Wednesday, June 6, 2007

  • BRITTANY, historical range and the modern economic region in France, on p-ove Brittany. In terrain of Brittany - departments Finister, the Cat - dju-Nor, Morbian, Il and Vilen. 27,2 thousand êì2. The population 2,8 million person (1992). Main city - Ren. With it is grey. 9 century duchy. In 2-nd floor. 12-13 centuries the vassal English, then the French kings. With 1491 in the personal union with France. It is adjoined to France in 1532, up to 1790 had the status of a province.
  • BRITTANY (Bretagne), peninsula in the west France. The prol is washed against. La Manche and Atlantic ok. Coasts low, rocky, riasovogo type. An altitude up to 384 m (Armorikanskaja vozv.). Heathlands, peat bogs, landscapes of type bokazh.
  • BRET-REGULUS METAL, see Regulus metal F.B.
  • BRETON (Breton) Andre (1896-1966), the French writer, one of founders of surrealism. (" the Manifest of surrealism ", 1924). In declarations of 1930th, in books " the Lariat 17 " (1945), " the Lamp in hours " (1948), not accepting bourgeois crop, asserted{approved}, that the personality finds freedom only in the intuitive mental certificates{acts} depressed{supressed} by a society.
  • BRETONSKAJA the HORSE, tjazhelovoznaja breed, is introduced in France (Brittany), cultivate in the same place. Animal mean growth, hardy and serviceable. It was used at breeding torijskoj breeds.
  • BRETONSKY TONGUE, falls into to indo-european family of tongues (the Celtic group). Writing on the basis of the latin alphabet.
  • BRETONTSY, people in France (Brittany). 1,05 million person (1992). Tongue bretonsky. Believing roman catholics.
  • BREHOVSKIH Leonid Maksimovich (r. 1917), Russian physics, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1968). The hero Socialist Transactionses (1987). Transactionses after soundman, theories of distribution{propagation} acoustical and electromagnetic waves. Has discovered a ultralong acoustic propagation at-sea (together with other). The lenin premium (1970), State premiums of the USSR (1951, 1976).
  • BRESHA (Brescia) (Brescia), city in the Sowing. Italy, in range Lombardy, an administrative centre prov. Bresha. 197 thousand inhabitants (1990). Metallurgy, a machine industry, chemical, mild, a food-processing industry. University. Academy of the literature and art. Art passageways. Residues drevnerimskih constructions. A town hall (11-13 centuries), cathedral Duomo Vekkju (11-15 centuries).
  • BRESHKO-BRESHKOVSKAJA Ekaterina Konstantinovna (1844-1934), the Russian political figure. With nach. 1870th bordered on to populists, participat in " boating in people ". In 1874-96 in prison, on penal servitude and in the reference. One of creators and leaders of a consignment eserov, its{her} Battle organization. The participant of Revolution 1905-07. In 1907-17 again in prison and the reference. After February revolution played an active role among dextral eserov. October revolution has considered in a hostile way: participat in extirpation with the Soviet authority in the Volga region and Siberia. In 1919 has emigrated. In revolutionary and democratic circles it is known as " the grandmother of Russian revolution ".
  • HEDGE-HOPPING FLIGHT, flight of an airplane at extreme small altitude (5-50 ì) with the purposes of sudden assault on the object covered with air defense weapons. Since 50th the term " flight at extreme small altitude " (up to 200 ì) is applied.
  • BRIAKSIS from the Hickory (2-n a floor. 4 century up to n. e.), the ancient greek sculptor. Worked on a dressing of the Mausoleum in Galikarnase. The writer of five titanic statues of gods on Rhodes, statues Asklepija and Gigieji in Megarah. In Alexandria worked in Serapione, sanctuary{holy place} Serapisa, and has created the well-known statue of the god representing it{him} similar on Zevsa mature man with gap-filling fruits by a basket on a head. Circle Briaksisa posesses a statue sitting on throne Demetry (the British museum, the London). For his{its} style it is characteristic mild shadow modelirovka surfaces of marble.
  • BRIAN (Boroime) (Brian, Boroimhe) (926 or 941-1014), supreme king of Ireland with 1002. In 1014 army Briana has routed the Danes who have intruded to Ireland in battle at place Klontarf, however itself Brian has been killed.
  • BRIAN (Briand) Aristidas (1862-1932), repeatedly in 1909-31 prime minister of France and Minister for Foreign Affairs. One of initiators of the design of building of unit " Pan - Europe ", Kelloga - Briana the pact 1928, etc. In 20th conducted anti-soviet policy; in 1931 has taken steps to rendezvous{approach} of France from the USSR. The Nobel Prize of the world (1926 together with G.Shtrezemanom) for " pacific settlement of international attitudes{relations} ".
  • BRIANTSA (Brianza) Karlotta (1867-1930), the italian actress of ballet. Master solistka theatre " Ac the Rock ". In 1887-91 acted in Russia. The first performer of a consignment of the Aurora in ballet " the Latent beauty " P.I.Chajkovskogo.
  • BRIG (English brig, abbr. from ital. brigantino - a brigantine), 1) a marine sailing two-masted vessel with goosewings... 2) In a VTR - the battle sailing ship{spacecraft} (18-19 centuries).
  • BRIGADE (frants. brigade).. 1) tactical connection in all kinds{views} of armed forces, service arms (forces), a special troops; exists{breathes} in different countries about 2-nd floor. 16 century, in Russia - with nach. 18 century. In a land forces will consist routinely of several batallions (divisions) and subdividings of a special troops. Can be separate or enter{include} in a division... 2) the Group of faces in unison executing{designing} a fixed complex of activities.
  • The FOREMAN (a nem. Brigadier).. 1) an officer grade in Russian army in 18 century, intermediate between the colonel and the general - major; exists{breathes} in English and other armies... 2) the Chief of a production team.
  • The BRIGADE COMMISSIONER, military rank (in 1935-42) the maximum political-military structure of Red Army and a VTR.
  • BRAKTON (Bratton) (Bracton, Bratton) a Henry de (ok. 1200-1268), the English lawyer, for the first time systematized the main{basic} norms{standards} of the English common law.
  • BRAMANTE (Bramante) Donato (1444-1514), the italian architect. The representative of High Revitalization. Worked in Milan (church Santa-mary presso the Dignity - Satiro, 1479-83), Rome ("Tempjetto", 1502-03; yards of Vatican, with 1503; the design of a cathedral over. Peter, between 1506-14). Harmonic, whole, courageous on a regional{spatial} composition of construction.
  • BRAMS (Brahms) Iogannes (1833-97), the german composer. From 1862 cable cores in Vienna. Acted as the pianist and the conductor. Simfonizm Brams is distinguished with organic combination of vensko-classical traditions and romantic figurativeness. 4 concordances, overtures, concerts for instruments with an orchestra, " the German requiem mass " (1868), kamerno-tool{kamerno-instrument} bands, compositions for a piano (including " the Hungarian dances ", 4 writing-books, 1869-80), choruses, vocal bands, songs, etc.
  • BRAN (irl. The crow), the hero of the Celtic mythology reached " islands blessed " where time has stayed and reigns perpetually abundance. About a nem the saga narrates " Float Brana ".
  • BRANAH (Branagh) Kenneth (r. 1960), the English actor and the producer, the scripter, the producer. The founder London " Renejsens tietr " where with major success played Hamlet. Broad popularity was received with his{its} interpreting of tragedy of U.Shakespeare " King of Liras ". At kino A lot of hum from anything " (1993) has become famous Shakespeare for innovative screenings " Genrih V " (1989) and ". Has delivered also a mystical thriller " the Second mors " and an eccentric sad comedy " Among dull winter ".
  • BRAND (Brand) Vens (r. 1931), an astronaut the USA, the bachelor of natural sciences. Flight on "Apollo" under program EPAS (July 1975), " Spejs a shuttle " ("Columbia") in November 1982, " Spejs a shuttle " ("Challenger") in February 1984.
  • FIRE-WATCH (niderl. brandwacht), 1) a vessel, put at an orifice on road, in haven or the channel for fulfilment of sentry problems, for regulation and the count of motion of courts... 2) the Post{Station} on coast or on a vessel for overseeing by a fire - safety in a portside... 3) the Dumb boat housing accommodation for crew of suction-tube dredgers, diving stations, etc.
  • BRANDENBURG, city in Germany, ground Brandenburg, a port on r. Havel. 95 thousand inhabitants (1988). Metallurgy, mild, a flavoring industry, a machine industry. It is based ok. 1170. Construction of 13-15 centuries.
  • BRANDENBURG (Brandenburg), ground on the orient Germany. 28 thousand êì2. The population 2,5 million person (1992). Adm. ts. - Potsdam. At the centre of Brandenburg there is a capital of Germany Berlin, discharged{secured} in a separate administrative unit on rights of ground. In medieval Germany Brandenburg - the principality (mark - county) on the grounds conquered by the German feudal lords polabskih slavs, with 1356 kurfjurshestvo (with 1415 set Gogentsollerny; their residence with 1486 - Berlin); in 1618 it was aggregated with duchy Prussia in the Brandenburgsko-Prussian state (see. Prussia). After 2-nd world war the main body of ranges of Brandenburg has come in the Soviet occupation zone, in 1949 - in the German Democratic Republic. After apposition in 1990 German Democratic Republics to Federative Republic Germany Brandenburg in structure of consolidated Germany.
  • FIRE SHIP (a nem. Brander), a vessel, loaded combustible and blasting explosives which ignited and started up downwind or to flow on the enemy ships{spacecrafts}. In 19 - it is grey. 20 centuries called as fire ships aged the court, flooded for an orifice in haven of the opponent with the purpose of an obstacle.
  • BRANDES (Brandes) George (1842-1927), the danish literary critic. In nach. 70th has headed in Denmark t. n. Motion of outbreak, directed against romanticism, struggled for truthfulness and realism of the literature. Fundamental transactionses " Main flows in the european literature of XIX eyelid " (t. 1-6, 1872-90).
  • BRANDKUGEL (from a nem. Brand - a fire and Kugel - a nucleus), an incendiary shell of smoothbore artillery. It is invented in 18 century in Saxony.
  • BRANDMAJOR (a nem. Brandmajor), in Russia the officer of police, the chief of all fire brigades of metropolitan or provincial city.
  • FIRE WALL (a nem. Brandmauer), the obsolete title of a fireproof wall.
  • BRANDMEJSTER (a nem. Brandmeister), in Russia the officer of police, the chief of one of urban fire fighting details.
  • The HOSE (niderl. brandspuit), 1) a metal tip of a flexible hose; the obsolete title of a trunk in fire fighting technique... 2) Transportable a hand pump for washing decks, fire controls and so forth on courts.
  • BRANDT Alexander Andreevich (1855-1932), the Russian scientist in range of applied mechanics and thermodynamics. With 1920 - in emigration, cable cores in Yugoslavia. Transactionses under the theory of steam engines, their application on locomotives and courts, general and engineering tllermodynamics. The writer of memoirs " Leaves flavescent " (1930).
  • BUKARAMANGA (Bucaramanga), city on north-east of Columbia, an administrative centre of department Santander. 349 thousand inhabitants (1992). Tobacco, textile, a cement industry. University. It is based in 1623.
  • SNOUT BEETLE, the bug of a set trubkovertov, the pest of fruit crops in Europe and the Sowing. Iran. Green - blue with a metallic appearance, length of 2-3 mm. Eats kidneys and flowers, larvas - stakes and primary ribs of leaves.
  • BUKASOV Sergey Mihajlovich (1891-1983), the Russian selector, academician VASHNIL (1956), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1971). Transactionses on selection and a taxonomist of a potato, the writer rakoustojchivyh and fitoftoroustojchivyh grades. The state premium of the USSR (1949).
  • The CHARACTER, actuarial mark which in itself or in combination to other marks is used for notation on the letter of notes, phonemes, their basic versions and their sample sequences. Napr., Russian "« character in the word "water" means a phoneme "«" in its{her} principal view, in the word "water" - the version of this phoneme sounding as "á"; English h means 2 notes: k + s.
  • BUKEEVA Hadisha (r. 1917), the Kazakh actress, the national actress of the USSR (1964). With 1942 at the Kazakh theatre him{it}. Auezova. The state premium of the USSR (1952).
  • BUKEEVSKAJA the HORDE (the Internal Horde), Kazakh hanstvo in 1801-76, the vassal of Russia, it is called named anthurus Bukeja Nuralimova. It is derivated by natives from Junior zhuza (5 thousand families) between rr. Ural and Volga. Was part Astrakhan of lips.
  • BUKEFAL (grech. bychjegolovyj), a name of a liked horse Alexander the Great. After death Bukefala a number{series} founded Alexander in Asia of cities has received title Bukefalija.
