Sunday, May 13, 2007

  • BALVI (Balvi), city (with 1928) in Latvia, on r. Balupe, in 6 kms from zh.-d. An item. Balvi. 9,6 thousand inhabitants (1991). Alimentary and a light industry. It is known with 1224.
  • BALDANO Namzhil Garmaevich (1907-84), the Buryat writer, the national writer of Buryatiya (1973), the playwright, the national actor of Buryatiya (1938). Plays "Outbreak" (1932), " Two friends " (1938), "Bajangol" (1947). Has constituted the summary text of epos "Geser" (it is issued in 1959).
  • BALDAHIN (a nem. Baldachin), an ornate ceremonial canopy above a throne, a ceremonial bed, a church altar (originally the cloth, later stone, wooden, metal). In Russian art of building it is known from 11 century (sen, a ciborium).
  • BALDIN Alexander Mihajlovich (r. 1926), Russian physics, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1981). The main transactionses on nuclear physics and fundamental particles (primarily to their electromagnetic interactions) and to boosters. The lenin premium (1988), the State premium of the USSR (1973).
  • BALDONE (Baldone), a urban settlement in Latvia, in 33 kms from Riga. 2,3 thousand inhabitants (1991). A balneal and muddy health resort.
  • BALEARIC ISLANDS (Baleares), in a western part of Mediterranean m., autonomous region of Spain. Actuate islands Maljorka, Minorca, etc. The Area together with islands Pitiusskimi over 5 thousand êì2. The population of 686 thousand person (1992). An altitude up to 1445 m. The Mediterranean bushes, epines of woods. Main city and a port - the Palm - de-Maljorka (on about. Maljorka). A recreation area and tourism; climatic health resorts.
  • BALEVSKY the Angel (r. 1910), the Bulgarian scientist, the academician (1967), the president (1968-88), the honorary president (with 1988) Bulgarian AN, the foreign member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; foreign member AN the USSR with 1971). Transactionses on a physical metallurgy, process metallurgies, to methods of obtaining of new metal materials. Has created a casting method with back pressure. A golden medal him. Lomonosov AN the USSR (1975).
  • BALEJ, city (up to 1938 seconds Novotroitsky the Craft) in the Russian Federation, the Chita region, on r. Unda, in 55 kms from zh.-d. An item. The high. 23,7 thousand inhabitants (1992). Production of gold.
  • The DANCER (ital. ballerina, from pozdnelat. ballo - I dance), the dancer in ballet troupe. The term has appeared in 2-nd floor. 19 century.
  • " BALLET ON ICE " ST.-PETERSBURG, it is built in 1967. The founder and main ballet master K.F.Bojarsky (in 1967-74), K.A.Rassadin (with 1979).
  • The BALLET MASTER (a nem. Ballettmeister), the writer and the director of ballets, choreographic miniatures, dances.
  • BALETOMAN (from ballet and... man), the fan of ballet and his permanent visitor.
  • BALI, in induizme the lord of the underground world, tsar dajtjev. Vishnu in appearance of a dwarf has won from him the celestial and earth world.
  • BALIEV Nikita Fedorovich (Mkrtich Baljan) (1876-1936), the Russian theatrical figure, the actor, the producer. The active participant of "kale - yards" of the Moscow Art theatre. With 1908 director, the artistic administrator of a theatre - cabaret "Bat". With 1920 in emigration.
  • BALIJTSY, people in Indonesia on about. Bali and in the west about. Lombok. 3,65 million person (1992). Tongue of the Indonesian branch. Believers - induisty.
  • BALIKPAPAN (Balikpapan), city and a port in Indonesia, on about. Kalimantan. Ok. 300 thousand inhabitants (1989.) Center of oil fields. A woodworking.
  • BALINSKY Ivan Mihajlovich (1827-1902), the founder of the Petersburg school of psychiatrists, one of founders of psychiatry in Russia.
  • BALINO (Balino) Karlos (1848-1926), the cuban revolutionary. The participant of a war 1868-78 against spanish colonialists. Together with H.Marti has based the Cuban revolutionary consignment (1892), from H.A.Meljej - National - socialist party of Cuba (1925).
  • BANBU, city in China, see. Bengbu.
  • BANG (Bang) Hermann (1857-1912), the danish writer. Psychologic novels " Remediless generations " (1880) and "Fedra" (1883) - about domination of fate in destinies of people, " For road " (1886), "Slime" (1889) - about events of Danish war 1864.
  • BANGALORE (Bengaluru, Bangalur), city in JUzh. India, an administrative centre pieces. Karnataka. 2,7 million inhabitants (1991). The large centre of a machine industry; an alimentary, textile industry; handcrafts. University. Center of space probes.
  • BANGVEULU (Bangweulu), lake in Zambia, in verhovjah r. Luapula (system r. Congo), at the altitude 1067 m. The area from 4 thousand êì2 (in a dry season) up to 15 thousand êì2 (during summer rains). Depth up to 5 m. Coasts bogged up; thrickets of a common reed and a sedge.
  • BANGUI (Bangui), capital of Central African republic, a port on r. Ubangi. 452 thousand inhabitants (1988). An international airport. Textile, a food-processing industry, metal working. University. It is based in 1889 as the French military post.
  • BANGIEVYE, a class of red algae. Ok. 100 kinds. Everywhere in fresh waters, seas, on soil. The major representative - a porphyry.
  • BANG-KAUP (Bang Kaup) Villi (1869-1934), german jazykoved. Transactionses on comparative-historical grammar, leksikologii and ethymologies of Turkic tongues.
  • BANGKOK (Bankok, Krungtep), capital (with 1782) Thailand. 5,9 million inhabitants (1989, with suburbs). Main marine and a river harbor of country in a mouth r. Chao Phraya (freight turnover ok. 30 million t. Annually). An international airport. Risoochistitelnaja, sawing, impregnated-paper, mild, cement, oil refining, a chemical industry, a machine industry and metal working; art handcrafts. Universities. It is known from 16 century. A complex of royal palace CHakri (Mahaprasat, 18 - nach. 20 centuries); temples On (CHetupon, 19 century), Radzhabopit (it is grey. 19 century), Benchamabopit (1900), etc.
  • BANGPUTIS, in Baltic mythology the godhood of physical agents of water, a storm and a wind.
