Monday, June 18, 2007

  • VOLKONSKY Mihail Nikolaevich (1860-1917), prince, the Russian writer, the playwright. Parody opera " Vampuka, princess African " (1900; see an item " Vampuka... "). Historical novels and stories (" Maltese a circuit ", 1891; " Will of destiny ", 1893; " the Ring of the empress ", 1896, etc.); stories, feuilletons, plays.
  • VOLKONSKY Peter Mihajlovich (1776-1852), the Russian general - field marshal (1850), svetlejshy prince (1834), the honorary member Petersburg AN (1813). The participant of Domestic war 1812. With 1826 minister for an imperial yard and destinies.
  • VOLKONSKY Sergey Grigorjevich (1788-1865), the decembrist, prince, the general - major. The participant of Domestic war of 1812 and oversea marchings. The member of " Soyuz of prosperity " and the Austral society, one of directors Kamenskoj of justice. It is convicted on 20 flying of penal servitude. With 1826 in Nerchinskih mines, in 1835-56 on a settlement in Irkutsk lips. In 1861 abroad it was pulled together to A.I.Gertsenom and N.P.Ogarevym.
  • VOLKONSKY Sergey Mihajlovich (1860-1937), prince, the Russian writer, the art critic, the theatrical figure. Grandson S.G.Volkonsky and M.N.Volkonskoj. Activities on problems of a general aesthetics; articles about theatre. Books " my memories " (t. 1-2, 1923-24), " About decembrists. On family memories " (1921). With kon. 1921 in emigration in Paris.
  • VOLLASTON (Vullaston) (Wollaston) William Hyde (1766-1828), the English scientist. Has discovered (1801) irrespective of I.Rittera a ultraviolet radiation, has constructed the refractometer (1802) and a goniometer (1809). Has discovered a palladium (1803) and rhodium (1804), for the first time has received (1803) in the pure state platinum.
  • WOLLASTONITE (table spar), mineral of subclass of chain silikates, Ca3 [Si3O9]. White, radiative and shelly units. Hardness 5-5,5; firmness of 2,9-3,0 g / sm3. By origin kontaktovo-metamorphic. Raw material for the thin ceramics; zvuko-and a heat insulator.
  • CORRUGATED PARROT, bird of order of parrots. Length ok. 20 sm (about half - a tail). In Center. Australia. It is well multiplied in a captivity. A plumage predominary green. White, yellow, light-blue, violet and other corrugated parrots are introduced.
  • VOLNOVAHA, city (with 1938) on Ukraine, Donetsk region. A railway junction. 26,4 thousand inhabitants (1989). The enterprises alimentary, a building materials of an industry, etc.
  • WAVE OPTICS, section physical the opticians, investigator set{combination} of such phenomena, as a diffraction of light, interference of light waves, polarization of light in which the undular nature of light shows.
  • UNDULAR DRIVE, mechanic drive (gear, friction, screw{propeller}); will consist of rigid and nonrigid elements (one of which is made fast) and t. n. The generator of waves. Due to a special kinematics of interaction between them undular drive ensures the considerable transmitting{gear} attitudes{relations} (> 100).
  • The WAVE FUNCTION (state vector), in a quantum mechanics a fundamental quantity circumscribing a system condition both permitting to find probabilities and average values of physical quantities defining her{it}. The square of a module of wave function is peer to probability of the given condition, therefore wave function call also as a probability amplitude.
  • The WAVEGUIDE, the channel, having a sharp cut-off along which are distributed electromagnetic (radio waveguide) or acoustical (acoustic waveguide) of a wave. A radio waveguide the metal tubing, the dielectric rod, etc. can minister; the acoustic waveguide - an acoustic tube on courts, layers of air in an atmosphere and waters in the ocean, distinguished on temperature (terrestrial waveguide).
  • SURGE RESISTANCE... 1) in soundman: in gas and a liquid - attitude{relation} of a noise load in a running flat sound wave to vibratory speed of particles of medium, it is equal to product{creation} of firmness of medium on a speed of sound in her; in solids for longitudinal waves surge resistance - attitude{relation} of the mechanic pressure{voltage;stress} taken with the sign reversed, to vibratory speed of particles of medium.... 2) In hydromechanics - a part gidro-and an aerodynamic drag, defining energy consumption on wave development, napr., the waves which are generatrix on a water plane at motion of the ship{spacecraft}, the shockwaves originating at ultrasonic flight of an airplane, and t. d.... 3) In an electrodynamics surge resistance of transmission lines - attitude{relation} of pressure{voltage;stress} to current intensity in any point of a line on which electromagnetic waves are distributed; surge resistance of medium - attitude{relation} of voltages of electrical and magnetic fields of the electromagnetic waves extending in medium.
  • WAVE EQUATION, differential equation with partial derivatives of 2-nd order, circumscribing a spreading mud process of disturbances in some medium. Napr., small oscillations of the stretched catgut are described by wave equation where u (h, t) - required function - deviation{rejection} of a catgut from static baycenter in a point with coordinate h in the moment t, a - rate of propagation of a disturbance along a catgut.
  • WAVE NUMBER, module of a wave vector; it is connected to a circular frequency w, a phase velocity of a wave vô and its{her} length a ratio: k=2?/?? w/vô. In optician and spectroscopies often call as a wave number value, revertive to a wavelength: k=1/?.
  • WAVE VECTOR, vector k which direction coincides a direction of propagation of a traveling wave. In isotropic mediums lengthways k the group velocity and energy flow of a wave are directed. In a quantum mechanics the condition of a unbound particle also is defined by a defined value of a wave vector, the bound with a pulse particles r a ratio de Brojlja: ð=hk.
  • "WAVE DUCT" (a director antenna, the Hook - the Yagi the antenna), the antenna by the way of some parallel linear electrical vibrators in length, close to 0,5 wavelengths located in plane along a line, conterminous to a direction of maximum radiance (method). The main{basic} application - method of television programs.
  • The WAVE PACKET, occupying restricted volume and a undular field transposed{dragged;moved} by the space. The wave packet can be decomposed for the sum of simple harmonic waves which frequencies lay in a fixed interval; the already a wave packet, the more this interval. At distribution{propagation} to medium owing to a wave dispersion the wave packet deliquesces. In a quantum mechanics the field of probability assigned to wave function is considered, and the wave packet is wave function driving particles which possible{probable} localization in each instant is limited to some small range of coordinates. Center of a wave packet goes with mechanic speed particles. The quantum mechanical wave packet in due course deliquesces even in vacuo.
  • WAVE ABSORBER, hydrotechnical construction for protection against waves of a dock space. Distinguish wave absorbers protective (surrounded with the water space) and beregozashchitnye (located directly inshore).
  • VOLNUHIN Sergey Mihajlovich (1859-1921), the Russian sculptor. Was close to peredvizhnikam. A monument to the first printer to Ivan Fedorovu in Moscow (1909), iconic busts.
  • VOLIN (Wolin), city in Poland, on a like island in a mouth r. Odra. Has arisen in kon. 8 century, in 10-12 centuries - the trading - craft centre and a port, urban republic. Residues of strengthening, derevoljutsionnyh constructions and bridge.
  • The WOLF (the grey wolf), predatory mammalian sets wolf. Length of a body 105-160 see, a tail - up to 50 see. Colour of a wool is more often grey. Has been eurysynusic in a temperate zone of Boreal hemisphere, but in many places has vanished. Dwells{lives} in steppes it (is most numerous), tundra, woods, mountains. The strong, tireless and clever predator. Eats ungulate, rodents, hares, in summertime willingly eats birds and different fruits. Are kept one by one, pairs{vapours;couples} (will be derivated on all life) or family groups; are sometimes integrated in flights till 10-12 individuals. In a dung routinely 4-6 volchat. Hybrids with dogs - volkosobaki - cause essential damage to the hunting fauna. In the Red Data Book of the International union of nature protection and natural resources.
  • VOLKENSHTEJN Lyudmila Aleksandrovna (1857-1906), revolutionary narodnitsa. The participant of attempt at Kharkov governor D.N.Kropotkina. In 1884 it is sentenced to 15 years of penal servitude. The participant of Revolution 1905-07. Has perished in Vladivostok at shooting demonstrating.
  • WOLFS, a stem of carnivora of a set wolf. 7 kinds{views}: the wolf, a jackal, a coyote, the yellow wolf, a domestic dog, etc. In Eurasia, Africa, Center. To America, Greenland; in terrain of Russia 2 kinds{views} - the wolf and a jackal. 3 kinds{views} and 1 subspecies in the Red Data Book of the International union of nature protection and natural resources. Do-it-yourself stems (in each on 1 kind{view}) - red wolfs and guatas.
  • WOLFS Alexander Aleksandrovich (r. 1948), the Russian astronaut, a pilot - astronaut of the USSR (1985), the colonel, the Hero of Soviet Union (1985). Flights on "Soyuz T-14" and orbital station " Salute - 7 " (September - November 1985), on " Soyuz TM-7 " and an orbital complex "World" (November 1988 - April 1989), on " Soyuz TM-13 " and an orbital complex "World" (October 1991 - March 1992).
  • WOLFS Alexander Aleksandrovich (1905-65), the Russian designer of air automatic weapons. Together with S.A.Jartsevym has created in 1940 air pappus of templet of 23 mm with firing rate of 600 outrigger booms one the minute called "VJA" (an abbreviation from Wolfs and JArtsev). The state premium of the USSR (1942).
  • WOLFS Alexander Melentjevich (1891-1977), the Russian writer. On education mathematician. It is most known as the writer of a cycle of fantastic stories for children: " the Wizard of Emerald city " (1939, in the basis{fundamentals} - the book of American nursery writer F.Bauma " the Wise man from country the Eskar "), " Urfin Dzhjus and his{its} wooden soldiers " (1963), " Seven underground kings " (1964), " Igneous god Marranov " (1968), etc. Stories (" Two brothers ", 1950; " Adventures of two friends in country past ", 1963; " TSargradskaja the captive ", 1969) and novels ("Architects", 1954; "Wanderings", 1963, about Dzh. Bruno) on historical scenes. Books of popular scientific stories (" the Earth and the root ", 1957, etc.).
  • WOLFS Alexander Nikitovich (r. 1929), the Russian state and military figure, marshal of aircraft (1989). With 1948 in the Soviet Army, on command positions in air force. With 1979 commanding the Military-transport aviation, with 1986 deputy of the commander-in-chief of air force. In 1987-90 minister for the Civil aviation of the USSR.
  • WOLFS Alexander Nikolaevich (1886-1957), the Russian and Uzbek painter, the national artist of Uzbekistan (1946). Saturated colour decorative - inking cloths (" Granatovaja chajhana ", 1924), national characters ("Collective farmer", 1933).
  • WOLFS Boris Ivanovich (1900-70), the Russian theatrical artist, the national artist of the USSR (1965). Combined picturesque and volumetric decorations, introduced{uptook} lyrical landscapes (opera " Family Tarasa " Kabalevskogo at the Musical theatre him{it}. Stanislavsky and Nemirovich - Danchenko, 1951). The state premium of the USSR (1949, 1951, 1952).
  • WOLFS Valentine Viktorovich (1881-1964), the Byelorussian painter, the national artist of Belarus (1955). Theme compositions ("Vuzovtsy", 1947; " Minsk on July, 3-rd 1944 ", 1946-55).
  • WOLFS Vladislav Nikolaevich (1935-71), the Russian astronaut, a pilot - astronaut of the USSR (1969), doubly the Hero of Soviet Union (1969, 1971 - posthumously). Flights on "Soyuz - 7" (October 1969), "Soyuz - 11" and orbital station " Salute " (June 1971). Has perished at return to the Earth.