  • BUKIN Andrey Anatoljevich (r. 1957), the Russian sportsman (figure skating), the deserved master of sport (1984). The champion of Olympic Games (1988), the world (1985-88), Europe (1983, 1985-88), the USSR (1982, 1983, 1987).
  • BUKIN Vasily Nikolaevich (1899-1979), the Russian biochemist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1964). The main{basic} probes on a biosynthesis of vitamins and their roles in a metabolism. On the basis of Bukin activities with employees in the USSR the domestic production{manufacture} and use of some vitamins is adjusted. The state premium of the USSR (1949).
  • SECOND-HAND BOOK (from frants. bouquin - the second-hand book), 1) in the Russian book trade the books issued with 1851 on 1960 (as against issued earlier which call antiquarian)... 2) the Book, being in the use, sold in secondhand bookshops.
  • BUKITTINGGI (Bukittinggi), niderl. A fort - de-Kok (Fort de Koñk), city in Indonesia, on about. Sumatra, for foot of burning mountain Marapi. 71 thousand inhabitants (1980.) Center of a farming area. One of the first Dutch settlements on an island (1825).
  • FRISE (from frants. boucle - curled), tissues with a pulled surface similar to small-sized astrakhan; are produced from a yarn shaped or a crepe twist. From a frise sew an outerwear.
  • The BOOKLET (English booklet, characters. - knizhechka), product{creation} of a seal{printing} on one quire, folded any ways in two plaits and more (brief guidebooks, circulars, etc.).
  • BUKN-FIORD (Boknfjord), a bay of Boreal m., for southwest coasts of Norway. Length of 52 kms, width up to 25 kms. Depth up to 917 m. It is a lot of islands. A main port - Stavanger.
  • The Moldavian writer, the national writer of Moldova (1982), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1979) is BEECH (Bukov) Emilian (1909-84). The collection of lyrical verses (" Day true, day future ", 1965), poems, stories, the novel in verses "City Reut" (1956), the play " the Raging Danube " (1957), the novel "Main" (1969).
  • BUKOVINA, the historical title (since 15 century) parts of terrain of the modern Chernovtsy range on Ukraine (Boreal Bukovina) and ranges Suceava in Romania (Austral Bukovina).
  • BUKOVSKY (Bukovskis) Levs (1910-84), the Latvian sculptor, the national artist of Latvia (1976), corresponding member AH the USSR (1975). Executed inclement heroic a monument to fighters of Revolution 1905 on cemetery Matisa in Riga (1956-59); memorial band of memory{remembrance} of victims of a fascist terror in Salaspilse (1961-67, with co-authors; the Lenin premium, 1970).
  • BEECH FAMILY, set of dicotyledons, predominary monoecious, plants. Deciduous or evergreen trees, sometimes bushes. Ok. 600 kinds{views} (7-9 stems), in moderate, subtropical and tropical belts of both hemispheres (except for tropics Juzh. America and Africa). Many beech family - forest forming species: a beech, an oak, etc.
  • BUKOLIKA (from grech. bukolikos - pastushesky), non-proprietary name of two often blent genres antique " pastusheskoj poetry " - eclogues and idylls; in novoevropejskoj poetry the same, that a pastoral. The title from the title of a cycle of verses Vergilija.
  • BUZOVNA, a urban settlement in Azerbaijan, in 37 kms from zh.-d. An item. Baku. 22,5 thousand inhabitants (1991). A crude production. A bayshore climatic health resort.
  • BUZULUK, city (with 1781) in the Russian Federation, the Orenburg region, for a lockin r. Buzuluk in r. Samara. A depot. 85,8 thousand inhabitants (1992). Factories: heavy engineering, mechanic. A crude production. It is based in 1736.
  • BUZEU (Buzau), city in a southeast of Romania, an administrative centre zhudetsa Buzeu. 148 thousand inhabitants (1992). A traffic centre. A machine industry, a metal-working, chemical, furniture, glass industry.
  • BUOYS (buej, chzhuntszja, the self-title - joj), people in the south of China. 2,7 million person (1992). Tongue of Thai family. Believers - Buddhists, are christians.
  • BUIDY (Buvejhidy), the dynasty of sovereigns setting in Zap. Iran and Iraq in 935-1055. Having trapped to 945 bagdad, have put an actual end halifatu Abbasidov. The state Buidov is conquered seldzhukami.
  • BUINSK, city (with 1780) in the Russian Federation, Tatarija, on r. Karly. Depot (Bua). 17,2 thousand inhabitants (1992). Electromechanical factory; a food-processing industry, ribbon-loom factory, etc.
  • BUOY, city (with 1778) in the Russian Federation, the Kostroma region, on r. Kostroma. A railway junction. 32,2 thousand inhabitants (1992). The chemical, sawing, furniture, alimentary enterprises. It is based in 1536.
  • BUOY (niderl. boei), a floating mark (float) for protection{enclosure} of dangerous places for navigation, notation of fairways or a site of any subjects. Can have light, acoustical or warning devices.
  • BUJVID (Bujvidis), the leader of country revolt in Lithuania in 1544-45.
  • WATER BUFFALOES, stem of ruminant animals of a set polorogih; are close to bulls. 3 kinds{views}: the Asian (indian) water buffalo, or arni; anoa with about. Sulawesi; African, or kafrsky, a water buffalo (dwells{lives} to the south from Sahara); number is reduced. The Asian water buffalo tames and used more often as milk animal in JUzh. Asia, Africa and JUzh. To Europe; on Caucasus. 1 kind{view} and 1 subspecies in the Red Data Book of the International union of nature protection and natural resources.
  • BUJKO Peter Mihajlovich (1895-1943), the doctor, the Hero of Soviet Union (1944, posthumously). The participant of January revolt 1918 in Kiev against Central rads. In 1942-43 in an anti-fascist underground, the chief of a sanitarian part of guerilla connection. Was taken prisoner, it incinerated alive.
  • BUINAKSK (up to 1922 Temir-Han-SHura), city (with 1866) in the Russian Federation, Dagestan. A depot. 58,5 thousand inhabitants (1992). Canning, kozhevenno-boot combines; the knitting mill, etc. Avarian drama theatre. A historico-revolutionary museum. In Buinaksk - the largest on the Sowing. Caucasus a mosque and medrese. It is based in 1834 as strength. It is called named U.D.Bujnakskogo.
  • BUJNAKSKY Ulluby Danijalovich (1890-1919), one of organizers of the struggle for the Soviet authority in Dagestan. Rasstreljan counter-revolutionarys.
  • BUJNITSKY Ignat Terentjevich (1861-1917), the Byelorussian actor, the producer. The organizer of " the First Byelorussian troupe " (1907-13), the founder of the Byelorussian professional theatre.
  • BUJO (Bouillaud) Jean Batist (1796-1881), the French therapist. Has placed{installed} (1836) communication{connection} between rheumatic disease and a defeat of heart.
  • BEECH, stem of trees (an altitude up to 50 ì) sets of a beech family. 10 kinds{views}, in extratropical range of Boreal hemisphere, including 2-3 kinds{views} in Crimea, on Caucasus and Zap. To Ukraine. Will derivate primarily mountain forests. Wood goes on manufacturing of musical instruments, a parquet, a bentwood furniture, etc.; from fruits get{procure} alimentary and a technical oil.
  • BEECH, city (with 1980) in Uzbekistan, the Tashkent region, in 32 kms from zh.-d. An item. Tojtepa. 17,4 thousand inhabitants (1991). A ginnery.
  • BUKAVU (Bukavu) (up to 1966 Kostermanvil, Costermanville), city in Zaire, an administrative centre of range Kivu, a port on an eskar. Kivu. 187 thousand inhabitants (1990). An international airport. Alimentary, wood-working, textile, chemical, ship repair facilities. Institute of scientific probes Center. Africa.
  • BUKANTAU, a hills in desert Kyzyl Kum (Uzbekistan). An altitude up to 764 m. In a heel of downslopes - outputs of the springs used for an irrigation.
  • BUDSKY (Budsky) Joseph (r. 1911), the Slovak actor, the producer. In 1945-53 chief of National theatre in Bratislava. Worked at other theatres. Among productions: " Love Summer " Treneva (1950), " Antirun and other " Karvasha (1962).
  • BUDUHSKY TONGUE, see in an item. The Dagestan tongues.
  • BUDHA, in vedijskoj and induistskoj mythologies olitsetvorenie planets a Mercury, the son Siluruses and Container.
  • BUDYKO Michael Ivanovich (r. 1920), Russian a geophysics, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1992). Transactionses on a climatology, bioclimatologies, ecology, a heat balance of a surface. The lenin premium (1958).
  • ICE YACHT (niderl. boeier), a special light-weight construction on skates or sprockets (a cabin, a ramp with a flag). Races on ice yachts on ice - the kind{view} of sport popular in the USA, Canada, a number{series} of european countries. World championships and Europe on ice yachting with 1964.
  • GILL (turki)., the title of superficially recessed gullies of a central part of East European plain.
  • BOUGIE (from frants. bougie - a probe) (widener), the instrument for probe and expansions of tubular organs (a urethra, an esophagus, etc.).
  • BUZHANE, the title of group of eastern slavs living in verhovjah Zap. Bug. In kon. 10 century were included in the Old russian state. See. Duleby, Volynjane.
  • PORK, the fried or baked meat product prepared from smeared over I shall decant also spices of a pork ham without a bone.
  • BOUGIES (Bougie), the former title of. Bedzhaija in Algeria.
  • BUZHINSKY Gabriel (?-1731), the Russian church figure (the member of Synod, a tread of all schools and printing houses; diocesan), the writer, a translator.
  • BUJUMBURA (Bujumbura), capital Burundi, a port on an eskar. Tanganyika. 236 thousand inhabitants (1990). An international airport. Alimentary, a light industry. Fishery. University. It is based in 1897. About 1922 administrative centre mandated, in 1946-62 podopechnoj Belgian terrain Ruanda - Urundi. With 1962 capital of an independent state of Burundi.
  • BUZANOV Ivan Feoktistovich (1903-84), the selector, academician VASHNIL (1956). Transactionses on selection, physiologies, biochemistry of sugar-beet. The lenin premium (1960).
  • BUZACHI, hilly peninsula in a north-east part Caspian m. (Kazakhstan). An altitude up to 61 m. Barhannye both hilly sands and solonchaks.
  • BUZDYHAN, the turkish title of a club.
  • BUSEMANN (Busemann) Adolf (1902-86), the german scientist. After 2-nd world war worked in the USA. Transactionses on fluid dynamics; calculation of pressure at flow{streamlining} of bodies by a hypersonic torrent (the formula of Newton - Buzemana). Has put forward idea of a swept wing, has offered a biplane of Busemann.
  • BUZESKUL Vladislav Petrovich (1858-1931), the historian, academician AN the USSR (1925; the academician of the Russian Academy of Science with 1922), AN Ukraine (1925). Transactionses on a history Other. Greeces, to a source study and historiography of antiquity.
  • ELDER, stem of bushes, small trees, it is rare perennial grasses of a set of a honeysuckle family. Ok. 40 kinds{views}, in moderate and subtropical belts. Some kinds{views} cultivate as medicinal and ornamental plants.
  • BUZINZA, rannegosudarstvennoe education in terrain of Tanzania, to a southwest from an eskar. Victoria. The population - zinza, etc. Ok. 17 century pokorena the state Kitara, has broken up in kon. 18 century. In nach. 19 century on basis{fundamentals} Buzinzy have developed rannegosudarstvennoe education Rusubi.
  • BUZNIK Vyacheslav Mihajlovich (r. 1945), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1994). Probes in range of a structure of inorganic materials.
  • BUDDHAGHOSHA (5 century up to n. e.), the outstanding scientist - Buddhist who has constituted arguments and additions{appendices} to a Buddhist canon.
  • BUDEN (Boudin) Ezhen (1824-98), the French painter. Poetical, landscapes finely relaying air medium anticipated impressionism.
  • BUDYONNOVSK, (up to 1920 Sacred Cross, in 1920-35 and 1957-73 Prikumsk), city in the Russian Federation, Stavropol kr. A depot. 58,5 thousand inhabitants (1992). A chemical, alimentary, textile industry. It is based in 1799. It is renamed in honour of S.M.Budyonny.
  • BUDENNOVSKAJA BREED of horses, high, is introduced in 1921-48 in stud farms of the Rostov region. Animal large, proof build, wanton, hardy. Use and in a harness.
  • BUDYONNY Semen Mihajlovich (1883-1973), Marshal of Soviet Union (1935), triply the Hero of Soviet Union (1958, 1963, 1968). In the Civil war commanding 1-st Horse army (1919-23). In 1939-41 deputy narkoma defences of the USSR. In Great Domestic war (in 1941-42) the commander-in-chief a troops of the Southwest and North Caucasian directions, commanding Stand-by and North Caucasian fronts. One of organizers of mass reprisals among military in 1930-40-Õ. Memories: " Projdennyj a path{route} " (kn. 1-3, 1958-73).
