish king Stanislav Leshchinskogo, the wife of the French king Lui XV. With its occurrence at the French yard the mode was distributed to a pseudo-Polish dress "polonaise", daily bathing.
  • LESCHINSKY (Leshchinsky) Boleslav (1837-1918), the Polish actor. On the scene with 1858. Worked at theatres of Lvov, Warsaw. Has acquired popularity in tragedijnyh roles.
  • LESCHINSKY (Leshchinsky) Stanislav (1677-1766), Polish king in 1704-11, 1733-34. It is selected under pressing of Sweden, it is not adjudicated shljahtoj. It recovered on a holy table by gains of the French diplomacy (about 1725 daughter Leschinsky - the wife of the French king Lui XV). It is ejected from country in a course of war for the Polish patrimony (1733-35).
  • LESHCHINSKY (alias Lensky) Julian (1889-1937), the secretary general of Central Committee KP of Poland (check point) with 1929. The participant of October revolution 1917 in Russia. With 1925 member of a Central Committee, with 1926 member of the Political bureau of a Central Committee of a check point. The member of Presidium IKKI with 1929. It is repressed in the USSR; it is rehabilitated posthumously.
  • LZHEBARDIJA, see. Gaumata.
  • LZHEDMITRY I (?-1606), Russian tsar with 1605. The impostor (presumably - G.B.Otrepjev). In 1601 it was declared in Poland under a name of the son of Ivan of IV Terrible - Dmitry. In 1604 with the polsko-Lithuanian orders has transfered Russian border, backed by a part of town-dwellers, cossacks and peasants. It is killed by boyars - conspirators.
  • LZHEDMITRY II (" Tushinsky the thief ") (?-1610), the impostor of a unknown origin. With 1607 gave itself for ostensibly rescued tsar Dmitry (Lzhedmitrija I). In 1608-09 has created Tushinsky camp near Moscow, whence in vain attempted to trap capital. With the beginning of the open Polish intervention ran to Kaluga where has been killed.
  • LZHEISIDOROVY DEKRETALII, the collection of church documents (dekretalii, decrees of cathedrals, etc.), primarily forgery; it is constituted in it is grey. 9 century in empire Karolingov for the substantiation of claims of Popes on the supremance of law above temporal power. The maker has acted under alias Isidor Merkator. In the theological literature drawing up lzheisidorovyh dekretaly was attributed Isidoru Seville. Podlozhnost a large part of documents it is established in 17 century.
  • LZHEKOROEDY (kapjushonniki), a set of bugs. Outwardly are similar on bark beetles. Ok. 550 kinds, mostly in tropics. Larvas develop in wood, less often in seeds of plants. Some - pests of forest products, a woodwork, grains.
  • WHETHER, a dynasty in Korea with 1392 (up to 1897 kings, with 1897 emperors) before annexation of country Japan in 1910.
  • WHETHER (Lie Tszundao) (r. 1926), the Chinese physics - theorist. Has put forward (1956, together with Young) a hypothesis about nesohranenii parities in weak coupling. The Nobel Prize (1957, together with Young).
  • WHETHER (samonazv. - a bay), people in China, an aboriginal population about. Hainan. 860 thousand person (1992.) whether tongue. Hold on to traditional convictions.
  • WHETHER (Yuan TSzeli), see Lie Jan.
  • WHETHER BIN, in the Chinese mythology, 1) the god of year, dangerous for people and requiring of victims. 2) the Militant hero, the winner of the god r. Yangtze.
  • WHETHER BO (701-762), the Chinese poet. It was saved more than 900 lyrics, including a cycle "Ancient", verses in a genre of national songs (juefu), rhythmic prose (fu), quatrians in which konfutsiansky rationalism was bridged with inherent daosizmu motives of a unification to a nature.
  • LEONARDO PIZANSKY (Leonardo Pisano) (Fibonacci, Fibonacci) (1180-1240), italian mathematician. Basically transactionses " the Book an abaca " (1202) first has regularly stated achievements of Arabian mathematics, than promoted acquaintance to them in Zap. To Europe.
  • LEON (Leone) Serdzho (1921-89), the italian film director and the scripter. Has received popularity as an ancestor t. n. "Spaghetti - western", i.e. films in the traditional Hollywood genre, removed in Europe (the trilogy " For a handful of dollars ", 1964; " For some superfluous dollars ", 1965 and " Good, the poor, malicious ", 1966). In 1984 has removed in Hollywood the gangster saga " Once in America ".
  • LEONID (508/507-480 up to n. e.), Spartan tsar with 488. In the greko-persian wars in 480 has headed the Grecian army against the persian tsar Kserksa. Has perished in battle for Thermopylae, covering with small order of Spartans departure Grecian a troops. In antique legends Leonid - a sample of the patriot and the soldier.
  • LEONID, in the world Lion Aleksandrovich Kavelin (1822-91), the Russian spiritual writer, archimandrite; the viceroy to the Trinity - Sergievoj laurels. Has constituted a number of check lists and descriptions staropechatnyh books and manuscripts.
  • LEONID Korinfsky (mind. 251 or 258), the Christian martyr damaged in Corinth in persecution of emperor Detsija; pupil Kodrata. Memory in the Orthodox church on March, 10 (23) and on April, 16 (29).
  • LEONIDZE George Nikolaevich (1899-1966), the Georgian poet, the national poet Georgian SSR (1959), academician AN of Georgia (1944). Poems "Samgori" (1950), "Portohala" (1951), lyrics. The collection " the Magic tree. Memories " (1962). The state premium of the USSR (1941, 1950, 1952).
  • LEONIDOV Ivan Iljich (1902-59), the Russian architect. The representative of constructivism, developed the forms adequate social problems of the architecture (unfulfilled designs of Institute of library science him. Lenina, 1927, houses TSentrosojuza, 1928, - in Moscow; a settlement of new type at Magnitogorsk mining-and-metallurgical integrated works, 1930).
  • LEONIDOV Leonid Mironovich (1873-1941), the Russian actor, the teacher, the national actor of the USSR (1936), the doctor of art criticism (1939). On the scene with 1896. With 1903 in Moskovsk Art theatre (MHT). Among roles: Dmitry Karamazov (" Brothers Karamazovy " on F.M.Dostoevskomu), Pljushkin (" Dead showers " on N.V.Gogolju). It was taken out in films: " Side panels of the lackey ", "Gobsek", etc. The Professor of State institute of a theatrical art (with 1939).
  • LEONILLA (Neonilla) Langonijskaja (mind. Between 161-180), the Christian martyress damaged in persecution of emperor of Mark Avrelija. Memory in the Orthodox church on January, 16 (29).
  • LEONKAVALLO (Leoncavallo) Rudzhero (1857-1919), the italian composer. One of founders opera verizma. Operas " Clowns " (1892), "Bohemia" (1897; in Russia under the title " Life of Latin quarter "), etc.
  • LEONOV Alexey Arhipovich (r. 1934), the Russian astronaut, a pilot - astronaut of the USSR (1965), the general - major of aircraft (1975), doubly the Hero of Soviet Union (1965, 1975). Flight on "Rise - 2" with the first extra-vehicular activity in a history (March 1965), "Soyuz - 19" under program EPAS (July 1975). The state premium of the USSR (1981).
  • LEONOV Victor Nikolaevich (r. 1916), doubly the Hero of Soviet Union (1944, for heroism in breakages in Zapoljarje; 1945, for battle differences at transplantation of marine landing to eastern shore the Sowing. Korea), the captain of 2-nd rank (1952); the commander razvedotrjadov.
  • LEONOV Eugeny Pavlovich (1926-94), the Russian actor, the national actor of the USSR (1978). In 1948-68 in Moskovsk drama theatre him. K.S.Stanislavsky. With 1972 in Moskovsk theatre him. Lenin Komsomol (about 1990 theatre " Ëåíêîì "). Roles: Ivanov ("Ivanov" A.P.Chehova), Tevje-molochnik ("Prayer for the dead" on SHolom-Alejhemu), etc. It was taken out in films: " Thirty three ", " the Byelorussian passenger depot ", "Premium", " the Autumnal marathon ", " To kill a dragon ", etc. The State premium of the USSR (1976), the State premium of the Russian Federation (1992).
  • LEONOV Leonid Maksimovich (1899-1994), the Russian writer, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1972). In stories, stories of 20th, novels "Badgers" (1924), "Thief" (1927, 2-n edition 1959) drama events and tragical consequences of revolutionary breaking of Russia. The play " the Golden carriage " (3-n edition 1964) about happiness, not fly-off from sense of duty and achievable by victims. Roman " Russian wood " (1953) about inseparable communication of Russian character with a native nature and banefulness for people of its thoughtless conquest. In the last monumental novel "Pyramid" (1994) - revaluation of the Russian reality of 20 century in light of christianity.
  • LEONOV Maxim Leonovich (1872-1929), the Russian poet. Father L.M.Leonov. Entered in " Surikovsky the literary - musical circle ". Collections: " the First notes " (1889), " Poems and stories " (1905), etc. In literary - critiques opposed modernist flows of poetry.
  • LEONOV Peter Vasiljevich (1910-82), the Russian artist - keramist, the deserved artist of Russia (1970), corresponding member AH the USSR (1973). One of creators of style of paintings (loose brush painting with large inking drawing) Dulevskogo porcelain factory.
  • LEONOV Sergey Borisovich (r. 1931), the Russian geologist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991). The main transactionses on rational assimilation of mineral resources.
  • LEONOV Jury Georgievich (r. 1934), the Russian geologist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991). The main transactionses on theoretical and regional geotectonics and tectonic cartography.
  • LEONOV Darja Mihajlovna (1829, under other data, 1834-96), the Russian singer (contralto). Solistka Mariinsky (Saint Petersburg) and Major (Moscow) of theatres. In concerts propagandized Russian national songs, M.P.Musorgsky products and other Russian composers.
  • LEONOVICH Vladimir Nikolaevich (r. 1933), the Russian poet. The composite figurativeness, sense of responsibility before the world, lyrics of a nature in collections of verses "In the name of" (1971), " Lower Debrja " (1983). Transfers.
  • LERMA (Lerma), the river in Mexico. 510 kms, the area of basin of 38,5 thousand êì2. Runs into an eskar. CHapala. Average discharge of water 80 m3 / with. Vdhr., a river plant.
  • LERMA (Lerma) (Gomes de Sandoval-i-Rohas) Fransisko (1552-1623), duke, the first minister in 1598-1618, actually autocratically run Spain. The rule used primarily for a personal profit. Abuses Lermy have called his demission. In 1618 has achieved for Roman a dad of a cardinalate.
  • LERMONT Thomas (Thomas Rifmach) (ok .1220 - îê.1290), the Scottish poet and a predictor. Has become the hero of numerous latest legends.
  • LERMONTOV, city (with 1956) in the Russian Federation, Stavropol kr. A depot. 22,0 thousand inhabitants (1992). Factory " Office equipment "; a light industry. It is called named M.J.Lermontov.
  • LERMONTOV Julia Vsevolodovna (1847-1919), first Russian woman - the doctor of chemistry (1874). From a stem to which M.J.Lermontov belonged. A prime area of scientific activities - an organic chemistry.
  • LERNER Isaak JAkovlevich (r. 1917), the Russian teacher, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1992). Transactionses on didactics, including on problems of the content of education, methods of education, the theory of the school tutorial.
  • LERNET-HOLENIJA Alexander (1897-1976), the Austrian writer. The master of an entertainment drama (" the Austrian comedy ", 1927) and the historical novel ("SHtandarty", 1934).
  • LER-SPLAVINSKY (Lehr-Splawinski) Tadeush (1891-1965), the Polish jazykoved-Slavist. Probeed slavonic, Baltic and Celtic tongues, dealt with a problem of an ethnogenesis and an ancestral home of slavs. Tutorials of church slavonic, Polish, Russian tongues.
