Wednesday, May 23, 2007

  • GARBUZOV Nikolay Aleksandrovich (1880-1955), the Russian musicologist, the doctor of art criticism. The founder of the concept of a zonal nature of acoustical perception (see. A zone). The professor of the Moscow conservatory (1923-51).
  • GARUA, city in Cameroon; see. Garua.
  • The HARWARD ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY, the USA, is based in 1839. In 1955 it is joint with Smitsonovskoj an astrophysical observatory. Main routes of probes: variable stars; a photometry and a spectophotometery of asters, fogs, galaxies; radio astronomy; interior of asters; a cosmology.
  • The HARWARD SCHOOL, the direction of the political economy which have arisen in the USA after 1-st world war, studies a nature of a business cycle and economic conditions with the help of methods statistical and a calculus. The most outstanding representative of the Harward school - U.Mitchell.
  • The HARWARD SCHOOL of the RIGHT, one of basic currents of the American sociological school of the right. See also R.
  • The HARWARD UNIVERSITY, the USA, Cambridge, bliz Boston, is based in 1636 as college, has name Dzh. Harward (with 1639), bequeathed the capital to college. It is reorganized in university in 1-st quarter of 19 century. In 199117 thousand students.
  • GARVEJ (Harvi) (Harvey) William (1578-1657), the English doctor, the founder the modern physiologies and an embryology. Has described major and small circles of a blood circulation. In transactionses " Anatomic probe about motion of heart and blood for animal " (1628) has stated the doctrine about a blood circulation, denying the submissions prevailing from times Galena, for what exposed to persecution on the part of the modern to him of scientists and churches. For the first time has stated thought, that " all alive descends from eggs ".
  • GARVI (Garvey) Markus (1887-1940), the national hero of Jamaica, the ideologist of nationalistic motion of the American Negros " Back to Africa " (garvizm); the founder of World association on improvement of a rule of Negros (1914). Has created on Jamaica the National political party (1929) and a number of other organizations acting for self-management of country.
  • GARGANO (Gargano), the peninsula in a southeast of Italy, presses in Adriatic m. An altitude up to 1056 m. The Mediterranean bushes, epines of woods. Gardens, vineyards.
  • GARGZHDAJ (Gargzdai) (up to 1917 official title Gordzh), city (with 1965) in Lithuania, on r. Minija, in 18 kms from Klaipeda. 13,7 thousand inhabitants (1990). Metal working, an industry of a building materials.
  • GARDA (Garda), lake in a north of Italy, for foot of the Alpes. The area 370 êì2. Depth of 346 m. From Garda escapes r. Mincho (in-leak r. On). Navigation. Health resorts Garda, Sermione, Riva-del-Garda, etc.
  • GARDA (frants. garde, a basic meaning - guarding), a part of ephesus klinkovogo a cold steel, the employee for protection against impact of a paintbrush of an arm.
  • GARDABANI, city (with 1969) in Georgia. A depot. 17,7 thousand inhabitants (1990). The Tbilisi waterpower plant. Canning and kartonno-ruberoidnyj factories; knitted, furry factories.
  • HALYARD (Gardel) Karlos (1890-1935), the Argentina musician, the singer and a film actor. It is known as " king of a tango ".
  • MIDDY (frants. gardemarine, characters. - marine guards), a rank in the Russian VTR, content in 1716 for pupils of the higher companies of Marine academy, and after the Marine military school at a direction in fleet on practice.
  • GARDEN (Harden) (Harden) Arthur (1865-1940), the English biochemist. Transactionses on biochemistry of a spirit fermentation and the ferments participating in a nem. Has discovered coenzymes. Probeed a structure and function of coenzyme I (nicotine - amidadenindinukleotid). The Nobel Prize (1929, together with H.Ejlerom-Helpinom).
  • GARDEN - GROV (Garden Grove), city in the west the USA, pieces. California. 143,1 thousand inhabitants (1990, with suburbs). Manufacture of electronic - computers, an aeronautical engineering; furniture, a food-processing industry.
  • GARDENIA, stem of evergreen bushes or small trees of a set of a madder family. St. 100 (under other data, 250) kinds, in tropics and subtropics of Asia and Africa. Many kinds are decorative.
  • GAS-PIPE MAIN, a structure for transportation of combustible gases from a place of production or manufacture to points of consumption. Distinguish underground, above-ground (on supports), in a dike. The gas pressure in a main gas-pipe is sustained gazokompressornymi by stations. In terminations of a main gas-pipe gas-distribution stations are constructed. A maximum diameter of pipes of a main gas-pipe of 1420 mm.
  • GAS PERMEABILITY, property of solid partitions (membranes) to drop gas at existence of swing pressure on both parties of a partition. At a constant temperature fluence of gas is proportional to a pressure fall per unit of depth of a membrane. The constant of proportionality dependent on structure of a membrane and a nature of gas, calls as quotient of gas permeability.
  • DISCHARGE LIGHT SOURCES, gas-discharge devices, in which electrical power will be converted to power of optical radiance at transit of a current flow through gases (more often inert), pairs of substances (napr., pairs of mercury) or their mixes. According to a direct stimulus source distinguish gazosvetnye (neon, mercurial, sodium, xenon), luminescent, etc. Apply primarily to illumination, irradiation and the signalling.
  • The GAS-DISCHARGE DEVICE (the ion device), the electronic device, which action it is based on use of different kinds of electric discharges in gases or pairs of metals. Distinguish gas-discharge devices of a glow discharge (cold-cathode thyratrons, digital indicator lamps, etc.), an arc discharge, primarily with the glowed cathode (thyratrons, tacitrons, mercury-arc rectifiers, etc.), a spark discharge (three-electrode arcs, etc.), corona discharge (stabilitrons, etc.). The separate group of gas-discharge devices is compounded with discharge light sources, gaseous optical masers, etc.
  • GAS-DISTRIBUTION STATION, the installation depressing a gas pressure at his feed in distribution networks of consumption.
  • GAZOSVETNAJA the TUBE, a discharge light source by the way a glass tube, gap-filling a neon, argon, etc. gases with the additive of mercury. Gazosvetnaja the tube with a neon shines orange-red light, with argon and pairs of mercury - blue. It is applied to illuminated signs.
  • The GAS-FILLED RECTIFIER DIODE (from gas and... A throne), the discharge 2-electrode device with the semi-self-sustained arc or a glow discharge, gap-filling noble gas, pairs of mercury or hydrogen. It is used primarily as a valve in high-voltage rectifiers.
  • The GAS-TUBE BOILER, steam boiler in which light-end products of combustion of fuel pass on steel pipes (water circulates in outside of tubes). Distinguish zharotrubnye and fire-tube boilers. Gas-tube boilers are extruded by water tube boilers (were saved only on motorships and steam locomotives).
  • The GAS-TURBINE POWER STATION, TES in which in the capacity of a drive of an electricity generator the combustion turbine is used.
  • GAS-TURBINE FUEL, the mix of fluid hydrocarbon used in the capacity of of fuel for gas-turbine fixed (cogeneration stations) and transport (locomotives, automobiles, court) installations. Receive a crude distillation or at its recycling (napr., cracking).
  • GAS-TURBINE ENGINE (turbine engine), the thermal engine in which power of the steam-and-gas mixture received at combustion of fuel in a combustion chamber, will be converted to mechanic activity with the help of a combustion turbine. It is applied basically on the cogeneration station to a drive of electric generators, in the capacity of engines of transport machines, power plants of courts.
  • GAZOTURBOVOZ, the locomotive with a gas-turbine engine, an electricity generator and thrust electric motors. First gazoturbovozy have appeared in it is grey. 20 century. As contrasted to a gasoline locomotive have smaller unit weight, it is easier on a design, but have low efficiency (approximately in 2 times below, than for a gasoline locomotive).
  • GAZOTURBOHOD, a vessel with a gas-turbine power plant. First gazoturbohody have appeared in it is grey. 20 century. Light turbines of air type establish on foilcrafts and on an air buffer, heavy - on timber carriers, "roll-on" ships, etc.
  • GAZOFRAKTSIONIRUJUSHCHAJA INSTALLATION, a complex of apparatuses gazopererabatyvajushchih, petrochemical and chemicals plants for unmixing light hydrocarbon on personal substances.
  • FLUE, 1) the channel derivated by surface elements of heating steam or a hot-water boiler. 2) the Gas passage from furnace plants and furnaces in a flue (calls also as duct or a pig).
  • GASES PETROLEUM WAY, hydrocarbon gases (ethane, propyl hydride, butane, etc.), concomitant petroleum and secreted from it at separation; valuable raw material for petrochemical and a chemical industry.
  • GASES NATURAL COMBUSTIBLE, mixes of hydrocarbon of methanoic lines and not hydrocarbon components, meeting in a sedimental volva of earth crust as loose clumps, and also in dissolved (in petroleum and edge water), dissipated (sorbed by breeds) and solid (in gazogidratnyh deposits) conditions. In gases natural combustible the main component - methane (up to 98 %), ethane, propyl hydride, butane, isobutane and pentane enter also. Combustion heat of 32,7 MDZH/M3 and is higher. World reserves over 113 bln. in m3 (1992).
  • GAI, State automobile inspection.
  • GAIANIJA (Gajane) Armenian (mind. 304), igumenija, prepodobnomuchenitsa, one them 35 maidens damaged in persecution of the Armenian tsar Tiridata. Memory in the Orthodox church on September, 30 (on October, 13).
  • GAY (1 century), apostle from 70-òè, the pupil of apostle Paul (the Message to Romans 16:23; 1 epistle to the corinthians 1:14), diocesan Efessky (after apostle of Timotheus). Memory in the Orthodox church on January, 4 (17) and on November, 5 (18).
  • GALL TONGUE, see. Oromo tongue.
  • GALLAJ Mark Lazarevich (r. 1914), the Russian pilot. The deserved pilot - verifier of the USSR (1959), the colonel, the Hero of Soviet Union (1957), Dr.Sci.Tech., the writer. Tests of the first Soviet reactive fighters, long-distance bombers (including reactive strategic), helicopters, etc. Flutter tests; are described in documentary products " Through invisible barriers " (1960), " It is tested in the root " (1963), etc.
  • GALLAN (Galland) Antoine (1646-1715), the French writer. His transfer of the collection of fairy tales " One thousand and one night " (t. 1-12, 1704-1712) has made this monument of literature known in Europe.
  • GALLAHER (Gallacher) William (1881-1965), president KP of Great Britain (KPV) in 1956-63; the chairman of Executive committee KPV in 1943-56. Within 1-st world war the chief of motion of factory wardens.
  • GALL (Hull) (Halle), city in Germany, ground Saxony - Anhalt. 303 thousand inhabitants (1992). A machine industry, chemical, polygraphic, sewing, a food-processing industry. University. Academy of natural sciences. G.F.Handel dwelling - museum (was born in Halle). Clasp Moritsburg (1484-1503), churches of 14-16 centuries.
  • GALL, city and a port in Sri Lanka. St. 100 thousand inhabitants. Fishery. A thorough revision of agricultural raw material.
  • GALL (named the creator, the French artist 19 - nach. 20 centuries. E.Galle, E. Galle), items from a non-transparent compound glass with relief vegetative and landscape motives; decoras it is executed by a thread with removal of several layers of a glass around of a pattern.
  • GALL (Galle) Iogann Gottfried (1812-1910), the german astronomer. The main transactionses on probes of comets and meteors. Has updated a solar paralax on supervision of asteroids, has discovered 3 comets, has found Neptune on the coordinates calculated by U.Leverje (1846).
  • GALLEJ (Halley) (Halley) Edmund (1656-1742), the English astronomer and a geophysics. Has constituted the first check list of asters of the Austral root, has discovered proper motion of asters (1718). Has calculated orbits over 20 comets. Has predicted time of new occurrence (1758) comets 1682 (t. n. Comets Galleja), having proved availability of periodic comets. Probeed a terrestrial magnetism.
  • GALLEN-KALLELA (Gallen-Kallela) Akseli (1865-1931), the Finnish painter and the schedule. The inclement realism of patterns of the Finnish national life (" the First lesson ", 1889), heroic of modes of epos "Kalevala" (a triptych " the Legend about Ajno ", 1891) combined with symbolics and a stylization spirit of style "modernist style".