  • WOLFS Lion Ivanovich (r. 1930), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991). Transactionses on complex{integrated} mathematical modelling and an assessment{evaluation} of nonlinear dynamic systems of flying space and rocket-propelled apparatuses.
  • WOLFS Oleg Vasiljevich (1900-1996), the Russian writer. " Dipping in darkness " (1987; the State premium of the Russian Federation, 1991) - a documentary narration about tragical destinies of people - victims of Stalin reprisals. A theme of natural protection in stories, stories, publicism. The book " Each stone in her lives. From a history of the Moscow streets " (1985). Transfers{translations}.
  • WOLFS Feodor Grigorjevich (1729-63), the actor and the theatrical figure. In 1750 has organized in Yaroslavl amateur troupe (actors I.A.Dmitrevsky, J.D.Shumsky) on the basis of which in 1756 in Saint Petersburg the first permanent professional Russian public theatre has been built. Played A.P.Sumarokov tragedies.
  • VOLKOVYSK, city in Belarus, Grodno region, on r. It was grown. A railway junction. 42 thousand inhabitants (1991). Factory of the foundry equipment, etc.; a software of a building materials; a food-processing industry. A military - historical museum him{it}. P.I.Bagration. It is known from 13 century.
  • VOLKOGONOV Dmitry Antonovich (1928-1995), the Russian historian, the doctor of historical and philosophical sciences, the professor, the general - colonel (1986). With 1984 deputy chief of Main political steering the Soviet Army and a VTR. In 1988-91 chief of Institute of a military history of the Ministry of Defence of the USSR. With 1991 chairman of some commissions of government of the Russian Federation and the President of the Russian Federation. Transactionses on a history, philosophy, problems of policy.
  • VOLKONSKAJA Zinaida Aleksandrovna (1789-1862), princess, the Russian writer. Interior{cabin} Volkonskoj in Moscow in 1826-27 was visited by A.S.Pushkin. In 1829 has leaved for Italy. Verses, poems, stories in Russian, French, italian tongues.
  • VOLKONSKAJA Maria Nikolaevna (1805-63), princess, the daughter of general N.N.Raevskogo, the wife of decembrist S.G.Volkonsky, the friend A.S.Pushkin which devoted to her verses. In 1827 has followed the husband in Transbaikalia. The writer of "Notes".
  • VOLKONSKY Andrey Mihajlovich (r. 1933), the Russian composer. Acted as klavesinist both the organist. The organizer and the artistic administrator of band of arcaded music "Madrigal" (1964-73, Moscow). Chamber cantatas " the Suite of mirrors " (1960), " Petitions SHCHazy " (1964), compositions for a chamber orchestra, tool{instrument} band, a piano.
  • VOLGIN Vyacheslav Petrovich (1879-1962), the Russian historian, academician AN the USSR (1930). Transactionses on a history of socialist and communist ideas domarksova the season{term}. The lenin premium (1961).
  • VOLGO, the lake largest in system Verhnevolzhskih of lakes on Valdai vozv. 61 êì2.
  • VOLGA-BALTIC WATERWAY (. Mariinsky water system), in the Russian Federation. Bridges Volga to Baltic m., and through the Belomorsko-Baltic channel with White m. Passes through Rybinsk vdhr. Up to Cherepovets, r. Sheksna, Belozersky the channel, r. Kovzha, the Mariinsky channel, r. Vytegra, the Onega channel, r. Svir, Ladoga an eskar. And r. Neva. Mariinsky water system sooruzhena in nach. 19 century; with 1964, after native born renovation, - the Volga-Baltic waterway. Length ok. 1100 kms, depth not less than 4 m. Court up to 5000 t.
  • VOLGOGRAD (up to 1925 Tsaritsyn, up to 1961 Stalingrad), the city - hero in the Russian Federation, the centre of the Volgograd region. A port on Volga. Initial point of the Volga-Don shipping canal. A railway junction. 1005 thousand inhabitants (1992). A machine industry (a software: " the Volgograd tractor plant ", "Barricades", etc.) and metal working, black (factory " Red October ", etc.) and nonferrous machine industry, chemical and petrochemical, wood-working, a building materials, mild, a food-processing industry. Bliz Volgograd - the Volga (Volgograd) river plant. 7 high schools (including 3 universities), 5 theatres. Museums (monument - band to " Heroes Stalingradskoj of battle " on Mamayev a tumulus, the Museum of the defence, study of local lore, fine arts, etc.). It is based in 1589, with 1615 on the modern place. Within Great Domestic war almost it completely eroded, recovered{restored} under the general plan (1945).
  • The VOLGOGRAD RANGE, in the Russian Federation, 113,9 thousand êì2. The population of 2643 thousand person (1992), urban 76 %. 19 cities, 32 urban settlements (1989.) Center - Volgograd. The river Volga divides range on a raised Right bank (an altitude up to 358 ì) and low Zavolzhje. Mean temperatures of January from-8 up to-12 °S, July 23 °S. A rainfall ok. 350 mm annually. The main rivers - Volga and Don. Production of gas and petroleum; oil refining, chemical and a petrochemical industry, a machine industry (tractors, court, bearings, the industrial equipment, etc.), black and nonferrous machine industry; a building materials, wood-working, mild, a food-processing industry. The Volga (Volgograd) river plant. Crops of wheat and other grain, sunflower, mustard. A melon production (watermelons), a vegetable raising. A fruit growing. An irrigation farming. Meat-and-milk cattle breeding, a sheep raising. Navigation across Volga, Don, the Volga-Don channel.
  • The VOLGOGRAD THEATRE him{it}. M.Gorkogo, drama, is based in 1918.
  • The VOLGOGRAD UNIVERSITY, is based in 1980. Plots experts on physical and mathematical sciences, philologies, histories. In 1991 over 3 thousand students.
  • The VOLGOGRAD WATER RESERVOIR, on r. Volga. It is derivated by a dam of the Volga (Volgograd) river plant. It is filled in in 1958-1961. The area 3117 êì2, volume 31,5 êì3, length of 540 kms, an extreme breadth of 17 kms. Navigation. It is used for water supply and an irrigation. Fishery. Ports: Saratov, Kamyshin.
  • VOLGODONSK, city (with 1956) in the Russian Federation, the Rostov region, a port on TSimljanskom vdhr. A depot. 182 thousand inhabitants (1992.) softwares of a nuclear power machine industry "Atommash"; chemical, a food-processing industry. A study of local lore museum.
  • The VOLGO-URAL OIL-AND-GAS-BEARING PROVINCE, on the orient is limited to Ural, in the south - Prikaspijskoj a hollow, in a north - Timanskim a block, in the west - Sysolskim, Kotelnicheskim, Tokmovskim vaults and the Voronezh mass. A gross area of 700 thousand êì2. It is open{discovered} over 900 petroleum and 50 gas fields. Industrial deposits are dated for adjournments of Devonian, Carbon and permi. Major deposits: Romashkinskoe, Orenburg, Tujmazinskoe, SHkapovskoe, Arlanskoe, etc.
  • VOLZHANSKIE (an ice-film. fam. Volzhankiny), family of circus performers, tightrope dancers. The chief of number - Vladimir Aleksandrovich (1917-83), the national actor of the USSR (1979). Has developed the instrumentation changing a discharge angle of chain cables, has given the composite ekvilibristicheskomu to amusement romantic character. Partners - members of family Volzhanskih. The state premium of the USSR (1978).
  • VOLZHSK (up to 1940 settlements. Lopatino), city in the Russian Federation, Republic of Maries El, landing stage on Kujbyshevskom vdhr. A depot. 62,5 thousand inhabitants (1992). A machine industry and metal working; pulp and paper and a woodworking industry.
  • The VOLGA MILITARY FLOTILLA, in June 1918 - July 1919 participat in breakages with White Guards on Volga and Kama, then part of the Volzhsko-Caspian military flotilla. During Great Domestic war existed{breathed} in October 1941 - June 1944, participat in Stalingradskoj to battle.
  • The VOLGA COSSACKS, originally from sketchy peasants on N.Volge in 16 century. In 1733-77 existed{breathed} Volgskoe the Cossack army with the centre in Dubovke (ok. Tsaritsyn); the part of the Volga cossacks has been moved on the Sowing. Caucasus (in Terskoe the Cossack army), the part is adjoined in nach. 19 century to the Astrakhan army.
  • VOLGA, city (with 1954) in the Russian Federation, the Volgograd region, a port on Volga, for the beginning of Akhtuba. A depot. 281 thousand inhabitants (1992). Has arisen in 1951 in connection with construction of the Volga (Volgograd) river plant. Oil refining, petrochemical, chemical, machine-building, etc. an industry. A museum of a history of city.
  • VOLZHSKO-KAMSKY RESERVATION, in Tatarii. It is based in 1960. The area 8040 ga. 2 plots: Raifsky - to northwest from Kazan - 200-years woods, characteristic for a mean strip of the European part of the Russian Federation, and Saralovsky - on coast Kujbyshevskogo vdhr. - piny and mixed forests. The moose, the fox, a marten, a raccoon dog; a lag bolt, a hazel grouse, a grey crane.
  • The VOLZHSKO-CASPIAN MILITARY FLOTILLA, existed{breathed} in July 1919 - July 1920. It is built by interflow of the Volga and Astrahano-Caspian military flotillas. Participat in the defence of Astrakhan, discharging of Transcaucasia and the Caspian m. from White Guards and interventionists.
  • The VOLZHSKO-FINNISH TONGUES (the Volga Finno-Ugric tongues), the conditional classification title Mordovian and mari the tongues relating Finno-Ugric family.
  • AGE STRUCTURE of the POPULATION, ratio of number of miscellaneous age groups of the population. Depends on levels of birth rate and mortality, lifetime of people. In 1990 population in the age of up to 15 flying compounded{made} (in the world) 32 %, 15-64 flying - 62 %, 65 flying and is more higher - than 6 %.
  • "REVITALIZATION", 1) Russian periodical, the London: the weekly newspaper (1926-35), a weekly journal (1936-40). Editor P.B.Struve, the master literary critic - V.F.Khodasevich (with 1927). 2) Russian literary - political magazine, " an organ of Russian national idea ", 1949-74, Paris. Among editors - I.I.Thorzhevsky, S.P.Melgunov, S.S.Obolensky.