  • GANG (ital. banda), group of the armed people committing in unison criminal acts; in a broad sense - any criminal band.
  • GANG (Banda), interisland the pest Quiet ok., in Indonesia, between islands Serams, Southeast, Wetar, etc. 714 thousand êì2, depth up to 7440 m. the Port Ambon (on about. Ambon).
  • GANG, people in Central African republic (0,95 million person) and Zaire (0,6 million person, 1992). Tongue a gang. Save traditional convictions.
  • GANG (Banda) Hastings Kamuzu (1906-94), the president of Malawi in 1966-94 (with 1971 life); in 1963-64 prime minister of Nyasaland, in 1964-66 prime minister of Malawi. The chairman of a consignment the Congress of Malawi (with 1960).
  • BANDAGE (frants. bandage - a bandage), in medicine - a special belt for deduction of a forward abdominal wall and an internals in a normal position during pregnancy and after stems, at hernias of an abdominal wall, etc.
  • BANDAGE, in technique - a metal ring or a belt which is fitted on machine components, designs for increase of their toughness or reduction of wearing.
  • BANDAJ, an active volcano on about. Honshu (Japan). An altitude of 1819 m. Disastrous eruption in 1888. In structure of national park of the Bandaj-Asahi.
  • BANDARANAIKE Sirimavo (r. 1916), the prime minister of Republic Sri Lanka (up to 1972 Ceylon) in 1960-65 both in 1970-77 and with 1994. The chairman of the Consignment of freedom of Sri Lanka (up to 1972 Ceylon consignment of freedom). Widow S.Bandaranaike.
  • BANDARANAIKE Solomon (1899-1959), the prime minister of Ceylon in 1956-59, in 1951 has based the Ceylon consignment of freedom. It is killed by conspirators.
  • BANDAR-SERI-BEGAVAN (Bandar Seri Begawan), capital of Brunei. 21,5 thousand inhabitants (1991). A port on about. Kalimantan. An international airport. Wood-working, ship repair facilities. University.
  • BAKRADZE Dmitry Zaharovich (1826-90), the Georgian historian, arheograf, the archeologist, corresponding member Petersburg AN (1879). Member "Meore-dasi". Transactionses on a history of Caucasus, Georgia, a source study, paleography.
  • BAKSAN, city (with 1967) in the Russian Federation, Kabardino-Balkariya, on r. Baksan, in 24 kms from zh.-d. An item. Nalchik. 30,2 thousand inhabitants (1992). Factory " Autospare ", the knitting mill, etc. Bliz Baksana - Baksanskaja a river plant.
  • BAKSAN (Azau), the river on the Sowing. Caucasus, dextral in-leak of the Miter square. 173 kms, the area of basin of 6,8 thousand êì2. On Baksane - a river plant. Verhovja Baksana and his inflow (Prielbrusje) - one of the main areas of tourism, mountaineering and mountain skiing.
  • BAKST (an ice-film. fam. Rosenberg) the Lion Samuilovich (1866-1924), the Russian painter, the schedule, the theatrical artist. The member of " the World of art ". From 1909 cable cores primarily in Paris. As the decorator of Russian seasons has stylized antique and eastern motives, creating the attenuatous - decorative fancy show.
  • BAKSTER (Baxter) Richard (1615-92), the English puritan ecclesiast and the seminary student. The participant of the English revolution of 17 century. Has based a recent trend in calvinism - t. n. baksterianizm (with less stringent treatment of a tenet about predetermining).
  • BAKT (á), off-system unit of germizidal activity of a ultraviolet radiation. 1 1 W of energy flow of radiance is peer at a wavelength 255,5 nm.
  • BACTERIAL LEACHING, method of intensification of process of extraction of valuable components from rocks with the help of microorganisms (napr., U, Cu, Au from deposits, dumps, etc.).
  • BACTERIAL FERTILIZERS, preparty (nitragin - crop of nodule bacteria, etc.), keeping useful soil microorganisms for agricultural crops. Introduce to soil together with seeds.
  • BACTERIEMIA (from a bacterium and grech. haima - blood), presence at blood of bacteria. It is characteristic for the acute season of many communicable diseases.
  • BACTERIA (from grech. bakterion - a bacillus), group microscopic, predominary unicells. Fall into "dojadernym" to forms - prokariotam. In the basis of the modern grading bacteria on which all bacteria divide on eubaktery (gram-negative bacteriums and gram-positive bacteriums, mycoplasmas) and arhebaktery, the structure of their cell wall is necessary. Under the form of cells of a bacterium there can be ball-shaped (coccus), rhabdoid (bacillus, klostridii, pseudo-monads), gyrose (a vibrio, spirillas, spirochetes); a diameter 0,1-10 microns, length 1-20 microns, and filamentous multicellular bacteria - 50-100 microns. Some bacteria will derivate spores. Many are mobile, have flagellums. Eat, using different organicheskiee substances (heterotrophs) or creating organic substances of cells from inorganic (autotrophic plants). Are formative both at the presence of atmospheric oxygen (aerobes), and for want of (anaerobes). Participate in a cycle in a nature, structure formation and fertility of soils, in education and destruction of mineral wealths; sustain reserves of a carbonic gas in an atmosphere. Are used in alimentary, microbialogic, chemical and other industries. Pathogenic (pathogenic) bacteria - causal organisms of blights, animal and the person. Suppose, that bacteria - the first organisms which have appeared on the Earth.
  • BACTERIOLYSIS (from a bacterium and... liz), destruction of an environment of bacteria and an output of their cytoplasm in an environment. Can be called by physical and chemical agents, bacteriophages, anti-bodies (bacteriolysins), some ferments, napr., a lysozyme.
  • The BACTERIOLOGICAL WEAPONS, biological weapons (weapon of mass destruction) - bacteria, viruses, rikketsii, mushrooms and the toxic products of their vital activity used with the help of alive contaminated carriers of diseases (hexapods, rodents, etc.) or by the way suspensions and powders in an ammunition, devices with the purpose to call mass disease of people, animal and plants. It is forbidden by Geneva minutes 1925 and the Convention of the United Nations 1972.
  • BACTERIOLOGY (from a bacterium and... logija), the section of a microbiology investigator bacteria.