  • GALLER (Haller) the Alben (1849-1925), French chemists - organics, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1912). Transactionses on organic synthesis. Has developed a way of synthesis of amides of carboxylic acids. Synthesized (1891) baras camphor and a menthol (1905).
  • GALLER (Haller) (Haller) Albrecht a background (1708-77), the Swiss scientist, the doctor and the poet (wrote in German), one of founders of experimental physiology, the foreign honorary member Petersburg AN (1776). The writer of the classical book " Elements of physiology... " (t. 1-8, 1757-1766). Transactionses on anatomy, an embryology, botany, surgery. Opposed theories of an epigenesis in protection of a preformation. Descriptively - didactic ("Alpes"), philosophical (" About an origin of evil ") poems, verses.
  • GALLER Lion Mihajlovich (1883-1950), admiral (1940). The participant of 1-st world war. In the Civil war the commander of a destroyer, a cruiser, a battleship. In 1932-36 commanded Baltic fleet, with 1938 chief of Main marine headquarters, with 1940 deputy narkoma a VTR on naval architecture. It is repressed; it is rehabilitated posthumously.
  • GALLEJA the COMET, is called named E.Galleja who has predicted its recurring in 1758 and that proved, that she is a member of the Solar system. Cycle time of comet Galleja ok. 76 flying. At the alternate rendezvous with the Sun (up to 0,587 and. e. 9.2.1986) comet Galleja is scalenely investigated by two Soviet interplanetary probes " Âåãà-1 " (6.3.1986, minimum distance of 8,9 thousand in km) and "Âåãà-2" (9.3.1986, 8 thousand in km), and also space vehicles: Western-European "Dzhotto" (14.3.1986, ok. 600 kms) and to two Japanese, flown by on March, 8 and 11 at a great distance from a comet.
  • GALLI-BIBBIENA (Galli-Bibbiena), family of italian theatrical artists and architects: 1) Ferdinando (1657-1743), the theatrical artist of Baroque, applied sharp offsets of the points of view, illjuzionisticheskie regional effects; 2) Franchesko (1659-1739), brother Ferdinando. Sons Ferdinando - Alessandro (1687 - up to 1769), Dzhuzeppe (1696-1756), (1700-74) and grandson Ferdinando - Karlo (1725-87) worked Antonio in Italy, Germany and Austria.
  • GALLIEN (Gallienus) (218-268), Roman emperor with 253 (up to 260 sopravitel the father Valeriana). It is killed during rebelion military znati, dissatisfied by discharge of senators from the maximum military positions.
  • GALLIC (an armour. Gallium), Ga, a chemical element of III group of a periodic system, atomic number 31, atomic weight 69,723. It is called from Gallia - the latin title of France. Siver-white fusible (tïë 29,77 °S) metal; firmness (g / sm3) of solid metal 5,904, fluid 6,095; têèï2205 °S. On air chemical racks. In a nature it is absent-minded, meets together with Al. Apply basically (on 97 %) in manufacture of semiconductive materials (GaAs, GaSb, GaP, GaN).
  • GALLIKANSTVO (from an armour. gallicanus - gallic, i.e. French), religious - political motion (since 13 century) which adherents achieved an autonomy, the greater independence of the French latin church of the papacy. Ideas gallikanstva have found reflectance in performances of the French diocesans on 2-nd Vatican cathedral 1962-65.
  • GALLI-KURCHI (Galli-Curci) Amelita (1882-1963), the italian singer (a coloratura soprano). With 1916 vein in the USA. Acted at many opera theatres of the world, including in Russia. In 1930-38 basically chanted in concerts. One of the best performers of consignment Roziny (" the Seville barber " Rossini).
  • GAJDAR (an ice-film. fam. Besoms) Arcady Petrovich (1904-41), the Russian writer. Products about romanticism of revolutionary extirpation ("RVS", 1926; the autobiographical story "School", 1930; " Military secret ", 1935), about construction of new life, about challenges of moral and civil education (the story " the Light-blue cup ", 1936; the story " Timur and his command ", 1940). Has perished in fight in back of an enemy.
  • GAJDAR Egor Timurovich (r. 1956), the Russian political figure, the doctor of economic sciences. Grandson A.P.Gajdara and P.P.Bazhov. With 1981 on scientific, with 1987 on press activity. With 1990 director of Institute of economic policy of Academy of national economy and AN the USSR. Since November 1991 deputy, with 1992 1-st deputy; in June - December of 1992 acting chairmen of government of the Russian Federation; began practical implementation of a course from reforming of the Russian economy. Since December 1992 director of Institute of economic transitional problems. In September 1993 - January 1994 1-st vice-presidents of government of Russia, Minister of Economics; has retired. Since December 1993 till December 1995 deputy of the State Duma; the leader of a fraction " Selection of Russia ". Since June 1994 chairman of a consignment " Democratic selection of Russia ". The main activities in a control area and economic problems of reform.
  • GAJDEBUROV Paul Aleksandrovich (1841-1893/94), the Russian publicist, the democrat, then the liberal populist. With 1870 member of edition, with 1874 editor - publisher of the newspaper "Week".
  • GAJDEBUROV Paul Pavlovich (1877-1960), the Russian actor, the producer, the teacher, the national actor of Russia (1940). Son P.A.Gajdeburova. On the scene with 1899. The organizer and the chief (together with N.F.Skarskoj) Shared theatre in Saint Petersburg (1903-14), the First movable drama theatre (1905-28) for the working and village spectator. Played and put performances in many cities, including in Leningrad and Moscow. The state premium of the USSR (1952).
  • HAYDN (Haydn) Frants Joseph (1732-1809), the Austrian composer. The representative of the austrian classical school. In Haydn creativity otkristallizovalis classical tool genres (the concordance, a quartet, etc.), forms (including sonatnaja the form), principles of development, there was a classical structure of an orchestra. The latitude of folklore communications is characteristic for Haydn music. 104 concordances, 83 quartets, 52 fortepiannye sonatas, oratorios ("Creation of the world", 1798; "Seasons", 1801), 14 masses, operas, etc.
  • GAJD-PARK (Hajd-park) (Hyde Park), one of the largest parks of the London; a traditional place of political meetings and collections.
  • TRAIL ROPE (from English guide rope, characters. - a guide rope), the tag lengthy chain cable used in aircraft on landing of some kinds of airships, sporting air balloons, stratosphere balloons and substratosphere balloons.
  • GAJDUZEK (Gajdusek) Daniel Karlton (r. 1923), the American doctor, the virologist and an epidemiologist. The founder of the doctrine about sluggish viral infections of the person (disease with the long-lived incubation period reaching a several flying and a primary defeat of central nervous system); probeed their causes, the mechanism of originating and a feature of flow. The Nobel Prize (1976, together with B.Blambergom).
  • GAJDUKI (hajduki) (from veng. hajduk - infantrymen), in 15-19 centuries participants of armed extirpation juzhnoslavjanskih peoples, Moldavians, etc. against turkish conquerors. During russko-turkish war 1877-78 many gajduki together with Russian troops struggled for discharging of Bulgaria.
  • GAJZER (Gaiser) Gerd (1908-76), the german writer. Novels about the last days of 2-nd world war " the voice " (1950) Is hoisted, " Dying fighters " (1953) are noted by mythological tendencies; in the novel " the Last dancing party " (1958) presents the moral account to an economic miracle in Germany.
  • NUT, component part with an internal thread, generatrix with the screw (bolt) a screw pair. Fastening nuts, screwed on a bolt or a skewer, compound a bolted joint. The nut of a feed spindle ministers for the report of translation, napr. To a caliper or a table in rigs.
  • GAJKO (Hajko) Vladimir (r. 1920), Slovak physics, the foreign member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; foreign member AN the USSR with 1982), the academician (1973) and the deputy of the president (1974-89) Czechoslovak AN, the president Slovak AN (1974-89). Transactionses on magnetism and physics of low temperatures. The writer of activities on obtaining and probe of amorphous magnetics.
  • BOX WRENCH, hand-power machine with electrical, air-operated or a hydraulic drive for screwing nuts, screws, bolts.
  • GAJLIT (Gailit) August (1891-1960), the Estonian writer. From 1944 cable cores in Sweden. Subject entertaining, the loose circulation are characteristic for prose with the form, density of population diverse characters; naughty, pritvorno naive, saturated hyperbolas style - the trilogy " you Remember, love washing? " (1951-57), novels, including " Through restless water " (1951), " Glowing heart " (1945), the story " Mors Augusta Gajlita " (1919), collections of short stories.
  • " GAJMANOVA the TOMB ", a tumulus of 4 century up to n. e. About one seconds. Balks on Ukraine, Zaporozhye region. Affluent Scythian burials.
  • GAJMOR (Hajmor) (Highmore) Nataniel (1613-85), the English anatomist and the doctor, the writer of fundamental guidings on anatomy, transactionses on a comparative anatomy. Has described a genyantrum of naze (t. n. gajmorovu a cavity).
  • GENYANTRITIS, inflammation of a mucous membrane, sometimes and osteal walls maxillary (gajmorovoj) axils; often arises as complication of a grippe. Developments: a pain in range of a staggered axil, zalozhennost the conforming half of naze, mucous or purulent discharges from naze.
  • GAJMOROVA the CAVITY (named N.Gajmora) (genyantrum), an adventitious twin nasal cavity in a maxilla.
  • GUYOTS, ploskovershinnye the submerged volcanic mountains, meeting it is solitary or groups. Are most distributed in boreal half Quiet ok. Depth above tops from 200 up to 2000 m.
  • GAJRATI (an ice-film. A name Abdurahim Abdullaev) (1905-76), the Uzbek writer, the national writer of Uzbekistan (1972). Collections of verses and poems " the Voice of freedom " (1927), " Songs of immortality " (1961), " ours Hamza " (1967) reflect life of Uzbekistan. Stories, stories.
  • GDOV, city (with 1780) in the Russian Federation, the Pskov region, on r. Gdovka, bliz its lockins in CHudskoe an eskar. A depot. 5,9 thousand inhabitants (1992). The alimentary enterprises. It is based in 1431 as strength.
  • GDYNIA (Gdynia), city and a port in Poland, on Baltic m. of 252 thousand inhabitants (1992). Freight turnover 10,0 million t annually. Shipbuilding and other branches of a machine industry, a food-processing industry. Fishing base. A marine museum.
  • GE Nikolay Nikolaevich (1831-94), the Russian painter. One of osnovatelej Companies peredvizhnikov. Psychologic portraits ("A.I.Gertsen", 1867, etc.), historical patterns (" Peter I interrogates tsarevitch Alexey ", 1871, etc.), ekspressivnye, drama compositions on religious - ethical themes (" That there is a true? ", 1890).
  • GEB, in egyptian mythology the godhood of ground and fertility, one of geliopolskoj Enneady gods. In " Texts of pyramids " acts as implementation of the underground world and god Duata sharing in court Osirisa above died.
  • GEBA, in the Grecian mythology the goddess of a perpetually youth, daughter Zevsa and Gery, on feastings of gods executed responsibilities vinocherpija. Marital partner Gerakla.
  • GEBBEL TO. Ô., see Hebbel K.F.
  • GOEBBELS (Goebbels) Joseph (1897-1945), with 1933 minister for propagation, the chapter of the propaganda apparatus of fascist Germany. The ideologist of racism, violence and annexationist wars. In 1944 it is appointed imperial authorized on total military mobilization. After the introduction of the Soviet troops into Berlin has committed suicide. On the Nuremberg process it adjudicated by one of main nazi war criminals.
  • HEBEPHRENIA (from grech. hebe - a youth and phren - mind) (a hebephrenic set of symptoms), the mental derangement defined by silly propulsion and voice exaltation, a disintegration of thought, heightened mood.
  • GEBRA (Hebra) (Hebra) Ferdinand (1816-1880), the Austrian doctor, one of founders of dermatology. Has created the first dermatological clinic. Has offered pathoanatomical grading dermatoses, developed methods of their treatment. Has described a number of diseases of the leather called as his name.