  • REVITALIZATION (Renaissance), the season{term} in cultural and ideological development of countries Zap. And Cent. Europe (in Italy 14-16 centuries, in other countries kon. 15-16 centuries), transient{berthing} from medieval crop to crop of new time. Distinctive features of crop of Revitalization: society, anticlerical character, humanistic world outlook (see. Humanism), the circulation to a cultural heritage of antiquity, as though his{its} "revitalization" (from here the title). Revitalization has arisen and was most brightly exhibited in Italy, where already on a boundary of 13-14 centuries (see. Protorenessans) it{him} provozvestnikami poet Dante, artist Dzhotto have acted, etc. Creativity of revivalists proniknuto belief in boundless capabilities of the person, his{its} will and reason, denial of scholasticism and asceticism (humanistic ethics of Italians Lorentso Vally, Piko della Mirandoly, etc.) . The fervor of the statement{confirmation} of an ideal of the harmonic, liberated creative person, beauty and harmony of a real, the circulation to the person as to the divine principle of life, sensation of integrity and orderly regularity of universe give art of Revitalization major ideological significance, a majestic heroic scale. In the architecture the leading part society structures - become to play public buildings, palaces, urban houses. Using order partitioning of a wall, arch passageways, collonnades, vaults, domes, architects (Brunelleski, Alberti, Bramante, Palladio in Italy, Lescaut, Delorm in France) have given the block constructions majestic clearness, a harmonicity and a proportionality to the person. Artists (Donatello, Mazachcho, the Pierrot della Francheska, Mantenja, Leonardo yes Vinci, Rafael, Mikelandzhelo, Titsian, Veronese, Tintoretto in Italy; JAn van Ejk, Rogir van der Vejden, Brejgel in Netherlands; Djurer, Nithardt, Holbejn in Germany; Fuke, the Screw rivet, Klue in France) in succession took possession of art reflectance of all oof of a real - drive of volume, the space, light, the plotting of a human figure (century t. Hours exposed) and substantial medium - an interior, a landscape. The literature of Revitalization has created such monuments of lasting value, as " Gargantjua and Pantagrjuel " (1533-52) Rabelaises, Shakespeare dramas, the novel " Don Kihot " (1605-15) Servantesa, etc., organo united interest to antiquity with the circulation to national crop, fervor of comic life with tragic element. Petrarca sonnets, short stories Bokkachcho, heroic poem Ariosto, a philosophical block type (tract Erazma Rotterdamskogo " the Praise of Nonsense ", 1511), Montaigne essay in miscellaneous genres, personal forms and national versions have embodied ideas of Revitalization. In the music inpouring{insinuating} humanistic attitude, vocal and tool{instrument} polyphony develops, there are new genres society vocal (frottola and villanella in Italy, viljansiko in Spain, a ballad in England, a madrigal) and tool{instrument} music; epoch is finished by occurrence{appearance} of such musical genres, as a solo song, a cantata, an oratorio and the opera, contributing the statement{confirmation} of a homophony. In Renaissance philosophical ideas neoplatonizma (Fichino) and panteizma (Patritsi, were distributed by Bruno, etc.), given away discoveries in range of geography (Great geographycal discoverings), astronomies (development of heliocentric world system by Kopernik), anatomy (Vezaly) have been made.
  • SOLDIERS Konstantin Naumovich (r. 1918), the Russian film director, the national actor of the USSR (1989). Productions of films: " to Troy have quitted from a wood " (1958), "is young - is green" (1962), " Marriage Balzaminova " (1965), " Djadjushkin dream " (1967), "Rudin" (1977), a documentary " the Holiday of sport and the world " (1985).
  • The COMPULSORY SERVICE, the statutory responsibility of the population (it is routine about 18 flying) to bear a military service in armed forces of the country. For the first time compulsory service is entered in 1798 in France (konskriptsija).
  • MILITARY UNIT, organizational do-it-yourself battle and an administrative unit in all kinds{views} of armed forces (shelves, the ship{spacecraft} of 1-st, 2-nd and 3-rd rank, a separate batallion, a division, a squadron, a company). Military unit are appropriated the true name (napr., 3-rd tank shelves) and a code name (napr., an army part 55555).
  • MILITARY HONOURS, development of respect (respect) on the part of servicemen or military units. Military honours can be returned at meeting and wires of representatives of foreign states. For rendering military honour the guard of honour and an orchestra are nominated.
  • MILITARY HONORARY NAMES, one of kinds{views} of awards of military connections, parts, the ships{spacecrafts}, establishments, military schools. To military honorary names concern: names in commemoration of historical events, in honour of state and public organizations, state, military figures, under titles of cities, the rivers, etc. where data of connection, parts were distinguished in breakages.
  • MILITARY PRESENCE, at Russia at 1874-1917 provincial (regional), district (circumferential) and urban establishments, vedavshie affairs of compulsory service.
  • The MILITARY CHIEF, in Russia about 1874 face heading an organ of aboriginal military steering in province (up to 1881) and district (up to 1918); knew an aboriginal troops, military - mobilization and registration - draft activity.
  • VOIN, old russian city of 10-13 centuries on Dnepr. Residues detintsa with wooden walls, the bank and a pit, housing economic constructions (site Voini is overflowed with waters Kremenchug vdhr.).
  • FELTED CLOTH (turki)., a textile, receive a felting woollen (less often mineral and chemical) filaments, and also from a mineral wool (on a bituminous sheaf). Use primarily as flimsy, it is warm also a sound-insulating material.
  • The WAR, the organized armed extirpation between the states, the nations (peoples), social groups. In war armed forces as a main and decisive means, and also economic, political, ideological and other means of strife are used. War between social groups inside country for the government calls as a civil war. For last in 5,5 thousand flying was ok. 14,5 thousand major and small wars (including two world) during which has perished, has died of epidemies and famine over 3,6 billion person. In the modern conditions in connection with the terminal of " cool war " danger of world nuclear war has decreased. However are prolonged t. n. Local wars - military conflicts, the bound with religious, territorial and national spores, breeding roznju, etc. The International community, the United Nations aspire to building a system of relations between the states, eliminating a threat of force and its{her} application.
  • WAR IN VIETNAM the Widespread title of the second indokitajskoj wars (1965-75) including Democratic Republic Vietnam (DRV) and the United States of America. First indokitajskaja war (1945-54) has concluded a defeat of France, a time division of Vietnam under Geneva agreements 1954 on Indochina on two parts in which terrain independent states with a different political formation - Democratic Republic Vietnam with capital in Hanoi in a north afterwards have been professed and Republic Vietnam with capital in Saigon - on juge.------the Beginning of war------the Prologue of war become events in gulf of Tongking bliz coasts of Vietnam in August 1964 when, under the statement{confirmation} of official Washington, motor torpedo-boats DRV attacked the ships{spacecrafts} of a VTR the USA, and a congress the USA has adopted a resolution, giving to the president of L. The right to use the American armed forces in Southeast Azii.------In March 1965 administration of a Johnson has directed a Johnson military quota on terrain of Austral Vietnam for his{its} protection against measures received by Boreal Vietnam on association of Vietnam by force of arms. In bridge 1965 USA have begun massive bombings terrain DRV with February to force communist leaders to refuse in Hanoi support of forces, consolidated in December 1960 in National front of discharging of Austral Vietnam (NFOJUV), acting against a pro-Western mode in Saigon. Afterwards act of war have covered terrain not only naturally Vietnam, but also adjacent from nymas of Laos and Cambodia (from here and its{her} second title).------From party DRV act of war have taken the form of large-scale guerilla operations in terrain of Austral Vietnam with the participation active armed forces DRV against armed forces of Austral Vietnam and his{its} ally the USA. Besides massive bombings Boreal Vietnam the USA lent support to Saigon in realization of military operations against the guerrilla, granted economic pomoshch.------the Parisian peace talks------To the beginning 1968 war has reached the deadlock: any of the parties did not manage to decide tasks in view. In May 1968 in Paris, originally only between the USA and DRV, and then, peace talks have begun from January 1969, including representatives sajgonskogo a mode and NFOJUV. However act of war in terrain of Vietnam kept and during the Parisian peace talks on Vjetnamu.------After more than four flying of negotiations, on January, 27 1973 administration the USA headed by R.Nixon, loosened internal political crisis (" Uotergejtskoe business "), has gone on a signing of an agreement with DRV about conditions of a breeding of the troops from Vietnam. In February - March 1973 in Paris the international conference across Indochina, consolidated the Parisian nonpredatory agreements on the arrest of war and maintenance of the world in Vietnam, the signed USA and by Republic (Austral) Vietnam, on the one hand, both DRV and NFOJUV, with other was comprised. The unsuccessful and long-lived act of war accompanied with major loss, have generated in the American society t. n. " The Vietnamese set of symptoms ", i.e. sharp neprijatie sharing{participations} of the American soldiers in foreign military conflicts, what purposes this sharing{participation} not obosnovyvalos.------War in Vietnam would keep, however, during two flying, already between Boreal Vietnam in the union with NFOJUV and sajgonskim a mode headed by general Nguen Van Thieu. She was finished in April 1975 years as a result of vernal approach of armed forces DRV both battle parts NFOJUV and fall of capital of the South - Saigon. The authority in terrain of Austral Vietnam has passed to temporary revolutionary government of Republic Austral Vietnam.------the Role of the USSR------During all ten flying of the conflict of the USSR rendered DRV the diversiform help, aspiring to intensifying the influence in Indochina and to slackening the USA, the main rival in " cool war ". If up to the introduction the USA in war the Soviet support DRV limited basically economic complementation since the spring 1965 in the aggregate volume of an eaid has become to build up specific weight of military deliveries to Hanoi. Already to 1968 USSR has taken a leading rule{situation;position} among the countries supporting DRV, having pushed aside the Chinese National Republic on the second place. Simultaneously the USSR made efforts for the resolution of conflict in Vietnam a diplomatic way, being afraid of possible{probable} global crisis and being is interested (in conditions of an exacerbation of dissents with the Chinese communists) in "discharge" international naprjazhennosti.------Ëèòåðàòóðà:------Cats of L. Â., Egors R.S.Boevaja solidarity, the brotherly help. Ì., 1970.------Mhitarjan Ñ., Mhitarjan T.Vjetnamskaja revolution: Problems of the theory and practice. Ì., 1986.------Cooper Ch. The Lost Crusade: America in Vietnam. New York, 1970.------Kolko G. Anatomy of a War: Vietnam, the United States, and the Modern Historical Experience. New York, 1985.------Smith R. B. An International History of the Vietnam War. London, 1985.------Kahin G. M. Intervention: How America Became Involved in Vietnam. New York, 1986.------Pike D. Vietnam and the Soviet Union: Anatomy of an Alliance. Boulder, 1987.------Gibbons W. C. The U. S. Government and the Vietnam War: Executive and Legislative Roles and Relationships. Washington, 1988. P. 3.------I.V.Gajduk
  • WAR of AUSTRAL AND BOREAL DYNASTIES (1336-1392) in Japan. In 1333 segunat Minamoto was will overthrow, and on a short time the imperial authority was placed{installed}. Emperor Godajgo aspired{tried} to steer privately-owned, but not a smog to liquidate contraventions between aristocrats and soldiers, derogating from of interests last. One of the largest feudal lords Ashikaga Takaudzi two years later has raised rebelion which has reduced in education of the second segunata - Ashikaga (or Muromati, under the title of quarter in Kyoto where the military government placed). With a passage of power in arms{hand} Ashikaga the internecine wars proceeding almost up to the extremity of century have begun. Emperor Godajgo ran in mountains, having based in place Esino the Austral yard, and Ashikaga has landed{put} in Kyoto on a throne of emperor to the Coma which has headed Boreal yard. Dvoetsarstvie it was prolonged up to 1392 when both dynasties were aggregated, and capital has again become Kyoto.
  • VOJNAROVSKY Andrey (? - ok. 1740), the Ukrainian cossack foreman, nephew Mazepa, the participant of his{its} plot. Ran to Germany. In 1718 it is given to the Russian government and it is banished to Yakutsk.
  • VOJNICH (Voynich) Etel Lilian (1864-1960), the English writer. Daughter Dzh. Boulle. In 1887-89 vein in Russia, has been connected to Polish and Russian revolutionary movement. With 1920 in the USA. In the novel "Gadfly" (1897), " the Gadfly in expulsion{relegation} " (1910; other transfers{translations} - " Interrupted friendship ") the heroic mode{image} of the italian revolutionary is built. Roman " Remove{Take off} thy shoe " (1945) - about ancestors of the protagonist of the previous novels. Transferred{translated} products{creations} of the Russian literature. A theme of its{her} musical oratorio "Babylon" (1948) - an overthrow of the autocracy in Russia.