  • LERUA (Le Roy) Eduar (1870-1954), the French scientist and the philosopher, A.Bergson follower, the representative of a roman catholic modernism. Was engaged in mathematics, paleontology and anthropology.
  • LERUA-GURAN (Leroi-Gourhan) Andre (1911-86), the French archeologist and the ethnographer. The main transactionses on evolution of technique and crop of mankind from primitiveness before new time, on paleolithic art and religion.
  • The WOOD, one of the main phylums of the vegetation, prevailing which storey is derivated by trees of one or several kinds, with closed tops; grasses are characteristic for a wood, low bushes, mosses, lichens also. Distinguish conifers and deciduous (both clear, and blended), deciduous and ever-green forests. Zoetic medium for many birds and beasts, a source of wood, berries, mushrooms and technical raw material. The biomass, gathered to a wood, compounds 90 % of all terraneous biomass (its value compounds from 1650.109 up to 1911.109 t dry matter, ok. 14-15 % of her will derivate coniferous forests, 55-60 % - tropical). Having important klimatoregulirujushchee, pochvo-and the water-protective value, a tree cover of the Earth is one of factors of resistance of ecumene and demands a stationary value of care of his conservation and resumption. See. Forest resources.
  • WOOD ON the VORSKLA, reservation in the Russian Federation, the Belgorod region. It is based in the modern borders with 1979. Ploshad 1038 ga. A secular oak - grove of a Central Russian forest steppe. The moose, a wild boar, a badger, etc.
  • WOODS, auxiliaries for disposition of workers and materials at fulfilment of some civil and erection works, predominary outside of the building (structure). Are most distributed inventory (collapsible) tubular matallicheskie.
  • LESAZH (Lesage) Alain Ren (1668-1747), the French writer. Novels " the Lame evil spirit " (1707), " History ZHil Blaza from Santiljany " (t. 1-4, 1715-35), going back to the swindling novel, draw a satirical pattern of tempers absoljutistskoj France. Comedies.
  • LESBIJSKAJA LOVE (lesbianstvo, sapfizm, tribadija), a women homoeroticism; the title from about. Lesbos, where in 7-6 centuries up to n. e. A vein ancient greek poetess Sapfo whom attribute antheming this form of sexual life.
  • LESBOS (Mitilini), island in Egejskom m., bliz a shore p-ova M.Azija; terrain of Greece. 1636 êì2. St. 100 thousand inhabitants. An altitude up to 967 m. The Mediterranean bushes. A primary port - Mitilini. One of the centres of ancient greek crop.
  • SUMMER OLYMPIC GAMES, see. Olympic Games.
  • ANNUAL PLANT, in 16-17 centuries Russian women gala with the lengthy (often up to a floor) dolman sleeves (sometimes split). The hem was studed with a braid, a fringe and so forth.
  • ANNUAL PLANTS Feliks Artemjevich (r. 1934), the Russian geologist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1992). Transactionses on geology, a geochemistry and petrology of processes of formation of earth crust.
  • SUMMER, in the Grecian mythology the daughter of titaniums Koja and Feby, given birth from Zevsa twins Apollo and Artemis. Run by jealous wife Zevsa the Hero which has forbidden to everyone earth repeat to give her the asylum, the Summer finds a shelter for the period of stems on buoyant about. Delos. In Roman mythology to her corresponds Latona.
  • SUMMER, see in an item. Seasons.
  • LETOV Alexander Mihajlovich (1911-74), the Russian scientist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1968). Transactionses on resistance of nonlinear controlled systems. The state premium of the USSR (1972).
  • LETOLIL (Laetolil), (Letoli), a site of remnants avstralopitekov in Kenya, in 30 kms to the south from Olduvajskogo a gorge. An antiquity ok. 3,7 million flying.
  • ANNALS, historical products, a kind of the narrative literature in Russia 11-17 centuries, comprised of weather records or represented monuments of the composite structure - vaults annalistic. Annals were obshcherusskimi (napr., " the Story temporary a flying ", Nikonovskaja the annals, etc.) and aboriginal (the Novgorod annals, etc.). Were saved primarily in serotinal lists.
  • "ANNALS", monthly literary, scientific and the political magazine, was emitted in Petrograd in 1915-17. M.Gorkim who has grouped together the literary forces acting against war around of "Annals", nationalism, chauvinism is based.
  • LETOSCHISLENIE, system of calculation of major periods. In many systems letoschislenija the account was led from any historical or legendary event. So, the Christian church has coordinated the beginning letoschislenija for a birth of Jesus of the Christ. This system letoschislenija (new era) is adopted now in the majority of countries (see. A calendar). For peoples shriving moslem faith, letoschislenie it is conducted from 622 n. e. (from date of resettlement of Mohammed - the founder of moslem faith - to Medina).
  • LETSIE III (Letsie) Mohato Seenso (r. 1963), king of Lesotho with 1990. Son Moshesha of Item.
  • LETUVOS TARIBA (Lietuvos taryba) (the Lithuanian advice), the supreme body of an authority in Lithuania with 22.9.1917 on 15.5.1920, Vilno (since January 1919 Kaunas). The chapter - A.Smetona, then - S.Shilingas. Has made a decision about reconstruction of the Lithuanian state, in July 1918 has declared Lithuania a monarchy, in November 1918 this solution cancelled, has accepted the temporary Lithuanian constitution, has formed government, in April 1919 has elected the president. After convocation of Constituent parliament (May 1920) has stopped existence.
  • "BAT", Russian theatre of miniatures. Has arisen in 1908 in Moscow from parodijno-comic submissions - "kale - yards" of the Moscow Art theatre. Chief N.F.Baliev in 1920 with a part of troupe has emigrated.
  • VOLATILITY (fugacity), the thermodynamic value serving for the description of properties of substantial gas mixtures. Allows to apply the equations expressing relation of a chemical potential of ideal gas from temperature, pressure and structure of system, to a component of gas mixture if to substitute in these equations fractional pressure with a volatility.
  • BATS, a section of mammals of a chiroptera. Length of a body from 2,5 up to 14 see. Ok. 700 kinds (17 sets), are distributed widely, numerous in tropics and subtropics. Shelters for bats caves, hollows of trees, debris, construction of the person, etc. minister. Release lokatsionnye signals by the way short ultrasonic pulses frequency 20-120 kGts and duration of 0,2-100 ms. Erase destructive insects. Some - carriers of causal organisms of contagions. 10 kinds and 3 subspecies in the Red Data Book of International Soyuz of nature protection and natural resources.
  • FLYING FISHES, set of marine fishes of order sarganoobraznyh. Length 15-55 see. St. 70 kinds, in tropical and moderate waters of Quiet, Indian and Atlantic oceans. In Russia - in Japanese m. "Fly by" above water up to 200 (sometimes up to 400) m. Object of a craft.
  • " The FLYING DUTCH ", 1) on a medieval legend - the illusive ship doomed never to stick to coast; among seamen it has been distributed poverje, that meeting from nymas indicates death at-sea. 2) the Yacht - centerboarder of an Olympic class, crew 2 persons; with 1960 in the program of Olympic Games.
  • PAPPUS, alary excrescence or large hair for seeds or fruits of many plants (a willowweed, a milkweed, etc.). Promotes their distribution by a wind.
  • LESSING (Lessing) Doris Mej (r. 1919), the English writer. The anticolonial publicism, stories and novels " the Grass sing " (1950), " March the Quest " (1952), " Decent spoilage " (1954.) Roman " the Golden diary " (1962) has revealed the philosophical finding actions which have caused social its pessimism of " a space series " Kanopus in Argos " (1979-82).
  • LESSIROVKA (from a nem. Lasierung), the thin diaphanous or translucent layers of the paints superimposed on the dried out layer of lubricated painting for enrichment of colour.
  • LOESSIAL PLATEAU, in China, in mid-range a bass. r. Huang He. Ok. 430 thousand êì2. Prevail it hilly - uvalistye plains an altitude of 1200-1500 m, folded loesses power of 100-250 m. Are hardly dismembered (5-6 kms of gullies on 1 êì2 at depth of gullies 100-150 ì). The rivers with a plenty of silts. Downslopes routinely terrasirovany also cultivated. The main - Sian, Taiyuan.
  • LEICESTER (Leicester) city in the Great Britain, in England. An administrative centre of county Leicestershire. 278 thousand inhabitants (1988). Knitted, a footwear industry, a machine industry. University. Has developed at-sight the Celtic and Roman settlements.
  • LEICESTER (Lester) Richard (r. 1932), the American producer, the composer. Has written music and words to the first English telemusical " All for Perry ", directed on a wireless " Idiotic shows " with Peter Sellersom. In 1964 has delivered with group " Áèòëç " film " Evening of refractory day " in absurdistskoj to the manner which has anticipated an aesthetics of video clips; in 1967 - imagination on the subject of the nuclear apocalypse " As I have scored war ". Other films: "Superman - 2" (1980), "Superman - 3" (1983), " Recurring of three musketeers " (1989), etc.
  • LADDER of the ENTITIES, widespread among naturalists and philosophers of 18 century submission about a hierarchic arrangement of bodies of a nature from simple inorganic (minerals) up to slozhnejshih alive entities. The idea of a ladder of entities goes back to Aristotelju.
  • LESHA, in the ancient greek architecture - the building for collections, interviews, "club".
  • LESMJAN (Lesmian) Boleslav (1879-1937), the Polish poet. Collections of lyrical verses " the Garden at the crossroads " (1912), "Meadow" (1920), " Wood particular act " (it is published 1938).
  • LESJUER (Lesjuer) (Lesueur) Jean Fransua (1760-1837), the French composer, the musical writer. Opera " Cave " (1793) - a bright sample of " opera of salvage ". The professor of the Parisian conservatory (with 1795).
  • FLYING POMPONY (an armour. Laetus Pomponius) (1428-97), the italian humanist. In 1465 has based in Rome a circle of humanists - t. n. Roman academy where the ancient philosophy was studied, the medieval scholasticism, a latin church were criticized.
  • SUMMERS, in the Grecian mythology the river of oblivion in a underground kingdom. Showers died, having tried water from Lety, overlooked about the mortal life. "To sink into oblivion" - to be forgot, completely to vanish.
  • SUMMERS, news agency of Latvia. Conducts a history from the Latvian telegraphic agency, founded in 1920 in Riga. It is reorganized in 1940. In 1973-91 called Latinform.
  • LETHAL (from an armour. letalis - fatal), the mutant condition of a gene presenting an organism death.
  • LETHALITY (mortality), parameter of medical statistics: attitude of figure died from any disease, a wound, etc. to figure had been ill with this disease (injured) for fixed period.
  • LETHARGY (grech. lethargia, from lethe oblivion and argia - inactivity), imaginary mors - a condition of ainesia similar to dream, with absence of reactions to irritations, a sharp depressing of all attributes of life which at careful examination can be revealed. Lasts routinely from several hours about several day.
  • FLIGHT VEHICLE, the device for atmospheric flights or space. Distinguish flight vehicles lighter-than-air (air balloons), it is heavier than air (see. Aircraft) and space flight vehicles.
  • VOLANT BIRDS, the same, that carinate birds.
  • VOLANT PANGOLINS (pterozavry), order extinct kowtowing. Lived in jure and to a chalk on all mainlands. Anteriors were bridged to sides of a body dermal membranes - side panels. The dimensions from small-sized up to very large (pteranodon). A wing - span from 7-8 sm up to 15 m. Were capable to a powered flight. Ok. 110 kinds (ok. 35 stems).
  • TAP HOLE, aperture in some metallurgical furnaces for extension of molten metal, a regulus or slag. After each extension a tap hole close up a refractory body or occlude a metal fuse.