  • BAKTERIONOSITELSTVO AND the CARRIAGE OF VIRUS, stay of causal organisms of communicable diseases in an organism of the person or animal for want of attributes of disease. Bakterionositelstvo and the carriage of virus with secretion of the causal organism is quite often supervised for people which have had been ill, napr., a cholera, a diphtheria. At some infections (napr., a typhoid) promotes distribution of disease.
  • BAKTERIOULOVITELI, adaptations for an air sampling with the purpose of definition of a degree and character of bacterial pollution.
  • BACTERIOPHAGES (from a bacterium and grech. phagos - the devourer) (phages), viruses of bacteria; are capable to strike a bacterial cell, to be reproduced in her and to invoke its lysis. Classical object of probes in a molecular genetics. Are used for fagoprofilaktiki and phagotherapies of communicable diseases.
  • BACKTERIOCHLOROPHYLLS, pigments capable of a photosynthesis green and purple bacteria. On chemical constitution are close to chlorophylls of green plants.
  • BACTERIOCINES, the antibacterial substances produced by many kinds of bacteria and suppressing bacterial activity of other strains of the same kind or an allied species. Are meant according to the latin title of a producer, napr. The coliform bacillus will derivate colicines.
  • STERILIZING POWER (from a bacterium and an armour. caedo - I kill), property of chemicals (bactericides), physical and biological factors (temperature, an ionizing radiation, a ferment a lysozyme, etc.) to invoke death of bacteria.
  • BARCAROLE (ital. barcarola, from barca - a boat), a song of the venetian gondoliers; mild, pumping motion of a melody, lyrical character are typical. By many composers are built vocal and instrumentalje the plays realizing features of a national barcarole.
  • PADDLE WHEEL (niderl. barkas), 1) a self-propelled vessel of the small dimensions for transportations to a port... 2) In a VTR the rowing boat from 14-22 paddles.
  • BARKGAUZEN (Barkhausen) Genrih George (1881-1956), german physics and the electrical engineer. Has discovered the effect called as his name. Has constructed (1919) generator of continuous microwave oscillations.
  • BARKGAUZENA EFFECT, step change of a magnetization of ferromagnetic substance at continuous change of environmental conditions, napr., a magnetic field. It is stipulated by a domain structure. G.Barkgauzenom (1919) is open.
  • BARKENTINE (English barkentine) (schooner - bark), a marine sailing vessel (3-5 spar trees) with goosewings on a forward spar tree (foremast) and skew on remaining.
  • BARKER (Barker) George (r. 1913), the English poet, the prose writer and the playwright. Collections of verses " News from all light " (1950), " Dreams in summer night " (1966), " Anno Domini " (1983).
  • BARQUISIMETO (Barquisimeto), city in northwest of Venezuela, an administrative centre pieces. Lara. 724 thousand inhabitants (1990). Alimentary, textile, cement, a leather and foot-wear industry. University. It is based in 1552.
  • BARKLA (Barkla) CHarlz (1877-1944), English physics. Has executed (1904) polarization of X-rays. Has discovered (1906) characteristic X-radiation. The Nobel Prize (1917).
  • BARCLAY - DE-TOLLI Mihail Bogdanovich (1761-1818), prince (1815), the Russian general - field marshal (1814). The division commander and bodies in wars with France and Sweden. In 1810-12 military minister. In Domestic war 1812 commander-in-chief 1-st army, and in July - August actually all reacting Russian armies. In 1813-14 commander-in-chief russko-Prussian army, with 1815 - 1-st army.
  • " BARKLEJS BANK " (Barklays Bank), the largest business bank of the Great Britain. It is based in 1694. Enters into " the Major four " English banks. 2900 branches and agencies in country, more than 2000 branches and affiliated companies in 80 foreign states (kon. 1980th). Total assets 104,7 billion pounds sterling (189,4 billion dol. The USA), an ownership capital (billion dol. The USA) 10,6, profit 2,5 (kon. 1980th).
  • BARKS Lion Mitrofanovich (r. 1928), Russian physics, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1984). The main transactionses on a nuclear physics and an elementary particle physics. The state premium of the USSR (1989).
  • BARKOVA Anna Aleksandrovna (1901-76), the Russian poetess. The first collection "Woman" (1922) was recognized contemporaries. It has been repressed; a considerable proportion of life has conducted in the conclusion (1934-39; 1947-56; 1957-65). In serotinal poetry (cáîðíèê "Recurring", 1990) reverts to travails and degradings of women in the Soviet camps.
  • BAR - KOHBA, the leader of antiRoman revolt 132-135 in Judea.
  • BARKROFT (Barcroft) Joseph (1872-1947), the English physiologist. Basic researches of respiratory function of blood. Transactionses on theoretical physiology.
  • BARKULABOVSKAJA the ANNALS, western - Russian, about events 1563-1608. It is constituted in nach. 17 century the priest of seconds Barkulabovo F. Filippovichem. Cramps: aboriginal, about the Lithuanian and Polish policy, Lzhedmitrii II, etc.
  • BARLAH (Barlach) Ernest (1870-1938), the german sculptor, the schedule and the writer. Humanistic, antimilitarist, full emotional pressure of product Barlaha (the monument gorged in a cathedral in Gjustrove, 1927, it is deleted by fascists) under the art solution are close ekspressionizmu.
  • BARMA, the Russian architect of 16 century, has created a temple together with Postnikom Vasily Blazhennogo.
  • The BARMAN (Barmen), see in an item. Vuppertal.
  • BARMIN Vladimir Pavlovich (1909-93), the Russian scientist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1966), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1956). Transactionses on launch systems of many missiles. The lenin premium (1957), the State premium of the USSR (1943, 1967, 1977).
  • BATHYLITE (from grech. bathos - depth and lithos - a stone), a large mass (over 200 êì2) granitoidnyh the rocks, occurring among sedimental stratas of wrinkled ranges of earth crust.
  • BATHOMETER (from grech. bathos - depth and... Meter), a sampler of water with different depths of a water reservoir.
  • LONG LOAF - RUZH (Baton Rouge), city in the south the USA, adm. ts. Pieces. Louisiana, seaport on r. Mississipi. 220 thousand inhabitants (1990). A petroleum industry, petrochemistry, nonferrous machine industry. Universities.
  • BATORY (Batory) the Stefan (1533-86), king Polish with 1576, the commander. Participant Livonskoj of war 1558-83. Has based (1579) Academy in Vilno (later - the Vilnius university).