  • BUDENOVKA, the national title of the headgear existing in Red Army in 1919-1941.
  • BUDZHAK, historical range between ostiums of the rivers Danube and Dnestr in 16-19 centuries, an austral part of Bessarabia (the south of the modern Odessa region). In 17-18 centuries kochevja the Belgorod Horde. With 1812 in Russian empire.
  • " BUDI UTOMO " (" the High purpose "), the first national Indonesian educational and anticolonial organization (1908-35). Integrated primarily representatives of the intelligency, learning youth, officials.
  • "ALARM CLOCK", the Russian satirical log-book issued in 1865-71 in Saint Petersburg, in 1873-1917 in Moscow (2 times a month, with 1866 it are weekly). In 60th published products{creations} of democratic writers. In 1881-87 in "Alarm clock" A.P.Chehov cooperated.
  • BUDINY, nomad tribes in terrain between Dnepr and Volga (1 thousand up to n. e.).
  • "BUDITELI", figures (primarily scientists, writers) the Czech national motion (" the Czech revitalization ") kon. 18 - 1-st floor. 19 centuries. The program (1818; writers F.Palatsky, P.Shafarik) - extirpation for revitalization of the Czech tongue, the literature, science, crop. Have played the considerable role in formation of the Czech national self-consciousness.
  • BUDISHIN, luzhitskoe the title of. Bautsen in Germany.
  • BUDISHINSKY the MIR 1018, has finished germansko-Polish wars 1003-18 (with a rest). It is signed in. Budishin. To Poland marks headed out Luzhitsa, part Mishenskoj (Mejsenskoj).
  • BUDISHCHEV Alexey Nikolaevich (1864-1916), the Russian writer, the poet. In lyrics (the collection of "Poem", 1901) - chamber intonations; poem "Kalitka" (" Only evening zateplitsja blue... "), set to music, has become a popular romance. Stories (the collection " Miscellaneous concepts ", 1901), novels.
  • BUDKER Gersh Itskovich (1918-77), Russian physics, academician AN the USSR (1964). The founder and the director of Institute of nuclear physics AN the USSR (with 1957). Transactionses on nuclear reactors, boosters, plasma physics, physics of particles of high energy. Has created boosters on colliding beams. The lenin premium (1967), the State premium of the USSR (1949).
  • BUDNIKOV Peter Petrovich (1885-1968), the chemist - neorganik, corresponding member AN the USSR (1939), academician AN of Ukraine (1939), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1965). Transactionses on chemistry and technologies of silikates, to complex{integrated} study of mineral raw materials. State premiums of the USSR (1942, 1950, 1952).
  • BUDNYJ Simon (ok. 1530-93), one of chiefs reformatsionnogo motions in Belarus and Lithuania. The organizer of a printing house in Nesvizhe where has emited in the Byelorussian tongue "Catechisn" (1562) and other books.
  • BUDOCHNIK, the lowest grade of a city police in Russian empire. Had a post{station} (a booth with black-and-white strips) on crossroads of streets. In 2-nd floor. 19 century it is substituted by the policeman.
  • BUDRAJTIS (Budraitis) JUozas (r. 1940), the Lithuanian actor, the national actor of Lithuania (1982). With 1979 at the Kaunas drama theatre. Art Budrajtisa is noted by restraint, courage, psychologic depth. Roles: Solnes ("Builder Solnes" G.Ibsena), Hereja ("Kaligula" A.Kamju), etc. Was taken out nobody in films " wanted to die ", " This sweet word - freedom ", television film "Roundrobin", etc.
  • BUGRIMOVA Irina Nikolaevna (r. 1910), the Russian actress of a circus, the national actress of the USSR (1969), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1979). Together with A.N.Buslaevym acted (with 1929) in air amusement, then in number with temper-rolled animal; in 1946-76 dressirovshchitsa lions.
  • BUGROV Nikolay Aleksandrovich (1837-1911), the Nizhniy Novgorod merchant, the industrialist, the millionaire. From old believers. Possessed power mills. N.Novgorodu the building of City council has presented, plotted asylums, schools, etc. Sustained the old believers living in woods Kerzhentsa and on r. Irgiz.
  • BUGRY PUCHENIJA, the cryosolic landforms of the spherical form which are generatrix at a freezing of hardly humidified stratas of rocks and increase of their volume owing to local accumulation of ice. Are developed in ranges of distribution{propagation} of permfrost rocks in tundra and a forest - tundra.
  • BUGSKY the FIRTH, a bay in boreal part of Black m. Length of 47 kms, width up to 11 kms. Draining with Dneprovskim a firth, will derivate Dneprovsko-Bugsky a firth. It is navigable. On Bugskom a firth - Nikolaev.
  • BUGSKIH COSSACKS REVOLT (Bugskogo Cossack a troops) in July - September 1817 (the centre - Voznesensk) in connection with transfer{translation} of their military settlement. It is suppressed{quenched} by a governmental troops.
  • BUGSKOE the COSSACK ARMY, is built in 1803 on r. JUzh. Bug in structure of 3 regiments. In 1817 it is transferbed{translated} in military settlements and it is converted to ulanskie regular shelves.
  • BUGULMA, city (with 1781) in the Russian Federation, Tatarija, at a lockin r. Bugulminka in r. Zaj. A depot. 91,1 thousand inhabitants (1992). A crude production. A machine industry (factory " Petroautomatics ", software "Bugulmaneftemash", etc.) and metal working, porcelain factory; the alimentary enterprises. Theatre. Museums: study of local lore and Jaroslava Gashek (in 1919 was the mate of the commandant of Bugulma). It is based in 1736.
  • BUGULMINSKO-BELEBEEVSKAJA the HIGH GROUND, a flat watershed (an altitude up to 418 ì) the left-handed inflow rr. White, Kama and Volga.
  • BUGURUSLAN, city (with 1781) in the Russian Federation, the Orenburg region, on r. B.Kinel. A depot. 54,1 thousand inhabitants (1992). Factory " Radiator "; alimentary, a light industry. Bliz Buguruslana - a crude production and gas. Theatre. A study of local lore museum. It is based in 1748 as a large village.
  • BUDAGOV Ruben Aleksandrovich (r. 1910), Russian jazykoved, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1970). Transactionses in range of general and Romanesque linguistics and philology.
  • BUDAJ-DELJANU (Budai-Deleanu) Jon (ok. 1760-1820), the Romanian poet - educator. Settled idea of national self-affirmation. Geroiko-satirical poem "TSyganiada" (1875-76).
  • BUDAJ-HESHAN, in the Chinese mythology the god of a health and happiness, is identified with Majtrejej. It was figured by the way the person with a tag belly.
  • Be - KOSHELEVO, city (with 1971) in Belarus, Gomel region. A depot (be - Koshelevskaja). 8,9 thousand inhabitants (1991). A food-processing industry.
  • BUDANTSEV Sergey Fedorovich (1896-1940?), the Russian writer. In the prose noted by a style diversification and an experimentation with the form, reverts to spores of bolsheviks and eserov with their different views on revolution (the novel "Rebelion", other title "Commander", 1922), the composite poslerevoljutsionnoj situations in Turkmenistan (the novel "Locust", 1927), to psychologic problems (" the Story about travail of mind{wit} ", 1929), etc. Books: " Japanese duel " (1927), "Zenith" (1934), "Writer" (it is published in 1959), etc. In 1937 it is repressed; has perished in the conclusion.
  • BUDAPEST (Budapest), capital of Hungary, on Danube. It is secured{discharged} in a do-it-yourself administrative and territorial unit. An administrative centre medje Pesht. The population 2 million person (1992). A large traffic centre of country. An international airport. A machine industry (instrumentation technologies, electrotechnical, transport, a tractor construction); textile, chemical, pharmacological, rubber, sewing, polygraphic, a flavoring industry. Underground railway. University. Hungarian AN, the Musical academy. A museum of fine arts, the Hungarian national passageway, a museum of a folk art and ethnography, the east - Asian art. Theatres: Opera, drama - National, to them{him;it}. I.Madacha, "Vichsinhaz", operettas, etc. It is known from Roman times (Akvinkum). Will consist of 3 historically usual parts - Peshta, Budy and Obudy (it is known with 1148), consolidated in 1872 to Budapest. Since 50th of 14 century. Being - capital of the Hungarian kingdom, in 1541-1686 under an osmanli yoke, with nach. 18 century under authority Gabsburgov. With 1867 capital of the Hungarian kingdom, with 1918 - an independent state Hungary. In March 1944 it is occupied by a fascist troops, it is free by the Soviet troops (on February, 13 1945) during the Budapest operation. Residues of Roman city Akvinkuma (nowadays a museum; 1-4 centuries), strengths of 13-17 centuries. A royal palace (13-18 centuries). A national museum (19 century), parliament (1884-1904).
  • The BUDAPEST CONVENTION (secret), between Russia and Austria-Hungary 15.1.1877 about the consent of Russia to occupation by the Austrian troops of Bosnia and Herzegovina under condition of observance{holding} by Austria of neutrality in russko-turkish war. Has given Austria a halter to demand revision of conditions the Dignity - Stefanskogo of the world 1878.
  • The BUDAPEST OPERATION, 29.10.1944-13.2.1945, during Great Domestic war. The Soviet troops of 2-nd and 3-rd Ukrainian fronts (Marshals of Soviet Union R.J.Malinovsky, F.I.Tolbuhin) in December 1944 have enclosed in Budapest almost 190-thousand grouping from structure of a german army group "South" (general - colonel G.Frisner) and after persistent breakages liquidated her{it}, having released Budapest (13.2.1945).
  • The BUDAPEST UNIVERSITY him{it}. L.Etvesha, Hungary, is based in 1635. In 1990 over 8 thousand students.
  • To BUDDHA Eugeny Fedorovich (1859-1929), Russian jazykoved, corresponding member Petersburg AN (1916). Transactionses on dialectology and histories of Russian literary language.
  • " BUBNOVYJ the JACK ", association of the Moscow artists (1910-16) converting to picturesque - plastic finding actions spirit of creativity with P.Sezanna, fovizma and a cubism, and also to methods Russian ikonopisi and lubka, a national toy. Artists " Bubnovogo a jack " (P.P.Konchalovsky, A.V.Kuprin, A.V.Lentulov, I.I.Mashkov, R.R.Falk) have decided problems of construction of the form colour, detections of materiality of a nature.
  • BYBO (from grech. bubon - a groin, a tumour in a groin), a hyperadenosis of inflammatory character. It is supervised at venereal and some other contagions (napr., a plague), at a bottom-up wound fever.
  • BUBRIK Samuel Davidovich (1899-1965), the Russian film director, the honored worker of arts of Latvia (1949). Documentaries: "Vladimir Majakovsky" (1940, 1955), "Maxim Gorky" (1941, 1958), " the Lion Tag " (1953), "N.K.Krupskaja" (1959), " Viva Cuba! " (1960). The state premium of the USSR (1948).
  • BUBRIH Dmitry Vladimirovich (1890-1949), jazykoved, corresponding member AN the USSR (1946). Transactionses on slavonic aktsentologii, to Finno-Ugric tongues, entogenezu and histories of Finnish peoples.
  • BOW WESTERN, see Western Bug.
  • BOW AUSTRAL, see Austral Bug.
  • BUGAEV Alexander Stepanovich (r. 1947), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1994). Transactionses on a numerical modeling and development of devices of superfast information processing, and also semiconductor, akusto-and magnitoelektronike.
  • BUGAEV Boris Pavlovich (r. 1923), the statesman, Main marshal of aircraft (1977), doubly the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1966, 1983). In Great Domestic war in airgroup of Central headquarters of guerilla motion. With 1966 deputy, with 1967 1-st deputy minister, in 1970-87 minister for a civil aviation of the USSR. The lenin premium (1980), the State premium of the USSR (1972).
  • BUGAEV Sergey Petrovich (r. 1936), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1987). Transactionses on development vzryvoemissionnyh diodes, high-current generators of relativistic electronic torrents, potent microwave generators. The state premium of the USSR (1984).
  • BUGAENKOV Ivan Vasilyevich (r. 1938), the Russian sportsman (volleyball), the deserved master of sport (1964), the trainer. The champion of Olympic Games (1964, 1968), the world (1960, 1962), Europe (1967).
  • BUGANDA (Buganda), the state in Africa in 14 - kon. 19 centuries. The ethnic basis{fundamentals} - people ganda (baganda). Up to kon. 18 century depending on Unjoro. In 19 century the powerful state. In the season{term} of colonial captures, with 1890 in structure of the British possessions, with 1900 - an independent{autonomous} province of the protectorate Uganda, with 1962 - the independent Uganda (up to 1967 used an autonomy).
