Monday, June 18, 2007

  • AGE STRUCTURE of the POPULATION, ratio of number of miscellaneous age groups of the population. Depends on levels of birth rate and mortality, lifetime of people. In 1990 population in the age of up to 15 flying compounded{made} (in the world) 32 %, 15-64 flying - 62 %, 65 flying and is more higher - than 6 %.
  • "REVITALIZATION", 1) Russian periodical, the London: the weekly newspaper (1926-35), a weekly journal (1936-40). Editor P.B.Struve, the master literary critic - V.F.Khodasevich (with 1927). 2) Russian literary - political magazine, " an organ of Russian national idea ", 1949-74, Paris. Among editors - I.I.Thorzhevsky, S.P.Melgunov, S.S.Obolensky.
  • REVITALIZATION (Renaissance), the season{term} in cultural and ideological development of countries Zap. And Cent. Europe (in Italy 14-16 centuries, in other countries kon. 15-16 centuries), transient{berthing} from medieval crop to crop of new time. Distinctive features of crop of Revitalization: society, anticlerical character, humanistic world outlook (see. Humanism), the circulation to a cultural heritage of antiquity, as though his{its} "revitalization" (from here the title). Revitalization has arisen and was most brightly exhibited in Italy, where already on a boundary of 13-14 centuries (see. Protorenessans) it{him} provozvestnikami poet Dante, artist Dzhotto have acted, etc. Creativity of revivalists proniknuto belief in boundless capabilities of the person, his{its} will and reason, denial of scholasticism and asceticism (humanistic ethics of Italians Lorentso Vally, Piko della Mirandoly, etc.) . The fervor of the statement{confirmation} of an ideal of the harmonic, liberated creative person, beauty and harmony of a real, the circulation to the person as to the divine principle of life, sensation of integrity and orderly regularity of universe give art of Revitalization major ideological significance, a majestic heroic scale. In the architecture the leading part society structures - become to play public buildings, palaces, urban houses. Using order partitioning of a wall, arch passageways, collonnades, vaults, domes, architects (Brunelleski, Alberti, Bramante, Palladio in Italy, Lescaut, Delorm in France) have given the block constructions majestic clearness, a harmonicity and a proportionality to the person. Artists (Donatello, Mazachcho, the Pierrot della Francheska, Mantenja, Leonardo yes Vinci, Rafael, Mikelandzhelo, Titsian, Veronese, Tintoretto in Italy; JAn van Ejk, Rogir van der Vejden, Brejgel in Netherlands; Djurer, Nithardt, Holbejn in Germany; Fuke, the Screw rivet, Klue in France) in succession took possession of art reflectance of all oof of a real - drive of volume, the space, light, the plotting of a human figure (century t. Hours exposed) and substantial medium - an interior, a landscape. The literature of Revitalization has created such monuments of lasting value, as " Gargantjua and Pantagrjuel " (1533-52) Rabelaises, Shakespeare dramas, the novel " Don Kihot " (1605-15) Servantesa, etc., organo united interest to antiquity with the circulation to national crop, fervor of comic life with tragic element. Petrarca sonnets, short stories Bokkachcho, heroic poem Ariosto, a philosophical block type (tract Erazma Rotterdamskogo " the Praise of Nonsense ", 1511), Montaigne essay in miscellaneous genres, personal forms and national versions have embodied ideas of Revitalization. In the music inpouring{insinuating} humanistic attitude, vocal and tool{instrument} polyphony develops, there are new genres society vocal (frottola and villanella in Italy, viljansiko in Spain, a ballad in England, a madrigal) and tool{instrument} music; epoch is finished by occurrence{appearance} of such musical genres, as a solo song, a cantata, an oratorio and the opera, contributing the statement{confirmation} of a homophony. In Renaissance philosophical ideas neoplatonizma (Fichino) and panteizma (Patritsi, were distributed by Bruno, etc.), given away discoveries in range of geography (Great geographycal discoverings), astronomies (development of heliocentric world system by Kopernik), anatomy (Vezaly) have been made.
  • SOLDIERS Konstantin Naumovich (r. 1918), the Russian film director, the national actor of the USSR (1989). Productions of films: " to Troy have quitted from a wood " (1958), "is young - is green" (1962), " Marriage Balzaminova " (1965), " Djadjushkin dream " (1967), "Rudin" (1977), a documentary " the Holiday of sport and the world " (1985).
  • The COMPULSORY SERVICE, the statutory responsibility of the population (it is routine about 18 flying) to bear a military service in armed forces of the country. For the first time compulsory service is entered in 1798 in France (konskriptsija).
  • MILITARY UNIT, organizational do-it-yourself battle and an administrative unit in all kinds{views} of armed forces (shelves, the ship{spacecraft} of 1-st, 2-nd and 3-rd rank, a separate batallion, a division, a squadron, a company). Military unit are appropriated the true name (napr., 3-rd tank shelves) and a code name (napr., an army part 55555).