  • PHYLLOTAXY, the order of disposition of leaves on a stalk. A regular attribute. Phylums of a phyllotaxy: spiral, or alternate (1 leaf on a unit of a stalk, napr., for an oak); opposite (2 leafs on a unit of a stalk, napr., for a maple); multicilate (3 and more leaves, napr., for an oleander).
  • LEAFY MOSSES (true mosses), class of mosses with a body, fissured on a stalk and leaves. 3 subclasses: sphagnum, andreevye and brievye. St. 15 thousand kinds, including a haircap, dikranum, a sphagnum, etc. Are distributed on all terrestrial globe, primarily in tundra, woods, on bogs and in the alpine belt of mountains.
  • LISTOTELY (listovidki), a set of hexapods of order prividenjevyh. Protective similarity of a body to a leaf is promoted by colour. Ok. 20 kinds, predominary in tropical Asia.
  • LEAF - REPRINT, unit of calculation printed listazha: a printed reprint on one party of sheets of paper of a format 60õ90 sm (napr., the issuing in 20 quires at circulation of 100 thousand copies compounds 2 million leafs - reprints), a parameter of a work content of the polygraphic enterprise.
  • LEAVES Vladislav Nikolaevich (1957-95), the Russian TV reporter. "View" (1987-90) master popular television programs, " the Field of miracles " (1990-91), "Theme" (1991-93), "Rush hour" (1994-95). It is killed in a porch of a natural house. His assassination has called a broad public resonance.
  • LISJANSKY Jury Fedorovich (1773-1837), the Russian seafarer, the captain of 1-st rank (1809). On I.F.Krusenstern first Russian round-the-world expedition 1803-06 commanded "Neva". Has discovered one of the Hawaiian islands, called in his honour island Lisjanskogo; probeed. About. Kadiak and a part arh. Alexander.
  • PENINSULA LISJANSKOGO, on boreal shore Ohotskogo in m. Ok. 625 êì2. An altitude up to 1248 m. Coasts raised, places rocky. Thrickets of a cedar elfin woodland and mountain tundra prevail. It is called named J.F.Lisjanskogo.
  • ... LIT, the part of the composite words meaning: 1) (from grech. lithos - a stone) relating a stone, similar to a stone (napr., a paleolith, laccolith); 2) (from grech. lytos - cankered, soluble) a product of dissolution, decomposition (napr., an electrolyte).
  • LITAVRA (litavry) (from grech. polytaurea; ital. mn. Hours timpani, a nem. Pauken), an impact musical instrument kotloobraznoj forms with a membrane, often twin (a burn, etc.). It is distributed from the most ancient times. Into structure of a symphonic orchestra enters from 17 century, are routinely used 2 and more litavr.
  • LITAVRIN Gennady Grigorjevich (r. 1925), the Russian historian, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1994). Activities on a history of Byzantium.
  • LITBEL, see. The Litovsko-Byelorussian Soviet socialist republic.
  • LITVINENKO Paul Andreevich (r. 1924), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1971), the full gentleman of orders of Glory (1944, 1945, 1946), the foreman. In Great Domestic war the commander of the anti-tank instrument. After war the worker, the deputy chief of shop on kombajnovom factory in Tula.
  • LITVINENKO-VOLGEMUT Maria Ivanovna (1892-1966), the Ukrainian singer (a lyrico-dramatic soprano), the national actress of the USSR (1936). The wife of singer I.S.Patorzhinskogo. In 1935-53 at the Ukrainian theatre of opera and ballet. The professor of the Kiev conservatory. (1944-64). The state premium of the USSR (1946).
  • LITVINOV Boris Vasiljevich (r. 1929), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1981). Transactionses on new ways of a cumulation of power. Has created explosion-proof designs of charges. The lenin premium (1966).
  • LITVINOV Victor Jakovlevich (1910-83), avikonstruktor and the organizer of an aircraft industry. In 30th participat in organization of the production extension of different phylums of airplanes (including. The Instant), during Great Domestic war has adjusted the production extension shturmovikov Ooze - 2 in Kuibyshev. In 1965-73 was the deputy minister of a general machine industry. The state premium of the USSR (1946, 1950).
  • LITVINOV Maxim Maksimovich (an ice-film. fam. And name Vallah Maks) (1876-1951), the Russian statesman. With 1918 member of board Narkomindela, in 1921 ambassador in Estonia. With 1921 deputy, in 1930-1939 narkom foreign businesses of the USSR. In 1941-43 deputy narkoma foreign businesses, simultaneously a salting of the USSR in the USA. Member VTSIK, the Central Electoral Committee of the USSR.
  • LITVINOV Nikolay Vladimirovich (1907-87), the Russian producer, the national actor of Russia (1972). One of organizers and master masters of broadcasting for children.
  • FOUNDRY FEVER, occupational disease working for a casting, a smelt, an autogenous weldment and metal cutting: a heat, a fever, a headache, a vomiting, a conjunctivitis, a bronchitis, abdominal pains, etc. Flow paroxysmal.
  • The LITHUANIAN ADVICE, see. Letuvos tariba.
  • The LITHUANIAN DRAMA THEATRE, is built in 1940 in Vilnius on the basis of troupe Kaunas and SHjauljajskogo drama theatres, with 1955 academic. The artistic administrator - J.Vajtkus (with 1989).
  • The LITHUANIAN TONGUE, falls into to Baltic group indoevropejskoj families of tongues. The official language of Lithuania. Writing on the basis of the latin alphabet.
  • LITOVSKO-BYELORUSSIAN SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC (Litbel), association Lithuanian SSR and Belorussoj SSR (February - August 1919). Capital - Vilnius, since April - Minsk. Chairman SNK - V.S.Mitskjavichjus-Kapsukas. The terrain is seized by german and Polish interventionists.
  • The LITHUANIAN GREAT PRINCIPALITY (the Great principality Lithuanian), the state on a part of terrain of the modern of Lithuania and Belarus in 13-16 centuries. In kon. 13-14 centuries have extended at the expense of capture of the Byelorussian, Ukrainian and western Russian grounds. Capital - Trakaj, then Vilnius. With the purposes of extirpation with german knights it was pulled together to Poland (Krevskaja the union 1385). In kon. 15 century the authority of grand duke putting under the supervisory control was formed Rad of the pans. In course Livonskoj of war it was aggregated with Poland in the unified state - Speech Pospolitu (Ljublinskaja the union 1569).
  • LITHUANIANS (the self-title - letuvjaj), people, the main population of Lithuania (2924 thousand person, 1992). In the Russian Federation 70 thousand person, in Latvia 34,6 thousand person; in the USA over 300 thousand person the Aggregate number 3,45 million person (1992). Tongue Lithuanian. Believers - basically roman catholics.
  • LITOVCHENKO Alexander Dmitrievich (1835-90), the Russian painter. The member of Artel of artists, peredvizhnik. Bytopisatelskie patterns, predominary on themes of Russian history of 16-17 centuries ("Falconer" reigning Alexey Mihajlovicha, 1889).
  • LITHOGENESIS (from lito... And... A genesis), set of processes of education and consequent changes of sedimental rocks. Primary factors of lithogenesis - tectonic motions and a climate. In a cycle of lithogenesis secrete stages: hypergenesis, sedimentogenez, diagenesis, a katagenesis (epigenesis), a metagenesis. Distinguish ice, gumidnyj, aridnyj and vulkanogenno-sedimental phylums of lithogenesis. Education of many mineral wealths is connected to different stages of lithogenesis (carbons, petroleum, gas, iron and manganese ores, bauxites, etc.).
  • LITHOGRAPH (from lito... And... grafija), a way of a plane print at which a printed form the surface of a stone (limestone) ministers. It is invented in 1798 A.Zenefelderom. The plotting on a lithographic limestone put adipose lithographic indian ink or a litographic core. Conceding broad duplicating, the lithograph in 19 century has become popular in heavy and social - critical occasional the schedule. In 20 century the lithograph is driven out of polygraphy by offset, but saves value for fulfilment of art plattes.
  • LITHOLOGY (from lito... And... logija), science about sedimentary rocks and the modern rainfall, their material structure, a structure, regularities and conditions of education and change. The main research techniques: facies and formatsionnyj the analysis, rather - lithologic a method, etc. By results of probe are compounded lithologic-and-facies and litologo-paleogeograficheskie maps and the atlases permitting visually to show to regularity of a spacing of sedimental rocks and to make the forecast of disposition of some mineral wealths. The lithology as do-it-yourself science was issued in nach. 20 century due to probes of german geologist J.Walter, the Russian geologists J.V.Samoilov, A.P.Pavlova, L.V.Pustovalova, N.M.Strahova, etc., and also American scientist U.G.Tvenhofela, etc.
  • LITHOLOGIC-AND-FACIES MAPS, map structure and conditions of education of a rainfall and allow to reconstruct physiographic conditions osadkonakoplenija any interval of geologic time.
  • LITOLF (Litolff) Anri Charles (1818-91), the French composer, the pianist - virtuoso, the conductor. In 1851-60 headed publishing house in Braunschweig (Germany; up to 1940 wore his name). Orchestral overtures "Robespjer", "ZHirondisty", concerts for a piano with an orchestra, etc.
  • LITHOPONE, white powder; a mix of zinc sulphide ZnS (pigment) and fixed white BaSO4 (filling agent). It is applied to preparation of different paints, in manufacture of plastics materials, a linoleum, etc.
  • LITORAL (from an armour. litoralis - coastal), the zone of a seabed deluged during an inflow and sewed at a drip mould. Places between a water level in the lowest drip mould and a water level in the highest inflow.
  • LITTORAL ADJOURNMENTS, adjournments of a litoral, introduced primarily sands, shingle, boulders, and also clumps of shells and their wreckages.
  • LITHOSPHERE (from lito... And an orb), the second sphere of the "solid" Earth including earth crust and a top of its underlying upper mantle.
  • LITOSFERNAJA the SLAB, large (a little bit one thousand in km in a diameter) the unit of earth crust including not only continental, but also conjugate with her an oceanic bark; it is limited from different directions seismically and tektonicheski to active zones of faults.
  • LITOTA (from grech. litotes - singleness), 1) trails: denial of the attribute which is not inherent to object, i.e. some kind of " denial of denial ", producing in the total formally equivalent positive, but actually the loosened statement ("reasonably useful"). 2) Trails, counter to a hyperbola; the going understatement (" muzhichok with nogotok ").
  • LITHOPHILOUS ELEMENTS, in geochemical grading elements of V.M.Goldshmidta - group of chemical elements (53 elements), minerals of earth crust (lithosphere) composing a ground mass.
  • LITHOPHYTES (from lito... And grech. phyton - a plant) (petrophytes), the plants developing on stones and rocks. Bacteria and algae, then lichens and mosses (accruing a layer of a humus) and, at last, higher plants (ferns, kinds of a fescue, etc.) in the beginning settle.
  • CASTING BED, part of a blast-furnace plant directly for the furnace for work on an iron tapping and slag.
  • LETTERS [from an armour. lit (t) era - the character] (obsolete expression), the document on the right preferential or free pass. The title is connected to notation of such documents the conditional character.
  • The LETTER [from an armour. lit (t) era - the character], a rectangular bar from topografskogo an alloy, a tree or plastics materials with the relief (convex) plotting (ochkom) characters, digits or a mark in a butt. At printing ochko coats and gives a reprint on a paper.
  • " LITERATORSKIE the DUCKRUN ", a burial ground of many writers, public figures, scientists on Volkovom a cemetery in Saint Petersburg. Have arisen in 1861 when near to V.G.Belinsky tomb N.A.Dobroljubov has been buried. Here are buried by I.S.Turgenev, M.E.Saltykov-Schedrin, D.I.Mendeleev, I.P.Pavlov, M.A.Uljanova.