  • HEBRIDES (Hebrides) (Hebrides), archipelago in Atlantic ok., in structure of the Great Britain. Ok. 500 islands (the Lewis, Skye, Mull, etc.), the area of 7,5 thousand êì2. An altitude up to 1009 m. Lavovye fields, tracks of an ancient glaciation. Luga, heathlands, peat bogs. Fishery, a sheep raising.
  • GEBRY, adherents zoroastrizma in Iran. In India of descendants gebrov call parsami.
  • GEVANDHAUZ (a nem. Gewandhaus - a cloth yard), a concert society, a hall and a symphonic orchestra in Leipzig. The title was saved from the aged building originally intended for sale of cloths; in a nem in 1781-1884 passed concerts of orchestra Gevandhauza - one of the oldest in Europe. An orchestra headed F.Mendelson, A.Nikish, V.Furtvengler, B.Walter, etc.
  • GUEVARA (Guevara) Antonio de (1480-1545), the spanish writer, the historian and the seminary student. Court Charles V. The writer of the instructive tract " Hours gosudarevy, or the Golden book about emperor Mark Avrelii " (1529), moralistic " Family letters " (1539-41), etc.
  • GUEVARA (Guevara de ac a dorcas) (Guevara de la Serna) Ernesto (CHe) (1928-67), the Latin American revolutionary. Was born in Argentina. In 1959-61 president of the National bank of Cuba, with 1961 minister for a national industry. In 1965 has abandoned Cuba for sharing in revolutionary movement of peoples of Latin America. In 1966-1967 supervised over guerilla motion in Bolivia; it is captured and killed.
  • GEVART (Gevaert) Francois (1828-1908), the Belgian musicologist, the composer. Transactionses on instrumentation, harmonies, antique music. Operas, cantatas, choruses. The director and the professor of the Bruxelles conservatory.
  • GEVELY (latinisen form Hevelius) JAn (1611-1687), the Polish astronomer, the founder selenografii. Has constructed an observatory in Gdansk. Has created the first comprehensive maps of moon (has emited in the book " Selenografija or the description of moon ", 1647). Has constituted the first regular review of all observed comets, the check list of rules of 1564 asters. Has discovered 4 comets.
  • GEVELING Nikolay Vladimirovich (1897-1946), the Russian scientist metalloved, the honored worker of science and technique of RSFSR (1940), the general - major of an engineering - air service. Transactionses on an air physical metallurgy. Has offered (1931) way of a hard-facing of alloys through a contact electroheating.
  • HEVEA, stem of evergreen trees of a set of a spurge family. St. 10 kinds, in tropical America. A hevea Brazilian - the main source of plant rubber (by a tapping from 1 tree receive 3-7,5 kg of rubber annually). It is cultivated in tropical countries.
  • GASTROTRIHI (brjuhoresnichnye sea-worms), a class of worms of type nemagelmintov. A body (length up to 1,5 mm) with resnichkami on the belly party. Ok. 160 kinds, at the bottom of seas and fresh water reservoirs.
  • GASTROFILEZY, invazijnye diseases perissodactyl, called by larvas of botflies. Symptoms: a digestive disturbance, an exhausting.
  • GASTROENTERITIS, inflammatory disease of a stomach and the thin intestines for the person and animal. Attributes - see. A gastritis, the Enteritis. (Gastroenterocolitis) is routinely accompanied by a defeat of a tag intestines.
  • GASTROENTEROCOLITIS, acute or chronic inflammatory disease of all gastrointestinal tract for the person and animal at communicable diseases, poisonings, an allergy, disbolism, the functional failure of a digestive organs. See. A gastritis, the Colitis, the Enteritis.
  • GASTROENTEROLOGY, the section of medicine investigator a structure and functions of a digestive organs, the causes and mechanisms of development of diseases of these organs and developing methods of their recognition, treatment and prophylaxis.
  • GASTRULA (novolat. gastrula), a stage of germinal development of the metazoans, following to a blastula. The gastrula has two, then a trilaminar wall and a cavity (gastrotsel), routinely reported with an outdoor environment blastoporom.
  • GASTRULATION, process in early germinal development of the metazoans, consisting in the composite conveyances of groups of the cells, resulting in to education of a gastrula.
  • GATOVSKY Lion Markovich (r. 1903), the Russian economist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1960). The main transactionses on methodological problems of political economy and technological advance.
  • GATRI (Guthrie) Tiron (1900-71), the English producer. In 1939-45 one of chiefs of theatres " Old Vicks " and "Sedlers-Wells" (London). In 1953-57 one of organizers and the first producer of Shakespearian festival in Stratford (Canada). In 1962 main theatre in Minneapolis (with 1963 has name Gatri).
  • GATT, see. The general tariff agreement and trade.
  • GATTALA (Hattala) Martin (1821-1903), Slovak jazykoved, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1862). The writer first " Grammar of Slovak tongue " (1850), contributing normalization of literary Slovak tongue. Activities on the Czech literary language.
  • GATTERIJA (tuatara), the unique modern representative of order of Rhynchocephalia kowtowing. Outwardly it is similar to the lizard. Length up to 75 see. Lengthways spins and a tail a crest from triangular cheshuj. Lives in holes depth up to 1 m. Before arrival of Europeans populated the Sowing. And JUzh. Islands of New Zealand, where to kon. 19 century it has been exterminated; it was saved on neighboring islands in special reservation. In the Red Data Book of the International union of nature protection and natural resources (MSOP). Successfully gets divorced in the Sydney zoological garden.
  • GHATS (Ghaty), mountains on p-ove Hindustan, in India; see Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats.
  • CORDUROY ROAD, pad or brushwood for passage, pass through a bog, a spongy place, etc.
  • HOWITZER (a nem. Haubitze), an artillery piece for hinged shooting on the sheltered purposes. The templet from 100 mm and is higher, length of a trunk of 15-30 templets, range of fire up to 24 kms and more. There are also howitzers - pappuses which combine battle properties of a howitzer and pappuses with predominance first. Broad application in all armies of a howitzer have received in 1-¯ and 2-¯ world wars.
  • GAUDAPADA (5 century), the indian philosopher, one of the first representatives advajta-vedanty (" not dual vedanty "). Has rendered the considerable influence on SHankaru.
  • GAUDI (Gaudi - i-Kornet) (Gaudi y Cornet) Antonio (1852-1926), the spanish architect, worked in Barcelona. In bizarre block constructions achieved an impression fancy, the architectonic forms as though moulded by hand (church Sagrada the Surname, 1884-1926).
  • GAUDRIMAS (Gaudrimas) JUozas (r. 1911), the Lithuanian musicologist, academician AN of Lithuania (1972), the honored worker of arts of Lithuania (1965). The activities dedicated the Lithuanian musical crop. The professor of the Lithuanian conservatory (with 1969).
  • GALEAS (niderl. galeas) (galjes), a ship of war comprising in the inventory many countries of Europe in 16-17 centuries. Improved large galera.
  • GALEVI Ieguda (ok. 1075-1141), the jewish poet and the philosopher. From 1109 cable cores in Cordoba. Cheerful verses and religious poems; elegii, epigrammy, riddles.
  • GALEVI (Alevi) (Halevy) Fromantal (1799-1862), the French composer. Products in a genre of major opera. Operas " Æèäîâêà " (" the Daughter of a cardinal bird ", 1835), "Queen of spades" (1850), ballets.
  • GALEVI Ales (1870-1937), the French historian. The main transactionses on the English history 19 - nach. 20 centuries.
  • GALEYEV Albert Abubakirovich (r. 1940), Russian physics, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1992). Transactionses on plasma physics and space physics. The lenin premium (1984).
  • GALEYEV Gajfutdin Salahutdin (r. 1911), the Russian selector, the academician of Russian Academy of Agrarian Sciences (1972), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1971). The main transactionses on selection and a seed growing of corn. The writer of high-yield hybrids and grades. The lenin premium (1963), the State premium of the USSR (1986).
  • RUBBLES (Halek) Vitezslav (1835-74), the Czech writer. Lyrical collections " Vesper songs " (1858), " In a nature " (1872-74); stories, stories (" In farm and in a hut ", 1871, etc.) about life of the Czech village.
  • GALEN (Galenus) (ok. 130 - ok. 200), drevnerimsky the doctor. In classical transactionses " About parts of a human body " has given the first anatomo-physiological description of an integrated organism. Has entered into medicine vivisektsionnye experiments on animal. Has shown, that anatomy and physiology - the basis of scientific diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis. Has extended submissions of antique medicine by the way the unified doctrine which have rendered major influence on development of natural sciences down to 15-16 centuries Doctrine Galena it is sainted by church and overtopped in medicine within many centuries.
  • GALENA (galena), mineral of a class of sulphides, PbS. Impurity Ag, Se, etc. Lead-coloured crystals and units. Hardness 2-3; firmness of 7,4-7,6 g / sm3. Deposits hydrothermal and metasomatic. The main ore of lead.
  • GALENOVY DRUGS (by name Galena), the pharmaceuticals received from vegetative or raw animal material; from neogalenical drugs differ a smaller purification efficiency from ballast substances. The majority galenovyh drugs represent a mix from several substances. Most the considerable group galenovyh drugs infusions and compound extracts. The term " galenovye drugs " is entered by Paracelsus.
  • GALERA (ital. galera), the wooden rowing public vessel built in 7 century by venetians. Length up to 60 m, width up to 7,5 m, a upsetting of 2 m, one number it is cheerful (up to 32 aboard). Crew with soldiers up to 450 person.
  • GALLERY HOUSES, multistory residential buildings in which for an orifice in a dwelling unit the open passageways located on one party of a body and coherent ladders and lifts minister.
  • GALLERY FORESTS, grow a narrow bandwidth along the rivers, outside of a forest zone. Sample gallery forests - tropical coastal woods in savannahs of Africa and JUzh. America. See also the Riparian forest.
  • PASSAGEWAY (frants. galerie), 1) the lengthy covered accomodation in which one of longitudinal walls is substituted by columns or piles; the lengthy balcony. 2) the Elongated hall with a solid number of major windows in one of longitudinal walls. 3) the Upper storey of auditorium (balcony). 4) the Title of many art museums (National passageway, Picture passageway).
  • GALERY (Galerius) (242-311), Roman emperor with 293. One of main initiators of persuit of christians.
  • GALERKIN Boris Grigorjevich (1871-1945), the Russian engineer and the scientist, academician AN the USSR (1935), the engineer - general-lejtenant (1942). One of creators of a deflection theory of plates. Transactionses on structural mechanics and the elastic theory promoted an introduction of mathematical methods in engineering probes. The state premium of the USSR (1942).
  • GALLERY FLEET, see. Rowing fleet.
  • The DISK BATTERY, some tandem dry cells Leklanshe of a flat sandwiched design ("galettes"). It is used an independent source of electrical power in a communication apparatus, geophysical devices, etc.
  • GALETTES (from frants. galette), the cookies changing bread and capable to save the qualities a long time; has a laminated structure. Distinguish galettes simple (t. n. Biscuit, a biscuit) and adipose (contain 10-18 % of a desi or margarine).
  • PEBBLE, the rock consisting primarily from a clump of shingle with an impurity of gravel and sand.
  • The GARNITURE of the font, defines drawing of the font. In the given garniture fonts can differ in the dimension (point), a trace (direct, an italic type, etc.), saturation (light, semi-fat, etc.).
  • GARNE (Garnier) Founder (1869-1948), the French architect. Worked in Lyons. Developed economic and engineering philosophies of organization of the modern city. The design " Industrial city " (1904) has become a sample of grading for town-planners of 20 century.
  • GARNE (Garnier) Charles (1825-98), the French architect. Grandiose eclectic construction ("Grandee - opera" in Paris, 1861-75).
  • GARNE-PAZHES (Garnier-Pages) Lui Antoine (1803-78), the French Minister of Finance in March - May 1848; the initiator of introduction of the padding land-tax which has reduced peasants against the Second republic. After September revolution 1870 member of " Government of the national defence ".
  • GARODI (Garaudy) to the Erysipelas (r. 1913), the French writer, the philosopher. The participant of movement of Resistance. With 1945 member of a Central Committee, with 1956 member of the Political bureau French KP. In 1970 it is eliminated from French KP as the revisionist. Has acted with sharp criticism of distortions of marxism and socialism. Has put forward idea of the dialogue of marxism with christianity. Has accepted moslem faith. Anti-fascist novel - diary "Antej" (1946), the novel " the Eighth day of creation " (1947), plays, aesthetic activities (" About realism without coasts ", 1963).