  • HIRED LABOURERS, hired farm workers, routinely impoverished peasants.
  • BATT (Butt) Isaak (1813-79), the figure of irish national motion. In 1869 has put forward idea gomrulja. One of leaders of irish opposition in the English parliament.
  • BATTALJA (Battaglia) Roberto (1913-63), the italian historian. Transactionses on a modern history of Italy.
  • BATTAMBANG, city in Cambodia, adm. ts. prov. Battambang. 45 thousand inhabitants (1987). A thorough revision of agricultural production. Manufacture of phosphate fertilizers.
  • BATTANI, al-Battani (abu Abdallah Mohammed ben Dzhabir) (858-929), the Arabian astronomer and mathematician. (Syria) comes Battana. First has offered methods of calculation of orbicular triangles, has conducted flock of astronomical supervision, has constituted tables of motion of the Sun and moon, has defined an inclination of an ecliptic and value of precession. Has put into practice trigonometrical ratioses (a sine, tangent, a cotangent).
  • BATTE (Batteux) Charles (1713-80), French aesthetics, the representative of a classicism. As the philosophy of art considered mimesis.
  • BATTENBERG (Battenberg) Alexander (1857-93), german prince, prince of Bulgaria (1879-86). The explorer of austro-german influence on the Balkans, has abdicated under pressure the Bulgarian officers - Russophiles.
  • BUTTERFLY STROKE (English butterfly, characters. - the butterfly), a way of sporting float on a breast, defined by simultaneous rabble by arms with consequent their offset from water; motion of legs, as in breaststroke. Has arisen from breaststroke in 1934 in the USSR and the USA.
  • BATTICALOA, city in Sri Lanka. Ok. 50 thousand inhabitants. A port in a lagoon on eastern coast of an island. Center of a farming area. Fishery. It is known t. n. " Singing of fishes " (the acoustic effect originating at night from a bottom of a lagoon).
  • BATTJANI (Battjani) (Batthyany) Lajosh (1806-49), the chairman of Council of Ministers (March - September 1848) in the season of Revolution 1848-49 in Hungary. The adherent of conservation of Hungary in structure of empire Gabsburgov. Rasstreljan under the sentence of the Austrian military court.
  • BATUMI, city in Georgia, capital Adzharii, a port on Black m. A depot. 137 thousand inhabitants (1991). An industry: oil refining, a machine industry (the equipment for a tea industry, shipbuilding, electrotechnical items), mild (boot, sewing); a tea family and tobacco factories, caffeinic factory, etc. University. 2 theatres. 2 museums. An aquarium - delphinarium. A climatic health resort. It is known from 11 century as strength. Bliz Batumi - the Batumi botanical garden.
  • BATUMI BOTANICAL GARDEN AN of Georgia. It is located bliz Batumi (a settlement cape Verde). It is based in 1912 A.N.Krasnovym. The area ok. 120 ga. A scientific institute on cultivation on Black Sea a shore of Caucasus of tea, citrous and other subtropical crops. St. 5 thousand kinds, versions and forms of plants. In herbariums of aboriginal and strange plants - more than 40 thousand leafs.
  • The BATUMI UNIVERSITY, is based in 1990 on the basis Pedagogical institute by him. SHota Rustaveli. Plots staff on physical, chemical, mathematical, biological, geographycal, philological, historical, pedagogical and other trades. In 1990 over 2 thousand students.
  • WELSH ONION, perennial herbaceous plant of a stem an onions of a set onions. In I peep use pullet leaves (a green feather), sheared off some times for a vegetation.
  • BATURIN, a urban settlement on Ukraine, the Chernigov region, on r. Parliament. 3,9 thousand inhabitants (1991). A flax primary treating plant. An Istoriko-study of local lore museum. In 17-18 centuries a residence of the Ukrainian hetmen. Kochubey dwelling (17 century), Razumovsky palace (kon. 18 - nach. 19 centuries).
  • BATURIN Vladimir Petrovich (1902-45), the Russian geologist, the doctor of geologo-mineralogical sciences. Transactionses " Paleogeography on terrigene components " (1937). The state premium of the USSR (1948, posthumously).
  • BATURIN Pafnuty Sergeevich (ok. 1740-1803), the Russian educator, the adherent deizma; has criticized the doctrine of Saint Martin popular among masons.
  • TRAMPOLINE (batud) (frants. batoude, from ital. battuta, characters. - impact), the springing device for jumps - jumpings up. Jumps on a trampoline (personal and synchronic twin) - a kind of sport. In International federation (it is based in 1964) ok. 40 countries (1991). World championships with 1964, Europe with 1968. It is applied in circus acrobatics.
  • BATYJ (Bath) (1208-55), the Mongolian khan, grandson Chingishana. The leader obshchemongolskogo a marching in Vost. And Center. Europe (1236-43), with 1243 khan of Golden Horde.
  • BATYR (bahadur) (the turki. - a bogatyr, the athlete, hrabrets), title of honour for turkis and the Mongols, produced for military exploits.
  • BATYR SRYM (Srym Datov) (?-1802), the chief of revolt of peasants and parts patriarchal - generic znati in Kazakhstan against a press of tsarism, khan and anthuruses Junior zhuza (1783-97). Revolt has sufferred a defeat because of split among rising.
  • BATYRAJ (1831-1910), darginsky the poet. One of initiators realistic darginskoj literatures. Cycles of songs " About life ", " About the hero ", " About love " (gathered and published in 1928).
  • BATYRMURZAEV Zejnalabidin Nuhaevich (1897-1919), kumyksky the writer. Son N.Batyrmurzaeva. One of organizers of guerilla motion within the Civil war in Dagestan. Plays "Danijalbek", " Counter to mulls " (1916-17) have put in pawn a fundamentals kumykskoj dramatic art. Together with the father rasstreljan White Guards.
  • BATYRMURZAEV Nuhaj (1869-1919), kumyksky the writer - educator. Stories " Unfortunate Habibat " (1910), " Garun and Zubajda, or Unfortunate ZHanbike " (1910), " Davud and Lajla " (1912) have put in pawn a fundamentals of realistic prose in kumykskoj to the literature. Together with the son rasstreljan White Guards.
  • BATYRSHA Aliev (Abdulla Aleev) (ok. 1710-62), a mull. The participant of the Bashkir revolt 1755. With 1756 in SHlisselburgskoj strengths where has died.