  • MILITARY HONOURS, development of respect (respect) on the part of servicemen or military units. Military honours can be returned at meeting and wires of representatives of foreign states. For rendering military honour the guard of honour and an orchestra are nominated.
  • MILITARY HONORARY NAMES, one of kinds{views} of awards of military connections, parts, the ships{spacecrafts}, establishments, military schools. To military honorary names concern: names in commemoration of historical events, in honour of state and public organizations, state, military figures, under titles of cities, the rivers, etc. where data of connection, parts were distinguished in breakages.
  • MILITARY PRESENCE, at Russia at 1874-1917 provincial (regional), district (circumferential) and urban establishments, vedavshie affairs of compulsory service.
  • The MILITARY CHIEF, in Russia about 1874 face heading an organ of aboriginal military steering in province (up to 1881) and district (up to 1918); knew an aboriginal troops, military - mobilization and registration - draft activity.
  • VOIN, old russian city of 10-13 centuries on Dnepr. Residues detintsa with wooden walls, the bank and a pit, housing economic constructions (site Voini is overflowed with waters Kremenchug vdhr.).
  • FELTED CLOTH (turki)., a textile, receive a felting woollen (less often mineral and chemical) filaments, and also from a mineral wool (on a bituminous sheaf). Use primarily as flimsy, it is warm also a sound-insulating material.
  • The WAR, the organized armed extirpation between the states, the nations (peoples), social groups. In war armed forces as a main and decisive means, and also economic, political, ideological and other means of strife are used. War between social groups inside country for the government calls as a civil war. For last in 5,5 thousand flying was ok. 14,5 thousand major and small wars (including two world) during which has perished, has died of epidemies and famine over 3,6 billion person. In the modern conditions in connection with the terminal of " cool war " danger of world nuclear war has decreased. However are prolonged t. n. Local wars - military conflicts, the bound with religious, territorial and national spores, breeding roznju, etc. The International community, the United Nations aspire to building a system of relations between the states, eliminating a threat of force and its{her} application.
  • WAR IN VIETNAM the Widespread title of the second indokitajskoj wars (1965-75) including Democratic Republic Vietnam (DRV) and the United States of America. First indokitajskaja war (1945-54) has concluded a defeat of France, a time division of Vietnam under Geneva agreements 1954 on Indochina on two parts in which terrain independent states with a different political formation - Democratic Republic Vietnam with capital in Hanoi in a north afterwards have been professed and Republic Vietnam with capital in Saigon - on juge.------the Beginning of war------the Prologue of war become events in gulf of Tongking bliz coasts of Vietnam in August 1964 when, under the statement{confirmation} of official Washington, motor torpedo-boats DRV attacked the ships{spacecrafts} of a VTR the USA, and a congress the USA has adopted a resolution, giving to the president of L. The right to use the American armed forces in Southeast Azii.------In March 1965 administration of a Johnson has directed a Johnson military quota on terrain of Austral Vietnam for his{its} protection against measures received by Boreal Vietnam on association of Vietnam by force of arms. In bridge 1965 USA have begun massive bombings terrain DRV with February to force communist leaders to refuse in Hanoi support of forces, consolidated in December 1960 in National front of discharging of Austral Vietnam (NFOJUV), acting against a pro-Western mode in Saigon. Afterwards act of war have covered terrain not only naturally Vietnam, but also adjacent from nymas of Laos and Cambodia (from here and its{her} second title).------From party DRV act of war have taken the form of large-scale guerilla operations in terrain of Austral Vietnam with the participation active armed forces DRV against armed forces of Austral Vietnam and his{its} ally the USA. Besides massive bombings Boreal Vietnam the USA lent support to Saigon in realization of military operations against the guerrilla, granted economic pomoshch.------the Parisian peace talks------To the beginning 1968 war has reached the deadlock: any of the parties did not manage to decide tasks in view. In May 1968 in Paris, originally only between the USA and DRV, and then, peace talks have begun from January 1969, including representatives sajgonskogo a mode and NFOJUV. However act of war in terrain of Vietnam kept and during the Parisian peace talks on Vjetnamu.------After more than four flying of negotiations, on January, 27 1973 administration the USA headed by R.Nixon, loosened internal political crisis (" Uotergejtskoe business "), has gone on a signing of an agreement with DRV about conditions of a breeding of the troops from Vietnam. In February - March 1973 in Paris the international conference across Indochina, consolidated the Parisian nonpredatory agreements on the arrest of war and maintenance of the world in Vietnam, the signed USA and by Republic (Austral) Vietnam, on the one hand, both DRV and NFOJUV, with other was comprised. The unsuccessful and long-lived act of war accompanied with major loss, have generated in the American society t. n. " The Vietnamese set of symptoms ", i.e. sharp neprijatie sharing{participations} of the American soldiers in foreign military conflicts, what purposes this sharing{participation} not obosnovyvalos.