  • HAROLD II (Harol II) (?-1066), the last Anglo-Saxon king of England (January - October 1066). The actual governor of country with 1053. Has perished in battle with a norman troops at Hastings (see. Norman seizure of England 1066).
  • GARONNE (frants. Garonne), the river in France and Spain. 647 kms, the area of basin of 56 thousand êì2. The beginning in Pyrenees, runs in Biskajsky a hall. Atlantic ok., derivating together with r. Dordogne an estuary firth Gironde. Average discharge of water ok. 680 m3 / with. It is navigable on 190 kms (a part of the water system bridging Biskajsky a hall. With Mediterranean m.). It is used for an irrigation. On Garonne - cities Toulouses, Bordeaux.
  • The LOWLAND GARONNSKAJA, in France, is extended lengthways r. Garonne in its mean and lower flow (a constituent part of lowland Garonnskoj - Landes). Broad-leaved and sazhenye pine forests. Gardens, vineyards, crops grain, cultivation of tobacco.
  • GARPALIKA, in the Grecian mythology the daughter of the Thracian tsar Garpalika who has brought up her as the man. Having divided destiny of the father ejected from the country, has become to be engaged in robbery; it has been trapped by shepherds and it is killed. That umilostivit to its douche, inhabitants have founded a cult and a holiday in honour Garpaliki.
  • GARPII, in the Grecian mythology of the goddess of a vortex, winged entities (poluzhenshchiny-poluptitsy) an abomination kind. Figuratively - malicious woman.
  • GARPIJA, a predatory bird of a set hawk. Length ok. 1 m. On a head a crest. In tropical America. Hunts for monkeys, idlers, large parrots. Feathers are thought much for Indians as dressings. In the Red Data Book of the International union of nature protection and natural resources (MSOP).
  • GARPOKRAT, in Other. Greeces, etc. Rome a name of the egyptian god the Mountain which become to honor as the god of silence. It was figured by the way the boy in a corona, with the pin for a mouth, on a bud of a lotus.
  • HARPOON (niderl. harpoen), propellant hunting (primarily on marine animal) the instrument - an acute gear tip from a stone, bones, metal, coherent with a shaft a belt. It is known from epoch of a paleolith. The modern harpoon - the metal boom consisting of a rod and the head with four uncovered lugs. On the head it is screw oned a pomegranate which blasts out in a body animal. Throwing of a harpoon is effected with the help of a harpoon gun.
  • GARRIK (Garrick) Dejvid (1717-79), the English actor. In 1742-76 at theatre " Druri-Lane " (London). One of reformers of the scene and the founder of educational realism at european theatre. Considered theatre as the tutor of a society. Has become famous in U.Shakespeare plays (25 roles, including a role of Hamlet).
  • GARRIMAN (Harriman) William Averell (1891-1986), the American statesman, the diplomat. In 1943-46 salting the USA in the USSR, in 1946-1948 minister for trade. In 1950-69 on different diplomatic and administrative posts.
  • GARRIMANY, enterprise group (USA). Began to develop in kon. 19 century. A sphere of influence - banks, insurance companies, the mining and railway companies. The financial centre - a bank building " Brown brazers, Garriman end To ° ".
  • GARRINGTON (Harrington) (Harrington) James (1611-77), the English publicist of epoch of the English revolution of 17 century, the ideologist of new nobility and bourgeoisie. Has developed the constitution of Utopian republic ("Republic Oceania", 1656).
  • GARRINCHA, Garrinsha (Garrincha) Manuel Fransisku dus Santos (1933-83), the Brazilian sportsman (football). Acted in structure commands "Botafogo" (Rio de Janeiro) in 1953-65. The world champion 1958 and 1962. One of the best marginal assaulting in a history of world football.
  • GARRINCHA, Garrinsha (Gàrrincha) Manuel Fransisku dus Santos (on October, 28 1933, Pau-grandee, district Mazhe, staff Guanabara - on January, 20 1983, Rio de Janeiro), the Brazilian sportsman. The twofold world champion (1958 and 1962) on football in structure national modular. The best dextral marginal assaulting in a history of world football. The uncontrollable Grandfather and father of it came from small American Indian nation fulnio from staff Alagoas. Garrincha differed freedom-loving and independent character. He has quitted for 20 flying on a field of well-known club " Áîòàôîãî " (Rio de Janeiro) and, having shown the whole cascade of original feints, has easily beaten the defence attorney of modular Brazil N.Santosa; after that at once has been paid in a command (1953). In the first match has driven three goals. In 1958 on a world championship in Sweden has quitted on a field in a match with the modular USSR together with 17-years Pele and has arranged bright "benefit performance" of football which with delight eyewitnesses recalled. During 8 flying modular to Brazil has not lost for any match while in its structure played Pele and Garrincha. Trainers "Botafogo" and modular have granted Garrinche uncontrolled liberty of actions on right flank where he was uncontrollable. " CHarli CHaplin football " So his journalists and for gait vrazvalochku (in fact one leg noticeably was shorter other) and for the elegant, artistic circulation with a ball, expressed in the most precise passes, in art obvodki, in potent and precise impacts on a gate have nicknamed. In each season he drove in not less than 20 heads, and the best for him as for bombardira steel 1958 and 1962 - 33 and 35 heads in structure " Áîòàôîãî ". In midpoint of 1960th because of serious traumas has been compelled to pass many games. In 1966 has conducted the last matches in structure of modular Brazil on a world championship in the London (all 61 match has played for modular Brazil and has driven 17 heads). After "Botafogo" (1953-65) supported clubs " Êîðèíòèàñ " (Santa-Paulu, 1966), "Flamengo" Rio de Janeiro, 1968-69), "Olarija" (Rio de Janeiro, 1972). After the terminal football pits to work the trainer not a smog. Was very lone, in spite of the fact that had 11 daughters. Not randomly last book about a nem, left after his mors, calls " the Lone aster " (R.Kastro, 1995).
  • HEKLA (Hekla), an active volcano on a southwest of Iceland. An altitude of 1491 m. For the last 700 flying ok. 20 large eruptions (the most destructive in 1766 and 1947-48).
  • HEXAGONAL SINGONIJA, crystallographic singonija, of which the ratio between angles is typical (???) and crossbars (a, b, c) a unit cell of a crystal: and = in? c? =? =90 °? = 120 °. It is sectioned into 7 point groups of a symmetry.
  • GEKSADEKAN, the same, that tsetan.
  • HEXAMETHYLENE DIAMINE, H2N (CH2) 6NH2, colourless crystals, tïë 39-42 °S. It is applied to synthesis of polyamides, polyurethanes.
  • HEXAMETHYLENETETRAMINE (hexamin, a urotropine), Ñ6Í12N4, colourless crystals of a sweet taste; it is sublimated in vacuo above 230 °S, it is charred at 280 °S. Hardener of phenolic formaldehyde resins, raw material for synthesis of blasting explosives (oktogena, hexogen), solid smokeless combustible (t. n. Solid alcohol), an antiseptic agent, a corrosion inhibitor.
  • HEXANE (normal hexane), ÑÍ3 (ÑÍ2) 4-ÑÍ3, a colourless liquid, têèï 68,74 °S. It is contained in petroleum; at their chemical processing (napr., reforming) turns to benzole; at an isomerization will derivate izogeksan - a high-octane component of engine fuels. It is applied as the solvent and a liquid in frigorimeters.
  • GEKSAFERRITY, ferrites with hexagonal crystalline structure. Are most distributed geksaferrity with formula (MO) (Fe2Î3) 6, where M - Va, Sr or Pb.
  • HEXACHLORETHANE, Ñ2Ñl6, colourless crystals, tïë 187 °S. A replacer of camphor in manufacture of a nitrate cellulose, an intensifier of a luminescence of pyrotechnic structures, the smoke generator (in a mix with some metals), a helminthicide for animal.
  • CUBE (from grech. hex - six and hedra - an edge), a hexahedron, routinely correct hexahedron, i.e. a cube.
  • GEKSLI Î., see Haksli About.
  • GEKSLI (Haksli) (Huxley) Thomas Genri (1825-95), the English biologist, colleague C.Darvina and the most outstanding propagandist of his doctrine, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1864). The president (1883-85) London royal societies. Rather - anatomic probes, has proved morphological affinity of the person and the maximum monkeys, birds and kowtowing, medusas and polyps. Has advanced and has justified regulations about unity of a structure of a skull for vertebrates.
  • HEXOGEN (tsiklotrimetilentrinitramin), vysokobrizantnoe a blasting explosive. A white crystalline powder. Heat of explosion of 5,5 MDZH/KG. It is water-resistant. It is applied in an ammunition, a detonating cord, in structures to shaped charges, etc.
  • HEXOSES, monosaccharides which molecules contain 6 atoms of carbon. To hexoses concern a glucose, a galactosis, a fructose, etc.
  • HECTARE (from a hecto... And the are), a unit of area in a metrical measurement, is meant ga. 1 ga - 100 are - 10000 m2.
  • HECTO... (from grech. hekaton - hundred), a prefix for education of names of aliquot units, to equal 100 initial units. A contracted notation-. Napr., 1 gPa (hectopascal) - 100 Pa.
  • The HECTOGRAPH (from a hecto... And... Columns), the elementary device for reproduction of the text and case histories. It is invented in Russia M.I.Alisovym in 1869. On the hectograph received up to 100 copies of a first copy.
  • HECTOR, in "Illiada" one of main Trojan heroes, the higher son of tsar of Troy Priama and Gekuby; has perished in a single combat with Ahillom, revenging Hector for assassination of his friend Patrokla.
  • GEKUBA (Gekaba), in "Illiada" the wife of Trojan tsar Priama, mother Hector, Parisa, Leatherleafs, etc., lost in Trojan war of the husband and almost all children; after fall of Troy Gekuba has become captive Odisseja, has perished at a ferrying through Hellespont. Mode Gekuby was included in the classical literature (Evripid, Dante, Shakespeare) and has become olitsetvoreniem boundless grief and despair.
  • GELASY Kritsky (mind. 250), the Christian martyr damaged in persecution of emperor Detsija. Memory in the Orthodox church on December, 23 (on January, 5).
  • GELASY Uglichsky (mind. 1609), prepodobnomuchenik, perished at ruin of Uglich by Poles in Vague time. Memory in the Orthodox church on May, 23 (on June, 5) (a cathedral Rostovo-Yaroslavl sacred).
  • GAS SEPARATOR, the apparatus for clearing production of gas and gas condensate chinks of micro water emulsion and a hydrocarbon condensation moisture, solids and other impurity.
  • The GAS THERMOMETER, gauge meter of temperature, which action it is based on relations of pressure or volume of gas from temperature. The filled helium, nitrogen or hydrogen a bottle, coherent through a capillary with the manometer, seat on medium which temperature measure. On measured volume or a gas pressure, using his equation of state, determine temperature.
  • GAS-OIL RATIO, attitude received from a deposit through a chink of quantity of gas (in m3), reduced to an atmospheric pressure and temperature 20 °S, to quantity of petroleum procured for the same time (in t or m3) at the same pressure and temperature. A parameter of the charge of sheet power and definition of gas resources of a deposit.
  • The GAS GENERATOR (from gas and an armour. generator - the sire), the apparatus for gasification of fuel, and also for obtaining gas with temperature 500-1200 °K from a fluid propellant or his components (a propulsive mass for a drive of the turbopump unit and forced aspiration of fuel tanks of a missile).
  • GAZODIZEL (gazozhidkostnyj the engine), a gas engine such as the diesel in which steam-and-gas mixture ignites from injectable in the cylinder at the end of compression process of a small ration of liquid fuel (ignition fuel). Apply basically on gazoperekachivajushchih installations.
  • GAZODINAMICHESKAJA LABORATORY (GDL), the first Russian research and designer organization in range of a rocket manufacturing, is based in 1921 in Moscow, with 1925 in Leningrad; with 1933 in structure of Reactive institute (Moscow). In GDL some phylums of liquid jet engines and rocket-propelled gears on smokeless powder are developed.
  • GAZOZHIDKOSTNYJ the ENGINE, the same, that gazodizel.