  • BATYJA IRRUPTION, aggressive marchings the mongolo-tartar in Vost. And Center. Europe under leadership of khan Batyja. In 1236-41 seizure of the Volga Bulgaria, in the winter 1237-1238 marching in Sev.-Vost. Russia, in 1238-40 lingering war with half-sheeps, lactamic acids, Circassians. In the autumn - in the winter 1240 seizure JUzh. Russia. In 1241-42 marching through Poland, Hungary, etc. to Adriatic sea. Mongolo-tartars, loosened heroic resistance Russian and other peoples Vost. Europe, could not be consolidated in Central Europe and have receded. Earth Vost. Europe have been destroyed, in Russia the mongolo-tatar yoke was placed.
  • BATYUSHKOV Konstantin Nikolaevich (1787-1855), the Russian poet. The chapter anakreonticheskogo directions in Russian lyrics (" Cheerful hour ", " my penates ", "Vakhanka"). Has gone through spiritual crisis ("Hope", " To the friend ") later; in a genre elegii - motives of one-way love ("Separation", " Wash the genius "), high tragic element (" Dying TASS ", " Saying Melhisedeka ").
  • BAUGINY (Boen) (Bauhin), the Swiss biologists, brothers: 1) Iogann (1541-1613), in " the New generalpurpose history of plants " (t. 1-3, 1650-61) has described 5000 kinds of plants... 2) Kaspar (1560-1624), for the first time has applied a binominal nomenclature in a taxonomist of plants (1620). Has described t. n. bauginievu a shutter in an intestines animal.
  • BAUMAN Vladimir Ivanovich (1867-1923), the Russian scientist. The writer of basic transactionses on mine surveying.
  • BAUMAN Nikolay Ernestovich (psevd. A rook) (1873-1905), the figure of the Russian revolutionary movement since 90th. A veterinarian. In 1904 chief of the Moscow committee and Boreal office of a Central Committee of a consignment. It is killed on October, 18 1905 chernosotentsem. Bauman funeral on October, 20 in Moscow were poured out in mass political demonstrating.
  • BAUMANABAD, the title of. Pjandzh in Tadjikistan in 1931-36.
  • BAUMANIS (Baumanis) JAnis Fridrih (1834-91), the Latvian architect. In a decora of constructions used forms of different architectonic styles (the Dwelling lifljandskogo nobility, nowadays the building of parliament of Latvia in Riga, 1863-67).
  • BAUMGARTEN (Baumgarten) Alexander Gotlib (1714-62), the german philosopher of school of H.Volf, an ancestor of an aesthetics (has entered the term) as special philosophical discipline - " sciences about sensual knowledge ".
  • BAUR (Baur) Ferdinand Christian (1792-1860), the german Protestant theologian, the hegelian, the founder and the chapter tjubingenskoj schools; the professor of university in Tjubingene (with 1826).
  • BATIK (malajsk)., technique of paintings, and also the multicolour cloth decorated with her. Drawing put a flake of wax, a matter alight in a paint which imbues not wax-lined parts of a tissue. The paintings a batik is long since known for peoples of Indonesia, India, etc. In Europe - since 20 century.
  • BATHYMETRIC CHARTS (from grech. bathys - steep and metreo - I measure), map a submerged relief through isobaths together with marks of depths.
  • BATHYPLANE (from grech. bathys - steep and an armour. planum - a plane), the single-seat towed apparatus for supervision underwater. It is dipped and retained on necessary depth (some tens meters) by the pilot - look-out located in a hermetic body with the help of control surfaces.
  • The BATHYSCAPH (from grech. bathys - steep and skaphos - a vessel), an abyssal powered vehicle for oceanographic, etc. probes. Will consist from steel spheres - nacelles (crew 1-3 persons, devices) and floats - bodies, the filled lighter, than water, a filling agent (routinely petrol). Buoyancy is adjusted by release of ballast and extension of petrol. Goes with the help of the propellers powered by electromotors. The first bathyscaph is constructed by Swiss physicist O.Pikkarom in 1948. In 1960 on bathyscaph " Trieste " the bottom of Mariana trench in Quiet ok is reached. (ok. 11 t. ì).
  • CAMBRIC (frants. batiste), the thin, translucent linen or a cotton of a calico weave. From cambric sew a lingerie, a light dress.
  • CAMBRICS - I-SALDIVAR (Batista y Zaldivar) Ruben Fulhensio (1901-73), the dictator of Cuba in 1934-44 and 1952-58; in 1940-44 and 1954-58 the post of the president officially held. Will overthrow during Cuban revolution.
  • The BATHYSPHERE (from grech. bathys - steep and sphaira - a sphere), a deep-diving vehicle in the form of a sphere (it is routine from steel) for oceanographic and other probes; alights on a cable from a vessel. Crew (1-2 persons), research instrumentation, an air revitalization system, the earphone. The maximum depth reached with the help of the bathysphere, 1360 m (1948). Since 1950th instead of the bathysphere routinely apply hydrostats.
  • The BATHYTHERMOGRAPH (from grech. bathys - steep, therme - it is warm and... Columns), the device for continuous measurement of vertical distribution of temperature of water in high layer starving (up to 200 ì); allows a message of measurement on the move a vessel.
  • BATITSKY Paul Fedorovich (1910-84), Marshal of Soviet Union (1968), the Hero of Soviet Union (1965). In Great Domestic war the division commander and bodies. In 1965-66 1-st deputy chief of the General Staff. In 1966-78 commander-in-chief Signals Commands of air defence of country - the deputy minister of the defence of the USSR.
  • BATLEJKA (betlejka), a national puppet theater in Belarus (16 - nach. 20 centuries). It is close to the Ukrainian cavern, Russian theatre of the Parsley.
  • BUTLER (Butler) Nicolas Mjurrej (1862-1947), the American teacher, the professor (with 1885) philosophy and psychology of the Colombian university (in 1901-45 president of university). One of organizers of pacifist movement. The president of Fund of an international peace him. Carnegie (with 1925). The Nobel Prize of the world (1931, together with Dzh. Addams).
  • BUTLER (Butler) Semjuel (1612-80), the English writer. Iroikomicheskaja poem "Gudibras" (1663-78, it is unfinished) - satyr on hypocrisy of bourgeoises - puritans of the season of the English revolution of 17 century.