  • VOINOVICH Vladimir Nikolaevich (r. 1932), the Russian writer. In 1980-92 in emigration in Germany. In the novel " Life and unusual adventures of the soldier of Ivan Chonkina " (1969-75) and his{its} prolongation " the Claimant for a holy table " (1979) - satirical derision of a totalitarianism; a mode{an image} "ivanushki-durachka" - the carrier of national morals and common sense. Documentary - satirical story "Ivankiada" (1976; all three products{creations} in Russia up to 1988 were not typed) - on a "room" theme, uncovers the mechanism of bureaucracy. Satirical story - anti-Utopia " Moscow 2042 " (1987). The play " the Cat domestic mean pushistosti " (1990, together with G.I.Gorinym). Verses (including " the Song of astronauts "), the story (" Two comrades ", 1967), publicism.
  • VOJNORALSKY Porphyrias Ivanovich (1844-98), the revolutionary populist. One of organizers " boatings in people ". In 1878 it is sentenced to 10 years of penal servitude.
  • VOJSI (Voysey) CHarlz Frensis Eksli (1857-1941), the English architect. Designed small country houses for middle class. Developed a theme of a traditional English cottage (unified rectangular volume with a deckhouse and a high gable roof). In furnish of the building and registration of interiors a major role retracted to different kinds{views} of an ornamental art.
  • TROOPS of air defence, intended for reflectance of impacts of the opponent from air. Will consist of service arms: a zenith rocket-propelled troops, an air defense aviation and a radio troops, and also a special troops of different destination.
  • ARMY CIRCLE, combined-arms collection for Don, Volga, jaitskih, grebenskih and terskih cossacks in 16-18 centuries. Was the supreme body of an authority and selected officials.
  • The ARMY FOREMAN, officer grade in the Cossack troops of Russian army; with 1775 corresponded{conformed} a peavine of the sec - major, with 1798 - the major, with 1884 - the lieutenant colonel.
  • VOJSLAV Sigizmund Grigorjevich (1850-1904), the Russian mining geologist. Has invented a jumper for investigation of deposits. One of osnovatelej Russian Society of mining geologists.
  • VOJTES (Voites) Margarita (r. 1936), the Estonian singer (a coloratura soprano), the national actress of the USSR (1979). With 1964 solistka Estonian theatre " Âàíåìóéíå ", with 1969 at theatre of opera and ballet "Estonia".
  • VOITSEKHOVSKY Bogdan Vjacheslavovich (r. 1922), the Russian scientist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991). The main{basic} transactionses on theoretical and applied hydrodynamics, a knocking in gases. The lenin premium (1965).
  • VOCALESE (frants. vocalise, from an armour. vocalis - a vowel sound), a piece of music for singing without words on a vowel sound; the exercise for development of vocal technique is routine. Vocaleses for concert performance{fulfillment} (S.V.Rakhmaninov, M.Ravel, etc.) are known also.
  • VOCALISM, structure of vocal phonemes of this or that tongue, dialect or family, group of tongues. Sometimes speak also about vocalism of the radical, the word, etc.
  • VOCAL MUSIC, products{creations} for one, several or many voices (with tool{instrument} tracking or without him{it}), behind few eliminations the bound with the word, the poetic text.
  • VOCAL ART, see. Singing.
  • VOKANSON (Vaucanson) Jacque de (1709-1782), French the mechanics. Has constructed a mechanic silk loom, has created a number{series} of automatic control units with clock mechanisms (including known toys - flitting a filling and the playing flutist).
  • PASSENGER DEPOT (from English Vauxhall), 1) pleasure establishment bliz the London (17 century); in Russia originally - a place of public amusements. 2) the Building (group of buildings), structures and devices for a catering, mission controls of the transport and disposition of service staff. Distinguish road service stations, air terminals, railway, marine, river, and also consolidated, or complex{integrated} (napr., railway - bus).
  • VOKLEN (Vauquelin) Lui Nikola (1763-1829), the French chemist. Has discovered (1797) and has secured{discharged} (1798) in a free state a chromium; has discovered (1798) beryllium.
  • VOCODER (from English voice - a voice and code - a code), a communications system in which the transmitted voice information will be transformed{reformed} by a sound analyzer to code signals on frequency or on time. Restoration of speech on a receiving end executes the synthesizer of a note. Allows essentially (approximately in 10 times) to compact the communication line at minor deterioration of quality of drive.
  • VOKULER (Vaucouleurs) Gerard Anri de (r. 1918), the American astronomer. Probeed Mars, has developed new grading galaxies, has discovered rotation of a galaxy Major Magellanovo the Cloud, has described an aboriginal superclump of galaxies. The writer of books " Physics of a planet Mars " (1951, Russian transfer{translation} 1956), " the Astronomical photo " (1961, Russian transfer{translation} 1975), etc.
  • The BULLOCK castrated samets of a large horned stock. It is used as meat and a work animal.
  • VOLAN (frants. volant), 1) a ball finned for the game in badminton. 2) Finish for a coat frock, a blouse, skirts, a stem of a frill.
  • VOLGA (ancient - Ra, in Middle Ages - Itil), the river in the European part of the Russian Federation, the largest in Europe. 3530 kms, the area of basin of 1360 thousand êì2. The beginning on Valdai vozv., the m. runs in Caspian, derivating delta (the area of 19 thousand êì2). Average discharge of water for Volgograd 724 m3 / with, in a mouth - 7710 m3 / with. Volga accepts ok. 200 inflow, the largest - Kama and Oka. In connection with a structure of a coordinated hydroelectric system with water reservoirs a drainage of Volga hardly zaregulirovan. The largest river plants - Volga (Kujbyshevskaja), Volga (Volgograd), CHeboksarskaja. Regular navigation from Rzhev (3256 kms). Volga is bridged to Baltic m. A Volga-Baltic waterway, with White m. - Severodvinsk water system and the Belomorsko-Baltic channel, with Azov and Black seas - the Volga-Don shipping canal, with Moscow - the channel him{it}. Moscow. On Volga - large cities Tver, Yaroslavl, N.Novgorod, Kazan, Ulyanovsk, Samara, Saratov, Volgograd, Astrakhan. In a bass. Volga reservations: Volzhsko-Kamsky, ZHigulevsky, Astrakhan; natural national park Samara the Onions. As a result of man impacts the environmental setting has sharply worsened; search of scientifically reasonable ways of restoration of natural complexes of Volga is conducted.
  • AIR BATHS, kind{view} of an air-cure: dosed influence of air on an exposed body, protecting from a direct sunlight.
  • AIR MASSES, large uniform{homogeneous} (in a horizontal direction) parts of a troposphere. Are disjointed by atmospheric fronts. In system of general atmosphere circulation air masses move{migrate} as a unit, determining largely a mode of weather. Distinguish masses arctic (or antarctic), polar, tropical and an equatorial air.
  • AIRSHED, airspace within the limits of terrain of an occupied point or industrial enterprise. Conditionally it is considered to be high bound of an airshed passing above the highest building or a structure.
  • AIR TRANSPORT, see. The transport.
  • The AIR FILTER, ministers for dust element of air given to rooms ventilating systems and conditioning or used in fabrication systems and machines. Air filters with a fibrous, lubricated or spongy filter medium are distributed.
  • CAPABILITY AND REAL, the philosophical grades expressing basic shells of development of subjects and the phenomena; a capability - the tendency of development of a subject; a real - is objective existing subject as outcome of realization of some capability. Distinguish the abstract, or formal (for which implementation there are no all necessary conditions), and substantial (having for the realization by all necessary conditions) capabilities.
  • POSSIBLE{PROBABLE} CONVEYANCES (virtual displacements), infinitesimal conveyances which can commit points of a mechanical system from time of a rule{situation;position} taken by them at present, not upsetting the communications{connections} imposed on system (see. Communications{connections} mechanic).
  • POSSIBLE{PROBABLE} CONVEYANCES the PRINCIPLE, for a mechanical equilibrium it is necessary and enough that the sum of activities of all forces operational on system at any possible{probable} conveyance of system was peer to zero. Possible{probable} conveyances the principle is applied at study of equilibrium conditions of the composite mechanical systems (mechanisms, machines).
  • DISTURBANCES MAGNETIC, jumps of a magnetic field of the Earth, distinguished from magnetic variations the sudden beginning and stormy passing. An example - magnetic storms.
  • ASCENSION, one of religious dvunadesjatyh holidays, it is established{installed} in honour of ascension of the Christ on the root. It is celebrated by believers for 40-th day after Passover.
  • VOZNESENSK, city (with 1938) on Ukraine, the Nikolaev region. Landing stage on r. JUzh. Bug. A depot. 44,4 thousand inhabitants (1991). A flavoring industry. Tanning association, factory of press clusters, etc. It is based in 1795.
  • VOZNESENSKAJA Julia (an ice-film. A name Julia Nikolaevna Okulova) (r. 1940), the Russian writer. With 1980 in emigration in Germany. Started as the poetess. In 1976 it has been sentenced to 5 years of the reference. In sketches " the Note from a water hose " (1979), " Women camp in the USSR " (1980), " the Camomile white " (1982), the book " the Women Decameron " (1987), founded on a documentary material, tells about a humiliating rule{situation;position} of women in the Soviet camps. The story " the Aster Chernobyl " (1987). Autobiographical lyrics.
  • VOZNESENSKY Andrey Andreevich (r. 1933), the Russian poet, the academician of the Russian Open Society (1993). In lyrics - tendency "to measure" the modern person grades and modes{images} of a world civilization; extravagance of comparisons and metaphors, complicatedness of rhythmic system, acoustical effects. Collections: " the Triangular pear " (1962), "Antiworlds" (1964), " Vitrazhnyh businesses the master " (1976; the State premium of the USSR, 1978), " the Postulate of the self-claim " (1990). Poems of "Master" (1959), "Lonzhjumo" (1963), "Eskar" (1964), "Perhaps" (1972; a rock opera " JUnona and Perhaps ", production 1981), "Pit" (1986). Memuarnaja prose, publicism; the book " Head foremen of spirit " (1984).
  • VOZNESENSKY Ivan Nikolaevich (1887-1946), the Russian scientist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1939). The main{basic} transactionses on a hydromachine industry (supervised over designing and construction of potent turbines and pompes) and to automatic regulation (vapor prime movers and boilers). The state premium of the USSR (1947, posthumously).
  • VOZNESENSKY Nikolay Alekseevich (1903-50), the Russian political figure, academician AN the USSR (1943). In 1938-41, 1942-49 chairman of the State plan of the USSR. In 1946-49 vice-president Council of Ministers of the USSR. The member of a Central Committee of the CPSU in 1939-49. The member of the Political bureau in 1947-49 (the candidate with 1941). The book " Military economy of the USSR in the season{term} of Domestic war " (1947). The state premium of the USSR (1948). It is repressed (see " the Leningrad business "); it is rehabilitated posthumously.
  • VOZNITSYN Procopies Bogdanovich, the Russian diplomat kon. 17-íà÷. 18 centuries the Participant of Great embassy 1697-98 and Karlovitskogo a congress 1698-99. In 1699 Voznitsyn has concluded advantageous Russia armistice with Ottoman empire. The chief of the Apothecaries order (with 1699).
  • VOZNICHY (an armour. Auriga), mia maid of Boreal hemisphere with a bright aster the Chapel.
  • ITERATED ENERGY SOURCES, sources continuously iterated in ecumene of the Earth of kinds{views} of power - solar, wind, oceanic, hydraulic power of the rivers. Iterated energy sources are non-polluting; they also do not result in a makeup heat of a planet (therefore call not adding).
  • VOZOK, an arcaded covered winter carriage on sabots.
  • INCREASE AND DECREASING of FUNCTION, concept of a calculus. Function f (x) calls increasing on a cutting [a, b], if for any pair{vapour;couple} of points x1 and x2, a? x1

  • MILITARY REFORMS 1905-12, are conducted in the Russian army after a defeat in russko-Japanese war. The main{basic} content: loss of life; rejuvenation of an officer personnel; improvement of mobilization capabilities of army; new charters.