  • GAS-OIL, mix of hydrocarbon; the fraction of oils received at its atmospheric (têèï 270-360 °S) or vacuum (350-500 °S) distillation. A diesel fuel, raw material for a cat cracking and hydrocracking.
  • GAZOKOMPRESSORNAJA the STATION, builds up pressure a natural gas at his production, transportation and a storage.
  • GAS CONDENSATE, the same, that a gas condensation moisture.
  • CHEMICAL PROJECTOR, obsolete kind of a chemical weapons for a defeat of alive force and a ground contamination poisonous substances. It was applied in 1-st world war.
  • LAWN (frants. gazon), an allotment with artificially built soil - covering (it is routine from a mix of a meadow grass, rajgrasa, bentgrasses), shortly cut. A moorish lawn - from a grass family of grasses and beautifully blossoming eutherophytes (a poppy, a centaurea, etc.).
  • GAS-FILLED PLASTICS, plastics materials, frothed through porophores or other ways (a filling agent of such materials - gas). Are conditionally divided on foam plasticses and expanded plastics (first contain predominary selfcontained, the second - reported pores); a special kind of gas-filled plastics - sintakticheskie foam. Differ in small firmness, warmly, zvuko-and electrical-insulating properties. Electrical insulations of cables, manufacturing of floating crafts, in the capacity of filters for gases and liquids, a cushioning material (napr are applied to fillup of sandwiches, a heat insulation of refrigerating machineries., in manufacture of furniture). Gas-filled plastics are most widely used on the basis of polyurethanes, polystyrene, polyvinylchloride.
  • GAS PRESSURE CABLE, wiring cable for which vacuum of isolation (the made from impregnated-paper or plastic tape) gas-filled (routinely nitrogen under pressure up to 3 MPa).
  • GAZONEFTJANOJ the SEPARATOR (stairway), the apparatus for branch of casing-head gas from petroleum at the expense of distinction in their firmness.
  • GAS PRESENCE, in mining - quantity loose and retained gases, which is contained in a mass unit (or volume) rocks naturally.
  • GAS CONTENT in mining - quantity of the gas secreted at production of a mineral. Absolute gas content - outgassing in unit of time, a relative gas content - outgassing per unit mass (or volume) a procured mineral. On a relative gas content of shaft are divided on 4 grades.
  • GAS PURIFYING, precipitation of impurities (solid, fluid, gaseous) from artificial gases. In an industry apply mechanic, electrical and physico-chemical ways of gas purifying.
  • FLAME MACHINING, set of production processes of material handling (predominary metals) a gas flame (a weldment, soldering, cutting, deposition of covers, heat treatment, etc.).
  • GAS PRESSURE WELDING, butt joint of rod stock, pipes, shaped sections, etc. heating of welding spots by a gas flame to melting away or a flexible condition of metal and a consequent constrißting (backing-out) of bridged parts.
  • HAMEL Joseph Hristianovich (1788-1862), the Russian technologist and the mechanics, the academician Petersburg AN (1829). Has conducted examination of factories and factories of Russia. Has published in 1826 " the Description of the Tula small-arms factory in historical and technical attitude " where has stated himiko-manufacturing method of machining of metals, and in 1833 - " the History of iron manufacture in Russia ". The writer of numerous activities on a history of technique, and also on a history political and trade relations of Russia and England in 16 and 17 centuries.
  • GAMZAT-BEK (1789-1834), the second imam Dagestan and the Chechen Republic (with 1832). A follower mjuridizma. It is killed by conspirators.
  • GAMZATOV Gadzhi Gamzatovich (r. 1926), the avarian literary critic, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR, 1984). Writes in Russian. Articles and monographies about literatures of Dagestan, on problems of their development and an intercoupling.
  • GAMZATOV Rasul Gamzatovich (r. 1923), the avarian poet, the national poet of Dagestan (1959), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1974). Son G.Tsadasy. Poetic collections " Year of my birth " (1950; the State premium of the USSR, 1952), " High asters " (1962; the Lenin premium, 1963), "Pismena" (1963), " Are legible a flying " (1968), " For the locus " (1978), " the Island of women " (1983), " the Sprocket of life " (1987), the lyrical story " Wash Dagestan " (kn. 1-2, 1967-71). Poetry Gamzatova civilization, lyricism, tendency to filosofichnosti and distinguish aphoristic natures, national - folklore colour.
  • To GAMSA Zelman Markovich (1909-65), the Russian engineer - gidromashinostroitel. Transactionses in range of the "know-how" of water-wheels. The lenin premium (1959). The state premium of the USSR (1946, 1950).
  • GAMILKAR the BARK (Hamilcar Barca) (?-229 up to n. e.), karfagensky the commander. Father Gannibala. In 1-st Punic war has gained in 247-241 number of victories above Romans in Sicily. In 237-229 has conquered a southwest part of Spain.
  • HAMILTON, city in New Zealand, on about. Boreal. 101 thousand inhabitants (1991). A machine industry, sawing, a food-processing industry. University.
  • HAMILTON, city and a port in Canada, on an eskar. Ontario. 600 thousand inhabitants (1991, with suburbs). The large industrial and cultural centre. A traffic centre; a port capacity 15 million t annually. An international airport. Center of iron and steel industry (ok. 1/2 smelted in country of steel); a machine industry, chemical, a food-processing industry. University. Art passageway and other museums. A royal botanical garden.
  • HAMILTON, city, a main port and an administrative centre of the British possession Bermudian islands. St. 1,6 thousand inhabitants.
  • HAMILTON (Hamilton) Alexander (1755 or 1757-1804), the leader of a consignment of federalists with 1789, in 1789-95 Minister of Finance the USA in government Dzh. Washington, his secretary during War for independence in the Sowing. To America 1775-83.
  • HAMILTON (Hamilton) Antoine (1646-1720), the French writer of the Scottish origin. The writer of the istoriko-psychologic novel " Memoirs the column de Gramona " (1713).
  • HAMILTON (Hamilton) Gevin (1723-98), the Scottish painter. Studied in Glasgow, some time worked in Rome where entered in circle Mengsa and Vinkelmana. One of the first representatives of neo-classicism in painting; imitated manner Pussena.
  • HAMILTON (Hamilton) Richard (r .1922), the English painter, the representative of pop art and neo-realism. In 1950 has based " Independent group ".
  • HAMILTON William Rouan (1805-65), irish mathematician, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1837). Has given a precise formal exposition of the theory of complex numbers. Has constructed system of figures - quaternions. In mechanics has given a general principle of least action.
  • GAMKRELIDZE Revaz Valerianovich (r. 1927), the Georgian mathematician, academician AN of Georgia (1969), corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1981). Brother T.V.Gamkrelidze. Transactionses under the mathematical theory of optimal processes. The lenin premium (1962).
  • GAMKRELIDZE Tamaz Valerianovich (r. 1929), Georgian and Russian jazykoved, academician AN of Georgia (1974), the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1984). Brother R.V.Gamkrelidze. The main transactionses in range kartvelskogo linguistics, indoevropeistiki, semitologii. The lenin premium (1988).
  • GAVRILOV Michael Aleksandrovich (1903-79), the Russian scientist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1964). The main transactionses on a telemechanics, theories of relay devices and finite state machines.
  • GAVRILOV POSAD, city in the Russian Federation, Ivanovo region. A depot. 8,5 thousand inhabitants (1992). Textile and sewing factories. A stud farm (the vladimirskiy draft-type horses), etc. It is based in 16 century by Ivan Terrible.
  • GAVRILOV-HOLES, city (with 1938) in the Russian Federation, Yaroslavl region, on r. Kotorosl. A depot. 21,1 thousand inhabitants (1992). Lnokombinat.
  • GAGANOVA Valentine Ivanovna (r. 1932), prjadilshchitsa at factory Vyshnevolotskogo of cotton combine, the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1959). In 1958 has acted the initiator of motion for transition of leaders of manufacture to lagging epines.
  • GAGARIN (up to 1974 settlements. Erzhar), city in Uzbekistan, Dzhizak region. Depot (Irdzharskaja). 18,8 thousand inhabitants (1991). Factories: hlopkoochistitelnyj, concrete products. It is called named J.A.Gagarina.
  • GAGARIN Ivan Sergeevich (1814-82), prince, the Russian diplomat. In 1843 has kept Russia, has lodged in Paris, has transfered in a catholicism and has entered order of jesuits. Has based in Paris the Slavonic library (nowadays - in Medone).
  • GAGARIN Paul Pavlovich (1789-1872), prince, the Russian statesman. The participant of preparation of country reform 1861, settled interests of landlords. In 1864-72 chairman of the cabinet council, in 1864-65 simultaneously the chairman of the Council of state.
  • GAGARIN Jury Alekseevich (1934-68), the Russian astronaut, a pilot - astronaut of the USSR (1961), the colonel, the Hero of Soviet Union (1961.) on April, 12 1961 for the first time in a history of mankind has committed flight in cosmos on spacecraft " Orient ". Participat in education and training of crews of astronauts. Has perished during practice flight on an airplane. A name of Gagarin educational institutions have, streets and the areas of many cities of the world, etc. The Name of Gagarin calls a crater on a underside of moon.
  • GAGARINSKAJA PARKING, epoch of a serotinal paleolith, for a seconds. Gagarino (the Russian Federation, Lipetsk region). Residues of home units, stone and bone instruments, bone figures of women.
  • GAGARINSKY Jury Vladimirovich (1915-76), the chemist - neorganik, corresponding member AN the USSR (1970). Probeed crystalline structure of inorganic compounds and thermodynamic properties of connections of uranium.
  • GAGATE (from grech. gagates - a black amber), a viscous version of mineral coal. Hardness 3-3,5; firmness of 1,3-1,4 g / sm3. Meets by the way clumps in layers of coal. It is well glazed. An ornamental stone.
  • GAGAUZSKY TONGUE, falls into to Turkic tongues (oguzskaja group). Writing on the basis of the Russian alphabet.
  • GAGAUZY, people in Moldova (153 thousand person) and on Ukraine (32 thousand person, 1992); live also in the Russian Federation (ok. 10 thousand person), Bulgaria, Romania, Greece and Turkey. An aggregate number of 220 thousand person (1992). Tongue gagauzsky. Believers - orthodox.
  • EIDERS, a stem of birds of a set utinyh. 4 kinds. Length of a dace eider ok. 63 see. In a north of Eurasia and America, on a shore and islands. The down is thought much. Habitats - on Barentsovom, White and Baltic m., are guarded in special reservations; the hunt is forbidden.
  • GAVAS (Havas), French information agency in 1835-1940. In 1944 on his base it is based France press.
  • GAVATSTSI (Gavazzi) Alessandro (1809-89), the italian priest, with 1859 spodvizhnik Dzhuzeppe Garibaldi in his military marchings.
  • GAVGAMELY (sovr. Tel-Gomel), ancient settlement in Mesopotamia, in area of the modern cities Erbil (Iraq); at Gavgamelah on October, 1 331 up to n. e. A troops Alexander the Great have finally routed the persian army of tsar Darija III Kodomana.
  • GAVEDDAJ (Gavdelas) Persian (mind. In it is grey. 4 century), the Christian martyr, the son of tsar Shapura of II Persian. Memory in the Orthodox church on September, 29 (on October, 12).
  • GAVEL (Havel) Vaclav (r. 1936), the president of Czechia with 1993; the president of Czechoslovakia in 1989-92; the Czech playwright. In the season of " the Prague spring " 1968 chairman of " Club of independent writers ". Later one of leaders pravozashchitnogo motions in country. Repeatedly exposed to imprisonment. With 1989 leader of motion " the Civil forum ". Satirical plays spirit of nonsense of a drama about the modern Czechoslovak real, including " the Park celebration " (it is put 1963, is published 1964), "Notice" (is put 1965), "Audience" (is put on a wireless, 1975), "Tempting" (1985), "Assonans" (1987).
  • GAVELLA (Gavella) Branko (1885-1962), the Yugoslavian producer. Worked at theatres of Belgrade, Ljubljana, Prague. Asserted on the scene national dramatic art.
  • GAVERSOVY CHANNELS (named English anatomist K.Gaversa, C. Havers), tubular cavities in compact substance of bones for the maximum vertebrates and the person on whom pass blood vessels and nerves.