  • The LITERATURE [an armour. lit (t) eratura, characters. - written], the products of writing having public value (napr., fiction, the scientific literature, epistoljarnaja the literature). It is more often a baking plate the literature perceive art literary production (fiction; correspondence in 19 century - " refined literature "). In this value the literature - the phenomena of art (" art of the word "), aesthetically expressing public consciousness and in turn forming it. The material carrier of figurativeness in the literature - speech - allows her is unusual to master widely and awakely to interpret zoetic processes in all their complexities, including an inner life of people and their dialogue, embodied in expressions (see. A monologue and the Dialogue). The fiction as a kind of art arises on soil of mythology and oral - poetic national creativity. The fiction keeps, accumulates and transmits from generation to generation aesthetic, moral, philosophical, social values. The literature represents dynamic system of literary stems formed during millenaries (the epos, lyrics, a drama), genres, motives, scenes, modes, verse and prosaic forms (see. Prose and Poetry), a graphic means of tongue (see. Speech art), methods of a composition. There are kinds of written products., closing with fiction, - memuarnaja, epistoljarnaja, the documentary literature. The most ancient products were written in verses, prose - be relative more serotinal range of fiction. Only in 18-19 centuries these two ranges were razed to the ground on value. Communications of fiction are characteristic for 20 century with other predominary novel species of art - kino, a wireless, a television. Creativity of given away figures of fiction marks the major phases of development of world and national crop. The literature is studied by philology, on advantage literary criticism.
  • " The LITERARY NEWSPAPER ", Saint Petersburg, on January, 1 on June, 1830-30 1831, 1 time in 5 days. Editors - publishers: till November 1830 A.A.Delwig, then O.M.Somov. The nearest sharing was accepted by A.S.Pushkin.
  • " The LITERARY NEWSPAPER ", Saint Petersburg, 1840-49. Editors raznovremenno: F.A.Koni, N.A.Polevoj, A.A.Kraevsky, etc. Opposed conservative journalism. Among employees - V.G.Belinsky, N.A.Nekrasov.
  • LITERARY CRITICISM, range of literary creativity on the verge art (fiction) and science about the literature (literary criticism). Is engaged in interpretation and an assessment of literary works from the point of view of a modernity (including vital problems of public and spiritual life); renders active influence on literary process, and also directly on formation of public consciousness; rests on the theory and a history of the literature, philosophy, an aesthetics. Publicistic, politiko-burning character often has. Genres of literary criticism: a review, the critique about separate product, the review, the problem article, the monography about the modern literary process. As a special kind of the literature and as the do-it-yourself trade has developed in Europe in 1-st floor. 19 century (T.Karlejl, S.Sent-Bev, V.G.Belinsky).
  • " LITERARY MOSCOW ", the literary and art collection (Moscow, 1956). Was attempt of consolidation of the literary forces which were standing up to to totalitarian system. Has undergone to sharp criticism, has been suspended on 2-nd extension.
  • " LITERARY STUDY ", 1) the literary - critical log-book, 1930-35, Leningrad, up to 1941 - Moscow. M.Gorkim is based. 2) With 1978 under the same title in Moscow.
  • " The LITERARY PATRIMONY ", acyclic collections of the Russian Academy of Science with 1931, Moscow. The publication of the unpublished documentary materials on a history of the Russian literature and public idea. Has quitted 98 t. (1991).
  • " LITERARY REVIEW ", 1) the kritiko-bibliographic log-book, 1936-41, Moscow, 2 numbers in a month. 2) With 1937 under the same title in Moscow.
  • LITERARY SOCIETY of 11-th NUMBER, literary - political circle of students - raznochintsev of the Moscow university in 1830-31. V.G.Belinsky and where the circle was going is called under number of a room in a hostel, where cable cores. Discussion of problems literary - public and a political life, reading of natural products.
  • LITERARY INSTITUTE him. M.Gorkogo, creative high school, Moscow. It is based in 1933. Study of public and philological sciences combines with special occupations in creative seminars (proses, poetry, dramatic art, literary criticism, art transfer). In 1992 over 700 students.
  • "LITERARY CRITIC", a monthly, 1933-40, Moscow.
  • " LITERARY MUZEUM ", the Russian literary almanac gathered by V.V.Izmajlovym, has quitted in Moscow in 1827. Among participants of the issuing - A.S.Pushkin, P.A.Vjazemsky, V.A.Zhukovsky, E.A.Baratynsky, N.I.Gnedich, I.I.Dmitriev, etc.
  • LITERARY FUND, organization, founded in 1934 at Soyuz of writers of the USSR, for rendering the financially - household help to writers.
  • The LITERARY LANGUAGE, normalized (see. The norm tongue) naddialektnaja the form of tongue existing in oral and written versions and maintaining all orbs of public and cultural life of people.
  • LITERARY CRITICISM, the science investigator fiction: its nature and specificity, an origin, public function, regularities of literary process. Will consist of 3 main sections: the theory of the literature - studies originality of the literature as special forms of spiritual and art activity, structure of the art text (poetics), factors and summands of literary process and a creative method; the history of the literature - investigates developments of the world literature (including changeover of literary epoch, styles, directions), national literatures, creativity of separate writers; the literary criticism - interprets and estimates predominary the modern products, determines their aesthetic significance and a role in the current literary - public life. Auxiliary disciplines of literary criticism: textual criticism, paleography, the bibliography, etc. The modern literary criticism is nonseparable from an aesthetics, ethics, philosophy and is closely related with linguistics, a history, sociology, psychology, and also a semiology; in a nem some methods of exact sciences are used. For sources of literary criticism antique philosophers and poets, and on the Orient - the Chinese, indian, Arabian thinkers of an antiquity and Middle Ages cost. As the do-it-yourself science literary criticism is made out in 19 century; there are different scientific schools and concepts (the migratory theory, mythological school, cultural - historical school, comparative-historical literary criticism). The becoming of Russian literary criticism was promoted special by articles of critics V.G.Belinsky, N.A.Dobroljubova, A.A.Grigorjeva and probe of scientists F.I.Buslaev, A.N.Veselovskogo, A.A.Potebni. Among methodological directions of 20 century the spiritually - historical school, "formal method" are secreted (including. OPOJAZ, " new criticism "), a psychoanalytical method, a sociological method and close to it marxist literary criticism, the ritual - mythological theory, structuralism.
  • LITHIUM ORE. Main minerals: spodumen, petalit, lepidolit, ambligonit, tsinnvaldit, etc. Meet in granite pegmatitah and grejzenah. Content Li2O in ore of 0,2-1,2 %. Major deposits: Manono-Kitotolo (Zaire), Kings-Mautin (USA).
  • LITHIUM (an armour. Lithium), Li, chemical element I of group of a periodic system, atomic number 3, atomic weight 6,941, falls into to alkali metals. The title from grech. lithos - a stone (it is open in a mineral petalite). Seribristo-white, most mild of metals; firmness of 0,533 g / sm3, tïëîùàäü 180,5 °S. It is chemical very awake, it is oxidized at routine temperature; reacts with nitrogen, derivating nitride Li3N. Minerals - spodumen, lepidolit, etc. Isotope Li - a unique industrial source for manufacture of hyzone. Lithium doping and use for a reduction, updatings of alloys (napr., Aeronum, sklerona), as the heat - carrier in nuclear reactors, a component of alloys on basis Mg and Al, the anode in chemical current sources; some connections of lithium are part some the flexible lubrications, special glasses, heat-resistant ceramics, are used in medicine.
  • ORGANO-LITHIUM COMPOUNDS, contain in a molecule atom of lithium, directly the bound with atom of carbon. Are applied as polymerization catalysts (butyllithium C4H9Li, etc.) at obtaining divinyl and isoprene rubbers, in organic synthesis.
  • LITHIUM (from grech. lite - the request, a praying), 1) the solemnity in christianity, burial-service of a body died at an offset from a house, during a funeral procession and on a tomb. 2) Brief church service in the frame ledge of a Christian temple.
  • LITHIUM OXYHYDROXIDE, LiOH, a strong base (alkali). Colourless crystals. We shall well dissolve in water. Apply: in alkaline accumulators, for obtaining lubrications; connections of lithium, as absorbant CO2 in breathing masks, submersibles, airplanes and spacecrafts.
  • "LITKE", the Soviet starling. See "Feodor Litke".
  • LITKE Feodor Petrovich (1797-1882), the Russian seafarer and the geographer, corresponding member (1829), the honorary member (1855) and the chairman (1864-82) Petersburg AN, admiral (1855), columns (1866). The participant of round-the-world expedition 1817-19 V.M.Golovnina. In 1821-24 supervised over probes It is new. The Earth and Barentseva the m., in 1826-29 - round-the-world expedition on shljupe "Senjavin", has discovered 2 groups of islands Karblinskoj of a circuit, has constituted complex characteristics Beringova in m. One of osnovatelej and chiefs of Russian geographycal society. The chairman of the Marine scientist of committee (with 1846).
  • LITL-AMERICA (Little America), the generalized title of five American polar stations in 1929-59 on ice shelf Rossa in Zap. To Antarctica.
  • LITTLEWOOD (Littlwood) Dzhoan Modes (r. 1914), the English producer. In 1945 has organized theatre " Óîðêøîï ". Worked at the most known theatres of the Great Britain much.
  • LITTLEWOOD John Idenzor (1885-1977), the English mathematician. Transactionses on a number theory, function theories.
  • LITL-FATE (Little Rock), city in the south the USA, an administrative centre pieces. Arkansas. 176 thousand inhabitants (1990, with suburbs over 500 thousand inhabitants). A port on r. Arkansas. Instrumentation technologies, including manufacture of air component parts, a photo, cine equipments, etc. Wood-working, aluminium, a chemical industry. University.
  • LITO... (from grech. lithos - a stone), the part of the composite words meaning: relating a stone, to a hearth. To breeds (napr., lithogenesis, a lithograph).
  • The LITHUANIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (the official title up to 1989 Academy of sciences Lithuanian SSR), is based in 1941 in Vilnius. In 19903 branches, 13 scientific institutes.
  • The LITHUANIAN FILM STUDIO art and hronikalno-documentaries, is built to 1940 (Kaunas), with 1949 in Vilnius. Among films: " Alive heroes " (1960), " nobody wanted to die " (1965), " This damned humility " (1970), " Gerkus Mantas " (1972), " CHertova the bride " (1975), "Fact" (1981), " Excuse, please " (1982), " Woman and four its men " (1984), " Tracks oborotnja " (1987), " Hour of a full moon " (1988).
  • The LITHUANIAN REGISTER (from polsk. metryka - archive), collection of certificates and ancient documents (in copies), constituted in state office of the Great principality Lithuanian. Ok. 600 handwritten books.
  • The LITHUANIAN OPERA, is based in 1920 in Kaunas as opera theatre, in 1944 - the Lithuanian opera and ballet theatre, in 1948 is transferbed to Vilnius, with 1954 academic, about 1990 modern title.
  • The LITHUANIAN AGRICULTURAL ACADEMY, is based in 1924, Norejkishkes (bliz Kaunas). Plots engineering staff on the main branches of a farm - production, a forestry, an amelioration and a land organisation. In 1991 ok. 7,6 thousand students.
  • The LITHUANIAN SOVIET ENCYCLOPEDIA, the generalpurpose encyclopedia. It is exhausted in the Lithuanian tongue in 12 vol. (13 kn.; 1976-85; the managing editor - J.Zinkus).
  • LITHUANIAN TJAZHELOUPRJAZHNAJA BREED of horses, is introduced in is grey. 20 century also get divorced in Lithuania. Animal mean growth, unpretentious, hardy, serviceable.
  • The LITHUANIAN STATUSES 1529, 1566 and 1588, codes of the feudal law of the Great principality Lithuanian, plugging the right state, land, criminal, remedial, hereditary. Have consolidated privileges of feudal lords, have strengthened a serfdom, have a little limited arbitrariness of magnates. The Lithuanian status 1588 is finally cancelled in 1840.