  • BUGANOV Victor Ivanovich (1928-1996), the historian, corresponding member Russian AN (1994). Transactionses on a social-political history of Russia of 11-18 centuries, problems of a source study and historiography; the issuing of annals and digit books.
  • LUG (from niderl. beugel), 1) a metal ring overhead the stilts, protecting her{it} from destruction at a driving... 2) the Element of the current collector (the street car, the trolley bus), slipping on a contact conductor... 3) the Metal ring on a spar tree of the ship{spacecraft} for fastening tackles.
  • BOUGAINVILLE (Bougainville) Lui Antoine de (1729-1811), the French seafarer. In 1766-1769 chief of the first French round-the-world expedition, has discovered islands in arh. Tuamotu, Luiziada and repeatedly islands Solomonovy.
  • BUGER (Bouguer) Pierre (1698-1758), the French scientist, one of osnovatelej a photometry. Has developed method of measurements of light intensity. Has placed{installed} (1729) law of slackening of light (law Bugera - a Lambert - Baire). In 1735-43 supervised over grade measurements in Peru (together with S.M.Kondaminom).
  • BUGERA - the LAMBERT - BAIRE the LAW, determines slackening light with initial intensity I0 at his{its} transit in medium with an absorption index k and depth l: I = I0 (exp - kl). For solutions k-? C (With - concentration? - an absorption index of a solution of single concentration). Experimentally P.Bugerom (1729) is open{discovered}, I.G.Lambertom (1760) is theoretically introduced, for solutions A.Berom (1852) is investigated.
  • BUGI-VUGI, 1) a manner of the piano game in tracking blueses (see. A blues): loose improvising on a characteristic, recurring melodiko-rhythmic model in a bass. Has engendered in the USA in kon. 19 in... 2) North American dance (the dimension 4/4); has arisen in 1920th on the basis of piano bugi-vugi. In Zap. To Europe it was distributed after 1945.
  • BUGIJSKY TONGUE, falls into southern - sulavesijskim to the tongues which are traditionally powered up in the Indonesian group avstronezijskoj of family of tongues. Writing on the basis of the latin alphabet.
  • BUGISY (the self-title - tougik), people in Indonesia (primarily on a southwest about. Sulawesi). Number 4,55 million person. Live also in Malaysia and Singapore. An aggregate number 4,6 million person. (1992). Tongue bugijsky. Believing moslems - sunnity.
  • BRJACHISLAV IZJASLAVICH (?-1044), prince Polotsk (with 1001), the nephew of prince Jaroslava Wise. Father of prince Vseslav. In 1021 has committed an offence to Novgorod; on a return path it is battered JAroslavom.
  • BSISU Muin (1928-84), the Arabian Palestinian poet, the public figure. Collections of "Letter" (1952), " Rhodinum in heart " (1970), "Card" (1974), " Verses on a windowpane " (1980); the book of memories " the Palestinian writing-books " (1978).
  • BUAGILBER (Boisguillebert) Pierre (1646-1714), the French economist, an ancestor of classical bourgeois political economy in France, one of founders of the labour theory of cost.
  • BUALO (Boileau) Nikola (1636-1711), the French poet, the theorist of a classicism (the poetic tract " Poetic art ", 1674). Poetics Bualo has exerted influence aesthetic thought and the literature of 17-18 centuries of many european countries, including. Russia.
  • BUALDE (Boieldieu) Adrien (1775-1834), the French composer. In 1804-10 worked in Russia. Comic opera " White lady " (1825) has laid foundation to a romantic direction in the French opera.
  • BUASE (Boissier) Gaston (1823-1908), the French historian of antiquity, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1894). Activities on a history of a Roman society, pagan religion, christianity.
  • BUBEN, an impact membranous musical instrument, sometimes with metal suspensions. It is distributed for many peoples: Uzbek dojra; Armenian, Azerbaijan, Tadjik def; shamanistic bubny for peoples of Siberia and the Far East.
  • BUBENNOV Michael Semenovich (1909-83), the Russian writer. Roman " the White birch " (kn. 1, 1947, the State premium of the USSR, 1948; kn. 2, 1952) about Great Domestic war, " Eagle steppe " (1959) about assimilation of a virgin soil, "Current" (1970); stories of " the Distant lighting of red summer{years} " (1977), " the Light distance of a youth " (1983).
  • BUBER (Buber) Martin (Mardohaj) (1878-1965), the jewish religious philosopher and the writer, close to dialectic theology and existentialism. Cable cores in Germany (up to 1933) and Israel. Central idea of philosophy Bubera - life as "dialogue" (between the god and the person, between the person and the world).
  • BUBILAS, in the Lithuanian mythology the god of bees.
  • BUBKA Sergey Nazarovich (r. 1963), the Ukrainian sportsman (track and field), the deserved master of sport (1983). The champion of Olympic Games (1988), the world (1983, 1987, 1991, 1995), Europe (1986), the USSR (1984, 1985) the Winner of Cups of the world and Europe (1985) in pole vaults.
  • BUBNIS (Bubnys) Vitautas (r. 1932), the Lithuanian writer. The story " Birches on a wind " (1959); the novel - trilogy: " Craving ground " (1970), " Three days in August " (1973), " Flowering nesejannoj neigh " (1975); the novel " Hour of destiny " (1979-80). Many products{creations} are dedicated the Lithuanian village.
  • BUBNOV Alexander Pavlovich (1908-64), the Russian painter, corresponding member AH the USSR (1954). Epicheskoe a historical cloth " the Morning on Kulikovom a field " (1943-47), conversations, case histories. The state premium of the USSR (1948).
  • BUBNOV George Grigorjevich (1934-86), the Russian scientist in range antennostroenija and an applied{economic} electrodynamics, Dr.Sci.Tech. (1972). Has created unique antenna systems of radar complexes, and also large measuring complexes. Has developed principles of building of solar space power stations. The state premium of the USSR (1978). The state premium Armenian SSR (1986).
  • BUBNOV Ivan Grigorjevich (1872-1919), the Russian engineer. Fundamental transactionses on structural mechanics of the ship{spacecraft}. Has constructed submersibles "Dolphin" and such as "Porpoise".
  • BUBNOV (Bubnoff) Sergey Nikolaevich (1888-1957), the german geologist, the member German AN in Berlin (1949). The native of Russia, with 1906 in Germany. Transactionses on a regional and general tectonics. Has developed grading building blocks of earth crust and tectonic motions.
  • BUBNOV Jury Nikolaevich (r. 1934), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1994). Transactionses on chemistry organic and organometallic compounds.
  • BRYUSOV Nadezhda Jakovlevna (1881-1951), the Russian musicologist, the figure in range of music education and enlightenment, the honored worker of arts of Russia (1950). Sister V.J.Bryusov. Transactionses on the musical pedagogics; to a technique of musical - theoretical education, a folk music.
  • BRUSSELS SPROUTS, biennial herbaceous plant of a stem cabbage of a set of a cruciferae family. In I peep use kochanchiki a dia of 2,5-5 sm which are generatrix on a stalk in axils of leaves (20-35 piece).
  • The BRUXELLES PACT 1948, the agreement for building the Western-European union.
  • BREWSTER (Brewster) Dejvid (1781-1868), Scottish physics, the foreign honorary member Petersburg AN (1830). Probeed polarization of light. Has placed{installed} (1815) law called as his{its} name, has discovered circular polarization. Has invented a kaleidoscope, has constructed lenss for beacons and has improved the stereoscope.
  • BREWSTER the LAW: if the light ray drops on a surface of dielectric bevel way?, which tangent is peer to refractive index (Brewster angle) light, reflected from a surface of dielectric, is completely polarized. D.Brjusterom in 1815 is established{installed}.
  • BRJUHOVETSKY Ivan Martynovich (?-1668), the hetman of Left-bank Ukraine in 1663-1668. Achieved branch of Ukraine from Russia; it is killed by cossacks.
  • BRJUHONENKO Sergey Sergeevich (1890-1960), the Russian physiologist. Has developed a method and has created the first artificial blood-circulation apparatus (avtozhektor) (1920-25) which used in experiences on dogs at revival of their organism after approach of clinical mors. In 1945-51 on method Brjuhonenko revival of an organism of the person implemented. The lenin premium (1965, posthumously).
  • CASTROPODA (snails), class of mollusks. A head routinely with feelers and a pair{vapour;couple} of eyes. The shell (the altitude from 0,5 mm up to 70 sm) is turbinal, for some misses. 3 subclasses: perednezhabernye, pulmonary, Opisthobranchia; ok. 90 thousand kinds{views}. Marine, freshwater and terraneous forms. Many Castropoda intermediate hosts of parasitic worms, a number{series} of terraneous forms damage garden and ogorodnye crops, some - object of a craft.
  • BRJUHORESNICHNYE SEA-WORMS, the same, that gastrotrihi.
  • PERITONEUM, the thin serosa lining from within walls of an abdominal cavity and coating{covering} organs located in her. A peritonitis - a peritonitis.
  • ABDOMINAL CAVITY, part of a secondary perigastrium, or tseloma; for vertebrates contains an internals, except for kidneys and heart, and for mammals - and lungs. For the person an abdominal cavity call also as a cavity of a belly.
  • TYPHOID, the acute contagion of the person called by a bacterium from a stem of salmonellas (a fever, a heavy general condition, a crop, a defeat of an intestines). Infection from ill and bakterionositelej through water, I peep, dirty arms{hand}, flies.
  • BRJANKA, city (with 1962) on Ukraine, Lugansk region, on r. Lozovaja. Depot (Avdakovo). 64,1 thousand inhabitants (1991). Production of mineral coal. Factory of a drilling equipment.
  • BRYANSK, city in the Russian Federation, the centre of Bryansk region, on r. Desna. A railway junction. 460,5 thousand inhabitants (1992). A machine industry and metal working (a software " Bryansk machine works ", " Bryansk motor-works ", "Brjanskselmash", etc.), chemical, mild (including a worsted software), alimentary, etc. an industry. 4 high schools. 2 museums. 3 theatres. It is known with 1146.
  • BRYANSK RANGE, in the Russian Federation. 34,9 thousand êì2. The population of 1464 thousand person (1992), urban 68 %. 15 cities, 31 urban settlement (1991.) Center - Bryansk. A surface flat. Mean temperatures of January? 7 °S, July 18-19 °S. A rainfall ok. 600 mm annually. The main river - Desna. A machine industry (diesels, transport, agricultural, building, road, textile machines, rigs, refrigerator sections, etc.) and metal working, chemical, a building materials, mild, alimentary, wood and a woodworking industry. Crops of grain and technical crops; a potato growing. A vegetable raising, a fruit growing. A dairy - beef cattle husbandry, a swine breeding. A poultry breeding. In Great Domestic war in Bryansk woods - the centre of guerilla motion.
  • BRYANSK (an ice-film. fam. Grigorjev) Jacob Grigorjevich (1790-1853), the Russian actor. With 1811 on the Petersburg scene. The representative of Russian classicism.
  • The BRYANSK PRINCIPALITY, old russian, across the upper and mean Desna, is based in 1246, with 1356 in the Great principality Lithuanian. To 1500 Bryansk and grounds of the principality are reunified with Russian state.
  • BRJANTSEV Alexander Aleksandrovich (1883-1961), the Russian producer, the national actor of the USSR (1956). On the scene with 1904. One of osnovatelej and the first chiefs of domestic theatre for children. The organizer (1921) and the main producer (up to 1961) Leningrad TJUZa. The state premium of the USSR (1950).
  • BRJANTSEV (Brjantsov) Andrey Mihajlovich (1749-1821), the Russian philosopher, the professor of the Moscow university (with 1795). One of first has acquainted Russian readers with philosophy of the Cant.
  • BRJANTSEV Dmitry Aleksandrovich (r. 1947), the Russian ballet dancer, the ballet master, the national actor of Russia (1989). In 1966-77 in band the Moscow classical ballet. Put ballets at Major theatre, the Leningrad theatre him{it}. S.M.Kirova, etc. With 1985 main ballet master of the Moscow musical theatre him{it}. K.S.Stanislavsky and V.I.Nemirovich - Danchenko. Has delivered ballets: " the Hussar ballad " T.N.Hrennikova (1979), R.K.Schedrin (1981) "Pipit - Gorbunok", " Optimistic tragedy " M.B.Bronnera (1985), etc. On the Leningrad television has delivered films - ballets "Galatea" (1977) and " the Aged tango " (1978).