  • GAVIAL (gangsky gavial), kowtowing order of crocodiles. A unique kind of a set. Length up to 6,6 m. A mug the lengthy, fine-bored. Dwells in the rivers of Hindustan and Indochina. Under threat peterings. In India and Nepal designs on his conservation are adopted. In the Red Data Book of the International union of nature protection and natural resources (MSOP).
  • GAVIT (zhamatun), in the Armenian medieval architecture the frame ledge of a temple - a tomb, a place for a pray and collections, routinely a hall overlapped by the canopy on arcs.
  • The GAVLICHEK-BOHR Karelian (1821-56), the Czech political figure, the publicist, the poet; has formulated (1846-48) philosophy avstroslavizma.
  • GAVOTTE (frants. gavotte), arcaded French dance, originally national, horovodnyj, the dicotyledonous dimension. In kompozitorskoj to practice - the do-it-yourself play or a part of a suite.
  • HAVRE (Le Havre), city in France, a fore bay of Paris in a mouth r. Hay (freight turnover over 50 million t annually). 196 thousand inhabitants (1990). Shipbuilding, oil refining, chemical, cement, cotton industry. Oceanographic institute. It is based in 1517. Architectonic monuments of 17-18 centuries Bliz of Le Havre in church (11-14 centuries)-a museum of a medieval sculpture and archeology.
  • GAVRANEK Boguslav (1893-1978), Czech jazykoved. Activities on the Czech tongue, comparative grammar and comparative-historical study of literary slavonic tongues. Developed functionly - strukturalnuju the theory. The representative Prague linguistic a mug.
  • GABRIEL, in christianity the archangel, has informed maiden Maria about a volume, that for it the son Jesus Christ will be born.
  • GABRIEL (in the world Vasily Nikolaevich Voskresensky) (1795-1868), the Russian orthodox seminary student, the outlet box. Taught in the Moscow and St.-Petersburg spiritual academies, in 1835-50 professor of the Kazan university. The writer of " the History of philosophy " (1839-40), 6-n which part is dedicated Russian philosophy.
  • "GABRIEL", a destroyer of Baltic fleet, in formation with 1916. In 1919 reflected attacks of the English ships in Koporskom a hall. And to Kronstadt. It was undermined on mines in October 1919.
  • GABRIEL I (Raich) (mind. 1659), the patriarch Serbian, the martyr, is executed by turkish authorities for failure to accept moslem faith. Memory in the Orthodox church on August, 30 (on September, 12) (a cathedral of the Serbian prelates).
  • GAVRILA OLEKSICH, combatant Alexander Nevskogo, the hero of the Neva battle 1240. An ancestor of many Russian seignioral and nobiliary surnames (including. Pushkinyh).
  • GAVRILIN Valery Aleksandrovich (r. 1939), the Russian composer, the national actor of Russia (1985). Ballets "Anyuta" (1982), "Second lieutenant Romashov" (1985), the actions stylized in national spirit (including "Perezvony", " the Shepherd and a water - rail "), a vokalno-symphonic poem " Military letters ", cantatas, vocal cycles, music to performances and films. The state premium of the USSR (1985).
  • GAVRILOV Ignatius Gavrilovich (1912-73), the Udmurt writer. The novel - trilogy " In native edges " (1958-63).
  • GEDIN (Hedin) Sven Anders (1865-1952), the Swedish traveller. Probeed Tibet, Sintszjan, Mongolia, Vost. Turkestan (1893-1935). Has discovered Gandisyshan. During 2-nd world war cooperated to hitlerite authorities.
  • HEDONISM (from grech. hedone - pleasure), a direction in the ethics, stating enjoying, pleasure as a prime target and the main motive of human conduct. In antiquity it is developed Aristippom and kirenskoj by school; for Epikura and it posledovatelej approachs with evdemonizmom. In new time it is characteristic for a utilitarianism.
  • GEDROJTS Konstantin Kaetanovich (1872-1932), the Russian pedologist and agrohimik, academician AN the USSR (1929). Has developed a fundamentals of colloid chemistry of soils, methods of their chemical analysis, principles of grading (on structure of exchange cations). The premium him. V.I.Lenina (1927).
  • GEENNA (grech. geenna, from other - evr.), in a judaism, christianity, moslem faith one of notations of a hell - geenna igneous.
  • GEEOH (grech. zemlekolebatel), in Other. Greeces one of nicknames Posejdona as god of earthquakes.
  • GEESTY (gesty) (from nizhnenem. gest - sterile, dry), flat lowlands bliz coasts of Boreal m. in Germany and Netherlands. An altitude up to 50-60 m. Waste grounds, heathlands, peat bogs.
  • WINZE (a nem. Gesenk), the underground vertical mining output not having an egress and intended for descent of a mineral under action of sole weight or through mechanic devices.
  • GEZIRA, interfluve of White and Light-blue Nile, in Sudan. A sowing. Gezira - the main area of a cotton growing of country.
  • GEZITY (anglosakson. gesith - comrade), combatants in England in an early Middle Ages; with development of feudalism turned in military - sluzhiluju to know.
  • GEZY (niderl. geuzen, from frants. gueux - beggars), during the Netherlands revolution of 16 century in the beginning a nickname of the Netherlands noblemen rising with 1565 in opposition to spanish government, then national rebels - the guerrilla which overland and on the pest combated Spaniards.
  • The GAY (Gay) John (1685-1732), the English poet and the playwright. The comedy " Opera of beggars " (1728) combines the literary - musical parody with political satire.
  • GEJBL (Gable) Clark (1901-60), the American film actor. With 1932 has come in figure of "asters" of the American kino. The mode built by him simple, courageous, aware to itself the price of the person, with features of the hero - lover involved spectators in films: " It happened once at night ", " Blown by a wind ", "Restless", etc.
  • GEJGEL, lake on boreal downslope hr. Murovdag (Mrovdag), in Azerbaijan, at the altitude 1566 m. The area 0,78 êì2, depth up to 100 m. It is derivated as a result of a landslide and a weir r. Agsu during earthquake. Gejgel - in structure Gejgelskogo of reservation. In environs - gornoklimatichesky health resort Gejgel.
  • GEJGELSKY RESERVATION, in the west of Azerbaijan; branch " Eldar pine " - a unique grove in Hanlarskom r? Not. It is based in 1925. The area 7131 ga. An eskar. Gejgel. Woods from a beech, an oak, a hornbeam; a yew. A roe deer, bezoarovyj rebound landing; a bluestem, a black griffon, a mountain patridge.
  • GEJGER (Geiger) Hans (1882-1945), german physics. Has invented (together with E.Rezerfordom, 1908) the device for registration of separate charged particles (gejgerovsky the counter). Has placed (1911) t. n. Law Gejgera - Nettolla - relation between probability? Disintegration and power? Particles.
  • GEJGEROVSKY the COUNTER, a particle detector. Represents a gas diode (routinely cylindrical) with a fine end as the anode. Action is based on originating in gas as a result of his ionization (at span particles) electric discharge (corona). It is called named H.Gejgera.
  • HEIDELBERG, Hajdelberg (Heidelberg), city in Germany, ground Baden-Wurttemberg, on r. Neckar. 139 thousand inhabitants (1992). A machine industry, a pharmaceutical, tobacco, tanning industry. It is known with kon. 12 century. The oldest German university (with 1386). In Middle Ages a residence of princes Rhine Pfaltsa. The clasp kurfjurstov 13-17 centuries. Kurpfaltssky a museum Heidelberg.
  • HEIDELBERG ROMANTICISM, t. n. A second generation german romantikov, literary mugs 1805-09 in Heidelberg (L. À. background Arnim, K.Brentano, brothers the Grimm, É. background Ejhendorf). For an item Heidelberg romantikov it is characteristic traditsionalizm, the circulation to national olden time, folklore. Have based mythological school in literary criticism.
  • The HEIDELBERG UNIVERSITY him. Charles Ruprehta, Germany, it is based in 1386. In 1990 over 27 thousand students.
  • GAJSIN, city (with 1795) on Ukraine, Vinnitsa region. A depot. 26,2 thousand inhabitants (1991). A food-processing industry, etc. It is known with 1545.
  • GAJSINSKY (Haissinsky) Moiz (1898-1976), the French chemist and the organizer of scientific probes in France. Was born in Russia. With 1928 - in France. The director of the national centre of scientific probes (with 1955). One of osnovatelej radiation chemistry.
  • GAJSLER (Gejsler) (Geissler) Christian (r. 1928), the german writer, the member " Groups 61 ". dokumentalizma in anti-fascist novels "Inquiry" (1960), " It is time also to us to live features " (1976); in stories " Cool times " (1965), the novel " Bread with a file " (1973) criticism of moral and tempers of the modern society. An antinazi artistic - documentary sketch " the End of the inquiry " (in the like collection of a wireless and teleplays and speeches, 1967). Verses.
  • GAJSMAJR (Gaismair) Michael (?-1532), one of chiefs of Country war 1524-26 in Germany, headed revolt in Tirole and Salzburg. The writer " Zemskogo devices " - programs of radical restructurings in Tirole. It is killed by the mercenary sent to the Austrian government.
  • GAJTAN (Gaitan) Horhe Eljeser (1898-1948), the leader of Liberal party of Columbia with 1946, the chairman of a senate with 1947. In 1940 and 1948 entered in government. Criticized pro-American policy of government of Columbia. It is killed by political opponents.
  • GAJTLER (Gejtler) (Heitler) Walter Genrih (1904-81), physics and the chemist - theorist. Was born in Germany, with 1933 in the Great Britain, with 1949 in Switzerland. Together with F.Londonom has developed (1927) approximate method of calculation of molecule H2, than has laid foundation quantum chemistry. Has offered (1937) cascade theory of downpours in ultrarays.
  • GAKKEL Jacob Modestovich (1874-1945), the Russian engineer, the honored worker of science and technique of Russia (1940). Has designed and has constructed a number of airplanes (1909-12), a gasoline locomotive (1924).
  • GAKKEL Jacob Jakovlevich (1901-65), the Russian oceanographer, the doctor of geographycal sciences (1950). Son J.M.Gakkelja. The participant of arctic expeditions on "Sibirjakove" (1932), "CHeljuskine" (1934), etc. The bass Supervised over drawing up of the first bathymetric chart Arctic.
  • GAKKELJA the BACKBONE, a submerged backbone in the Sowing. Ledovitom ok., prolongation Sredinno-Atlantic hr. In Arctic a bass. Disjoints hollows Nansena and Amundsena. Length more than 1000 kms; a critical depth above a crops of 400 m. It is called named the pioneer of a crops J.J.Gakkelja.
  • GAKSTGAUZEN (Haxthausen) August (1792-1866), baron, the Prussian officer, the economist. In 1843 traveled across Russia. His transactionses about features Russian agronomical building and a country community have exerted influence Russian public thought is grey. 19 century.
  • GAL, unit of speedup in C.G.S. to a system of units. It is called in honour of G.Galileja, the Gal is meant. 1 Gal = 1 sm / s2.
  • GAL (Gall), in shumero-akkadskoj the mythologies demons of the underground world unceasingly pursuing the victims to deliver them in a kingdom dead.
  • GALAASIJA, city (with 1982) in Uzbekistan, Bukhara region, in 9 kms from zh.-d. An item. Bukhara II. 11,8 thousand inhabitants (1991).
  • GALAGAN Ignatius Ivanovich (? - ok. 1748), the Ukrainian cossack colonel. The participant of Boreal war 1700-21 on the party of Russian troops. In 1709 has blasted Zaporozhye Sech.
  • GALAZY Grigory Ivanovich (r. 1922), Russian botanik and the aquatic biologist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1992). The main transactionses on guarding and intelligent use of natural resources of Baikal.
  • GALAZOV Ahsarbek Hadzhimurzaevich (r. 1929), the Russian statesman, the president of Republic Boreal Ossetia - Alanija (1994). In 1976-90 rector of the North-Osetiya state university him. K.Hetagurova. In 1990-94 chairman of a Supreme Soviet North-Osetiya SSR. In 1993-95 deputy of Council of Federation of Federal assembly of the Russian Federation. With 1995 member of Federal assembly.