  • The LITHUANIAN CLASP (Seven-towered), the Petersburg urban prison, is constructed in 1787. with kon. 19 century political. It incinerated in February revolution 1917.
  • FOXES, a stem of mammals of a set wolf. Ok. 10 kinds, in Eurasia, the Sowing. To America, Africa, are delivered to Australia. Are eurysynusic dace, or yellow, the fox, length of a body up to 90 sm, a tail up to 60 see. Exterminate harmful rodents. With the help of selection of the dace fox are introduced silver-black, platinum and other forms. Foxes - object of hunting of fur animals and a fur farming.
  • LISITSYN Alexander Petrovich (r. 1923), the Russian geologist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1994). The main transactionses on lithology of the modern marine rainfall. The state premium of the USSR (1971, 1977).
  • LISITSYN Victor Nikolaevich (1905-78), one of organizers of an aircraft industry of the USSR, the general the major of an engineering - air service (1944). With 1943 director of an aircraft manufacturing plant in Novosibirsk. With 1946 on different state positions. Under his guiding during Great Domestic war the serial production of fighters the Yak - 7 and the Yak - 9 is run in.
  • LISITSYN Peter Ivanovich (1877-1948), the Russian selector, one of organizers of a selection affair and seed growing in Russia, academician VASHNIL (1935). Transactionses on biology and selections of a red clover and grain crops. The state premium of the USSR (1948).
  • LISICHANSK, city (with 1938) on Ukraine, Lugansk region, on r. Seversky Donetsk. A depot. 126,4 thousand inhabitants (1991). Production of mineral coal. Chemical, oil refining, glass, mild, a food-processing industry; a machine industry and metal working. A study of local lore museum.
  • CHANTERELLE, stem of basidiomycetes of a set lisichkovyh. In conifers and deciduous forests of a moderate belt there is a chanterelle true, or yellow. It is edible.
  • CHANTERELLE (an armour. Vulpecula), mia maid of Boreal hemisphere.
  • LISKI, (in 1928-43 Freedom, in 1965-91 Georgiu-dough dishes), city (with 1937) in the Russian Federation, the Voronezh region, a port on r. Don. A railway junction. 54,7 thousand inhabitants (1992). Manufacture of assembly preparations, metalworks, a building materials, etc. The Food-processing industry. Has arisen in 1870.
  • LISKUN Efim Fedotovich (1873-1958), the Russian zootechnician, academician VASHNIL (1934). Transactionses on perfecting domestic breeds agricultural animal. The state premium of the USSR (1943).
  • LISNJANSKAJA Inna Lvovna (r. 1928), the Russian poetess. In verses (collections "Accuracy", 1958, " Firsthand ", 1966, " Grape light ", 1978, " the Air layer ", 1990) - nakedness of feelings, motives of guilt, spiritual weariness, searches of belief.
  • LISOVSKY Nikolay Mihajlovich (1854-1920), Russian knigoved, the bibliographer. Activities under the theory of bibliology; indexes of the literature. The main transactionses " Russian periodicals of 1703-1900 " (1895-1915).
  • FOXTAIL, stem perennial and annual grasses of a set of cereals. Ok. 50 kinds, in moderate and cool belts, in mountains of tropics. A foxtail meadow, etc. - fodder plants (up to 60 ts hay with 1 ga).
  • LISPEKTOR (Lispector) Klarisa (1925-77), the Brazilian writer, comes with Zap. Ukraine. Novels " City in osade " (1949), short stories (collections " Some stories ", " Family uzy ", both 1952).
  • LISS (Liss) Iogann (ok. 1597-1629 or 1630), the italian painter. By origin the German. The representative of Baroque. Patterns Lissa (" St.. Jerome ", ok. 1627) differ sensual beauty of modes, sonorous colour.
  • LISBON (Lisbon) (Lisboa), capital, a main port of Portugal, in a mouth r. Tagus, an administrative centre of a district Lisbon. 678 thousand inhabitants (1991), in agglomeration Major Lisbon ok. 2 million inhabitants. A port capacity ok. 15 million t annually. An international airport. Ship-building, electrotechnical, chemical, oil refining, metallurgical, textile, etc. an industry. Underground railway. An academy of sciences. Universities. Museums: archeologic, ethnographic, religious art, city, the National museum of arcaded art, the National museum of the modern art. In an antiquity a settlement luzitan. In 714 it is occupied in arabs. In 1147 it is won from arabs by Portugueses and has come in the Portuguese kingdom. With 1255-56 capital of Portugal. A Romanesque cathedral (12 century, it rearranged in 18 century), a Gothic monastery of carmelites (14-15 centuries), palaces of 17-18 centuries, a basil of Ac Eshtrela (nach. 18 century).
  • LISSABONSKY the UNIVERSITY, Portugal, is based in 1290, some times transferred to Coimbra, recreated in 1911. In 1991 over 17 thousand students.
  • LISSAGARE (Lissagaray) Prosper Olivier (1838-1901), the French journalist. Emitted in days of the Commune of Paris 1871 revolutionary newspapers. The writer of " the History of the Commune of Paris " (Russian transfer, 1906).
  • LEAF, the organ of higher plants executing functions of a photosynthesis, transpiration and gas exchange. Will consist of a blade and the grounding, introduced a sheet cushion or an amplate sheath. Between a plate and the grounding often there is a stake. The pulp of a leaf (mesophyll) in which strata pass veins, is coated with an epidermis with a cuticula. Green colour is stipulated by chlorophyll. The form of a leaf - a species character. Quite often leaves turn to tendrils, acanthas, scales. A sheet size from several mm up to 20 m. Lifetime less than 1 year, less often 2-5 flying, is very rare 25 and more flying (for fur-trees SHrenka).
  • LEAF (List) Wilhelm (1880-1971), german general - field marshal (1940). Commanded army in Polish, French and Balkan campaigns. In 1942 commanded an army group "Ç" on the sovetsko-German front, it is removed for a fall of approach on Caucasus. In 1948 it is sentenced by the American military tribunal as the war criminal to imprisonment for life, in 1952 it is free.
  • LEAF (Liszt) Ferents (1811-86), the Hungarian composer, the pianist, the conductor. The creator of a recent trend in pianizme. Has given a piano an orchestral power and beauty of sounding, has enriched fortepiannyj repertoir (imaginations on opera themes, machining and a transcriptional for a piano, symphonic, etc. products.) . Headed t. n. The Weimar school. The composer - romantik, the Sheet aspired to uncover in the products intercommunication of music with poetry (many compositions of the Leaf have the literary - subject basis). Oratorios, "Faust - concordance" (1857), 13 program single-wave concordances - poems (has created this genre, applied in a nem a principle monotematizma); 2 concerts for a piano with an orchestra (1856, 1861); a sonata the si-minor (1853), fortepiannye cycles, 19 Hungarian rhapsodies, etudes, waltzes and other products for a piano; choruses, songs (ok. 70), cult music (was abbe). One of osnovatelej (1875) and 1-st president of Academy of music in Budapest (has a name of the Leaf). Promoted a becoming of some national musical schools, especially Hungarian.
  • LEAF Frants a background (1851-1919), the Austrian lawyer, one of osnovatelej the International union of criminalists, the representative of sociological school of a criminal law.
  • LEAF (List) Fridrih (1789-1846), the german economist. The adherent of protectionism, supported state interference in an economic life. Shadowed idea of domination of Germany in Europe. Ideas of the Leaf are perceived by historical school of political economy.
  • LISTVENIT, a metasomatic rock of bright - green colour, basically of kvartsevo-calcareous structure with an impurity of a talc, chlorite and a pyrite. It will be derivated at a hydrothermal thorough revision of basic rocks. With listvenitom often are connected zolotorudnye deposits.
  • LARCH, stem of deciduous coniferous trees of a set piny. Ok. 15 kinds, primarily in mountains and a forest zone of Boreal hemisphere. Will derivate clear both mixed forests; Sibirian larch and larch Gmelina, or daurskaja, - basic rocks of taiga forests of Siberia. Solid, strong wood use for submerged structures, in naval architecture, etc. The Larch olginskaja (a relict kind, in Primorski Krai) and a larch Polish (endemic of Carpathian mountains) - is guarded.
  • HARDWOOD, trees and bushes routinely with flap-type petioled leaves on which the branched venation is brightly expressed. Broad-leaved - an oak, a beech, a hornbeam, an ash, a maple, a saxaul, etc.; soft-wooded broadleaf - an alder, a linden, a poplar, etc. Are used for obtaining wood, in an agriculrural afforestation, gardening, etc. Fruits of some hardwood are edible (napr., a Persian walnut, a chestnut, an apple tree, a pear, a mountain ash).
  • LISTVJAGA, a backbone on a southwest of Altai. Length ok. 120 kms. An altitude up to 2577 m.
  • LISTER (Lister) Joseph (1827-1912), the English surgeon, the member (1860) and the president (1895-1900) London royal societies. Has entered (1867) into surgical practice to an antiseptic. Has discovered the causal organism of lactic fermentation.
  • LISTERII, a stem of rhabdoid aerobic bacteria. Some listerii - causal organisms of a listerosis of the person and animal.
  • The LISTEROSIS (listerellosis), acute communicable disease of the person and animal, is more often ovets, called listerijami. Symptoms are diversiform, often a defeat of central nervous system. The person catches from animal. The reservoir of the causal organism in a nature - rodents.
  • LISTING (from English list - a list), introduced from a computer and the text typed on a paper (more often programs with commentaries of the programmer); the same, that print-out.
  • LISTOBLOSHKOVYE (grass snakes), a section of hexapods of order of the scale. Length of 1,5-6 mm. St. 1300 kinds, are distributed widely. Many harm to fruit - trees and ogorodnym to crops. On sweet and adhesive stools listobloshkovyh (honey dew) the mushrooms soiling shoots, leaves and fruits settle.
  • LEAFS Konstantin Jakovlevich (1900-83), the Russian composer, the national actor of Russia (1973). Operas, 9 operettas, including " the Sevastopol waltz " (1961), songs (" the Song about tachanke ", " In a dug out "), etc.
  • LEAF ROLLERS, a set molevidnyh butterflies. Side panels in scope 0,8-4 see. St. 5000 kinds, are distributed widely. Caterpillars of the majority of leaf rollers - pests; leaf rollers curtail leaves of plants into a tubule, some develop in fruits (moth).
  • LISTOVIK (skolopendrium), a stem of ferns of a set asplenievyh. Some kinds, in Boreal hemisphere; will grow on the wet rocks, in woods. Ornamental plants.
  • PARMELIA, printed (less often handwritten) the leaf with the text (plotting) of agitatsionno-political or information character.
  • PARMELIA, dry one-nesting manyseeded fruit of plants (for many crowfoot family, a magnolia family, etc.), dissected on a suture to which seeds are attached. Reminds folded in halves a leaf (from here the title).
  • LEAF BEETLES (leaf miners), set of bugs. Length up to 2 see. Ok. 40 thousand kinds, are distributed widely. Eat predominary the leaves, many harm to cultivated plants (a potato bug, pjavitsa, a cruciferae family bloshki, etc.).
  • The LEAF of INVALIDITY (the hospital leaf), in the Russian Federation and some other states the document certifying temporary disablement; forms the grounding for destination and payment of the temporary disablement allowance.
  • PHYLLOPODA CRUSTACEA, order of Invertebrata of subclass zhabronogih Crustacea. Breast extremities leaflike. Ok. 560 kinds, are distributed widely, primarily in fresh waters: 3 sections; shchitni, vetvistousye and rakovinnye cancers.
  • DEFOLIATIONS Alexander Mihajlovich (1873-1949), the Russian specialist in folklore. The collector and the explorer national, primarily the Don Cossack songs.