  • BUTLER Semjuel (1835-1902), the English writer. Antibourgeois satirical dilogija "Edgin" (an anagram of the word "anywhere", 1872) and " Recurring in Edgin " (1901); the realistic novel "Life" (it is published in 1903). Prosaic transfer of poems Gomera.
  • BATLE-I-ORDONES (Batlle y Ordonez) Hose (1856-1929), the president of Uruguay in 1903-07 and 1911-15. Since 1880th the leader of a reformist consignment "Colorado" (with nach. 20 century. Batljistskaja a consignment). Has executed a number of social reforms in protection of a national industry, has entered laws on a 8-hour working day, on pensions.
  • BATTEMENT (Batman), city on the orient Turkey. 147 thousand inhabitants (1990). Petroleum refinery.
  • BATNA, city on north-east of Algeria, adm. ts. vilaji Batna. 182 thousand inhabitants (1987). A cotton-mill, tanning manufacture. It is based as a military post in 1844. In environs Batna - debris drevnerimskogo. Timgad.
  • BATOV Ivan Andreevich (1767-1841), the Russian master of musical instruments (a violin, altos, violoncelloes, gears quadrants). Up to 1822 serfs.
  • BATOV Pavel Ivanovich (1897-1985), the commander, the general (1955), doubly the Hero of Soviet Union (1943, 1945). In Great Domestic war since October 1942 up to the extremity of war by commanding 65-th army. In 1962-65 chief of headquarters of Consolidated Armed forces of the state-participants of the Warsaw agreement. In 1970-81 chairman of the Soviet committee of war veterans.
  • BATOGI, a stick, used for corporal punishments in Russia till 18 century.
  • BATOZHSKAJA BATTLE, 22-23.5.1652 (natural limit Batog, nowadays Vinnitsa region). Rout of 20-thousand Polish a troops the Ukrainian army, one of decisive battles of Liberation war 1648-54.
  • BATALIST (from fight), the artist working in a battle genre.
  • FIGHT (frants. bataille) (ustar.), battle.
  • BATALOV Alexey Vladimirovich (r. 1928), the Russian film actor and the producer, the national actor of the USSR (1976), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1989). Played the main the contemporaries - clear, it is sincere the thin people which are peculiar an internal force, restraint. It was taken out in films: " cranes Fly ", "Mother", " Major family ", " Business Rumjantseva ", " Lady with a click ", " Nine days of one year ", "Trot race", " Moscow does not believe in teardrops ", etc. Professor VGIKA (with 1979). Has delivered films: "Overcoat" (1960), " Three fat men ", "Player". The state premium of the USSR (1981).
  • BATALOV Boris Vasiljevich (1938-89), the Russian scientist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1987). Transactionses on simulation, optimisations and to synthesis of wiring schemes and topology of major and super-large-scale integrated circuits and an electronic equipment on their basis. The state premium of the USSR (1975).
  • BATALOV Nikolay Petrovich (1899-1937), the Russian actor, the honored artist of Russia (1933). With 1916 in Moskovsk Art Academic theatre. It was taken out in films: "Mother", "Start in life", etc.
  • BATALPASHINSK, the title Cherkessk up to 1939.
  • BATTLE GENRE (from fight), the genre of fine arts dedicated war and military life.
  • BATALLION (frants. bataillon), the main tactical subdividing in an overland, airborne troops and marines; are motorized-rifle (infantry, motor-infantry), tank, marines, communication, automobile, etc. The shelf (brigades) Routinely is part or is separate military unit in connection (association). Will consist of 3-4 companies and other subdividings.
  • BATANGAS (Batangas), city and a port on Philippines, on about. Luzon, adm. ts. prov. Batangas. 184 thousand inhabitants (1990). Textile, a woodworking industry.
  • BATTERY CYCLONE (multicyclone), the apparatus for branch of solids from their transporting gases. The dia of 100-300 mm will consist of several tens by-pass cyclones.
  • The BATTERY (frants. batterie, from battre - to beat), firing and tactical subdividing of an ammunition division (shelf); can be separate. Will consist of 2-3 firing armings, arming (branch) of steering. Has 2-8 instruments (mortars, battle machines of a rocket artillery or anti-tank guided weapons).
  • The BATTERY, consolidated (in fixed system) for a team work some equal devices, apparatuses, structures, devices, napr. Accumulators, coke ovens, heating radiators.
  • SWEET POTATO (sweet potato), perennial (in crop often annotinous) herbaceous plant of a stem the morning glory of a set of a morning-glory family. Rhodinum in Center. To America. Klubni (up to 10 kg, 24-28 % of starch and Saccharum) use for preparation croups, flours, starch, spirit, Saccharum, on a forage to cattle. Especially widely cultivate in the Chinese National Republic, India, Indonesia; productivity 100-120 ts with 1 ga.
  • BATASHEVY, large factory owners and landowners in Russia 18-19 centuries. From the Tula gunmakers, merchants, with 1783 - noblemen. An ancestor - Ivan Timofeevich (? - 1734). In nach. 19 century possessed cloth manufactories, 14 metallurgical and metal-working plants in core area.
  • BATENEVSKY the BLOCK, a spur of a mountain of Kuznetsk Ala Tau, in Khakassia. Length ok. 100 kms. The altitude of 1249 m. Abjoints the CHulymo-Yenisei hollow from Sydo-Erbinskoj.
  • BATENIN Vyacheslav Mihajlovich (r. 1939), the Russian scientist in range of electrophysics, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1987). Transactionses on probe of properties slaboionizirovannoj plasma, impulse electric discharges, to building of superconducting inductive energy storage units, superconducting magnet systems.
  • BATENKOV Gabriel Stepanovich (1793-1863), the decembrist, the lieutenant colonel of a body of engineering lines of communication. The participant of Domestic war of 1812 and oversea marchings. Employee M.M.Speransky. The member of Boreal society. It is convicted on 20 flying of penal servitude. In 1827-46 it was contained in Alekseevskom a ravelin. In 1846-56 on a settlement in Tomsk.
  • BATHURST, the former title of. Bandzhul - capitals of Gambia.
  • BATHYAL (from grech. bathys - steep) (bathyal zone), the zone of a seabed enveloping depths of a continental downslope (200-3000 ì). Takes an in-between position between a sublittoral and an abyss.