  • MILITARY EXPERTS (military specialists), generals, admirals, officers and officers of aged Russian army and fleet, attracted on a service in Red Army during the Civil war (all ok. 75 thousand person).
  • The IDENTITY CARD, in the Russian Federation the document giving by a military commissariat to citizens at call-up on an active military service or at transfer in a reserve (demission).
  • The MILITARY UNIT, political-military alliance or the agreement of the states with the purpose of combined actions for the solution of general political, economic and military problems.
  • " The MILITARY LOG-BOOK ", the title of three Russian log-books of 19 century on the military theory and a history. " The military log-book " was emitted in Saint Petersburg: in 1810-11 and in 1817-19 it is monthly, in 1827-1859 on 6 books annually.
  • MILITARY COMMISSARIAT (military commissariat), organ of aboriginal military steering in the Russian Federation. Knows military - mobilization and registration - draft activity.
  • " MILITARY COMMUNISM ", internal policy of the Soviet state in conditions of the Civil war. Policy of " Military communism " has been directed on overcoming of an economic crisis and rested on theoretical submissions about a capability of direct introduction of communism. The main{basic} features: nationalization of all large and mean industry and a large part of the small-sized enterprises; food dictatorship, prodrazverstka, direct produktoobmen between city and village; changing of private trade by state distribution of products to a class attribute (rationing system); naturalization of economic attitudes{relations}; the overall labour duty; an equalisation in the wage; military - prikaznaja system of a guiding of all life of society. After an end of the war numerous performances{statements} of workers and peasants against policy of " Military communism " have shown its{her} full breakdown, in 1921 the new economic policy is entered.
  • MILITARY DISTRICT, territorial combined-arms association of parts, connections, military schools and different aboriginal military establishments. It is headed commanding by a troops of a military district. Division of terrain of country into military districts practises many states.
  • MILITARY ORCHESTRA, see. Duhovoj an orchestra.
  • " The MILITARY COLLECTION ", the Russian monthly military log-book. It was emitted in Saint Petersburg (Petrograd) in 1858-1917. About 1862 organ of the Military ministry.
  • MILITARY COUNCIL, collective organ of direction of troops in kinds{views} of Armed forces, military districts (fleets), groups of forces, in armies, flotillas, etc. The Chairman of a military council is conforming commanding. Stationary values Military councils of consultative character exist{breathe} in the maximum military instances of many states.
  • VOZHDESTVO, the form of breeding organization in epoch of decomposition of a primitive-communal system. Steering of nation or the union of nations in vozhdestve implements rodoplemennoj or a military top led by hereditary leaders. See also Military democracy.
  • VOZHE, lake in a north of the Vologda region 416 êì2. Depth up to 4,5 m. A drainage through r. Svid in an eskar. Lacha.
  • The World Health Organization, see. World organization of public health services.
  • The CAUSAL ORGANISM of ELECTROMACHINES, the device, nourishing a current of an exitation winding of an electric machine. In the capacity of causal organisms of electromachines apply multiple-current generators and special transformers.
  • EXALTATION, in biology - reaction of living cells to influence of different factors external and an internal environment. At exaltation the alive system passes from a condition of relative physiological dormancy to activity. In the basis{fundamentals} of exaltation the composite physico-chemical processes lay. Fullestly exaltation is studied in nervous and muscle cells where it is accompanied by originating of an extending bioelectric potential - nervous impulse. Ability of cells to exaltation calls as an excitability. Compare. Braking operation.
  • EXITED STATE of quantum mechanical system, unstable state with the power superior power of a ground state.
  • EXPONENTIATION, the algebraic action consisting in multiplication of figure (a) most on a little bit{some} (n) of time: a·a •... ·a = àn. Napr., 34 = 3•3•3•3 = 81.
  • RETURN of metals, the partial restoration of structural perfection{efficiency} and properties (in particular{personally}, a plasticity) distorted metals and alloys at their heating is lower than recrystallization temperature. Distinguish 2 stages of return - leisure time activities and poligonizatsiju.
  • RECURSIVE SEQUENCE (recurrent sequence), sequence a1, a2..., satisfying to a ratio of a kind{view} an+p + c1an+p-1 +... + cpan=0, where c1, c2..., cp - stationary values.
  • RESIPROCAL CROSSING (bekkross), a crossing of a hybrid (animal or plants) a firstgeneration from one of parental forms for detection of a genotype.
  • TYPHINIA LOUSY (epidemic, european), an acute contagion of the person from group of spirochetoses. Flow by the way attacks (a fever, a fever, joint pains and a sacrum), alternating to remissions. It is transmitted vshami.
  • TYPHINIA TONGS, an acute contagion of the person with expressed natural ochagovostju; falls into to group of spirochetoses. It is transmitted by mites. It is clinically similar to a typhinia lousy.
  • RAISED, the grade of an aesthetics defining internal significance, majesty of subjects and the phenomena. Has become popular in an aesthetics 18 - nach. 19 centuries. In antiquity raised ("high") - special style of oratorical speech (the composition Pseudo - Longina " About raised ", 1 century n. e.).
  • HIGH GROUND, the epines of a surface elevated concerning accumbent terrains or adjacent parts of a bottom of a water reservoir (submarine elevation). Overland to high grounds attribute routinely districts with a true altitude more than 200 m.
  • SUBLIMATION, the same, that a sublimation.
  • VOZDVIZHENIE, one of religious dvunadesjatyh holidays, content in memory{remembrance} t. n. vozdvizhenija in 4 century in Jerusalem above crowd of believers of a cross on which, under the legend, the Christ was raspjat. It is marked by believers on September, 14 (27).
  • The AIR BLOWER, ministers for squeeze and air delivery or other gas. On a compression ratio distinguish fans and air engines. Sometimes air blowers call as air blowers or dutjevymi devices.
  • AEROSTATION (aeronautics), letanie on apparatuses lighter-than-air (air balloons). In the beginning of development of aircraft the term "aerostation" meant as well letanie on apparatuses more hardly air (airplanes, water elms).
  • VOZDUHOPODGOTOVKA, machining of air for collimating to him of the qualities adequate{answering} technological and sanitary-hygienic requests: air filtration from a dust, harmful gas impurity{additives} and odors, preheating (or refrigerating), drying (or humidifying), add-on of oxygen, aromatic substances. It is applied in warm-air heating systems, ventilation, an air handling.
  • AIR HEATER, the heat-exchange apparatus for calefaction of air passing through him{it}. It is applied in warm-air heating systems, plenum ventilation, an air handling, in boiler installations TES and industrial enterprises.
  • AIR CURTAIN, the directed air flow given system of aboriginal plenum ventilation, handicapping access in rooms of outside cool air (or hot contaminated air from fabrication systems) through gatepost or technological openings.
  • AIR BUFFER, plenum of air between the grounding of the machine (napr., hovercrafts) and a seating, between mobile and back blocks of mechanisms (napr., the air bearing), in devices (napr., gyros).
  • AIR FILMING, in mining - establishment of character of distribution of a mine air on productions of shaft (or a plot of shaft), places and value of escapes. It is effected by anemometers, and also micromanometers in combination with vozduhomernymi tubes.
  • AIRWAY (airline), the space overland by the way a corridor within the limits of which flights are executed{designed}, procured airfield and terraneous radio aids.
  • AIRBORNE TROOPS (VDV), the arm of the ground forces, intended for paradrop (transplantation) from air in back of the opponent and management of operations. VDV will consist of air-borne, tank, ammunition, samohodno-ammunition and other parts and subdividings.
  • AIR HEATING, heating of rooms feed in them of heated air. Distinguish warm-air heating systems: recirculation (in which exhaust air returns in a Cowper blast air heater for reheating) and combined with ventilation.
  • AIR LAW, the body of laws, (national and international), regulating the order of use of an airspace, air removals and reports. In an orb of an air law the considerable figure of international double-end and multilateral agreements acts. The Chicago convention 1955, directed on a strengthening of security of international air reports is most known. To an air law concern the convention on extirpation with stealing civil aircrafts, etc.
  • AIR-BREATHING ENGINE (VRD), the jet engine using for squeeze combustible oxygen of free air. On a way of squeeze of air distinguish turbokompressornyj (TRD), pulsing (PuVRD) and straight-flow (PVRD) engines.
  • The MILITARIAN, in the Russian Federation the citizen consisting in store of Armed forces, and also the citizens of pre-conscription and draft ages consisting on the military count.
  • MILITARY - OSSETIC ROAD, the historical title of road Kutaisi - an item. Dargkoh. 275 kms. Passes through Main Caucasian hr. (Mamisonsky a saddle-point). It is constructed in 1897. Will consist of 2 highways: Vladikavkaz - Alagir - Mamisonsky a saddle-point (Russian Federation) and Mamisonsky a saddle-point - Kutaisi - Tkibuli - they (Georgia). Tourism.
  • VOENNOPLENNYE, in the international law - faces, inherings to armed forces of a belligerent party, including teams of volunteers the guerrilla, participants of movement of Resistance and other kombatantov, appeared in an authority of the opponent. Voennoplennymi some non-combatants (military correspondents, members of crews of a merchant marine fleet, a civil aviation, etc.) are considered also. The mode of a military film is adjusted{regulated} by Regulations about laws and customs of the land warfare (the appendix to 4-th Hague convention 1907) and the Geneva convention 1949 about the circulation with voennoplennymi.
  • MILITARY - APPLIED KINDS{VIEWS} of SPORT, the collective title of sporting exercises, their combinations taken from separate kinds{views} of sport (track and field, float, ski, etc.) and having military - applied value.
  • MILITARY-INDUSTRIAL COMMITTEES, the organizations of the Russian businessmen built in 1915 with the purpose of mobilization of an industry for military needs. Promoted formation of a state-monopoly capitalism.
  • MILITARY-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX (VPK), notation (belongs to D.Eisenhower) usual in a number{series} of countries (the USA, the USSR, etc.) during 2-nd world war and strengthened contactsome in the season{term} of " cool war " alliance of a war industry, army and the bound with them of a part of state machinery and science. Scales VPK and a measure of his{its} influence on external and vnutrenjuju policy - expression of militarization of fixed country.
  • The SERVICEMAN, the citizen consisting on true military service.
  • The MILITARY - SUKHUMI ROAD, the historical title of a mountain plot of a highway Stavropol - Sukhumi, crossing Main Caucasian hr. (Kluhorsky a saddle-point): Cherkessk - Teberda - Madzharka (on the Black Sea highway), 349 kms. It is constructed in 1894. Porches to Pyatigorsk (91 kms), Dombajskoj to a glade (7 kms). Tourism.
  • MILITARY - TECHNICAL KINDS{VIEWS} of SPORT, the collective title of kinds{views} of the sport combining obshchefizicheskuju and technical training of sportsmen and having military - applied value. To military - technical kinds{views} of sport attribute kinds{views} of airsport, avto-, moto-, radiosport, rifle, vodno-motor, submerged, etc.
  • MILITARY-TRANSPORT AVIATION, kind{view} of the naval aviation included in air force. It is intended for a transportation of air landings, a troops, delivery of arms and other material supplies, an evacuation injured and ill.
  • MILITARY GRAMMAR SCHOOLS, the general educational closed mean educational institutions for children of the propertied classes in Russia. Are built in 1863 on the basis military schools (6 classes, with 1873 - 7). The general educational program is close to a course of substantial schools. In 1880 was ok. 30 military grammar schools and programmar schools. In 1882 cadet bodies are again converted to.