  • TULIP TREE, the same, that a tulip tree.
  • LYRICAL OPERA, 1) opera of lyrical character. 2) the Opera genre which has been usual in France in 2-nd floor. 19 century. Differs tendency to truthful obrisovke characters, democratic character of the musical tongue (an implementation of intonations of household lyrics). Among writers: SH.Guno, Z.Bize, A.Toma, Z.Massne.
  • LIROHVOSTY (birds - liras), a set of birds of order sparrow. Length of 75-130 sm, for samtsov in a tail to 2 feather liroobrazno are arched. 2 kinds, in mesohylies JUgo-Vost. Australia; are acclimatized on about. Tasmania. Are known ability to stage voices of birds and other animal, mechanic notes.
  • LIRO-EPICHESKIE GENRES, a fable, a ballad, a poem, novels in the verses, combining epicheskoe a narration with the lyrical beginning - direct expression of experiences, thoughts of the writer (" the Copper rider " A.S.Pushkin).
  • LISAVENKO Michael Afanasjevich (1897-1967), the Russian fruitgrower, the selector, academician VASHNIL (1956), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1966). One of organizers of a fruit growing in Siberia, the writer of high-yielding varieties of an apple tree, a pear, plums, berrylike crops. The state premium of the USSR (1946, 1981, posthumously).
  • LISAKOVSK, city (with 1971) in Kazakhstan, the Kustanay region, on r. Tobol. A depot. 34,7 thousand inhabitants (1991). A mining-and-processing integrated works, production and a thorough revision of iron oxide. A clothing factory.
  • LISAKOVSKOE the DEPOSIT iron-ore, enters into the Kustanay iron-ore area (Kazakhstan). It is developed with 1970 open way. Known reserves 2,8 billion t oolitic brown ore with content Fe of 35 %. Center of production-. Lisakovsk.
  • LISANDR (?-395 up to n. e.), the Spartan commander of last season Peloponnesskoj of war. Has gained victories above athenians for headland Noty (407) and at Egospotamah (405). The ambassador osady in 405-404 has taken Athenes, has dictated him conditions of the world. Has imposed to athenians oligarchic board.
  • LISARDI FERNANDEZ X. X. de, see. Fernandez de Lisardi H.H.
  • FOX (ok. 435-380 up to n. e.), Athenian logograf, the adherent of a democratic grouping. The antique legend attributes Lisiju over 200 speeches (has reached ok. 40) also actuates it in figure 10 of the best speakers of an antiquity.
  • FOX (Liej) (grech. Dismissing, releasing), in Other. Greeces one of nicknames Dionisa as the god releasing the participant of orgies from all routine interdictions.
  • LISIMAH Sevastijsky (mind. ok. 320), one of a magpie sevastijskih martyrs.
  • LISINSKY (Lisinski) Vatroslav (1819-54), the Croatian composer. The representative of motion for national revitalization. The first national operas " Love and rage " (1846), "Porin" (1851), tool compositions, choruses, songs.
  • LISIPP, the ancient greek sculptor 2-nd floor. 4 century up to n. e. The representative of serotinal classics. The court artist Alexander the Great. The creator of modes of the active heroes, living the composite internal life (" Resting Hermes ", "Apoksiomen", a bust Alexander the Great - were saved in copies).
  • LISITEJA, the guide of the Jove, is open by S.Nicholson (S. Nicholson, the USA, 1938). Distance from the Jove 11,7 million in km, radius ok. 10 kms, siderial cycle time 260 sut.
  • LISITSIAN Paul Gerasimovich (r. 1911), the Russian and Armenian singer (baritone), the national actor of the USSR (1956). On the scene with 1935. In 1940-66 at Major theatre of the USSR. The professor of the Yerevan conservatory (with 1970).
  • LISITSKY (psevd. Ale Lisitsky) Lazarus Markovich (1890-1941), the Russian architect, the artist - designer, the schedule. In 1921-25 cable cores in Germany and Switzerland. Member Asnova and Netherlands group " Style ". Developed designs of high blocks, a convertible furniture, methods of art designing of the book (" it is Good! " V.V.Majakovskogo, 1927).
  • LYOTROPIC SERIES, a number of the ions located by way of intensifying or slackening of their influence on properties of the solvent. Lyotropic series of ions on their ability are known to be adsorbed from water solutions, on influence on water regain of proteins, etc.
  • LYOPHILIC PROPERTY AND LYOPHOBIC PROPERTY (from grech. lyo - I solve, phileo - I like and phobos - pavor), the concepts qualitatively defining interaction of a solid surface with a liquid. Lyophilic property (for water - hydrophily, for oils and fats - lipophily) means good (often full) watering, small interfacial energy, resistance of surfaces to the relative sticking. Lyophobic property (hydrophoby, oleofobnost) - counter concept.
  • LINDEN, stem of trees of a set of a linden family. Ok. 50 kinds, in the Sowing. Hemisphere. Forest forming breed. Use in gardening. Wood goes on manufacture of furniture, musical instruments, turning and carved items, barrels; a bast - on a bast, a bast - for spinning, etc. Racemes lindens ("lime-tree blossom") apply in medicine (diaphoretic), and also to aromatization of tea. Valuable honey plants.
  • LIPASE, ferments of a class of the hydrolases, catalyzing scission of triglycerides up to glycerine and loose fatty acids. For the person and animal are contained in tissues, and also in a pancreatin and participate in digestion of fats.
  • LIPANOV Alexey Matveevich (r. 1935), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1987). Transactionses on development of design techniques of engines of flight vehicles, probe of solid fuels and charges from them. The state premium of the USSR (1985).
  • LIPANY (Lipani) (Lipany), an occupied point ok.. CHeski-ford, in Slovakia. Under Lipanami in 1434 feodalno-roman catholic forces and chashniki have plotted decisive defeat taboritam.
  • LIPARIT, a rock, see. Rhyolite.
  • LIPARI ISLANDS (Lipari), 17 volcanic islands in Tirrenskom m. Terrain of Italy. 117 êì2. On islands Vulcanos and Stromboli (an altitude up to 926 ì) active volcanoes.
  • LIPATOV Vil Vladimirovich (1927-79), the Russian writer. In stories " Dead Mint " (1960), " the Rural detective " (1967), " the Legend on director Pronchatove " (1969), novels " And all this about a nem... " (1974), "Igor Savvovich" (1978) chronicles of the modern life, national tongue.
  • LIPGART Andrey Aleksandrovich (1898-1980), the Russian designer of automobiles, the honored worker of science and technique of RSFSR (1958), Dr.Sci.Tech. In 1933-51 chief designer Gorkovskogo of motor-works. Under guiding Lipgarta automobiles GAS - 51, "Victory", military destination are built, etc. State premiums of the USSR (1942, 1943, 1947, 1950, 1951).
  • LIPETSK RANGE, in the Russian Federation. 24,1 thousand êì2. The population of 1240 thousand person (1993), urban 63 %. 8 cities, 5 urban settlements (1993.) Center - Lipetsk. A surface - a undulating plain. A mean temperature of January ok.-10 °S, July ok. 19 °S. A rainfall ok. 500 mm annually. The main river - Don. Reservation Galichja the Mountain and a part of the Voronezh reservation. Iron and steel industry, a machine industry and metal working (tractors, rigs, electrotechnical items, etc.), manufacture of a building materials, chemical, a flavoring industry. Crops of wheat, neigh, buckwheats, sugar-beet, sunflower, a rustic tobacco. A potato growing, a vegetable raising. A fruit growing. Cultivation of a large horned stock, pigs, ovets. A poultry breeding.
  • The LIPETSK DRAMA THEATRE, regional, is based in 1921 as the first Soviet drama theatre, with 1994 academic. Actors: M.S.Seljanin, A.N.Titkov, A.P.Astorina, J.I.Ganin, K.A.Shitov, S.P.Pogrebnjak, etc. Main producer V.M.Pahomov (with 1977). Performances: "Uncle Vanja" (1983) and "Cherry orchard" (1992) A.P.Chehova, "Guilty though guiltless" A.N.Ostrovsky (1992), etc.
  • LIPETSK CROSS-OVER, narodnichesky, members " the Earth and will ", adherents of a political struggle and their adherents (11 person; Lipetsk, 15-17.6.1879). Participants have proclaimed themselves the Executive committee. Have decided to achieve on the Voronezh cross-over of introduction in the program of points on a political struggle and a terror.
  • LIPIDS (from grech. lipos - fat), the extensive group of natural organic compounds including fats and oily substances. Molecules of simple lipids will consist of spirit and fatty acids, the composite - from spirit, high molecular weight fatty acids and other components. Are contained in all living cells. Lipids - one of an essential ingredients of biological membranes. Will derivate a power reserve of an organism, participate in drive of nervous impulse, in building water-repellent and thermoinsulating covers, etc. To lipids attribute some fat-soluble substances which molecules do not include fatty acids, napr., terpenes, sterines. Many lipids - food, are used in an industry and medicine.
  • LIPIN Vyacheslav Nikolaevich (1858-1930), the Russian metallurgist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1928). Has organized in Russia manufacture of tungsten steel (1896). Activities on probe of influence of addition elements promoted building of domestic metallurgy kachestvennh steels.
  • LIPINSKY (Lipinski) Karol (1790-1861), the Polish violinist, the composer. Competed in the game with N.Paganini. Comic operas, 3 concordances, concerts for a violin with an orchestra, numerous plays for a violin, etc.
  • LIPIT-ISHTAR, tsar I of a dynasty of the state Isin ok. 1934-24 up to n. e. At a nem the canopy of laws (fragments have reached), rendered, probably, influence on laws Hammurapi is constituted.
  • LIPITSKAJA BATTLE, 21-22.4.1216, on r. Lipitsa, for JUrjeva-Polish, between vladimiro-Suzdal army Jaroslava Vsevolodovicha and Jury Vsevolodovicha and novgorodsko-pskovsko-smolensko-rostovskim army Mstislava Daring, Konstantin Vsevolodovicha, etc. Has ended in defeat JAroslava and Jury, has reduced in intensifying a political role of Novgorod.
  • LIPKI, city (with 1955) in the Russian Federation, the Tula region, on r. Upa, in 23 kms from zh.-d. An item. SHCHekino. 10,5 thousand inhabitants (1992). A coal mining. Manufacture of a building materials.
  • LYNCH (Lynch) Dejvid (r. 1946), the American film director, the scripter and the producer. The writer of postmodernist films with characteristic smakovaniem physiological pathologies and teratisms ("Person - erasing rubber", 1976; "Person - elephant"). In 1990 has received " the Golden palm branch " Cannes film festival for film " Feral heart ". Participated as the producer in building a teleserial "Twin Piks" (1990).
  • LYNCH (Lynch) John (r. 1917), the prime minister of Ireland in 1966-73 and 1977-79. In 1966-79 leader of consignment Fianna a file. In 1957-66 on different portfolios.
  • " LYNCH COURT ", in the USA since 18 century extrajudicial punishment, uchinjavshajasja, as a rule, above Negros. It is called named American racist C.Lynch (Ch. Lynch).
  • LINCHEPING, city in Sweden, an administrative centre lena Estergetland. 122 thousand inhabitants (1991). Aircraft manufacturing, an electronics engineering. University.
  • LINJUJ, in the Chinese mythology water spirit with a body of a fish and a head, arms and legs of the person.
  • TENCH, fish of a set karpovyh. The length up to 60 sm, weighs up to 7,5 kg. In fresh water reservoirs of Europe (except for the rivers of basin the Sowing. Ledovitogo ok.) and Asia, including in basins of Ob and Yenisei. Object of a craft and cultivation.
  • TENCH (niderl. lijn), a ship cable from high-performance hemp (a circumference of section less than 25 mm) for an equipment, lifting works, etc.