  • BRETIANU (Bratianu) Jon Junior (1864-1927), the chairman of Council of Ministers of Romania in 1908-11, 1914-19 (with a rest in 1918), 1922-26, 1927. With 1909 leader Natsional-liberal. One of organizers of capture (1918) Bessarabias, interventions against the Hungarian Soviet republic 1919.
  • BRETIANU (Bratianu) (Bratianu) Jon the Higher (1821-91), the chairman of Council of Ministers of Romania in 1876-88 (with a rest in 1881). The participant of " the Monstrous coalition ", with 1875 leader Natsional-liberal. Government Bretianu has proclaimed (1877) independence of the Romanian state of Turkey, has joined (1883) Romania to the Tripartite alliance 1882.
  • BRUGGE (flam. - Brugge, frants. - Brugts), city in Belgium, on Boreal pest, an administrative centre prov. Zap. Flanders. 117 thousand inhabitants (1992). A traffic centre; seaport (fore bays on Boreal m. - Zebrjugge and Ostende), a unit of shipping canals: Brugge - Zebrjugge, Brugge of Ostende, Brugge - Gent. A metal-working, machine-building, chemical, flavoring, textile industry, manufacture of laces. A museum of the Netherlands art. Municipal art passageway. It is known from 7 century. In 11-14 centuries one of the centres of shop handcraft largest in Europe and international trade. Gothic cloth numbers{series} (13-14 centuries) with a urban tower (13-15 centuries). Church Onze-live-Vrauekerk (13-16 centuries; with "Madonna" Mikelandzhelo).
  • " BRJUGGSKAJA the TENEBRAE ", revolt (on the night of May, 18 1302) handicraftsmen of Brugge against the French king Phillip IV who in 1300 has trapped Flanders; a signal to the overall revolt finishing with the French domination on a large part of Flanders.
  • TROUSERS (Bruck) Charles (r. 1911), the French conductor. The participant of movement of Resistance. In 1950-54 conductor of the Netherlands opera, with 1955 - an orchestra of the Wireless in Strasbure, in 1965-70 - the Philharmonic orchestra of the French wireless and a television.
  • SWEDE, biennial herbaceous plant of a stem cabbage of a set of a cruciferae family. Cultivate a swede a dining room and feed, in Europe, the Sowing. To America, the Sowing. To Africa; in the Russian Federation predominary in the Non-chernozem zone of the European part.
  • BRJUKNER (Bruckner) Alexander (1856-1939), Polish jazykoved and the literary critic, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1889). Transactionses on a history of Polish tongue and the literature. The main{basic} transactionses " the Etymological dictionary of Polish tongue " (1927).
  • BRYULLOV Alexander Pavlovich (1798-1877), the Russian architect, the representative of a serotinal{late} classicism. Brother K.P.Bryullov. Buildings of former headquarters of a Guards body (1837-43) on the Palace square in Saint Petersburg, Pulkovskoj observatories (1834-39); in a number{series} of activities used stylistics of the Gothic architecture.
  • BRJUMER (frants. brumaire, from brume - a fog{mist}), 2-nd month (on October, 22/23 November) the French republican calendar (1793-1805).
  • BRJUNETER (Brunetiere) Ferdinand (1849-1906), the French critic, the historian and the theorist of the literature. Changeover of literary directions and aesthetic tastes explained art aspirations of the creative person (" the History of the French literature of the classical season{term} ", 1904-12).
  • BRJUNING (Bruning) Genrih (1885-1970), German rejhskantsler in 1930-32, the representative of a roman catholic consignment of "Center". In 1934 has emigrated in the USA.
  • BRJUNSVIK (Brunschvicg) Leon (1869-1944), the French philosopher, the representative t. n. Critical rationalism. Asserted{approved} necessity of use for philosophy of a scientific method, expounding it{him} as activity of reason independent of the objective world.
  • BRUCE Robert (1274-1329), the Scottish king with 1306. In 1314 has divided the English army at place Bannokbern. In 1328 has achieved from England confession of independence of Scotland.
  • BRUCE William (1867-1921), the Scottish seafarer and the doctor. In 1892-93 and 1902-04 led oceanologic probes in m. Ueddella, has discovered Coats land in Antarctica. The writer of the design transantarkticheskogo transition from m. Ueddella to m. Rossa (has executed V.Fuks in 1957-58).
  • BRUCE Jacob Vilimovich (1670-1735), columns, the Russian state and military figure, spodvizhnik Peter I, the senator, president Berg and Manufactories - boards (1717), general - field marshal (1726). The participant of the Crimean and Azov marchings 80-90-Õ of 17 century and Boreal war 1700-21. Transferred{translated} foreign books, knew the Moscow civil printing house. His{its} name calls a civil calendar 1709-15.
  • BRYUSOV Alexander Jakovlevich (1885-1966), the archeologist, the doctor of historical sciences. Brother V.J.Bryusov. Transactionses on epoch of a neolith and bronze.
  • BRYUSOV Valery Jakovlevich (1873-1924), the Russian poet. The founder of Russian symbolism. A historical and cultural problematics, rationalism, a completeness of modes{images}, deklamatsionnyj build (books of verses " Tertia Vigilia " - " the Third sentinel ", 1900; " Urbi et Orbi " - " to City and the world ", 1903; "???????? " - "Wreath", 1906). Historical novels: " the Igneous angel " (1908), " the Altar of victory " (1913). After October revolution led public - pedagogical activity. Literary criticism. Transactionses on prosody.
  • BRUSHTEJN Alexander Jakovlevna (1884-1968), the Russian writer. The autobiographical trilogy, versed to the juvenile reader: " it is dear leaves in a distance... " (1956), " In rassvetnyj hour " (1958), "Spring" (1961).
  • MESENTERY (mezentery), the pleat of a peritoneum attaching an internals to walls of a perigastrium for the person and animal, having secondary cavity - the whole.
  • BRYZHI (polsk. bryze), a collar or extension{issue} on a breast by the way frills.
  • BRYZGINA (Vladykina) Olga Arkadjevna (r. 1963), Ukrainian sportsmenka (track and field). CHempionka Olympic Games (1988 and 1992) in trot race on 400 m and in relay race 4õ400 m. Repeated chempionka and rekordsmenka the USSR.
  • BRYZGUNY, a set of fishes of order okuneobraznyh. Length ok. 20 see 4-5 kinds{views}, in fresh and salty waters JUgo-Vost. Asia, in mangroves. Eat hexapods, forcing down{churning} their water jet from a mouth.
  • BRYL JAnka (Ivan Antonovich) (r. 1917), the Byelorussian writer, the national writer of Belarus (1981). The story " In Zabolotje dawns " (1950), collections of stories " Wash an edge{a boundarouse} native " (1960.) " Once again the first snow " (1977), the collection of lyrical miniatures " the Handful of sun rays " (1965), the documentary book " I - from igneous village " (1977; together with A.Adamovichem and V.Kolesnikom), sketches, books for children. The state premium of the USSR (1952).
  • BRYLSKAJA (Brylska) Barbara (r. 1941), a Polish actress. At kino with 1963. It was taken out in films: "Pharaon", " Pan Volodyevsky "; the Soviet films - "Discharging", " Cities and years ", " the Twist of fate, or With a lung the ferry ". The state premium of the USSR (1977).
  • BRYMBAROV Hristo (1905-74), the Bulgarian singer (baritone). The soloist of the Sofia national opera. Has acquired world popularity. The professor of State academy of music. Pupils: N.Gjaurov, D.Uzunov, etc.
  • SHEEP CHEESE (from rum. brinza), a brine-ripened cheese from a sheep milk or mixes sheep with the goat.
  • BRYNKOVJANU (Brankovjanu) (Brincoveanu) Konstantin (1654-1714), gospodar Walachia with 1688. Has discovered some printing houses, has executed{has come true} construction (1700-02) palaces Mogoshoaja (ok. Bucharest), etc. In 1703 has placed{installed} diplomatic relations with Russia. It is executed by turkish authorities.
  • BRYNKUSHI (Brincusi), frants. Brankuzi (Brancusi) Konstantin (1876-1957), the Romanian sculptor. One of ancestors of abstractionism in an european sculpture. Realistic portraits, plastic the generalized symbolical modes{images} (a series " the Bird in the space ", with 1910). In a memorial complex in. Tyrgu-ZHiu (1937-38) aspired{tried} to the modern interpretation of traditions of the Romanian folk art.
  • The BRAGG (Bragg), English physics, founders of a X-ray structural analysis, father and the son. First (1913) have deciphered nuclear structures of some crystals with the help of X-ray diffraction. The Nobel Prize (1915.1) William Genri (1862-1942), the member (1906) and the president (1935-40) London royal societies... 2) William Lawrence (1890-1971), director Kavendishskoj of laboratory (1938-53) and Royal institute in Cambridge (1954-60). Has placed{installed} t. n. Conditions of the Bragg - Woolf.
  • The BRAGG - WOOLF CONDITIONS of X-ray diffraction in a crystal: 2dsin?? = m?, where d - distance between reflecting crystal planes? - an angle between an incident ray and a reflecting plane? - a wavelength of radiance, m - the whole positive number. It is established{installed} in 1913 U.L.Breggom and separately by G.V.Woolf. Bragg - Woolf conditions - the basis{fundamentals} of a x-ray structural analysis.
  • BRADBURY (Bradbury) Rej Douglas (r. 1920), the American writer. The prose synthesising science fiction, a fairy tale, a parable, social - psychologic probe: the book " Martian chronicles " (1950), novels " Drevo Thanksgivings " (1972), " Mors - lone occupation " (1985); the collection of stories " Wine from dandelions " (1957); anti-Utopia " 451 ° on the Fahrenheit " (1953) about tragical influence on crop degumanizirujushchih the parties of technological advance. Verses.
  • BRADLEY (Bradley) Lobster Nelson (1893-1981), the American general (1950). In 2-¯ world war commanded a body, with 1944 1-st army and 12-th army group in Europe. In 1947-49 chief of an army headquarters the USA, in 1949-53 committee chairman of chiefs of headquarters of armed forces the USA and military committee of the NATO.
  • BRADLEY Frensis Gerberg (1846-1924), the English philosopher, the chapter English neogegeljanstva. Criticized a positivism and a utilitarianism from items teisticheskogo " absolute idealism ". The main composition " the Phenomena and a reality ".
  • BREDSTRIT (Bradstreet) Anna (1612-72), the first American poetess. The writer of the book " the Tenth muse who has recently appeared in America " (1650, it is published in the London). In the off-the-shelf time interest to its{her} creativity was involved{attracted} with poem Dzh dedicated her. Berrimena " the Tribute to madam Bredstrit " (1953).
  • BREILA (Braila) (Braila), city and a port on Danube, on the orient Romania, an administrative centre zhudetsa Breila. 235 thousand inhabitants (1992). Metallurgy, a machine industry, pulp and paper, chemical, cement, wood-working, sewing, a food-processing industry.
  • BRENGVIN (Brenguin) (Brangwyn) Frenk (1867-1956), the English schedule{chart} and the painter. In ekspressivnyh large etchings ("Sawhands", 1904) has embodied heroic and gravity of transactionses, inclement appearance of industrial cities. Anti-war lithographs and posters.
  • BRESTED (Breasted) James Genri (1865-1935), the American egyptologist, supervised over archeological excavations in Egypt and Nubia. Has emited the canopy drevneegipetskih historical documents.
  • BRUSILOVSKY Eugeny Grigorjevich (1905-81), the Kazakh composer, the national actor of Kazakhstan (1936). The writer of the first Kazakh operas, orchestral products{creations}. Operas " Êûç-Æèáåê " (1934), " Er Targyn " (1936), "Dudaraj" (1953), a cantata " the Soviet Kazakhstan ", 7 concordances, etc. The Professor of the Alma-Ati conservatory (with 1955). The state premium of the USSR (1948).
  • BRUSILOVSKY OUTBREAK, see. Southwest front approach.
  • BRUCITE, mineral of subclass of oxyhydroxides, Mg (OH) 2. routinely white sheet units. Hardness 2,5; firmness of 2,4 g / sm3. Meets by the way veins in serpentinitah and mramorizovannyh limestones. Raw material for ceramic and a paper industry, refractories.
  • BRUSKIN Grigory Davidovich (r. 1945), the Russian artist formed in a race course karnavalizma. With 1989 in the USA. Has acquired popularity the " the Fundamental lexicon " (1986) where figures, the carriers of an emblem of official Soviet crop, are shown together on major tables. In consequent creativity the same principles sots-arta are bridged to elements ironical iudaiki.
  • BRUSNEV Michael Ivanovich (1864-1937), the organizer and the chief of one of the first Russian social-democratic groups (1889-92); has organized over 20 working circles, strike, SHCHelgunovskuju demonstrating, the first mayovkas 1891. With 1907 political activity has departed.