  • MILITARY MONEY, the impregnated-paper money produced as a mandatory medium of circulation and payment by military authorities of the state (coalition of the states) for terrains of occupied country.
  • " MILITARY FRIENDS ", a secret revolutionary society in the Lithuanian separate body in 1825. It is connected to decembrists and the Polish patriotic society. Chiefs - K.G.Igelstrom, M.I.Rukevich, A.I.Vegelin. In December 1825 attempted to thwart the oath to Nikolay I. In 1827 military court in Bialystok 13 person has sentenced to the execution substituted by different times of penal servitude.
  • MILITARY COMMISSIONERS, 1) representatives of Communist Party and the Soviet authority to parts (on the ships{spacecrafts}), establishments, connections of Armed forces in the season{term} (with rests) 1918-42.2) Chiefs of organs of aboriginal military steering in the Russian Federation.
  • MILITARY SETTLEMENTS, special organization of a troops in Russian empire in 1810-57 with the purpose of reduction of military charges. Aligned a military service with occupation by an agriculture. Are entered on state grounds Petersburg, Novgorod, Mogilyov, Kherson and other provinces. With 1817 main chief A.A.Arakcheev. Mushtra, the severe mode, severe regulation of life invoked{produced} revolts: CHuguevskoe 1819, Novgorod 1831, etc.
  • WAR CRIMINALS, organizers, prompters, chiefs, initiators and accessories of war crimes, crimes against peace and humanity. Kinds{views} and structures of these crimes and punitive measures are determined in charters of International military tribunals. The personal criminal liability of war criminals is established{set} by a number{series} of international treaties and agreements, and for some kinds{views} of war crimes - the national criminal legislation. To war criminals any periods of limitation are not applied, he{it} does not grant the right of asylum. War criminals are subject to issue.
  • MILITARY REFORMS 1810-12, were conducted in the Russian army under a guiding of military minister for general M.B.Barclay - de-Tolli in connection with preparation to laying ahead war with napoleonic France. The main{basic} content: increase of a strength of the army; introduction of body organization; reorganization of the Military ministry; drawing up " Establishments for steering of the Major field army " 1812 (1 regulations about field steering of a troops); education of army headquarters.
  • MILITARY REFORMS 1860-70-Õ in Russia, were conducted under a guiding of military minister D.A.Milyutin. The main{basic} content: changing rekrutskoj duties vsesoslovnoj compulsory service (1874) and building of mass army; arms of army new rifled weapons; building of military districts; improvement of combat training of a troops (new charters) and preparation of officers (military grammar schools, military and junkerskie schools).
  • MILITARY SCIENCE, system of knowledge of preparation and management of war. The military science is closely related with special branches different public, natural and engineering science.
  • MILITARY ORGANIZATION of " NATIONAL WILL ", organization of officers of imperial army and fleet in 1880-83. The purpose: preparation of military tumble. The chief - the Central military circle in Saint Petersburg (A.P.Shtromberg, N.E.Sukhanov), mugs in 20 cities (ok. 400 person). It is routed by police, leaders are convicted on " to process 14-òè ".
  • MILITARY SECRET, the informations of a military nature specially guarded by the state; see also the State secret.
  • AIR FORCE ACADEMY him{it}. J.A.Gagarina, is based in 1940, urban settlement Monino of the Moscow region. Plots air command staff{frames}.
  • AIR-FORCE ENGINEERING ACADEMY him{it}. N.E.Zhukovskogo, is based in 1920 in Moscow. Plots artificer officers for air force, and also scientific and pedagogical staff{frames}.
  • AIR FORCES (air force), kind{view} of armed forces. The air force of some the large states will consist from strategic, tactical, a military-transport aviation and an air defense aviation. In the USA enter into air force also connections of intercontinental ballistic missiles and a military-space means.
  • The MILITARY-MEDICAL COMMISSION, in the Russian Federation is nominated in structure of several doctors - experts for realization of military-medical examination.
  • MILITARY-MEDICAL EXAMINATION, medical examination of militarians and servicemen for definition of their validity to a service in the ranks of army, fleet or special service arms.
  • The MILITARY - GEORGIAN ROAD, the historical title of a highway Vladikavkaz - Tbilisi, 208 kms. It is built through Main Caucasian hr. (the Cross saddle-point) Russian troops in kon. 18 century. The report is open{discovered} in 1799. In 20 century it is renovated. A plot of a main highway Beslan - Vladikavkaz - Tbilisi - Gjumri - Yerevan. Tourism.
  • MILITARY ART, the theory and practice of preparation and management of act of war overland, the pest and in air; a theory of art of war - a part of military science.
  • MILITARY SITUATION, the special legal regime in country or in its{her} separate parts, established{set} routinely the solution of the supreme body of the government under exclusive circumstances (war, a natural disaster, etc.). At military situation all functions of public authorities on the defence, pass maintenance of the public order and a state security to military organs. The order of introduction and a mode of military situation are determined by the law.
  • MILITARY - ENGINEERING ACADEMY him{it}. V.V.Kujbysheva, conducts the history from the Main engineering school, founded in Saint Petersburg in 1819 and converted to 1855 in the Nikolaev engineering academy, with 1932 in Moscow. Plots artificer officers.
  • The MILITARY - HISTORICAL MUSEUM of ARTILLERY, ENGINEERING TROOPS AND TROOPS of COMMUNICATION{CONNECTION}, in Petersburg (Park Lenina), is based in 1756 in Saint Petersburg. St. 476 thousand units of a storage, including the instrument, cool and fire-arms, banners; materials on a history of domestic artillery, an engineering troops and a troops of communication{connection}.
  • MILITARY HISTORY INSTITUTE, research establishment in Moscow. It is built in 1966.
  • ARMY MEDICAL COLLEGE him{it}. S.M.Kirova. It is based in 1798 in Saint Petersburg. Plots military and marine doctors.
  • MILITARY - RELIGIOUS ORDERS, see. Spiritually - knightly orders.
  • NAVAL ACADEMY him{it}. The fleet admiral of Soviet Union N.G.Kuznetsova. It is based in 1827 in Saint Petersburg. Plots command staff{frames} and marine engineers.
  • NAVY (a VTR; in some states - Naval Forces), a kind{view} of armed forces. The VTR will consist of stems of forces: submersibles, a maritime aviation, surface ships, a coastal rocket - ammunition troops and marines.
  • MILITARY-SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES, voluntary agencies of officers, and also listeners (cadets) of military schools.
  • VLASOEDY, a set of parasitic hexapods of order puhoedov. The length of 0,8-10 mm, no side panels. St. 200 kinds{views}. Live in a mammalian hair fiber, eating the keratosic parts of a leather; some gnaw through her{it}. Some kinds{views} are connected to fixed animal - hosts.
  • VLASOKRYLYE, the same, that caddis flies.
  • VLASTAR Matthew (mind{wit}. ok. 1360), the byzantian canonist, the outlet box in Thessaloniki. The writer of the Syntagma - the fullest canopy of the christian law of Eastern church which have appeared in 1335 and soon translated on Serbian tongue.
  • AUTHORITY, in a general sense ability and a capability to render defining influence on activity, conduct of people with the help of any means - will, authority, rights, violence (a parental authority, state, economic, etc.); a political rule, system of state organs.
  • VLERA (Vlora), a bay of the Adriatic m., for coasts of Albania. Length of 17,5 kms, depth up to 51 m. A port - Vlera.
  • VLERA, city and a port in Albania, on the Adriatic m., an administrative centre reti Vlera. 68 thousand inhabitants (1987). Alimentary, chemical, a cement industry. Export of bitumen and petroleum. Fishery.
  • INJECTION, in medicine - jet or drip introduction of a solution in a blood vessel, a hypodermic tissue, pleural or an abdominal cavity, bronchuses, a joint, a bone with the medical or diagnostic purpose.
  • VLKSM, see the All-Union Lenin communist union of youth.
  • VLODAVETS Vladimir Ivanovich (1883-1992), the Russian geologist, the petrographer, the doctor of geologo-mineralogical sciences (1947), the professor (1953), the honored worker of science of Russia (1964). The main{basic} transactionses on a volcanology. The organizer and the first director Kamchatka vulkanologicheskoj stations AN of the USSR (with 1935). The writer " the Manual on a volcanology ".
  • VLOTSLAVEK (Wloclawek), city in Poland, a port on Vistula, administrative centre Vlotslavskogo voevodstva. 122 thousand inhabitants (1990). Chemical, machine-building, pulp and paper, a food-processing industry.
  • VLTAVA (Vltava), the river in Czechia, the left-handed in-leak{influx} r. Laba (Elba). 446 kms, the area of basin of 28 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water for Prague 142 m3 / with. It is navigable on 84 kms. Water reservoir, a river plant. On Vltava - Prague.
  • IMPUTATIONS the THEORY, the bourgeois economic concept according to which one part of production and its{her} cost are obliged by the origin to transactionses, and other - to the capital identified to production assets. F.Vizerom, Dzh is developed. B.Clark, etc. Rests on the theory of a limit of efficiency (see. Productivity{output} of the theory), negates ekspluatatorskuju a nature of the capitalist profit.
  • SANITY, condition at which the person is capable to understand value of particular acts committed by him{it} and to supervise over them. Sanity or insanity of the face which have committed a crime, is established{set} by court ground the conclusions of judicial - psychiatric examination. At establishment by court of restricted sanity it is taken into account at awarding punishment. The person adjudicated insane, is released of the criminal liability.
  • The World Meteorological Organization, see. A world meteorological organization.
  • CHILDREN BORN OUT OF WEDLOCK, children born from the father and mother, not consisting among themselves in properly made out spoilage. Under the legislation of the Russian Federation children who were born out of wedlock, have the same rights and the responsibility in relation to parents and their relatives, as well as children born in a registered marriage if the origin of children from data of parents is established{installed} in the statutory order.
  • EXTRA-GALACTICAL ASTRONOMY, section of astronomy, in which space bodies (asters, galaxies, quasars, etc.), located outside our sidereal system - Galaxies are studied.
  • SUDDEN OUTBURST, spontaneous instantaneous destruction of a part of a layer of a mineral (coal, a rock salt, a sandstone, etc.) under influence of mining operations in shaft. It is accompanied by a maximum deflection of a mineral and reinforced outgassing in mining outputs.
  • EXTRA-TERRESTRIAL CIVILIZATIONS, societies of reasonable entities which, on the modern scientific submissions, can exist{breathe} outside of the Earth (probably, on the planets reverting around of far asters). Clean datas about detection of extra-terrestrial civilizations no.
  • SALPINGOCUESIS, development of an oosperm outside of a uterus, it is routine in a parent pipe. Results in expulsion{relegation} plodnogo eggs through a running end of a parent pipe in an abdominal cavity (tubal abortion) or to a pipe break (it is accompanied by an intraperitoneal bleeding, a shock). Treatment operating.
  • VIDAL DE AC BLASH (Vidal de la Blache) Pol (1845-1918), the French geographer, the founder of the French scientific school " geography of the person ". The book " Principles of geography of the person " (1922).
  • VIDAL (Widal) Fernan (1862-1929), the French therapist and infektsionist. Has placed{installed} a role of a streptococcus at septic postnatal complications; has developed a serological method of diagnosis of a typhoid (reaction Vidalja), has shown distinction{difference} between an anaphylaxis and an idiosyncrasy; one of founders of the functional direction in a nephrology.
  • VIDAR, in the Scandinavian mythology the god by a nickname " the Silent ace ", son Odina and velikanshi Grid; the mighty defence attorney of gods who should kill wolf Fenrira and survives after death of the world.
  • VIDEMAN (Wiedemann) Gustav Genrih (1826-99), german physics, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1883). One of writers of law Videmana - Frantsa (1853), has discovered the effect called as his{its} name (1858).