  • TENCH TSZESJUJ (1785-1850), the Chinese statesman. Before the anglo-Chinese war 1840-42 struggled with Anglo-American trade in opium in China. During war supervised over the defence of Guangdong.
  • MOLTING, periodic changeover of outer covers (chitinous, sherstnogo, and also a plumage) for animal. The regulation of a molting descends including hormones.
  • LIO (Lyot) Bernard (1897-1952), French astrophysicses. Transactionses on physics of the Sun (filming of protuberances, supervision of a solar corona outside of eclipse, etc.) and planets. Has invented some astrophysical instruments, vnezatmennyj a coronograph.
  • LIOZNOVA Tatyana Mihajlovna (r. 1924), the Russian film director, the national actor of the USSR (1984). Films: "Evdokija" (1961), " Three poplars on Plyuschikha " (1968), television films " Seventeen instants of spring " (12 series, 1973), " we underwriting " (2 series, 1980), "Carnival" (1982).
  • LYONS (Lyon), city in France, a port for interflow rr. Rhone and Sona, an administrative centre dep. Rhone and main city of historical region. Lionne. 415 thousand inhabitants (1990, with suburbs 1,2 million inhabitants). An international airport. Arcaded (since 15 century) the european centre of manufacture of natural silk. A large textile industry, a machine industry, chemical, oil refining, polygraphic, a farmaceutical industry. Underground railway. Annual european trading - financial fairs (since 15 century). Universities. Museums: the Historical museum of tissues, Gime, the decorative arts Lionne, fine arts. 2 drevnerimskih theatre, romansko-Gothic and Gothic churches.
  • LYONS Dmitry Borisovich (1925-93), the Russian artist, one of master masters Russian schedules of the last quarter of 20 century. His drawings indian ink and distempers, close on spirit to " signed abstraction " informelja, remind mysterious pismena, coating sheets of paper whimsical - ortamental vjazju.
  • LIONNE (Lyonnais), a historical province in France, in bass. Rhone. In terrain Lionne - departments Rhone and Loire. 8 thousand êì2. The population over 2 million person. Main city - Lyons.
  • LIONS (Lions) Jacque Lui (r. 1928), the French mathematician and the mechanics, foreign member AN the USSR (1982). Transactionses under the theory of differential equations and its appendices to problems of mechanics and physics.
  • The LYONS REVOLTS 1831 and 1834, armed performances of the working silk-weaving enterprises of Lyons, called by their heavy rule.
  • The LYONS BAY (Golfe du Lion) Mediterranean m., for austral coasts of France. Length of 93 kms, width for an orifice of 245 kms, depth over 1000 m. In the Lyons hall. Runs r. Rhone. A primary port - Marseilles.
  • LIOTAR (Liotard) Jean Etjen (1702-89), the Swiss painter. Portraits and conversations Liotara (primarily a pastel) differ carefulness in drive of a nature, the thin detailing ("SHokoladnitsa", ok. 1744).
  • LIOTAR (Lyotard) Jean - Francois (r. 1924), the French philosopher. Acted with criticism frejdizma and marxism (" Economies of desire ", 1974), has entered concept of "postmodernism" as the main issue of our time defined by confrontation of heterogeneous ways of intellection and life-forms (" La condition postmodern ", 1979).
  • LYNN (Linna) Vjajne (r. 1920), the Finnish writer. The realistic novel: " the Unknown soldier " (1954) about 2-nd world war, the trilogy " Here, under Boreal zvezdoju " (1959-62) about landless peasants. An essay.
  • LINNANKOSKI (Linnankoski) Ehannes (an ice-film. A name and fam. Vihtori Peltonen, Peltonen) (1869-1913), the Finnish writer. Realistic the poem - novel " the Ode about a bright-red flower " (1905), written by rhythmic prose, and stories, including "Hilja-thrush".
  • LINNEJ Charles (1707-78), the Swedish scientist, the creator of system vegetative and fauna, the first president Swedish AN (with 1739), the foreign honorary member Petersburg AN (1754). For the first time has in succession applied a binominal nomenclature and has constructed the most successful synthetic plant classification and animal, has described ok. 1500 kinds of plants. Supported of a constance of kinds and creationism. The writer of " System of a nature " (1735), " Philosophy of botany " (1751), etc.
  • LINNERSTREM-LANG (Linderstrom-Lang) Kaj Ulrik (1896-1959), the danish biochemist, foreign member AN the USSR (1958). Transactionses on a physical chemistry of proteins, their structural organization.
  • LINNIK Vladimir Pavlovich (1889-1984), Russian physics, academician AN the USSR (1939), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1969). The main transactionses on applied optician. The writer of some optical devices and methods of probes. The state premium of the USSR (1946, 1950).
  • LINNIK Jury Vladimirovich (1914/15-72), the Russian mathematician, academician AN the USSR (1964), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1969). Son V.P.Linnik. The main transactionses on a number theory (a method of a major sieve), theories of probabilities (limiting theorems), mathematical statistics (the theory of an estimation). The lenin premium (1970), the State premium of the USSR (1947).
  • LINNIK Jury Vladimirovich (r. 1944), the Russian writer, the philosopher. At the centre of poetry and prose - a filosofsko-moral problematics, teosofskie motives, a theme of spiritual communication with Cosmos, etc. Collections: "Prelude" (1966), "Filament" (1973), "Pervoobrazy" (1982), "Consecration" (1984), " the Book of grasses " (1986), "Disarray" (1989). In popular philosophical activities (" In searches of a Shambhala ", 1992, " the Philosophy of the compromise ", 1993, etc.) reverts to N.K.Roerich inheritance, yoga, etc.
  • LINNICHENKO Ivan Andreevich (1857-1926), the Russian historian, corresponding member AN the USSR (1925; corresponding member Petersburg AN with 1913, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science with 1917). Transactionses on a history of the Kiev Russia, russko-Polish attitudes and Galitskoj Russia 14-15 centuries.
  • LINOGRAVJURA, a convex gravure on a linoleum, on technique close xylographies.
  • LINOLEIC ACID, ÑÍ3 (ÑÍ2) 4ÑÍ? ÑÍÑÍ2ÑÍ? SN (ÑÍ2) 7ÑÎÎÍ, a colourless oily liquid, tïë-5 °S. Falls into to essential fatty acids.
  • LINOLENIC ACID, ÑÍ3 (ÑÍ2ÑÍ? SN) 3 (ÑÍ2) 7ÑÎÎÍ, a colourless oily liquid, tïë-11,3 °S. Falls into to essential fatty acids.
  • LINOLEUM (from an armour. linum - a flux, a cloth and oleum - oil), a polymeric roll material for cover of floors. Distinguish a linoleum bezosnovnyj (one and multilayer), on hardening (histic, pergaminnoj) or the heat-insulating basis.
  • The LINE CASTING MACHINE (from an armour. linea - a line and grech. typos - an impress), built-up strokootlivnaja the machine making a panel by the way of monolithic metal lines with a relief typing surface. The main clusters - built-up, ebbed and razborochnyj apparatuses. O.Mergentalerom (USA) in 1884 is invented.
  • LINOCHNYE GLANDS, the endocrine glands of Invertebrata producing a molting hormone and a metamorphosis - ekdizon. For hexapods to linochnym to glands attribute ventral and protorakalnye glands, for Crustacea - a Y-organ.
  • LINS remote control REGU ZHoze (1901-57), the Brazilian writer. A series of novels " the Cycle of a cane " (1932-36) about the Brazilian village. Roman " Pedra Bonita " (1938), " Quenched fire " (1943) and "Kangasejro" (1953). Sketches.
  • LINT (English lint) (linter cellulose), short (up to 15 mm) the fiber received after branch of the lengthy filaments.
  • LINHART (Linhart) Anton (1756-95), the figure of Slovene Enlightenment, the playwright, the historian. The adherent of reforms of emperor Joseph II, the anticlerical. Has put in pawn a fundamentals of democratic Slovene theatre. In historical transactionses has justified, that Slovenes - descendants ancient karantantsev - are unified people.
  • LINHOVOIN Lhasaran Lodonovich (1924-80), the Buryat singer (bass), the national actor of the USSR (1959). In 1942-49 at the Buryat musical - drama theatre, with 1954 at the Buryat theatre of opera and ballet (in 1962-66 artistic administrator).
  • LYNCH (Lynch) Benito (1885-1951), the Argentina writer. Realistic novels "Rakela" (1918), " Mr James searches for skulls " (1924), " Roman of one gaucho " (1930) about capitalisation of cattle breeding estates.
  • LINDER (Linder) Maks (an ice-film. A name and fam. Gabriel Levjel, Leuvielle) (1883-1925), the French film actor. It was taken out in films: "Maks-toreador", " the Champion on box ", etc. Art Lindera - transition from elementary comedy of pursuits, kicks and falls to searches of comedy typicalness, household and psychologic sketches. Earlier creativity Lindera has exerted influence C.Chaplina. In 1964 in France assembly film " In company Maksa Lindera " has been made.
  • LINDERSTREM-LANG (Linderstrom-Lang) Kaj Ulrik (1896-1959), the danish biochemist, foreign member AN the USSR (1958). The main transactionses in range of chemistry of ferments.
  • LINDKVIST (Lindqvist) the Finnish architect Is lodged À. (1867-1939). Designs in style of a serotinal modernist style (power station in Suvilhati, 1908). One of first konstruktivistov in Finland in the block constructions used reinforced concrete constructions.
  • LINDMAN (Lindman) Solomon Arvid Ahates (1862-1936), the prime minister of Sweden in 1906-11, 1928-30; in 1905 marine minister, in 1917 Minister for Foreign Affairs. In 1912-36 leader of the Dextral consignment (conservative).
  • LINDSEJ Jack (1900-90), the English writer and the critic. Historical novels are dedicated antiquity (" the Underground thunder ", 1965) and to turning epoch of the English history (" People of magpies of the eighth year ", 1948). Working class and intelligency - heroes of a series of novels " the British path " (including " Spring which have betraid ", 1953). Roman " the Right to shed blood " (1985) about trade-union extirpation in Australia in nach. 20th of 20 century. Verses; historicoliterary transactionses; transfers of antique and Russian poetry.
  • TENCH (Line) Velta (r. 1923), the Latvian actress, the national actress of the USSR (1973). With 1945 at the Latvian theatre him. A.Upitsa (Riga). The state premium of the USSR (1948, 1951).
  • LINEAMENTS (from an armour. lineamentum - a line, a circuit), linear and arched ground features of an epicyclic scale, the bound with depth faults.
  • LINEARIZATION (from an armour. linearis - linear), one of the most widespread methods of non-linear system analysis (or relations), at which they are considered (with fixed assumptions) as linear.
  • LINEVA Eugeny Eduardovna (1853/54-1919), the Russian singer (contralto), the specialist in folklore. At a congregating of national songs (Russian, Ukrainian) widely used a phonograph.
  • RULER, 1) the instrument for realization of straight lines on a plane, for manufacture of some spacelike dimensions. 2) the Lengthy multipiece open crew with a longitudinal partition in which passengers sit sideways to a driving direction; ministered urban public transport in Russia in 19 century.
  • LINEAR ALGEBRA, important in appendices a part of the algebra keeping, in particular, the theory of linear algebraic equations, determinants, templates.
  • LINEAR DEPENDENCE, ratio of kind Ñ1u1+Ñ2u2 +... +Ñnun? 0, where Ñ1, Ñ2..., Ñn - figures, from which even one? 0, and u1, u2..., un - any mathematical objects, napr. Vectors or functions.
  • LINEAR POLARIZATION, see. Polarization of light.
  • LINEAR TACTICS, the theory and practice of preparation and conduct of combat in linear battle formations at a uniform distribution of a troops (naval forces) on front; existed in 17-18 centuries in all european armies. To kon. 18 century it is substituted by tactics of columns and loose building, in a VTR - manoeuvrable tactics.