  • COWBERRY, a set of dycotyledonous plants; predominary subshrubs, bushes and low bushes. Ok. 800 kinds{views} (35 stems), a large part in tropics and subtropics of America. To cowberry the small cranberry, a whortleberry, a cowberry, a blueberry concern.
  • BRUSSONETIJA, a stem of trees and bushes of a set of a mulberry family. 6-8 kinds{views}, in Vost. Asia and Polynesia. Brussonetiju impregnated-paper (the impregnated-paper tree, a paper mulberry) and brussonetiju kazinoki use for obtaining a high-performance paper. Cultivate as the decorative primarily in Crimea, on Caucasus and in Compare. Asia.
  • PARAPET (a nem. Brustwehr), a small dike - a part of an entrenchment or a trench, intended as a matter of convenience at shooting, protection against bullets, debris of gears and shades from supervision{observation} of the opponent.
  • SLONE BLOCKS, road-building material by the way bars (length 15-30, width 12-15, an altitude of 10-15 sm) from strong rocks (diabase, basalt, granite, etc.). It is sometimes applied to the device of covers{coatings} on most gruzonaprjazhennyh epines of automobile road paving.
  • BEAMS, gym sporting gear from 2 horizontal balks - poles fortified in 4 racks. Men compete on parallel, women - on unequal height beams.
  • BRUT Lutsy JUny, under the Roman legend, patritsy, headed revolt against Tarkvinija Proud and steady in 510-509 up to n. e. Republican build in Rome, one of the first consuls (together with Tarkviniem Kollatinom).
  • BRUT Mark Juny (85-42 up to n. e.), in Other. Rome the chapter (together with Kassiem) a plot 44 against Caesar. Under the legend, one of first has struck a blow to him a dagger. Has headed together with Kassiem republicans in extirpation with 2-nd triumvirate; having sufferred a defeat, has committed suicide.
  • BRUTALIZM (neobrutalizm) (from English brutal - rough), a direction in the architecture since 1950th, seek to maximum detection of architectonics of constructions with the help rough oshchutimosti, pointed out weightiness of architectonic forms; uses the natural pattern of the materials, exposed designs and systems of plumbing system of buildings (architects À. and P.Smitson in the Great Britain, P.Rudolf in the USA).
  • BRUTTII, one of italijskih osksko-umbrskih nations in JUzh. Italy (sovr. Calabria). In nach. 3 century up to n. e. pokoreny Rome. Allies karfagenskogo commander Gannibala during 2-nd Punic war.
  • GROSS (from ital. brutto - rough, impure), a commodity weight with packing. See also Net.
  • BRUCINE, the alkaloid keeping (alongside with a close strychnine on a structure) in macrotherms from a stem strihnos (nuxvomica). The strong poison, invokes{produces} spasms.
  • BRUSHLINSKY Andrey Vladimirovich (r. 1933), the Russian psychologist, corresponding member Russian AN (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1990). Activities under the theory of intellection and problems of originating and development of psychics of the person.
  • BRUKHEJVENSKAJA the NATIONAL LABORATORY (Brookhaven National Laboratory) the Energy Research and Development Administration the USA, is based in 1947 (about. Lond Island, pieces. New York). Probes on a nuclear energy, radiation medicine, etc.
  • BRUKHEJZEN (Broekhuizen) Joan van (1649-1707), the Netherlands soldier and the poet. Commentator Propertsija and Tibulla. Books "Verses" (1677, in the Netherlands tongue), "Poems" (1684, in latin tongue).
  • BRUM (Brum) Baltasar (1883-1933), the president of Uruguay in 1919-23, with 1913 on different portfolios. The adherent of reforms Batlje-i-Ordonjesa. Has committed suicide in a mark of the protest against establishment in country in 1933 dictatorships.
  • BRUMBERG Eugeny Mihajlovich (1907-77), the Russian engineer, the expert in range of optical instrumentation technologies. Has created a number{series} of original optical devices: ultrahemiskop (the device for a development hromogramm in ultraviolet rays), a ultrofioletovyj-microscope. Has developed the method of a contact luminescent microscopy used at study of a microstructure of microscopic sections of organs and tissues of the person and animal. The state premium of the USSR (1942).
  • BRUNGILDA (Brunhilde) (ok. 534-613), frankskaja queen, with 575 actually steered Avstraziej. Combated king Nejstrii Hilperikom I and his{its} wife Fredegondoj and with avstrazijskoj znatju. Has sufferred a defeat. It is executed.
  • BRUNGILDA (Brjunhilda), in the Scandinavian mythology one of valkiry; in german " Songs about Nibelungah " the queen of Iceland becoming suprugoj Guntera, king burgundov; vinovnitsa morses Zigfrida.
  • BRUNEI, Brunei Darussalam (Brunei Darussalam), the state in JUgo-Vost. Asia, on northwest coast about. Kalimantan. 5,8 thousand êì2. The population of 275 thousand person (1993); primarily malayans, and also Chinese, dajaki, etc. The Urban population of 90 % (1993). Official languages - malayan and English. The majority of believers - moslems - sunnity. Capital - Bandar Seri Begawan. Enters into Commonwealth. Brunei - the constitutional monarchy (sultanat). The chief of state - the anthurus. A large part of a surface - plain. A climate equatorial. An air temperature all the year ok. 26 °S. A rainfall 2000 - 4000 mm annually. St. 75 % of terrain take the wet tropical forests. In 1888-1983 British protectorate. On January, 1 1984 independence of Brunei is professed. The basis{fundamentals} of economy - a crude production, manufacture of liquified gas. A lobe in a gross internal product (1990, %) an industry 41,6, an agriculture 2,1. Cultivate rice, a sago palm; Plantations of rubber plants. Animal husbandry. Timber loggings. Oil processing. A principal view of the transport - river navigation. An expansion (1990) railways of 19 kms, motorways of 2,2 thousand in km. Export: the petroleum, the liquefied natural gas, petroleum, rubber, saw-timber. The main{basic} foreign trade partners: Japan, JUzh. Korea, Singapore. Monetary unit - dollar of Brunei.
  • BRUNELLESKI (Brunelleschi) Filippo (1377-1446), the italian architect, the sculptor, the scientist. Worked in Florence. One of creators of the architecture of Revitalization and the theory of a linear perspective. Innovatively used antique traditions. Products{creations} Brunelleski differ harmonic clearness, strictness of proportions, perfection{efficiency} of construction solutions (a dome of a cathedral Santa-mary del Fjore, 1420-36; Ospedale delji Innochenti, 1421-44; chapel Patstsi, 1429, - all in Florence).
  • BRUNER (Bruner) Dzherom Sejmur (r. 1915), the American psychologist. One of the first beginnings of probe of requirements and values as organizing factors of perception. Transactionses on problems of education{learning}.
  • BRUNI Lion Aleksandrovich (1894-1948), the Russian artist, in the 1910-beginning of 1920th bordered on to futurism and constructivism, creating counterreliefs and pointless compositions. The virtuoso of drawing, a light colour stain, has transfered to more traditional painting and the schedule{chart} (including to landscapes of desert Optinoj) in spirit of " quiet art " later. Was also the master of monumental painting (in 1935-48 headed the conforming studio at Academy of the architecture), developing here again principles alien to semi-official organ free, rhythmically - refined creativity.
  • BRUNI (Bruni) Leonardo (a nickname - Aretino) (1370 or 1374-1444), the italian humanist. Settled idea of full growth of the personality, condemned asceticism. The convinced republican, the opponent of tyranny. The writer of products{creations} " the History of Florence " (t. 1-12, 1439), " Life Dante ", " Petrarca Life ".
  • BRUNI Feodor Antonovich (1799-1875), the Russian historical painter. Combined elements of a classicism and romanticism (" the Copper snake ", 1827-41). With kon. 1840th the chapter of Russian academism (paintings Isaakievskogo of a cathedral in Saint Petersburg, 1841-45).
  • BRUNNER (Brunner) Genrih (1840-1915), the german historian, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1908). Transactionses on a history of the state and the right of an early West-European Middle Ages. The adherent of the communal theory.
  • BRUNNER Emil (1889-1966), the Swiss Protestant theologian, the representative of dialectic theology.
  • BRUNFELS (Brunfels) Otto (1488-1534), german botanik. The writer of the first botanical atlas (" Alive plotting of plants ", t. 1-3, 1530-36). Linnej has called Brunfelsa as the father of botany.
  • BALK (rod) (in structural mechanics), the structural member, which crosscut measurements are small as contrasted to in length.
  • BRUSILOV Alexey Alekseevich (1853-1926), the Russian military figure, the general from a cavalry (1912). In 1-¯ world war by commanding 8-th army in Galitsijskoj to battle, with 1916 commander-in-chief of Southwest front, has conducted successful approach (t. n. Brusilovsky outbreak). In May - July 1917 supreme commander in chief. With 1920 in Red Army, in 1923-1924 inspector of a cavalry.
  • BRUSILOV George Lvovich (1884-1914?), the Russian explorer of Arctic regions, the lieutenant of fleet. In 1910-11 participant of hydrographic expedition on courts " Òàéìûð " and "Vaigach". In 1912-14 chief of expedition on a schooner " St.. Anna " which purpose was to pass on Boreal marine ways from Atlantic in Quiet ok. The destiny of expedition is unknown.
  • BROH (Broch) Hermann (1886-1951), the Austrian writer. In novels "Lunatics" (1931-32), " Mors Vergilija " (1945), the anti-fascist novel "Adversary" (1953) has shown devaluation of traditional values in the modern world.
  • BROSHKEVICH (Broszkiewicz) Hedgehogs (r. 1922), the Polish writer, the playwright. Roman about F.Shopene " the Mode{Image} of love " (1950), dilogija " Ten precepts " (1970-71), the psychologic novel "Doctor Tvardovsky" (1977-79); plays of a morally - philosophical problematics.
  • BROOCH (frants. broche), a dressing with a fastener for prikalyvanija it{him} to a coat frock for a neck, on a breast or on a collar.
  • The BOOKLET (frants. brochure), printed publicity material of small volume (in international practice from 5 up to 48 pages).
  • STITCHING PROCESSES (broshjurovka) (from frants. brocher - to crosslink{sew}, clamp), machining of stamped leafs at manufacturing booklets, log-books, books. The main{basic} operations: razrezka and a fillister of leafs, apposition of secondary members (case histories, fly-leafs, etc.), acquisition of writing-books in the unit and their binding.
  • BRUGMAN (Brugmann) Charles (1849-1919), german jazykoved, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1893). One of founders mladogrammatizma. Transactionses on comparative grammar indoevropejskih tongues.
  • BROODER (English brooder, from brood - to sit on eggs), the device for a heating of young plants of an agricultural bird in the first weeks of life. A roof hood of the pyramid-shaped form inside which the defroster is built.
  • BRUEVICH Nikolay Grigorjevich (1896-1987), the Russian scientist, academician AN the USSR (1942), the general - lieutenant of an engineering - air service (1944). One of creators of the theory of accuracy and reliability of machines and devices.
  • BROOK (Brooke) Alan Frensis (1883-1963), the British field marshal (1944). In 2-¯ world war the commander of the English body in France, in 1940-41 parent states commanding by a troops, in 1941-46 chief of an imperial General Staff.
  • BROOK (Broek Van den) Antonius van den (1870-1926), the Netherlands lawyer (the doctor of the right, 1895) and physics. Up to 1903 was engaged in legal practice, then his{its} interests have transferred in range of natural sciences. The main{basic} transactionses are connected to study of a structure of an atomic kernel, isotopism. In 1913 has made a hypothesis, according to which nuclear charge of atom numerically is peer to a serial number of the conforming element a periodic system.
  • BROOK Isaak Semenovich (1902-74), the Russian scientist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1939). The main{basic} transactionses on electrical power systems, a computer.
  • BROOKITE, mineral of subclass of simple oxides, one of 3 natural polymorphic updatings TiO2.
  • BRUKNER (Brookner) Anita (r. 1928), the English writer. Psychologic novels "Hotel" For lake " (1984, premium Bukera), "Mismarriage" (1986), " Serotinal{Late} stay " (1988), etc.
  • BRUKNER (Bruckner) Anton (1824-96), the Austrian composer, the organist, the teacher. One of the largest symphonists 2-nd floor. 19 century of 11 concordances, 4 masses, the Requiem mass (1849). A magnificat (1852), songs, etc.
  • BRUKNER Ferdinand (an ice-film. A name and fam. Teodor Tagger, Tagger) (1891-1958), the Austrian writer. An acute psychologic conflictness in anti-fascist dramas " Elizabeth English " (1930), " the Heroic comedy " (production in 1942), " Simon the Bolivar " (1945).