------War in Vietnam would keep, however, during two flying, already between Boreal Vietnam in the union with NFOJUV and sajgonskim a mode headed by general Nguen Van Thieu. She was finished in April 1975 years as a result of vernal approach of armed forces DRV both battle parts NFOJUV and fall of capital of the South - Saigon. The authority in terrain of Austral Vietnam has passed to temporary revolutionary government of Republic Austral Vietnam.------the Role of the USSR------During all ten flying of the conflict of the USSR rendered DRV the diversiform help, aspiring to intensifying the influence in Indochina and to slackening the USA, the main rival in " cool war ". If up to the introduction the USA in war the Soviet support DRV limited basically economic complementation since the spring 1965 in the aggregate volume of an eaid has become to build up specific weight of military deliveries to Hanoi. Already to 1968 USSR has taken a leading rule{situation;position} among the countries supporting DRV, having pushed aside the Chinese National Republic on the second place. Simultaneously the USSR made efforts for the resolution of conflict in Vietnam a diplomatic way, being afraid of possible{probable} global crisis and being is interested (in conditions of an exacerbation of dissents with the Chinese communists) in "discharge" international naprjazhennosti.------Ëèòåðàòóðà:------Cats of L. Â., Egors R.S.Boevaja solidarity, the brotherly help. Ì., 1970.------Mhitarjan Ñ., Mhitarjan T.Vjetnamskaja revolution: Problems of the theory and practice. Ì., 1986.------Cooper Ch. The Lost Crusade: America in Vietnam. New York, 1970.------Kolko G. Anatomy of a War: Vietnam, the United States, and the Modern Historical Experience. New York, 1985.------Smith R. B. An International History of the Vietnam War. London, 1985.------Kahin G. M. Intervention: How America Became Involved in Vietnam. New York, 1986.------Pike D. Vietnam and the Soviet Union: Anatomy of an Alliance. Boulder, 1987.------Gibbons W. C. The U. S. Government and the Vietnam War: Executive and Legislative Roles and Relationships. Washington, 1988. P. 3.------I.V.Gajduk
  • WAR of AUSTRAL AND BOREAL DYNASTIES (1336-1392) in Japan. In 1333 segunat Minamoto was will overthrow, and on a short time the imperial authority was placed{installed}. Emperor Godajgo aspired{tried} to steer privately-owned, but not a smog to liquidate contraventions between aristocrats and soldiers, derogating from of interests last. One of the largest feudal lords Ashikaga Takaudzi two years later has raised rebelion which has reduced in education of the second segunata - Ashikaga (or Muromati, under the title of quarter in Kyoto where the military government placed). With a passage of power in arms{hand} Ashikaga the internecine wars proceeding almost up to the extremity of century have begun. Emperor Godajgo ran in mountains, having based in place Esino the Austral yard, and Ashikaga has landed{put} in Kyoto on a throne of emperor to the Coma which has headed Boreal yard. Dvoetsarstvie it was prolonged up to 1392 when both dynasties were aggregated, and capital has again become Kyoto.
  • VOJNAROVSKY Andrey (? - ok. 1740), the Ukrainian cossack foreman, nephew Mazepa, the participant of his{its} plot. Ran to Germany. In 1718 it is given to the Russian government and it is banished to Yakutsk.
  • VOJNICH (Voynich) Etel Lilian (1864-1960), the English writer. Daughter Dzh. Boulle. In 1887-89 vein in Russia, has been connected to Polish and Russian revolutionary movement. With 1920 in the USA. In the novel "Gadfly" (1897), " the Gadfly in expulsion{relegation} " (1910; other transfers{translations} - " Interrupted friendship ") the heroic mode{image} of the italian revolutionary is built. Roman " Remove{Take off} thy shoe " (1945) - about ancestors of the protagonist of the previous novels. Transferred{translated} products{creations} of the Russian literature. A theme of its{her} musical oratorio "Babylon" (1948) - an overthrow of the autocracy in Russia.
  • VOINOVICH Vladimir Nikolaevich (r. 1932), the Russian writer. In 1980-92 in emigration in Germany. In the novel " Life and unusual adventures of the soldier of Ivan Chonkina " (1969-75) and his{its} prolongation " the Claimant for a holy table " (1979) - satirical derision of a totalitarianism; a mode{an image} "ivanushki-durachka" - the carrier of national morals and common sense. Documentary - satirical story "Ivankiada" (1976; all three products{creations} in Russia up to 1988 were not typed) - on a "room" theme, uncovers the mechanism of bureaucracy. Satirical story - anti-Utopia " Moscow 2042 " (1987). The play " the Cat domestic mean pushistosti " (1990, together with G.I.Gorinym). Verses (including " the Song of astronauts "), the story (" Two comrades ", 1967), publicism.
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