  • The LINEAR FORM, the form of 1-st degree, i.e. uniform polynomial of 1-st degree from n variable x1, x2..., xn. A general view:, where quotients ai - stationary values.
  • SYMMETRIC FUNCTION, the elementary function figured on the schedule by a straight line (drawing). Expresses the formula y? kx+b, where k - tangent of an angle?, under which direct traverses an axis of abscisses.
  • LINEAR DISPARITY, disparity, left-handed and which dextral parts - symmetric functions concerning unknown.
  • The LINEAR LETTER, the system of the letter using conditional geometric marks, instead of drawings or any other similar numerals. See also Kritskoe the letter.
  • LINIMENTUMS, the medicinal form - fluid ointments.
  • LINE, in genetics - affine organisms multiplied by a sexual way which descend, as a rule, from one ancestor or one pair of common ancestors and replicate in a lineage same genetically resistant attributes. A line - the basis for obtaining high-yield hybrids in a plant growing and animal husbandry.
  • LINE (from an armour. linea), the general part of two adjacent ranges of a surface. The driving point describes some line at the motion. In an analytical geometry on a plane of a line express equations between coordinates of their points. In rectangular coordinate system of a line are disjointed depending on a kind of equations. If the equation of a line looks like F (x, y)? 0, where F (x, y) - a polynomial n-® degrees be relative x, y the line calls as an algebraic curve n-ãî the order. The line of 1-st order is direct. A conic section fall into to lines of 2-nd order. Examples of nonalgebraic lines - schedules of trigonometrical ratioses, logistic functions, exponential functions.
  • LINE, 1) a unit of length in system of the English measures, 1 line? 1/12 inches? 0,21167 see 2) In Russia - a linear measure, 1 line? To 10 points? 2,54 mm.
  • INFLUENCE LINE (influent), in structural mechanics - a graph of any value (gain, a sag, etc.) in the given section of a configuration item from a rule of the single force of a permanent direction enclosed in it. Influence lines are applied to establishment of the most advantageous arrangement of a load.
  • DELAY LINE, cutting of a coaxial cable, the waveguide, etc. or the synthetic electric circuit, intended for a time delay of signals (electrical, electromagnetic, acoustical) in instrumentation of a color television, oscillographs, memory devices of a computer, etc. Hold time is routine 10-7 - 10-2ñ.
  • TRANSMISSION LINE (feeder) (wireless), a current line intended for drive of oscillations of high frequency. Are most distributed symmetrical two and the multwire, asymmetrical single-wire (2-nd explorer - ground), coaxial lines of drive and waveguides. The main application - connection of the antenna with the transmitter or the receiver.
  • CALENDAR LINE, conditional line on a surface of the terrestrial globe, differentiating the places having in the same instant calendar dates, varying for one day; passes in the greater part on 180-ìó to a line of longitude. In the places located directly on both parties from a calendar line, hours and minutes coincide, and calendar dates vary for one day.
  • COMMUNICATION LINK, antenna-feeder devices and the physical environment, ensuring in aggregate drive of radio signals; a constituent part of a radio communications channel. Radio-relay and satellite communication links are most distributed.
  • The COMMUNICATION LINE, set of engineering devices and the physical environment, ensuring drive and distribution of signals from the transmitter to the receiver. A constituent part of the channel of electric communication. In systems of a multichannel communication consolidates and belongs simultaneously to many channels. On a physical nature of transmitted signals distinguish electrical (wiring and a wireless), acoustic and optical communication lines.
  • The STREAMLINE, the line conducted in a fluid flow or gas so, that tangent to her in any point coincides a direction of velocity vector at present time.
  • NODAL LINE, direct, bridging nodes of the orbit of a heavenly body; on this direct orbital planes and ecliptics (or equator if there is a satellite) are traverseed.
  • POWER LINE (LEP), structure from wires (cables) and auxiliaries for a transmission of electrical energy from power stations to consumers. Napr.: a power line alternating-current on pressure 1150 kV (Ekibastuz - Kokchetav - Kustanai), 750 kV (Moscow - Saint Petersburg, Donbass - Lvov), LEP direct-current on pressure 800 kV (the Volga river plant - Donbass), etc.
  • LINKEJ, in the Grecian mythology son Afareja, brother Idasa (Afareidy). Brothers participat in Kalidonskoj a hunt and a marching of argonauts. Linkej differed it is unusual the acute sight, allowed to inpour to his look through ground and stones. Has perished together with the brother in battle with Dioskurami, stolen his bride Gilaejru.
  • LINCOLN (Lincoln), city in a central part the USA, an administrative centre pieces. Nebraska. 192 thousand inhabitants (1990). Radio electronics, a general machine industry, alimentary, a printing industry. 2 universities.
  • LINCOLN (Lincoln) Abraham (1809-65), 16-th president the USA (1861-65), one of organizers of the Republican consignment (1854) appearing against servitude. During untied by planters of the South of the Civil war in the USA 1861-65 government of Lincoln has conducted a number of democratic transformations, has in particular passed laws about gomstedah (see. The Gomsted-certificate), about cancellation of servitude, has supplied rout of a troops juzhan. Soon after election by the president on 2-nd time it is killed juzhaninom.
  • LINCOLN (Lincoln) Abraham (on February, 12 1809, bliz Hodzhenvilla, Kentucky - on April, 15 1865, Washington), 16-th president the USA (1861-65). Selection ways Was born in poor family of the farmer. In connection with crowded grade crossings visited school with rests, but regularly was engaged in self-education, having become inveterate knigocheem. With early the flying helped family on an economy, worked on hiring. About 1831 Lincoln (Illinois) where worked the clerk in shop, was justified by a bound setter in Nju-Salem, then has entered a home guard which was standing up to to Indians, but in breakages did not participate. In 1833-36 was an aboriginal postmaster, studied the right and with 1836 has been allowed to legal practice. A becoming policy To 1834-42 Lincoln it was four times elected in legislative assembly of Illinois from a consignment vigov. In 1837 Springfield has moved to capital of staff. In 1842 married Mary Todd. In 1847-49 he represented Illinois in the lower chamber of a congress the USA, opposed wars with Mexico and rabotorgovli. In consequent years was engaged in legal practice, has become one of master lawyers of staff, Illinois Central " was the adviser of the railway ". In 1756 has adjoined just(now) built Republican consignment. During elections 1858 overall attention was involved with debate between Lincoln and his rival in extirpation for a place in a senate the USA S.A.Duglasom. Victory has got to Douglas, but speech of Lincoln " the Dwelling disjointed " which motif was impossibility of the further existence of country in a condition " polurabstva and polusvobody ", has become in due course axiomatic, and he - a figure of a national scale. On a post prezidentaNa presidential elections 1860 Lincoln has managed to conquer three opponents, having received overwhelming majority of voices of an electoral college. His stay in the White dwelling with March, 4 1861 on April, 15 1865 has coincided with the most tragical season in a history the USA - the Civil war in the USA. Slaveholding staffs answered election of Lincoln setsessiej - secession of Soyuz and professing in February of 1861 Confederal Staffs of America. " We should not be enemies ", - has proclaimed Lincoln at the introduction into the position, but armed performance juzhan has induced it to take the answer-back measures. Lincoln considered servitude as evil, imminent in economic conditions existing in the south of country. The problem on servitude he fall intoed competences of staffs and supposed, that the government has no constitutional law to interfere with this problem. At the same time he rigidly opposed distributions of servitude on new terrains that undermined a fundamentals rabovladenija wherefore his extensive character it is inevitable demanded progression on undeveloped lands of the West. The important achievement of administration of Lincoln acceptance in May 1862 gomsted-certificates, each citizen of country providing vesting a plot of land in 160 acres (64 ga) has become. The law put the strongest impact on rabovladeniju and led to the radical solution of an agrarian problem - to development of an agriculture on farmer ways. Discharging of slaves In accordance with a development of events moderate enough, compromise item of Lincoln on a problem rabovladenija varied. The main purpose of administration - restoration of Soyuz - has appeared unattainable without destruction of servitude in scales of all country. To realization of this reality Lincoln has come farly from being at once. Especially civil person, subjected to pressure from different directions, criticism for military defeats and economic difficulties, the president in the necessary moment undertook decisive steps for depressing rebelion, not being intercepted even before limitations of a civil freedom or consumption of the means which has been not affirmed still by a congress. Lincoln supported gradual discharging slaves on the compensatory basis, but there has come time when he has understood, that " the servitude should die, that the nation could live ". On September, 22 1862 he has declared about a volume, that since January, 1 of the future year all slaves " henceforth and for ever will be loose ", and on December, 30 has signed " the Leaflet about discharging ". 1863 year has brought armies of Soyuz of victory at Gettysburg and Viksberge. Acting on November, 19 1863 on discovering of a military cemetery in Gettysburg, Lincoln has declared, that soldiers reposing here have returned life that country has found " a new birth of freedom ", and " this government of people, from people, for people never will vanish from off the face of the Earth ". This brief, all from 10 phrases, speech has become the genuine manifest of the American democracy, and Lincoln has consolidated the glory of the brilliant speaker. Re-election and assassination At elections 1864, despite of declaimings of some politicians and natural doubts, Lincoln has conquered the rival from Democratic party of general Dzh. B.Makklellana. Lincoln considered, that discharging of slaves should be made fast legally. Under his insisting the congress on January, 31 1865 has accepted XIII-¯ the a correction to of the constitution which were prohibiting servitude in terrain USA and coming into effect after ratification by its staffs in December of the same year. In the beginning 1865 fast victory of northerners any more did not invoke doubts. On the agenda there were problems of Renovation - restoration of 11 separated staffs as full subjects of federation. Lincoln in December 1863 promised amnesty to all rebels, except for their direct chiefs, under condition of taking oath on an accuracy the USA and confessions of cancellation of servitude. setsessii austral staffs he considered certificates legally invalid and has been convinced, that their cancellation automatically means restoration of these staffs in structure of Soyuz. The president supported the prompt making peace and has personally departed on February, 3 on a meeting with leaders of the Confederated states, broken because of a nonconstructive item juzhan. In the second inaugural speech Lincoln invoked to refuse revenging. " Not nourishing to anybody of the rage, the determined mercies, solid in true " Americans should " tie up to country of its wound... To do the utmost, to conquer and save the fair and long-lived world in the dwelling and with all nations of the world ". The president did not manage to realize the premeditations. On April, 14 1865, in good Friday at performance at theatre Forda in Washington the fanatical adherent juzhan actor Dzh. U.But has penetrated into a presidential box and has shot to Lincoln in a head. In the morning of following day, not coming in consciousness, the president has deceased. Millions Americans, white and black, came to pay the last honours to the president during lasting two a week of traveling of a mourning train from Washington to Springfield where Lincoln has been buried on cemetery Ouk-Ridzh. The tragical mors of Lincoln in many respects promoted building around of his name of a halation of the martyr who has perished for discharging of slaves. Memory of Lincoln is perpetuated in a memorial discovered in the American capital in 1922. Inside it belomramornogo structures sculptor D.C.French has placed a six-meter statue of the president - deliverer sitting in thoughtfulness. On internal walls of a memorial under allegorical paintings texts gettisbergskoj and by the second inaugural speeches of Lincoln are played back.
  • BATTLESHIP, see. A capital ship.
  • GESSOES (from an armour. linum - a flux, a cloth and crusta - a bark, an encasing), a roll material for processing - a paper or a tissue coated with a flake (0,5-1 mm) the plastics materials, received on the basis of alkyd resins. It is applied to an interior finish of public buildings and transports.
  • LINKUVA (Linkuva) (up to 1917 official title Lipkovo), city (with 1950) in Lithuania. A depot. 2,1 thousand inhabitants (1990). A food-processing industry. It is known from 16 century. Architectonic monuments. 16-18 centuries.