  • The BROOKS (Brooks) Van Vick (1886-1963), the American literary critic. It is close to cultural - historical school. Books " Lawful age of America " (1915), " M.Twain Torture " (1920), and also about G.James, G.Melville, R.U.Emerson. A cycle of activities about a becoming of the American literary tradition and its{her} value for a modernity.
  • The BROOKS (Brooks) Gvendolin (r. 1917), the afro-American poetess. Collections of verses " Street in Brounzville " (1945), " Mouths to feed of a bean " (1960), the anthology " World Gvendolin the Brooks " (1971). The autobiographical book " Statements from a part first " (1972).
  • The BROOKS (Brooks; an ice-film. Name Melvin Kaminski, Kaminsky) the Chalk (r. 1926), the American continuity writer, the producer, the actor, the producer. Has become it is known as the writer of parodies to popular Hollywood genres - a western (" Blazing saddle ", 1973), films of horrors (" Pullet{Young man} Frankenshtejn ", 1974, " Pavor of an altitude ", 1977), etc.
  • The BROOKS the BACKBONE (Brooks Range), in the Sowing. To America, in a north of Alaska. Length ok. 1000 kms. An altitude up to 2761 m. Mountain tundra.
  • BRIGANTINE (from ital. brigantino).. 1) a marine sailing two-masted vessel with goosewings on a forward{front} spar tree (foremast) and skew on rear (mainmast). In 17-19 centuries were used in a VTR... 2) Parusno-rowing in Russian fleet of 18 century for a troop movement and freights in offshore areas; had 2-3 instruments.
  • BRIGGEN (Brigen) Alexander Fedorovich (1792-1859), the decembrist, the colonel in demission. The participant of Domestic war of 1812 and oversea marchings. The member of " Soyuz of prosperity " and Boreal society of decembrists. It is convicted on 2 years of penal servitude. With 1827 in Nerchinskih mines, in 1828-56 on a settlement in Pelyme, Kurgan.
  • BRIGITA (latinisen form Brigantia, from irl. Top), the goddess of the Celtic myths, daughter Dagdy, the goddess of wisdom, the patroness of poetic handcraft and secret knowledge. It was figured in a mode{an image} of a bird with a human head.
  • BREEDER (English breeder), a version of the reactor - razmnozhitelja.
  • BRIDGE (English bridge, characters. - the bridge), a version of gambling (2 pairs{vapours;couples} playing) with a pack from 52 maps. Has arisen presumably in Constantinople (in 1870), under other data - in Russia (in 1880th). The sporting version of a bridge is most distributed. World league of a bridge (WBF; it is based in 1960) integrates 96 countries (1990). The european league of a bridge is based in 1948, the All-Russia league of a sporting bridge - in 1989. Olympic world championships - with 1950, Europe - with 1932 are carried out{conducted} with 1960.
  • SERVICE BREECHES (from English breeches), the trousers, fitting a shin and little bit extending up. Them have routinely with boots (napr., at a horseback riding). In some armies a fitting of an officer service dress.
  • The BRIDGEMAN (Bridgman) Persi Williams (1882-1961), American physics and the philosopher. The founder of high-pressure physics, has developed methods for obtaining pressure up to 425 thousand atmospheres, probeed properties of many substances at high pressure (the Nobel Prize, 1946). One of creators operatsionalizma.
  • BRIDGEPORT (Bridgeport), city and a port on north-east the USA, pieces. Connecticut. 142 thousand inhabitants (1990, with suburbs over 400 thousand inhabitants). A machine industry and metal working, a chemical industry. Universities.
  • BRIDGETOWN (Bridgetown), capital and a main port of Barbados. 97,5 thousand inhabitants (1990, with suburbs). An international airport. Flavoring, a light industry.
  • BRIEDE (Briede) Alexander (r. 1901), the Latvian sculptor, the national artist of the USSR (1972), corresponding member AH (1958). Chamber and monumental statues, gravestones in Riga, portraits, small-sized porcelain a plastic.
  • BRIER (Brierre) Jean (r. 1909), the haitian poet and the public figure. Writes in French. Patriotic dramas in verses, poems " Black a shower " (1947), "Discoverings" (1962); the collection of verses " we Shall save the god " (1945) Z.Rumenu, " Other world " (1973), " Figures from clay and gold " (1977) is dedicated.
  • BRISANCE (from frants. brisant - dividing), ability of blasting explosives to effect at explosion aboriginal cleavage of a solid medium, accumbent directly to a charge. Industrial blasting explosives have brisance of 7-30 mm.
  • BLASTING BLASTING EXPLOSIVES, class of blasting explosives, which explosive metamorphosis{transformation} weeps in the form of a knocking. Apply to equipment of an ammunition, primers - detonators and at blasting.
  • BREEZES (frants. brise), winds with daily periodicity on coasts of seas and large lakes. The sea breeze blows from a water reservoir on a heated shore, night - from a cooled shore on a water reservoir. Breezes are routinely distributed to some tens kilometres on both parties from a sealine and on an altitude of several hundreds meters; most often are supervised in tropics.
  • BRIQUETTE (frants. briquette), pressed by the way a brick, a bar, etc. coal, ore, sawdust or other small-sized material with the purpose of reduction of loss at his{its} further use. For consolidation of briquettes use connecting additives (artificial asphalt, bitumen, water glass, cement, etc.). It is offered in Russia A.P.Veshnjakovym (30th of 19 century).
  • BRIKNER (Brjukner) (Bruchner) Edward (1862-1927), the german geographer and klimatolog. Transactionses on alternations of a climate (t. n. Briknerov a cycle, length ok. 35 flying), evstaticheskim to sea level fluctuations, a glaciation of the Alpes. The co-author (from A.Penkom) concepts of an ancient glaciation of the Alpes.
  • BRILING Nikolay Romanovich (1876-1961), the Russian scientist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1953). The main{basic} transactionses on automotive industry, internal-combustion engines, thermotechnics.
  • BRONCHIAL ASTHMA, see. An asthma bronchial.
  • BRONCHIOLES, final smallest branchings of bronchuses in pulmonary slices, free of a cartilage and passing in alveolar courses of lungs.
  • BRONCHITIS, disease of a respiratory organs of the person and animal with a defeat of a wall of bronchuses. For the person distinguish a bronchitis acute and chronic. Attributes: tussis with a sputum, a fervescence, a short wind. Principal causes: infections, professional a harmfulness, smoking, refrigerating.
  • BRONCHADENITIS, inflammation of intrathoracic lymphonoduses (is more often at turebkuleze).
  • BRONCHOGRAPHY, method of a X-ray inspection trachea and bronchuses after introduction in them of radiopaque substance.
  • BRONCHOPNEUMONIA, the same, that a focal pneumonia.
  • BRONCHOSCOPY (from bronchuses and... skopija), research technique of wind - pipes with the help of a bronchoscope (a metal tube with optical and lighting systems) which introduce through companies into a trachea and bronchuses.
  • BRONSTEIN David Ionovich (r. 1924), the Russian chess player, the international grandmaster (1950), the deserved master of sport (1951). The participant of a world-title match from M.M.Botvinnikom (1951), tournaments of claimants (1950, 1953, 1956). The champion of the USSR (1948-49).
  • BRONJAR (Brongniart), the French scientists, father and the son: 1) Alexander (1770-1874), the geologist, the member Parisian AN (1815). Has entered concept about managing minerals and promoted building of a paleontologic method in a stratigraphy. With 1800 director Sevrskoj of porcelain factory where has organized a museum of ceramics... 2) Adolf Teodor (1801-76), botanik, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1829). Transactionses on an embryology, physiologies, a taxonomist of plants, paleobotanics.
  • The ARMOUR, protective equipment of people, combat material, arms, shore fortifications from influence of a different means of a defeat. It is produced from steel, and also from high-strength aluminium alloys, plastics materials, etc. Distinguish bullet-proof and protivosnarjadnuju the armour.
  • BROSNAN (Brosnan) Peirce (r. 1952), the English film actor. After roles in films " Long good Friday " and "Lawn-mower" has become famous as the alternate initiator of a role of the superspy 007 Jamess Bonda (" the Golden eye ", 1995, producer M.Campbell).
  • DUMPING, see. Dumping.
  • BROSSE (Brosset) Maries Ivanovich (Goosefoot Felisite) (1802-80), the Russian historian, the academician Petersburg AN (1838). The native of France, in Russia with 1836. Transactionses on archeology and histories of Georgia and Armenia 5-18 centuries, histories of the Georgian and Armenian literature and tongue.
  • BROUVER (Brouwer) À., see Brouwer And.
  • BROUDE Vladimir Lvovich (1924-78), Russian physics, the doctor of physical and mathematical sciences (1963). Transactionses on spectroscopy of a solid, predominary molecular crystals. Has conducted a cycle theoretical and experimental researches of excitons in crystals. The lenin premium (1966).
  • BROWN (Brown) (Brown) Robert (1773-1858), English botanik, foreign corresponding member (1826) and the honorary member (1827) Petersburg AN. Has described a nucleus of a plant cell and a structure of a seedbud. Has placed{installed} the main{basic} distinctions{differences} between gymnosperm and pokrytosemennymi plants (1825), has discovered a Brownian movement (1827).
  • BROWN (Browne) Ð., see Brown R.
  • BROWNS Peter Ivanovich (1852/53-1927), the Russian meteorologist, one of founders of an agrometeorology, corresponding member AN the USSR (1925; corresponding member Petersburg AN with 1916, corresponding member Russian AN with 1917). Has entered (1910) concept of a "outside" (geographycal) environment of the Earth.
  • BROWNIAN MOVEMENT (braunovskoe motion), random motion of ultimate particles, fluidized in a liquid or gas, under influence of impacts of molecules of an environment; it is open{discovered} by R.Brounom.
  • BROWN - SEKAR (Brown-Sequard) Charles (1817-94), the French physiologist and the neurologist. The main{basic} transactionses on physiology and a pathology of central nervous system. Probeed physiology of the endocrine glands, "rejuvenating" action on an organism of the person of an extract from seed plants animal.
  • ARMOURED PERSONNEL CARRIER, the battle armoured caterpillar or wheel machine for transportation motorized-rifle (motor-infantry) subdividings (up to 20 person) to a battlefield and their firing support. Are to a tower and without it{her}. Arms - machine guns, a pappus, etc. Speed of caterpillar armoured personnel carriers up to 70, wheel up to 110 km/h. For the first time have appeared in the Great Britain in 1918.
  • BRONZE (frants. bronze), alloys Cu (basis{fundamentals}) with other elements (napr., Sn, Al, Be, Pb, Cd, Cr; accordingly bronzes call tin, aluminium, beryllium, etc.). A broad band of properties and applications.
  • BRONZINO (Bronzino) Angelo (1503-72), the italian painter. The representative manjerizma. Coldly refined, passionless portraits (" Eleonora Toledskaja with the son ", ok. 1545).
  • BRONZING, 1) electrolytic or metallizatsionnoe deposition on a surface of a metal goods of a blanket of bronze... 2) Collimating of a surface of items of a bronzy sheen by colour t. n. bronzirovalnymi powders.
  • BRONZITE, see in an item. Ortopirokseny.
  • BRONZOV Alexander Aleksandrovich (1858-1919), the Russian orthodox seminary student, the historian of ethics and moral theology, the philologist. The professor of the Petersburg spiritual academy (with 1897). Transactionses - " Aristotel and Thomas Akvinat in attitude{relation} to their doctrine about morals " (1884).
  • BRONZE DISEASE (Addisonova disease, named describing her{it} in 1849-55 English doctor T.Addisona), the endocrine disease stipulated by failure of function of a bark of suprarenal glands (a tuberculosis, a tumour, etc.). The intensive xanthopathy, asthenia, an exhausting are characteristic.
  • BRONZOVKI, a subfamily of bugs of a set of leaf-horned beetles. Length 1-10 see. Colour bright, with a metal drip mould. St. 2600 kinds{views}, predominary in tropics and subtropics, including goliaths (Africa), etc. Some bronzovki (napr., olenka) - pests of cultivated plants.
  • BRONZE AGE, the historical season{term} replaced eneolit and defined by distribution{propagation} of metallurgy of bronze, bronze instruments and weapons in kon. 4 - nach. 1-st thousand up to n. e. (in separate locales later). In a bronze age the nomadic cattle breeding and irrigation agriculture, writing, rabovladenie (the Near East, China, JUzh have appeared. America, etc.). It was replaced by the Iron Age.
  • BRONZOGRAFIT, the porous sintered material keeping particles of black lead (0,5 - 4 %), bronzes uniform between crystals (ok. 6-10 % Sn); pores bronzografita are filled in with oil{butter}. From bronzografita produce barrels for plain bearers.