  • GALAKSY (Galaksios) (grech. Milk), in Other. Greeces - a Milky Way, milk, spilled the Hero in that moment when she has repelled baby Gerakla, under protest goddesses enclosed in its breast.
  • GALAXY (from grech. galaktikos - milky), sidereal system (spiral galaxy) to which the Sun belongs. The galaxy contains not less than 1011 asters (total mass of 1011 masses of the Sun), an interstellar material (gas and a dust which mass compounds some percents of mass of all asters), ultrarays, magnetic fields, radiance (photons). The majority of asters takes volume of the lenticular form a diameter ok. 30 thousand pk, concentrating to a plane of symmetry of this volume (a galactic plane) and to the centre (t. n. The flat subsystem of the Galaxy). The minority of asters fills in almost orbicular volume in radius ok. 15 thousand pk (t. n. The orbicular subsystem of the Galaxy), concentrating to the centre (nucleus) of the Galaxy which is from the Earth in a direction of mia maid Streltsa. The sun is located near to a galactic plane apart ok. 10 thousand pk from the centre of the Galaxy. For the earth look-out the asters concentrating to a galactic plane, drain in a visible pattern a Milky Way.
  • GALAXIES, huge (up to hundreds billion asters) sidereal systems; to nymas our Galaxy concerns, in particular. Galaxies are sectioned on elliptical (Å), spiral (S) and improper (Ir). The galaxies nearest to us - Magellanovy Clouds (Ir) and nebulosity of the Andromeda (S). Galaxies are distributed nonuniformly, derivating clumps.
  • GALAKTION Vologda (in the world prince Gabriel Ivanovich Belsky) (mind. 1612), the hermit, prepodobnomuchenik, damaged from Polish conquerors. At-sight his exploits the monastery is based Vologda Piously - Duhovsky. Memory in the Orthodox church on September, 24 (on October, 7).
  • GAS GANGRENE, anaerobic wound fever. It is defined by a general heavy condition, a dropsy of staggered tissues, occurrence in them it is bubble gas, a necrosis of tissues.
  • FLUID DYNAMICS, the section of aerodynamics investigator motion of compressible gases, power and their heat interaction with a surface of ph streamlined by them. The fluid dynamics actuates the theory of flows of a compressible gas, the theory of shockwaves, the theory of flows of the dissociated and ionized gas, the theory of heat exchange (convective and radiative).
  • GAS CONSTANT, the physical constant which is appearing in the equation conditions 1 asking of ideal gas; it is meant R, it is peer 8,314 Dzh / (K·mol) = 1,987 faecal matter / (K·mol).
  • GAS CUTTING, the same, that an oxygen cutting.
  • FLAME WELDING, way of a weldment of a metal goods with the help of the gas flame derivated at combustion of a mix of a combustible gas (acetylene, hydrogen, steams of petrol, etc.) with oxygen. Apply to a weldment of article thin-walled articles from steel, non-ferrous metals and alloys, for a building-up welding of hard-facing alloys at repairing work.
  • GAS-DISTRIBUTING SYSTEM, pipe manifold (gas-pipes), the employee for transportation of combustible gases and their distributions between consumers.
  • GAS FILMING, 1) definition of intensity of outgassing in mining outputs of shaft selection and an analysis of samples of a mine air. 2) the Geochemical method of searches of deposits, is based on study of structure and definition of the content of the gases migrating up to a surface of the Earth.
  • COMBUSTION TURBINE, the turbine in which the thermal energy of compressed and heated gas (it is routine a combustion materials of fuel) will be transformed to mechanic activity; is part of a gas-turbine engine.
  • GAS FIRING, kind of heating, at which fuel the combustible gases which are incinerated in heating appliances (radiators, mantelpieces, etc.), content in rooms minister.
  • GAS STOREHOUSE, natural or synthetic (napr., a gas holder) a retention reservoir of gas. Container of natural gas storehouse (in cavities of rocks) abroad - Hersher (USA) ok. 5 billion in m3, Sent-Ilya (France) ok. 1 billion in m3.
  • LIQUEFIED GAS TANKER, vessel for transportation of liquified gases (propyl hydride, butane, etc.). Gaza are transported in lagged tanks or under pressure, or cooled up to a boiling temperature at an atmospheric pressure, or at small joint squeeze and refrigerating. Load-carrying capacity up to 130 thousand in m3.
  • GAS NEBULOSITY, see. Nebulosity galactic.
  • GAS ANALYSIS, the analysis of mixes of gases for establishment of their quality and quantitative structure. For a gas analysis the chromatography, methods spectral, mass spectrometric analysis are used, etc.
  • GAS ENGINE, the internal-combustion engine working on a gas fuel (natural, generating, blast, etc. gases, and also liquified gas). Distinguish gas engines with a spark ignition and gazodizeli.
  • MUD LOGGING, method of detection of petroleum and gas deposits definition of gaseous and light fluid hydrocarbon in a drilling fluid, less often in a center mark. Mud logging is used also for study of a gas presence of coal layers.
  • GAS CONDENSATION MOISTURE (gas condensate), mix of fluid hydrocarbon (Ñ5Í12 + the maximum), secreted from natural gases at operation of gas condensate deposits as a result of drop of formation pressures (below pressures started condensation) and temperature. The gas condensation moisture is used engine fuel, is valuable raw material for a chemical industry.
  • The GASEOUS OPTICAL MASER, the laser in which an active mediuim are gases, pairs or their mixes (ÑÎ2, Ar, mix Íå+Ne, etc.). Use as a datum mark of frequency (see. Optical standards of frequency), in laser spectroscopy, a holography, laser technology, in medicine, etc.
  • GAS CRAFT, the technological complex intended for production and gas collection from the area of a deposit, and also machining of gas and condensation moisture with the purpose of their preparation to the further transportation. Actuates operational, the observation and prospecting holes, gazosbornye collectors, gas gathering places, compressor stations, and also objects energohozjajstva, water supply, etc.
  • LIGHTNING DISCHARGE, the same, that electric discharge in gases.
  • GAS MODE, system of preservative measures on shafts, dangerous because of methane emission or hydrogen in a mining output; in an event of danger and on a dust it is introduced pylegazovyj a mode.
  • GALLIPOLI PENINSULA, in an european part of Turkey, between prol. Dardanelles and Sarosskim a hall. Egejskogo m. Length of 90 kms. An altitude up to 374 m. Port Gelibolu. During 1-st world war in 1915 on Gallipolskom p-ove the operation was conducted Dardanellskaja.
  • GALLITSIZMY (from an armour. gallicus - gallic), words and the expressions borrowed from the French tongue ("compliment", "muffler", "fullface") or derivated on a model of the French words and expressions ("influence" on a sample frants. influence).
  • GALL GNATS, set of hexapods of order of diptera. Length of 1-5 mm. Ok. 4000 kinds, are distributed widely. Larvas of some kinds develop in plant tissues, invoking education of cecidiums (from here the title). Some, napr. A Hessian fly, harm to cultivated plants and a wood.
  • GALLIC (an armour. Gallia), in an antiquity the range taken terrain between r. On and the Alpes (TSizalpinskaja Gallia) and between the Alpes, Mediterranean m., Pyrenees, Atlantic ok. (Transalpinskaja Gallia). Since 6 century up to n. e. It colonized keltami (received for rimljan the title "cecidiums"). Ok. 220 up to n. e. The terrain Tsizalpinskoj of Gallia is subordinate to Romans and transformed into a Roman province, at 58-51 up to n. e. Caesar conquers terrain Transalpinskoj of Gallia and in 16 up to n. e. It separate into 4 Roman provinces (Narbonskuju Gallia, Lugdunskuju Gallia, Aquitania and Belgiku). With nach. 5 century n. e. The terrain of Gallia was conquered by the German nations and has come in kon. 5 century in the state Frankskoe.
  • TRIOXYBENZOIC ACID (3, 4,5-òðèãèäðîêñèáåíçîéíàÿ an acid), (HO) 3C6H2COOH, colourless crystals; tïë 240 °S (with decomposition). It is contained in tea, an oak bark, tannin extracts. Apply to obtaining a pyrogallol, dyes, medicinal substances, in an analytical chemistry.
  • GALLIC MITES (the quadruped mites), superfamily of mites of order akariformnyh. Length of 0,1-0,6 mm. St. 1500 kinds, are distributed widely. Parasitize on plants, exhausting contents of cells; many will derivate cecidiums in which live and are multiplied. Tolerate virus infections of plants.
  • GAL. (English gallon), a unit volume (containers, capacities) in system of the English measures. In the Great Britain of 1 gal. = 4,54609 dm3, in the USA for liquids of 1 gal. = 3,78543 dm3, for loose bodies of 1 gal. = 4,405 dm3. Submultiple units of gal. - a pint and ounce.
  • HALLOYSITE, clay mineral of subclass of layered silikates, Al4 [Si4O10] (OH) 84H2O. Impurity Fe3 +, Cr3 +. Opalovidnye units, routinely white, with characteristic microscopic tubular texture. Hardness 1-2; firmness of 2-2,6 g / sm3. A decay product. Raw material of a ceramic industry.
  • CECIDIUMS, the Roman title keltov, naseljavshih terrain of Gallia.
  • CECIDIUMS (from an armour. galla - a gall nut) (gall), pathological growths on organs of the plants, called by viruses, bacteria, mushrooms, nematodes, mites, hexapods. Slacken a plant and can bring it to ruin. Cecidiums on an oak, a sumac and a pistachio nut are affluent tannins.
  • GALL (Gall) Frants Joseph (1758-1828), the Austrian doctor, the creator of a phrenology. Has offered (1810-19) theory of localization of mental functions over bark major hemispheres of a brain.
  • GALLIC TONGUE, falls into to the Celtic group indoevropejskoj families of tongues. To 5-6 centuries in terrain of Gallia it is extruded by latin tongue, in other areas of Europe has died out earlier.
  • HALLUCINATION (from an armour. hallucinatio - delirium, visions), the fraud of feelings, the misperception originating without the conforming external irritation. Routinely hallucinations are accepted as the substantial phenomena, but critical attitude to nymas is possible also. Distinguish acoustical (napr., slyshanie voices, hum), visual (napr., vision of people, subjects, hexapods), etc. hallucinations. Are supervised primarily at mental disorders. Hallucinations should be distinguished from illusions.
  • HALLUCINOGENS, the same, that psychodisleptic substances.
  • HALLUCINOSIS ALCOHOLIC, see in an item. Alcoholic psychosises.
  • GALLJAARAL, city (with 1973) in Uzbekistan, Dzhizak region. A depot. 17,4 thousand inhabitants (1991). Asfaltobetonnyj factory, etc.
  • GALMEJNYE PLANTS (from a nem. Galmei - one of german titles of a mineral kalamina), will grow on soils, affluent zinc, napr., galmejnaja a violet, the alpine pennycress. See also Indicator plants.
  • HALO (from grech. halos - a circle, a disc), light circles, arches, piles, a stain, observed around or near to discs of the Sun and moon. Are invoked by deflecting and a luminous reflectance ice crystals, fluidized in air.
  • GALOGENANGIDRIDY, derivative acids in which molecules of He - group are displaced on atoms of halogen. Examples - sulphuryl chloride SO2Cl2 (galogenangidrid sulfuric acid), acetyl chloride CH3COCl (galogenangidrid acetic acid). Galogenangidridy (it is routine acid chlorides) apply in an industry to acylation.
  • RIDING BREECHES, the military trousers, fitting a shin and extending up. Are called named G.Galife who has entered them for cavalrymen. Have been borrowed by other armies.
  • RIDING BREECHES (Galliffet) Gaston, marquis de (1830-1909), the French general, one of commanders of army versaltsev. Differed special cruelty at depressing the Commune of Paris 1871. In 1899-1900 military minister.
  • GALITSIJSKAJA the OPERATION, 5.8 - 8.9.1914, during 1-st world war. Russian troops of Southwest front have reflected approach of 4 austro-hungarian armies in Galitsii and Poland and have discarded them for the rivers the Dignity and Dunaets, having endangered encroachments into Hungary and Silesia.
  • GALITSIJSKAJA SOCIALIST SOVIET REPUBLIC, 15.7 - 23.9.1920, on a part of terrain Zap. Ukraine (Ternopol and a part of the Lvov region. USSR), existed during sovetsko-Polish war. Capital - Ternopol.