  • BASTIAN (Bastian) Adolf (1826-1905), the german ethnographer, the doctor. Has based the Berlin museum of ethnography (1868). In transactionses on spiritual crop has put forward idea of unity of human psychics to which explained unity of crop of all peoples.
  • The BASTILE (Bastille), strength in Paris, is constructed in 1370-82; since 15 century state prison. Sturm of the Bastile (on July, 14 1789) insurgent people was the beginning of Great French revolution (it is marked with 1880 as a national holiday of France). In 1790 Bastile was sryta.
  • BASTION (frants. bastion), 5-coal strengthening by the way a projection in angles of a serf railings (see. Strength) for obstrelivanija districts ahead and along fortifications and pits. Were applied up to it is grey. 19 century.
  • BASTNEZIT, a mineral, ftorkarbonat cerium, Ce [CO3] (F, OH). Yellow, reddish, brown crystals, are more often acinose units. Hardness 4-5; firmness of 4,9-5,2 kg / m3. Meets in hydrothermal deposits. Main raw material for obtaining cerium.
  • BASTEN-LEPAZH (Bastien-Lepage) ZHjul (1848-84), the French painter. Realistic patterns from country life (" Rural love ", 1882).
  • BASUTO (Basuto), a plateau in Drakensberg mountains, in terrain Lesotho, in JUzh. To Africa. An altitude up to 3482 m. Zlakovo-fruticose vegetation and dry steppes.
  • BASUTOLAND, in 1884-1966 possession of the Great Britain in Africa. About 1966 state Lesotho.
  • BASUTCHAJSKY RESERVATION, in the south of Azerbaijan, in Zangelanskom r-not, in a bass. r. Basutchaj. It is based in 1974. The area 107 ga. A unique grove European plane.
  • "BASF" (" Badishe aniline und soda of factories "), the chemical company of Germany. It is based in 1865. Up to 1952 entered in German chemical concern " I.G.Farbenindustri ". Sales volume 25 billion dol., a net profit 802 million dol., figure occupied in 135 thousand person (kon. 1990th).
  • BATH (Bath), city in the Great Britain. England, on r. Avon, bliz Ivory a hall. Atlantic ok. 80 thousand inhabitants (1981). A balneal health resort (thermal radon waters were used still by Romans, it is based in 1 century, settlement Akve-Sulis). A machine industry, mild, a printing industry. Annual musical festivals.
  • " BATH INDASTRIS " (BAT Industries), the English alimentary company, one of master TNK in the world. It is based in 1902. Issues tobacco items (1-n in the capitalist world), alimentary, cosmetic, impregnated-paper and other goods. Sales volume 14,1 billion dol., a net profit 1,8 billion dol., figure occupied in 157 thousand person (kon. 1990th).
  • BATH (Bata), city and a port in Equatorial Guinea, an administrative centre of terrain of the Rio-Mooney - a continental part of country. 24 thousand inhabitants (1985). Cement and sawing factories.
  • BATH, in egyptian mythology one of the most ancient gods, was honored in a mode of the bull.
  • BATAVIA (Batavia), the title of capital of Indonesia of Jakarta.
  • The REPUBLIC BATAVSKAJA, is professed in terrain of Netherlands in 1795 after occupation by their French republican troops. It is called on nation batavov. It is transformed by Napoleon I into the Dutch kingdom dependent on France (1806-10).
  • BATAVY, the German nation in delta of Rhein. With kon. 1 century up to n. e. Under an authority of Rome, against which in 69 n. e. Have raised revolt led by TSivilisom (it is suppressed in 70).
  • BATAJ (Bataille) George (1897-1965), the French writer and the philosopher. Denial of any prescribed allowances of human conduct, the statement of the sovereignty of will, "scandalous" forms of self-implementation of the personality in cultural - philosophical compositions (including the essay " Internal experience ", 1943, " the Literature and is angry ", 1957), in novels and stories (" the History of an eye ", 1928; "Madam Edward", 1941; " Washing mother ", it is published in 1966), gap-filling by the blasphemies shocking with patterns of erotic experience, resulting in to autodestruction and bent for of mors.
  • BATAYSK, city (with 1938) in the Russian Federation, the Rostov region. A railway junction. 93,7 thousand inhabitants (1992). The enterprises of a railway transport. Energomehanichesky, assembly preparations and other factories; alimentary, a light industry.
  • BATAKI, group of peoples (toba, karo, pakpak, simalungun, mandajling, angkola) in Indonesia (basically on about. Sumatra). 4,5 million person (1992). Tongues will derivate group in structure of the Indonesian tongues. Believers - moslems - sunnity, toba - protesters, karo hold on to traditional convictions.
  • BATALER (frants. batailleur), a face knowing on the ships and bases food, ware and other supply.
  • BASS Vladimir Pavlovich (1923-87), the Russian film director and the actor, the national actor of the USSR (1983). Has delivered films: " the First pleasures " (1956), " Battle underway " (1961), "Tishin" (1964), " the Board and a sword " (1968), etc. Played the films and films of other producers.
  • BASS Nikolay Gennadievich (r. 1922), Russian physics, one of founders of a quantum electronics, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1966), doubly the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1969, 1982). Has created (together with A.M.Prohorovym) the first quantum generator - a maser. Transactionses on semiconductor lasers, theories of high-power pulses of solid-state lasers, to quantum standards of frequency, interaction of potent laser light with substance. The chairman of board of the All-Union society "Knowledge" in 1978-90. The lenin premium (1959), the State premium of the USSR (1989), the Nobel Prize (1964, together with Prochoral and C.Taunsom). A golden medal him. Lomonosov AN the USSR (1990).
  • BASON (from frants. passement - a galloon, a braid), the textiles intended basically for a dressing: paintbrushes, a braid, a fringe, laces, etc. Bason with a fine end from non-ferrous alloys calls as a galloon.
  • BASRA, city in a southeast of Iraq, seaport on r. Shatt al Arab. 617 thousand inhabitants (1985). An international airport. Center of production and petroleum refining. The chemical, textile enterprises. University. Ruins of aged Basra (it is based in 630th).
  • BASS the CHANNEL (Bass Strait), between Australia and about. Tasmania, bridges Tasmanovo m. with Indian ok. Length of 490 kms, the least width of 213 kms, depth up to 51 m. the Port Melbourne.