  • BRONZE FROM RIACHE, two bronze statues of exposed soldiers there is more than real size, are raised from starving bliz Riache (JUzh. Italy). Probably, plump in Athenes in it is grey. 5 century up to n. e. Remain deposited in the National archeologic museum Reggio di Calabria.
  • BRONN (Bronn) Genrih George (1800-62), a german paleontologist, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1859). One of osnovatelej taxonomists of minerals of Invertebrata. The adherent of catastrophism Kjuvje.
  • BRONNIKOV Dmitry Mihajlovich (r. 1913), the Russian scientist, corresponding member Russian AN (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1979). Transactionses on a underground extraction of ore deposits. The state premium of the USSR (1979).
  • BRONNITSY, city (with 1781) in the Russian Federation, the Moscow region, in 13 kms from zh.-d. An item. Bronnitsy. Landing stage on r. Moscow. 16,5 thousand inhabitants (1992). A light industry; manufacture of jewels; litejno-mechanic factory. It is known with 1453.
  • BRONNYJ the ORDER, central official body of the Russian state in 1573 - 1-st floor. 17 century. Knew manufacturing of a military armour (top sections, etc.).
  • BRONTE (Bronte), the English writers, sisters: 1) Charlotte (psevd. Karrer Bell, Currer Bell) (1816-55) - social - psychologic novels " Dzhen Ejr " (1847), "SHerli" (1849...2) Emili (1818-48) - the novel " the Thunderstorm saddle-point " (1847), proniknutyj romantic attitude... 3) Anna (1820-49) - the autobiographical novel " Agnes the Gray " (1847).
  • BRONTOSAURS, the same, that apatozavry.
  • BRONTOTERII, a stem of extinct perissodactyl mammals. Lived in paleogene, in the Sowing. To America and Eurasia. Are similar on rhinoceroses. An altitude up to 2,5 m.
  • BRONCHUSES (from grech. bronchos - a trachea, a trachea), tubular pneumatic branches trachea. The wall of bronchuses actuates cartilaginous rings or a plate. All bronchuses, branching up to bronchioles, compound{make} the unified bronchial tree conductive air at an inhalation and an expiration. A basic disease of bronchuses - a bronchitis.
  • BROKHAUZ (Brockhouse) Bertram (r. 1918), canadian physics. Has developed with employees the scheme of a three-axial neutron spectrometer and has conducted (1955) measurement of spectrums of photons, having discovered a recent trend and physics. For the first time has measured dispersible curves of quasi-particles (magnons) in magnetics. The Nobel Prize (1994, together with K.Shallom).
  • BROMINE (an armour. Bromum), Br, the chemical element of VII group of a periodic system, atomic number 35, atomic weight 79,904, falls into to halogens. It is called from grech. bromos - a stink. A heavy red - brown liquid fuming on air with sharp off-flavour; firmness of 3,1 g / sm3, tïë-7,25 °S, têèï 59,2 °S. Apply as the brominating agent, to obtaining bromides, organic and other connections of bromine, in an analytical chemistry. Bromine is toxicant.
  • BROMARGIRIT, a mineral, see in an item. Bromides natural.
  • BROMATES, salt bromic acid HBrO3. The strong oxidants. KBrO3 and NaBrO3 apply in an analytical chemistry.
  • PINEAPPELE FAMILY (pineapple), a set of Monocotyledones, mostly perennial, herbaceous plants (predominary epiphytes). St. 2000 kinds{views} (ok. 50 stems), in tropics and subtropics of America. To a pineappele family concern a pineapple, luiziansky a moss.
  • BROMIDES, chemical combinations of bromine with other elements. See. Kalii bromidum, Natrium of bromides.
  • BROMIDES NATURAL, group of infrequent minerals, halogen compounds of silver. Main minerals: bromargirit (AgBr), embolit Ag (Cl, Br). Grains of yellow or yellow-green colour, crystals with a bright brillant lustre. Hardness 2-2,5; firmness from 5,7 (embolit) up to 6,4 g / sm3 (bromargirit). Meet in sulphidic argentiferous deposits.
  • BROMISM, development of a hypersensibility to drugs of bromine: tussis, a rhinitis, a conjunctivitis, bromoderma.
  • BROMY (grech. Noisy), in Other. Greeces one of nicknames Dionisa.
  • BROMINDIGO, the blue vat dyestuff, a derivative indigo. More strongly and more brightly the latter. It is applied to a staining and a seal{printing} cotton and rayon fabrics.
  • HYDROGEN BROMIDE, HBr, colourless gas fuming on air with sharp off-flavour, tïë - 86,91 °S, têèï - 66,7 °S. A water solution - bromidovodorodnaja an acid. Apply to synthesis of bromides, organic bromproizvodnyh.
  • BROMLEJ Julian Vladimirovich (1921-90), the Russian historian and the ethnographer, academician AN the USSR (1976). The main{basic} transactionses on theoretical problems of ethnography and european feudalism. State premiums of the USSR (1981, 1987).
  • BROMINE WATER, solution of bromine in water. An oxidant, a brominating means at chemical analyses and synthesis of some organic drugs.
  • BROMODERMA, a development of a bromism: dermal emptyings by the way cyanotic eels or violet tumorous plaques on a face, anticnemions, rumps, sometimes on all body.
  • ARMOURED CAR, armoured, armed machine guns, sometimes a gun, the wheel machine intended for investigation, battle ohranenija, etc. It was applied in 1-st world, Civil and 2-nd world wars. Armoured cars of different phylums will consist in the inventory in some modern armies.
  • BRONEVSKY (Broniewski) Vladislav (1897-1962), the Polish poet. Revolutionary and anti-fascist collections " Grief and a song " (1932), " To adjoin spits! " (1943). A cycle of intimal, landscape and civil lyrics " New verses " (1957-62).
  • The ARMADILLO, a combat ship in 2-nd floor. 19 - nach. 20 centuries with turret artillery of large templet (up to 305 mm) and the potent armour. In Russian fleet there were the fleet attendance armadilloes intended for management of sea battle in structure of a squadron, and armadilloes of the coastal defence. After russko-Japanese war 1904-05 ships{spacecrafts} such as fleet attendance armadilloes become to call as capital ships.
  • ARMADILLOES, a set of mammals of an edentata. Length of a body from 12 sm up to 1 m. An armour from horn shchitkov. 20-25 kinds{views} in America (from the south the USA up to Chile and Argentina). Object of a hunt (meat is used). Number of many kinds{views} is low-level, 4 kinds{views} are guarded.
  • ARMOURED TRAIN, armoured mobile the train from broneparovoza (broneteplovoza), several bronevagonov (broneploshchadok) with machine-gun both gun arms and 2-4 ramps of cover. It was applied in 1-st world, Civil and 2-nd world wars.
  • BRODSKY Alexander Iljich (1895-1969), fizikohimik, academician AN of Ukraine (1939), corresponding member AN the USSR (1943), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1969). The main{basic} transactionses on electrochemistry, chemistry and an isotope separation, the theory of a chemical bond. Under Brodsky guiding for the first time in the USSR installation on obtaining a heavy water (1934) is built. The state premium of the USSR (1946).
  • BRODSKY Joseph Aleksandrovich (1940-96), the Russian poet; wrote also in English. In 1972 has emigrated in the USA. In verses (collections " the Shut-down in desert ", 1967, " the End of perfect{fine} epoch ", " the Part of speech ", both 1972, "Uranija", 1987) understanding of the world as the unified metaphysical and cultural whole. Distinctive features of style - stiffness and latent pathetics, irony and a bruise (early Brodsky), meditativnost, sold through the circulation to the complicated associative modes{images}, cultural reminiscences (sometimes resulting in leakproofness of the poetic space). An essay, stories, plays, transfers{translations}. The Nobel Prize (1987).
  • BRODSKY Isaak Izrailevich (1883/84-1939), the Russian painter and the schedule{chart}, the honored worker of arts of Russia (1938). Artistic - documentary, historico-revolutionary patterns (" Shooting of 26 Baku commissioners ", 1925, " Lenin in Smolnom ", 1930), portraits, landscapes. The director (with 1934) All-Russia AH in Leningrad.
  • FORDS, city (with 1939) on Ukraine, the Lvov region. A depot. 24 thousand inhabitants (1991). The enterprises alimentary, mild, a metal-working industry. It is known from 12 century.
  • " NOMADIC SCENES " the THEORY, the same, that the migratory theory.
  • FERMENTATION, process of enzimatic degradation of organic substances, predominary the carbohydrates, weeping without use of oxygen. Is an energy source for vital activity of an organism and plays a major role in a cycle in a nature. Some kinds{views} of fermentation called by microorganisms (alcohol, lactate, butyrate, acetic), are used in manufacture of alcohol, glycerine and other technical and foodstuffs.
  • BROILER (English broiler, from broil - to roast on fire), a chicken in the age of up to 70 sut, weighing up to 2 kg. For manufacture of broilers use meat - egg, meat breeds of hens and meat lines of these breeds. The hybrid young plants of other kinds{views} of the bird, cultivated on meat (ducklings than 8 weeks are not more higher, gusjat and tsesarjat than 12 weeks are not more higher, turkey poultries than 19 weeks are not more higher) call as a broiler also.
  • BROJL (de Brolji) (de Broglie), French physics, brothers: 1) Moris (1875-1960), foreign corresponding member AN the USSR (1927). Transactionses on X-ray spectroscopy, nuclear and a nuclear physics... 2) Lui (1892-1987), foreign member AN the USSR (1958), one of creators of a quantum mechanics, has put forward (1924) idea about undular properties of a matter. Transactionses on a structure of an atomic kernel, distribution{propagation} of electromagnetic waves in waveguides, a history and a methodology of physics. The Nobel Prize (1929).
  • BROK (Broch) Olaf (1867-1961), the Norwegian Slavist, foreign member AN the USSR (1925; the foreign member Petersburg AN with 1916). The main{basic} transactionses in range of east - slavonic and Serbo-Croatian dialectology, phonetics of slavonic tongues, etc. Transfer{Translation} of the Russian literature on the Norwegian tongue.
  • BROKA (Broca) Pol (1824-80), the French anatomist and the anthropologist. Has based the Anthropological society in Paris (1859). Has discovered a motorium of speech (centre Broka) in a brain (1863). Transactionses on a technique of anthropology, about the modern and ancient population of France, a comparative anatomy of primates.
  • BROKAR (Brocard) Genrih Afanasjevich (1836-1900), the perfumer, the businessman. From family of the French perfumer. From 1861 cable cores in Russia, remaining the French citizen. In 1872 has founded the trading house, in 1893 - Company of perfumery manufacture in Moscow " Brokar and To ". Has invented a new way of manufacturing of concentrated spirits. Has created new aromas, studied influence of spirits on an emotion of the person. The master of extravagant advertising. On the All-Russia commercial and industrial exhibition in 1896 in N.Novgorode has arranged for charge-free use a spout from flower cologne which manufacture for the first time has discovered in Russia. Has collected an art collection (ceramics, porcelain, bronze, etc.) which annually was on display in the charitable purposes.
  • BROCKHAUS (Brockhaus), a german book-publishing firm, founded F.A.Brockhaus (1772-1823) in 1805 in Amsterdam (then Altenburg and Leipzig). With 1808 emitted the encyclopedia under the title "Brockhaus" (for 19 century there were 14 issuings); 15 (1928-37, 21 volume, Leipzig) - 18 (1977-81, 12 volumes, Wiesbaden) are exhausted under the title " Major Brockhaus ". In 80th the firm " Bibliographic institute F.A.Brockhaus " was included in publishing group " Ëàíãåíøàéäò ".
  • BROKDORF-RANTSAU (Brockdorff-Rantzau) Ulrih (1869-1928), columns, the chief of the German delegacy on the Parisian nonpredatory conference 1919-20, the opponent of signing of the Versailles peace treaty 1919. In 1922-28 salting in the USSR.
  • BROKEN-HILL, the title of Kabwe in Zambia up to 1967.
  • BROKEN-HILLSKY the PERSON, rodezijsky the person, a skull and separate bones of a skeleton of the person of neanderthal type (see. Neanderthal men), found in Broken Hill (Kabwe) in Zambia (the Sowing. Rodezii) in 1921.
  • BROKERS (English, a unit of hours broker) (brokers), separate persons or the firms specializing on intermediary exchange transactions; for intermediary receive compensation in the form of fixed percent from an amount of transaction.
  • BROKKELMAN (Brokelman) (Brockelmann) Charles (1868-1956), the german orientalist. Transactionses on a history of the Orient, the Arabian literature, semitologii; the biobibliographic dictionary Arabian and arabojazychnyh poets, writers, scientists of 6-20 centuries.
  • BROCKEN (Brocken), top in mountains Harz, in Germany. An altitude of 1142 m. A number{series} is connected to her german national povery (a Shabash of witches on Brocken in Valpurgievu night, etc.).