  • VIDEMANA EFFECT, twisting of a ferromagnetic rod at simultaneous action on him{it} of a longitudinal magnetic field and the circular magnetic field built by a current flow weeping along a rod. It is stipulated by a magnetostriction, it is open{discovered} Ã. Videmanom (1858).
  • VIDEO... (from an armour. video - I look, I see), the part of the composite words directing attitude{relation} to electrical signals which bear the information on the plotting (video signal), and also to systems and the devices used in transmitting systems plotting (picture phone).
  • The VIDEO-ART (English video art), a direction in from - art of the last third of 20 century, using capabilities of a video technique. As against naturally television, designed on translation for the mass spectator, the video-art applies television receivers, video cameras and monitors in unique heppeningah, and effects also experimental films spirit of conceptual art which are demonstrated in the special exhibition spaces. With the help of the modern electronics engineering shows as though " a brain in operation ", a visual path{route} from art idea to its{her} implementation. The main founder of a direction the American of the Korean origin to us JUn Pajk is considered.
  • VIDEO, image recording routinely on a magnetic tape (magnetic video) for consequent reproduction on a screen of the television receiver through the videotape recorder. At video the plotting will be transformed{reformed} by a television camera to sequence of electrical signals (video signals) which are fixed on a magnetic tape.
  • VIDEOPULSE (from a video... And a pulse), electric pulse of rectangular, trapezoidal, exponential, bell-shaped or other form (predominary one polarity). Use in a television, computer facilities, automatics, etc.
  • The VIDEO CAMERA, portative television taking camera, structurally consolidated with a video cassette recorder; for record of picture signals and a note the magnetic tape in width of 12,7 and 8 mm is used. The video camera has an electronic viewfinder which can be used as well for survey just(now) the recorded plotting.
  • VIDEO CLIP (from English clip - to cut, break off), television art interpreting variety, the priest or fates - songs, as a rule, with application of "fractional" wiring and special effects. Distribution{propagation} is connected to occurrence{appearance} in 80th 20 By century of cable musical telechannels and the market of a household video equipment and VCR cassettes. It is used including in the advertising purposes.
  • The VIDEOTAPE RECORDER, the device for record on a magnetic tape of electrical picture signals (with sound broadcasting) and their reproduction. Speed of the relative{mutual} conveyance of a magnetic tape and the head up to 50 ms.
  • VIDEO SIGNAL, electrical signal with a broad frequency spectrum (it is routine from tens in Hz up to several MHz), used for building the plotting in a television, radiolocation, a facsimile communication.
  • The PICTURE PHONE, the telecommunication system including television and telephone devices, in aggregate permitting to subscribers at negotiations to see one another, to demonstrate drawings, photos, texts, etc.
  • VIDEO AMPLIFIER, the booster of video signals; passband routinely up to several MHz. Apply in television, radar, measuring, oscillographic, etc. instrumentation.
  • VIJAYAWADA (Bezwada), city in the south of India, on r. Krishna, pieces. Andhra Pradesh. 701 thousand inhabitants (1991). The textile, alimentary, cement, machine-building enterprises.
  • VIDZHAJANAGAR, the state in JUzh. India in 14-17 centuries, the largest hindu state in the season{term} of domination of Muslim dynasties on a considerable proportion of India. The beginning of decline - after battle at Talikote.
  • VIDZHNJANAVADINY, see. Jogachary.
  • VIDZEME (Vidzeme), historical range in Latvia, northward from r. Ajviekste (up to 1629 northward from r. Daugava). Since 13 century in Livonia, about 1561 duchy Zadvinskoe. With 1629 in Swedish province Lifljandija, austral part Vidzeme - Latgale has departed to Poland. In 1710-1917 Lifljandskaja lips. Russian empire.
  • MILITARIZED MINE RESCUE PARTS, the specialized formations created on mines for salvage of people at emergencies, for the warning and liquidation of emergencies. The guiding of operating-technical activity of mine rescue teams implements headquarters of militarized mine rescue parts of mining basin, range or republic.
  • MILITARY AUTHORITIES, 1) system of military - administrative bodies of the state, state machinery of military steering. 2) Military steering of the terrain occupied during act of war or occupied as a result of war.
  • MILITARY ACADEMY of the ARMOURED TROOPS him{it}. Marshal of Soviet Union R.J.Malinovsky, it is based in 1932 in Moscow. Plots command - staff and engineering staff{frames}.
  • The MILITARY ACADEMY of the JOINT STAFF of ARMED FORCES, is based in 1936 in Moscow on the basis operating faculty of Military academy by him{it}. M.V.Frunze. Plots staff{frames} for an operative - strategic link and for a research work.
  • MILITARY ACADEMY HIM{IT}. F. E.DZERZHINSKOGO, is based in 1820 as Mihajlovskaja ammunition academy in Saint Petersburg, with 1938 in Moscow. Plots command and military - engineering staff{frames} of different trades.
  • MILITARY ACADEMY of COMMUNICATION{CONNECTION} by him{it}. Marshal of Soviet Union S.M.Budyonny, it is based in 1932 in Leningrad. Plots commanders and artificer officers of signalmen.
  • The MILITARY ACADEMY of BACK AND the TRANSPORT, is based in 1918 in Petrograd. Plots experts for all kinds{views} of Armed forces.
  • MILITARY ACADEMY of CHEMICAL PROTECTION by him{it}. Marshal of Soviet Union S.K.Timoshenko, it is based in 1932 in Moscow. Plots experts on a gas protection.
  • MILITARY AMMUNITION ACADEMY him{it}. M.I.Kalinina, is based in 1953 in Leningrad on the basis faculty of Military academy by him{it}. F.E.Dzerzhinskogo, up to 1960 - Military ammunition command academy. Plots ammunition command and engineering staff{frames}.
  • MILITARY VETERINARY SCIENCE, system of a veterinary service of armed forces; ensures functionability army animal (horses, war dogs), the warning of diseases of staff of a troops with diseases, general for animal and the person, and also veterinarno-health control of a condition of products of the animal origin acting{going} on a ration of a troops.
  • MILITARY PASSAGEWAY of the WINTER PALACE in Saint Petersburg, an exposition from 322 portraits of Russian commanders of the season{term} of Domestic war 1812 and participants of oversea marchings of Russian army 1813-14. It is open{discovered} 25.12.1826 (6.1.1827). Artists: Dzh. Dow, A.V.Poljakov, V.A.Golike.
  • MILITARY BORDER{LIMIT}, boundary range with Turkey (a part of Croatia and JUzh. Hungary) in structure of empire Gabsburgov, it was formed to nach. 19 century. It was steered military, with 1873 civil affairs government. The main{basic} population - Serbs and horvaty, are known under the title granichar. In 1881 it is abolished.
  • MILITARY DEMOCRACY, the term, injected L.G.Morgan for notation of an authority of military leaders at conservation of residues of a virgin collectivism and democracy at the stage of decomposition of a primitive-communal system (napr., a society of Greeks of homeric epoch). In the modern science to concept military democracy close concept vozhdestvo.
  • The MILITARY DOCTRINE, system of views and the rules{situations;positions}, establishing{setting} a direction of military construction, preparation of country and armed forces to possible{probable} war, ways of its{her} management; it is produced by political state leadership.
  • The MILITARY GAME, one of forms of preparation of organs of troop control (forces). It is carried out{is conducted} on maps. Can be operational and tactical, operating, strategic, etc.
  • MILITARY BOARD in Russia, the maximum central organ of military steering in 18 century. It is built in 1717-20 instead of lines of military orders with the purposes of a centralization of military steering. In 1802-12 it is reorganized in the Military ministry.
  • MILITARY COMMAND ACADEMY of the ANTIAIRCRAFT PROTECTION him{it}. Marshal of Soviet Union G.K.Zhukova, it is based in 1956 in Kalinin (nowadays Tver). Plots command staff{frames} for a troops of air defence.
  • The MILITARY MEDICINE, studies the theory and practice of public health services and a feature of originating and flow of battle defeats and diseases of staff of armed forces; will organize a medical support at management of operations and treatment-and-prophylactic service of staff of a troops in a peace time.
  • MILITARY MUSIC, intended for performance{fulfillment} duhovymi by orchestras, buglers, drummers at front education{learning} of a troops, military and public solemn ceremonies. In past it was applied and at operations.
  • WATER WHEEL, the elementary hydraulic motor - a sprocket bladed, spun by water deluge.
  • HOT-WATER HEATING, heating of rooms feed in them of heat through heating appliances (radiators, convectors, panels, etc.), heated up with hot water. Distinguish water heating systems with natural and synthetic water circulation, with a top and bottom arrangement of a cultivating line, two-funneled and single-column.
  • WATER, in folk beliefs a demon in a mode{an image} of the old man, dwelling{living} in whirlpools, wells and other water reservoirs, sometimes at-sea (in Russian folklore - marine tsar).
  • WATER SEAL, the hydraulic device handicapping back-flow of gases in pipe lines. It is applied in a sanitary engineering to an avoidance of hit of sewage gases in a room through sanitarian devices (water closets, shells), and also in the gas-welding equipment.
  • WATER-MARK (filigran), the plotting visible on a lumen on a paper. It is put by the platen (dandy roll) with the help of a wire figure of a water-mark. It is applied to manufacturing documents, the money, valuable papers in order to prevent fabrications. It is studied filigranografiej. In bibliology helps to date manuscripts and staropechatnye issuings.
  • WATER Michael Grigorjevich (1924-87), the Russian actor of an operetta, the national actor of the USSR (1976). With 1946 at the Odessa theatre of the musical comedy (in 1979-83 artistic administrator - the director). Acted in film.
  • WATER OPOSSUM, the same, that plavun.
  • WATER CHESTNUT (a water nut, a water chestnut), a stem of water annual grasses of a set rogulnikovyh. Some tens kinds{views} (sometimes integrate in 1 polymorphic kind{view}, sometimes secrete up to 200), in Eurasia and Africa; in Russia predominary in the south of the European part, in JUzh. Siberia, on the Far East. Will grow primarily in small fresh lentic and medlennotekushchih water reservoirs. Affluent starch fruits ("walnuts" with cornute projections) are edible in a wet and boiled kind{view} (on taste remind chestnuts); have also feed and medicinal value.
  • AQUATIC SOW-BUG, crustaceous from order ravnonogih. Length of 12-20 mm. Populates fresh water reservoirs. Sometimes meets in quantities; ministers nutrition to fishes.
  • WATER SPIDER, unique freshwater spider. Length samtsa 15-20 mm, samki 10-12 mm. Breaths air by means of a pair{vapour;couple} of lungs and trachea. It is eurysynusic in Europe. Builds a submerged nest which fills in with air brought on a fuzz of an abdomen.
  • WATER PEPPER, plant of a stem a jointweed.
  • WATER SCORPIONS, sets of bugs. Length of 15-50 mm. Ok. 200 kinds{views}. Are distributed widely, predominary in Austro-Columbian regions. Live in fresh lentic water reservoirs. Predators; assaulting fry of fishes, harm prudovomu to a fish farming.
  • VOEVODA, the commander, the governor for slavonic peoples. In Russia it is known from 10 century In the Russian state - in the chapter a shelf, order (kon. 15 - nach. 18 centuries), cities (it is grey. 16 century - 1775), provinces (1719-75).
  • VOEVODIN Valentine Vasiljevich (r. 1934), the Russian mathematician, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1987). Transactionses on computational methods of algebra.
  • VOEVODSKY Vladislav Vladislavovich (1917-67), Russian fizikohimik, academician AN the USSR (1964). Has developed a fundamentals of the theory of oxidation of hydrogen and the first quantitative theory of cracking of olefinic hydrocarbon. Probeed radical reactions by methods of radio spectroscopy. The state premium of the USSR (1968, posthumously).