  • GALITSIJA, the historical title of a part zapadnoukrainskih and Polish grounds (the modern Ivano-Frankovsk, Lvov, Ternopol region. Ukraine, ZHeshuvskogo and a large part Krakow voevodstv Poland), entrapped the Austrian empire on 1-ìó (1772, Vost. Galitsija) and 3-ìó (1795, Zap. Galitsija) to sections of Speech Pospolitoj. In 1772-1918 province of empire Gabsburgskoj (the official title - Kingdom Galitsii and Lodomerii with Vost. Duchy Krakow). With 1918 in structure of Poland. Vost. Galitsija with 1939 in structure of Ukraine.
  • GROUND GALITSKAJA, old russian historical range of 10-14 centuries on northwest downslopes of Carpathian mountains, in verhovjah the rivers Dnestr, Prut, Seret. Main cities - Galich, Peremyshl, Zvenigorod, Terebovl. With kon. 10 century in the Kiev Russia. With kon. 11 century some specific principalities, in 1144 aggregated in Galitskoe the principality. With 1199 in structure of the Galitsko-Volynsk principality.
  • GALITSKY Victor Mihajlovich (1924-81), the Russian physics - theorist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1976). Transactionses on a quantum theory of a solid, a superconductivity, plasma physics and theories of a nucleus.
  • The GALITSKO-VOLYNSK ANNALS, part Ipatjevskoj of the annals, the description of events with nach. 13 century up to 1292 in terrain of the Galitsko-Volynsk principality, etc.
  • The GALITSKO-VOLYNSK PRINCIPALITY, old russian, in terrain Galitskoj and Volynsk grounds in kon. 12-14 centuries, the largest in JUzh. Russia. Capital - Galich, then Lvov. It is derivated in 1199 kn. Roman Mstislavichem. In the season of the greatest power in 1230-50-Õ at kn. Daniel Romanoviche Galitskom actuated also terrains Kiev and Turovo-Pinskogo principalities, Berestejskuju, grounds Ljublinskuju, etc. Struggled with Poland, Hungary, mongolo-tartars, had the considerable influence in Zap. To Europe. It is seized by the Great principality Lithuanian and Poland in it is grey. - 2-nd floor. 14 century.
  • GALITSKOE the PRINCIPALITY, old russian, in terrain Galitskoj of ground in 1144-99. Capital - Galich. The greatest power at kn. JAroslave Osmomysle (1153-87). Has come in the Galitsko-Volynsk principality.
  • GALICH, city in the Russian Federation, the Kostroma region, on Galichskom an eskar. A railway junction. 21,5 thousand inhabitants (1992). A machine industry and metal working, mild, a furniture industry. A study of local lore museum. It is known from 13 century.
  • GALICH, city on Ukraine, Ivano-Frankovsk region, on r. Dnestr. A depot. 6,9 thousand inhabitants (1991). Alimentary, metal-working, etc. an industry. In 5 kms from the modern Galich - old russian city of 10-13 centuries, capital Galitskogo of the principality with 1144, Galitsko-Volynsk with 1199. In 1241 it eroded by mongolo-tartars. Residues 10 belokamennyh temples of 12-13 centuries, church Pantelejmona (12 century, it in part rearranged in 17 century).
  • GALICH (an ice-film. fam. Ginzburg) Alexander Arkadjevich (1918-77), the Russian playwright, the poet. Comedies and scripts of films " you invokes Tajmyr " (1948), " Valid friends " (1954; both - together with K.Isaevym), " On seven winds " (1962). With nach. 1960th has obtained informal confession as the writer and the initiator of songs - short stories, basically of the tragicomic content: main themes - memory and the responsibility for past, opposition to arbitrariness, conformism (the collection " Selected poems ", 1989). With 1974 abroad.
  • GALICH Alexander Ivanovich (1783-1848), the Russian psychologist, aesthetics and the philosopher. Teacher Tsarskoselskogo of liceum. " The lexicon of philosophical subjects " (1845) - one of first in Russia philosophical manuals.
  • GALICH Alexander Ivanovich (1783-1848), the Russian psychologist, aesthetics and the philosopher. In 1814-15 taught in TSarskoselskom liceum where A.S.Pushkin at this time studied. The professor of the Petersburg university (1819-21), is discharged of teaching under the charge in " neglect to authorities " and a godlessness. It " the Lexicon of philosophical subjects " (1845) - one of first in Russia philosophical manuals.
  • LAKE GALICHSKOE, in the Kostroma region. The area 75,4 êì2, length of 17 kms, depth up to 5 m. Escapes r. Veksa (in-leak r. Kostroma). On Galichskom an eskar. - Galich.
  • GALICHJA the MOUNTAIN, reservation in the Russian Federation, Lipetsk region, on coasts of Don, within the limits of Central Russian vozv. It is based in 1925 (in the modern borders with 1969). The area 231 ga. 6 epines. The Severo-Don area of relict vegetation. St. 800 kinds of plants.
  • DAW, bird of a set voronovyh. Length ok. 30 see In Eurasia and Sev.-Zap. To Africa. A close kind - daurskaja a daw.
  • GALKIN Samuil Zalmanovich (1897-1960), the jewish poet, the playwright (Russia). Collections of liriko-philosophical verses "Contact piece" (1935), " the Tree of life " (1948). Plays in verses " Bar Kohba " (1939), "Sulamif" (1940), tragedy " Revolt in a ghetto " (1947).
  • GALL the ANONYM (Gall Anonim) (kon. 11 - nach. 12 century), the writer of the Polish chronicle (up to 1113).
  • GAMALEJA Nikolay Fedorovich (1859-1949), the Russian microbiologist and an epidemiologist, honorary member AN the USSR (1940), academician AMN (1945). Has discovered bacteriolysins (1898), the causal organism of a cholera of birds. Has justified value of a disinfection for liquidation sypnogo and returnable typhoids. Transactionses on prophylaxis of a rabies, a cholera, a smallpox and other contagions. The state premium of the USSR (1943).
  • GAMALEJA Platon JAkovlevich (1766-1817), the Russian mathematician and the mechanics, the honorary member Petersburg AN (1800). Transactionses on a theory of naval architecture and navigations. The writer of the tutorial " the Maximum theory of marine art " (1808).
  • GAMAN (Hamann) Iogann George (1730-88), the german critic, the writer, the philosopher, the adherent of the doctrine about direct knowledge. Has advanced ideas misticheski colored intuitivistskoj dialectics (concurrence of contrasts, etc.). Poetry, on Gamanu, - the most ancient tongue of mankind. Has exerted influence the literature " Storms and a rush " and german romanticism.
  • GAMARNIK JAn Borisovich (1894-1937), the political and military figure, the army commissioner of 1-st rank (1935). With 1920 chairman Odessa, Kiev gubkomov KP (á) Ukraine. With 1923 chairman Dalrevkoma, krajispolkoma and 1-st secretary Dalkrajkoma of a consignment. In 1928 1-st secretary of Central Committee KP (á) Belarus. With 1929 chief of Political department RKKA, with 1930 1-st deputy narkoma defences, in 1930-34 vice-president RVS the USSR. The member of a Central Committee of the CPSU with 1927. In conditions of mass reprisals has committed suicide.
  • GAMARRA (Gamarra) Pierre (r. 1919), the French writer. The anti-fascist novel " the Igneous dwelling " (1948). Social novels " Children of poverty " (1950), " Woman and the river " (1951); the satirical novel " to Killer Gonkurovskaja the premium " (1963). The historical trilogy, including the novel " Seventy two sunny days " (1975) about the Commune of Paris; publicism.
  • GAMBAHSKOE FESTIVAL, political demonstrating 27.5.1832 in village Gambah (Hambach, Pfalts, Bavaria), preformed by german liberals; its participants (ok. 30 thousand person) association of country, constitutional freedom demanded. Many of them were the freedom of the press arrested, cancelled, public assemblies and the political unions are forbidden.
  • GAMBASHIDZE SHalva Ksenofontovich (1899-1955), the Georgian actor, the national actor of Georgia (1939). On the scene with 1921. With 1928 at theatre him. Mardzhanishvili (Tbilisi).
  • GAMBETTA (Gambetta) Leon (1838-82), the prime minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs of France in 1881-82. The leader of the left-handed republicans, the member of " Government of the national defence " (September 1870 - February 1871). In 70th opposed clericals and monarchists. At the end of life it was pulled together to dextral bourgeois republicans.
  • GAMBIT (from ital. dare il gambetto - to deliver a sideboard), non-proprietary name of the checkrow beginnings in which figures are sacrificed with the purpose of the prompt development. In an event of acceptance of a victim there is an adopted gambit, at its deviation - refused gambit. The term "gambit" for the first time is applied by spanish chess player R.Lopez (1561).
  • GAMBIA, the river in Zap. To Africa. 1200 kms, the area of basin of 180 thousand êì2. Fouta Djallon rises on a plateau; runs in Atlantic ok. Average discharge of water ok. 2000 m3 / with. It is navigable on 350 kms from a mouth. Port Bandzhul.
  • GAMBIA, Republic Gambia (Republic of Gambia), the state in the west Africa. 11,3 thousand êì2. The population of 1033 thousand person (1993); malinke, fulbe, volof, etc. The Urban population of 21,5 % (1988). The official language - English. The majority of believers - moslems - sunnity. Administrative territorial division: 7 districts. Capital - Bandzhul. Enters into Commonwealth. The chief of state and governments - the president. The body of legislation - a House of Representatives. Terrain flat, in basin r. Gambia. A climate equatorial monsoon. Monthly mean temperatures 25-27 °S. A rainfall from 750 up to 1500 mm annually. Savannah; in a valley r. Gambia - evergreen tropical forests. National park River-Gambia, wildlife reserve Abuko. The terrain of Gambia was part of empire Mali (13-15 centuries) and Songaj (15-16 centuries) . To it is grey. 19 century the large part of Gambia has been seized by the Great Britain and declared by colony; up to 1894 remaining part - the British protectorate. With 1965 Gambia - an independent state. Gambia - the agrarian country dependent from foreign, primarily English, of the capital. A lobe in a runway (1991/92, %): an agriculture 23,3, a manufacturing industry and construction 12,8. The basis of economy - cultivation for export a peanut. Timber loggings. Fishery. A flavoring industry. Manufacture of the electric power 67 million in kw? A h (1990). Length of motorways of 2,4 thousand in km (1990); railways no. Main marine and a river harbor - Bandzhul. Export: a peanut and products of his thorough revision. The main foreign trade partners: France, the Great Britain, the USA, etc. Monetary unit - dalasi.
  • GAMBRINUS (Gambrinus), fantastic Flemish king, the inventor of beer.
  • GAMBUSIA, fish of a set petsilievyh. Length samtsov up to 4 sm, samok up to 7,5 see. Rhodinum - the Sowing. America. It is acclimatized in many locales, including in the south of Ukraine, on Caucasus, in Compare. Asia where her use for extirpation with a malaria (eats larvas of mosquitoes).
  • GAMBURD Moseses Efimovich (1904-54), the Moldavian painter. Patterns on themes of the Moldavian history, country life, portraits of workers of Moldova ("Movers", 1935).
  • GAMBURTSEV Grigory Aleksandrovich (1903-55), Russian a geophysics, one of founders of a seismic survey in the USSR, academician AN the USSR (1953). Has offered new seismic methods of investigation and depth sounding of earth crust. The state premium of the USSR (1941).
  • GAMBURTSEVA MOUNTAINS, subglacial mountains in Vost. To Antarctica, in area of a plateau Soviet. Length up to 1300 kms. An altitude up to 3390 m. A glacial cover depth of 600 m and more. Are open by the Soviet expedition in 1958. Are called named G.A.Gamburtseva.
  • GAMELAN, the Indonesian traditional orchestra (gongs, xylophones, including metal, drums, sometimes string, duhovye and a voice). The concept "gamelan" implies also phylum of playing music.
  • GAMELEN (Gamelin) Moris Gjustav (1872-1958), the French army general. In 1931-35 and 1938-39 chief of the General Staff. In 2-¯ world war till May 1940 commander-in-chief an overland allied troops in France.