  • VOEVODSTVO, the main{basic} administrative and territorial unit in Poland.
  • VOEJKOV Alexander Ivanovich (1842-1916), klimatolog and the geographer, the founder of a climatology in Russia, corresponding member Petersburg AN (1910). Transactionses " Climates of a terrestrial globe, in particular Russia " (1884). Probes of interaction of a climate with other components of a nature, has given grading the rivers on a hydrological regime.
  • VOEJKOV Alexander Fedorovich (1779-1839), the Russian poet, the publisher, the journalist. A satirical pamphlet " the Dwelling of lunatics " (ok. 1815), parody (in spirit of "Arzamas") " Parnassky the Address - calendar " (1818-20; both were distributed in manuscripts, at life of the writer were not published). Transfers{translations}.
  • VOENIZDAT, publishing house, Moscow. It is based in 1919. Military-scientific, military - technical, political-military and fiction.
  • BLESSING OF WATER, Christian church dedication service of water (in a temple, dwellings, the rivers, wells, etc.). The orthodox church distinguishes t. n. Great Blessing of water (before a holiday of Theophany, or epiphany, and in the holiday) and small Blessing of water (it is routine twice a year: per day a temple holiday and at any time domiciliary at will believers).
  • WEIR, barrier{working against} (threshold) through which water deluge flows over. In a hydraulic engineering the water escape with a loose flood of water through his{its} crest calls as a weir.
  • WATER SUPPLY, set{combination} of measures on maintenance by water of different consumers - the populations, industrial enterprises, etc. The Complex of engineering structures and the devices executing water supply (including a drawing water from natural sources, its{her} clearing, transportation and feed to consumers), calls as water handling or the water-pipe.
  • WATER OUTLET, water escape with the depth skip of the water, plump routinely by the way the tubular channel in a body of a dam. Ministers for descent of water from water reservoir, promyva ground pompes of a hydraulic project, the skip of water in a downstream pool in the operational and building seasons{terms}.
  • CHANNEL, water-course with motion of water on a direction of a slope in a deepening of a surface (the river, the brook, the channel).
  • WATER TUBE BOILER, steam boiler for which water and a steam-water mixture move on the steel pipes which are washed against outside by light-end products of combustion of fuel. Drum water tube boilers with a vertical run of pipes and straight-flow are most distributed.
  • WATERPROOF LAYER (water confining), the layer of water-proof rocks limiting from below or from above a water-bearing horizon.
  • The WATER BUDGET, ratio between arrival (a rainfall, return fluids from sewerage systems, from dewed fields, etc.) and the charge (vaporization, an irrigation, water supply, etc.) waters on any part of a surface (basins of the rivers, inland seas) for fixed time with allowance for economic activities of the person. Testifies to water availability of basin; at the negative water budget - about necessity of measures on cover{coating} of a water deficit.
  • WATER RESERVOIR, the artificial watertank of the considerable capacity derivated routinely in a glen by water retaining structures for regulation of its{her} drainage and the further use in a national economy. Water reservoirs can exclude lakes which mode of levels variates artificially and adjusted{regulated} by hydrotechnical constructions. The most negative consequences of building of water reservoirs: an inundation, a swamping, a underflooding of grounds, etc.
  • WATER EMULSION, the same, that emulsion paints.
  • VODSKAJA PJATINA, an administrative and territorial unit of the Novgorod ground (in the Novgorod republic and up to nach. 18 century), between the rivers Volkhov and Luga. In 16 century it was divided on Karelian and Poluzhskuju halves. In nach. 18 century has come in Petersburg lips.
  • VODSKY TONGUE, tongue drive, falls into the pribaltijsko-Finnish branch of Finno-Ugric tongues.
  • WATERS of the DRY MATTER, water of the rivers, lakes, water reservoirs, bogs, icehouses, and also underground waters (total amount ok. 35,8 million êì3). Waters of a dry matter basically fresh.
  • VOD (the self-title - vadjalajn), people in the Russian Federation. Number - less than hundred person (1992). Tongue vodsky. Believers - orthodox.
  • WATER CURTAIN mountain, a zone from water a dropping in shafts for a dust recovery on a path of motion of a dusty mine air. Forms by spray jets, fog generators, etc.
  • WATER FIELD - MOUSE (water rat), mammalian a rodentia. Length of a body up to 24 sm, a tail up to 15 see. Dwells{lives} on coasts of water reservoirs of Europe, Boreal and Eastern (up to Lena and Baikal) and in part Forward{Front} Asia. Well floats and dives. A majority carrier of the causal organism of a tularemia.
  • WATER JACKET, cavity for water or other liquids, ambient the elements of machines subject to heating and the equipment, napr., internal-combustion engines, metallurgical furnaces (in this case the water jacket calls as a torsion box), for their refrigerating.
  • The WATER TURBINE, the same, that the hydraulic turbine.
  • CROWBERRY (a crowberry, a crowberry), the stem evergreen is fruticulose sets vodjanikovyh. 2 kinds{views} (under other data, 15-16), in taiga and tundra belts of Boreal hemisphere, in the south JUzh. America and neighboring islands. Will sometimes grow on sand - bars and dunes, in the alpine belt of mountains. Fruits (jagodovidnaja a drupe) vodjaniki black are used in I peep.
  • DROPSY, clump of a liquid in perigastriums, a hypodermic tissue and other tissues at diseases of heart, kidneys, a toxicosis pregnant, etc. As the serotinal{late} toxicosis pregnant is defined by occurrence{appearance} of dropsies on legs, in range of outside sexual organs and a belly.
  • WATER INTAKE, channel, water reservoir or the hollow accepting and deflecting, collected{plucked} by a bilge arrangement from accumbent terrain. The term "water intake" use also for notation of hydrotechnical abstraction intakes.
  • The WATER-PIPE, see. Water supply.
  • WATER SYSTEM, set{combination} of water lines (pipe lines) for water delivery to places of consumption; one of basic elements of water handling.
  • VODOPJANOV Michael Vasilyevich (1899-1980), the Russian pilot, the Hero of Soviet Union (1934), the general - major of aircraft (1943). In 1934 participant of salvage of crew of motorship " ×åëþñêèí ", in 1937 - air expedition on an arctic pole. In Great Domestic war the commander of an air division.
  • WATERSHED, border{limit} on a surface of the Earth, dividing a drainage of a rainfall on two counterly directed downslopes. A ground water divide - the conditional line dividing torrents of underground waters, driving in miscellaneous directions.
  • The WATER-PARTITE SPACE, on plains - an interfluve which is not having a drainage in any river system or with a drainage, implementing slabovrezannymi verhovjami the rivers; in mountains - a central part of a crops, accumbent to a watershed.
  • HYDROGEN (an armour. Hydrogenium), N, a chemical element of VII group of a periodic system, atomic number 1, atomic weight 1,00794. In a nature there are two stable isotopes (protium and deuterium) and one radioactive (hyzone). The molecule is biatomic (Í2). Gas without colour and an odor; firmness 0,0899 g/l, têèï = 252,76 °S. It is bridged to many elements, with oxygen will derivate water. The most widespread element of cosmos; compounds{makes} (by the way plasma) more than 70 % of mass of the Sun and asters, a main body of gases of interstellar medium and fogs. On the Earth is part some water, living organisms, mineral coal, petroleum. Apply in manufacture of ammonia, muriatic acid, to oil hardening, etc., at a weldment and metal cutting. Is part some synthesis gas. It is long-range as combustible (see. Hydrogenous energetics).
  • HYDROGEN BOMB, the obsolete title of a nuclear bomb of a major destruction force, which action it is based on use of the power secreted at a synthetic reaction of light nucleus (see. Thermonuclear reactions). For the first time the hydrogen bomb has been tested in the USSR (1953).
  • The HYDROGENOUS ENERGETICS, actuates obtaining Í2 from water and other natural raw material with an expenditure of solar, nuclear or other power, his{its} storage and use as fuel, and also in chemical transmission modes of power. Main advantage: high combustion heat (143,06 MDZH/KG) as contrasted to hydrocarbon fuel (29,3 MDZH/KG); unlimited stocks of raw materials if in the capacity of raw material to consider water, and an ecological security, t. To. A product of his{its} combustion - water. The hydrogenous energetics yet has not received mass application. The main{basic} problems: development of economic productive instrumentation for obtaining Í2, napr., electrolytic cells, plasma generators; his{its} storage methods in the gaseous and liquefied conditions or by the way the synthesized connections, napr., hydrides of intermetallic compound; a transporting with small loss.
  • HYDROGEN-HELIUM CYCLE (proton - proton chain), chain of thermonuclear reactions of metamorphosis{transformation} of hydrogen in helium without sharing{participation} catalysts. A hydrogen-helium cycle - the main{basic} energy source of the majority of asters, including. The Suns.
  • The HYDROGEN ELECTRODE in the electrochemistry, routinely platinized plate which is submersed in a solution of an acid with fixed ion density N + and washed against by gaseous hydrogen. At pressure of hydrogen 0,1 ÌÏa and thermodynamic activity of his{its} ions, equal unit, the potential of the hydrogen electrode is conditionally adopted equal to zero. Such hydrogen electrode calls standard, he ministers a reference electrode from which read out potentials of other electrodes.
  • HYDROGEN-LIKE ATOMS, atom N and the ions consisting, as well as N, from a nucleus and one electron (napr., single-passly ionized Not, twofoldly ionized Li). To hydrogen-like atoms attribute also atoms and ions with one vysokovozbuzhdennym (ridbergovskim) an electron. Spectrums of hydrogen-like atoms are similar to spectrum N.
  • ALGAE, group of the lowest water plants routinely keeping chlorophyll and producing organic substances during a photosynthesis. A body algae - a thallome which is not having true roots, stalks and leaves, from lobes of micron up to 60 m. Noncellular, single-celled, multicellular, colonial organisms. Reproduction asexual, vegetative and sexual. Departments (or phylums) algae: green, brown, red, yellow-green, yellow-green, diatomic, etc. Ok. 30 thousand kinds{views}. Blue-green algae consider as blue-green algae more often and fall into drobjankam. Algae - the main{basic} producers of an organic substance in fresh water reservoirs and seas. Are part of a plankton and a benthos. Some are edible (napr., a sea staff, a porphyry), other - raw material for obtaining feed mass, an agar, a carragheen, an iodine, etc. (many of them - object of aquiculture). A number{series} of algae test{experience} as components of the biocomplexes, spacecrafts logging in life support. Some single-celled and algae in symbiosis with mushrooms will derivate lichens.
  • DRAINAGE BASIN (orlik, an aquilegia), a stem of perennial grasses of a set of a crowfoot family. Ok. 100 kinds{views}, in a moderate belt of Eurasia and America; including 27 kinds{views} - in Vost. Siberia, Compare. Asia, on Caucasus. Some - the decorative.
  • CATCHMENT AREA (a drainage basin, a storage basin), terrain from which surface and underground waters flow off{run down;drain} in a fixed water reservoir.
  • WATER ESCAPE (sluice-way structure), the hydrotechnical construction intended for reset{drop} of redundant (freshet) water from water reservoir, and also skips of water in a downstream pool. The water escape with the surface skip of water calls as a weir, with depth - a water outlet.
  • WATER-YOUNG PIGS (kapibary), a stem of rodents. Length of a body up to 1,3 m, mass up to 60 kg and more (largest of the modern rodents). 2 kinds{views}, in central part JUzh. America, on coasts of water reservoirs and on forest bogs. Well float. Object hunts (meat).