  • BASSANI (Bassani) Dzhordzho (r. 1916), the italian writer, the participant of movement of Resistance. The collection of anti-fascist neo-realist stories " Five ferrarskih histories " (1956), the autobiographical novel " Garden Fintsi-Kontini " (1962); movie scripts; the collection of stories " the Odor of hay " (1972), dedicated Ferrara.
  • BASSANO (Bassano) (an ice-film. A name yes Pontus, da Ponte) JAkopo (ok. 1517-82), the italian painter. The representative of Serotinal Revitalization. Into religious patterns introduced scenes of a country household activities, a landscape and a still-life, has affected manjerizma (" Adoration of shepherds ", 1568).
  • BASSARA, in Other. Greeces the lengthy livery vakhanok, was considered as clothes lidijskogo god Bassareja identified with Dionisom.
  • BASSAREJ, see. Bassara.
  • BASIN, city in Myanma, in delta r. Irrawaddy, adm. ts. Region. Irrawaddy. 144 thousand inhabitants (1985). Marine and a river harbor. Risoochistitelnaja, a sawmilling industry.
  • BASIN of the MINERAL, selfcontained range continuous or nearly so continuous distribution of sheet sedimental mineral wealths (napr., basins oil-and-gas-bearing, coal, salt, ore deposits, etc.) and underground waters (napr., an artesian basin).
  • BASIN RIVER, a part of a surface from which the run-off of water acts in river system.
  • The BASIN SPORTING, actuates baths for float and water polo (50 h 21 m, depth 1,8-2,3 ì), jumps from a springboard and a tower (18-20 h 14-21 m, depth 3,5-5,5 ì), educations to float (the arbitrary form and the dimensions, depth up to 1 ì).
  • BASSO KONTINUO (ital. basso continuo, characters. - a continuous bass), see. A general - bass.
  • BASSO OSTINATO (ital. basso ostinato, characters. - a persistent bass), the form of variation development in music, founded on repeated repetition in a bass of an invariable theme at varying upper voices. It was applied in passakalje, a chaconne, etc. It is used in music of 20 century.
  • BASSES - MEGAMEGAS (Basse-Terre), city, adm. ts. The French possession Guadeloupe on about. Guadeloupe in West Indies. 53 thousand inhabitants (1990), seaport. A sugar industry. It is based in 1643.
  • BASSETERRE (Basseterre), city, capital of the state Sent-Keats and Nevis, on about. Saint Christopher (Sent-Keats). 18,5 thousand inhabitants (1985). Seaport. An international airport. A sugar factory, manufacture of beverages. Tourism.
  • BASTIA (Bastiat) Frederik (1801-50), the French economist. One of writers of the theory of harmony of interests of transactionses and the capital.
  • BASILEJ (vasilevs) (grech. basileus), in Other. Greeces the governor of a small settlement, the leader of nation. In Sparta and then in ellinisticheskih the states - tsar. In Byzantium - a title of emperor.
  • BASILEJA (grech. Queen), for Aristofana the goddess of an imperial authority, daughter Zevsa, hranitelnitsa his lightnings.
  • BASS PLAYERS Anatoly Georgievich (r. 1920), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1984), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1968). Transactionses on synthesis of structures of aggregate signals of intelligence systems.
  • BASKAK (turki)., the representative of the Mongolian khan to the conquered grounds (in Russia in 2-nd floor. 13 - nach. 14 centuries), monitored local authorities.
  • BASKERVILL (Baskerville) John (1706-1775), the English eight-toothed engraver beetle and the publisher. The creator of fonts of the new style wearing his name (many are applied nowadays).
  • BASKETBALL (from English basket - a basket and ball - a ball), sporting command ball game which bombard arms in a ring with a grid (t. n. A basket), reinforced on a board at the altitude 3,05 m. Rhodinum of basketball - the USA (1891). In International federation of basketball (FIBA; it is based in 1932) 177 countries (1991). In the program of Olympic Games with 1936; world championships with 1950, Europe with 1935.
  • BASQUES (the self-title - euskaldunak), people in Spain (950 thousand person) and France (140 thousand person). Live also in countries of Latin America. An aggregate number 1,25 million person (1992). Tongue basque. Believers - roman catholics.
  • BASQUES COUNTRY (Baskonija, Euskadi) (isp. Vascongadas), independent historical range in a north of Spain, for Biskajskogo a hall. 7,3 thousand êì2. The population 2,1 million person (1992), predominary Basques. Main city - Vitoria. Actuates provinces: Alava, Biskajja, Gipuskoa. In 1 century up to n. e. - it is grey. 5 century n. e. The terrain colonized with Basques, is nominally subject to Rome. In the season of domination vestgotov, arabs on Pirenejskom p-ove the large part of terrain of Basques remained independent; was bulwark Rekonkisty. In 11-15 centuries of the state of Basques - under authority Navarry, Castile; in kon. 15 - nach. 16 centuries were part of the unified spanish state, saving up to 1876 some autonomy. After victory of the Popular front in 1936 the independent area called as Basque Provinces has been built. With fall of republic in 1939 Basques Country denuded self-management. According to the constitution of 1978 Basques Country has received all over again temporary, since January 1980 stationary value an autonomy.
  • BASQUE TONGUE, tongue of Basques. The official language (alongside with spanish) Basque Provinces. In genealogical gradings it is considered as isolated tongue. The hypothesis about communication of basque tongue with the Caucasian tongues is distributed. Writing on the basis of the latin alphabet.
  • BASKUNCHAK, salinous self-charge lake in the Astrakhan region, to the orient from Volga, bliz mountains Major Bogdo. 106 êì2. Salt-making process.
  • BASMA (bajsa, pajtsza), 1) a plate given by mongolo-tatar khans in 13-15 centuries as the letter of credence... 2) Thin plates of metal (mostly silver) with textured patterns. Basmennoe stamping has been distributed in Russia in 13-17 centuries.
  • BASMA, powder from leaves indigofery. It is applied together with a henna to colour of a hair in black colour.
  • BASMANOVY, Russian boyars and voevody 15-17 centuries from stem Ïëåùååâûõ:.. 1) Alexey Danilovich (?-1570), one of inspirers oprichniny. It was distinguished in the Kazan marchings, Livonskoj to war, extirpation with the Crimean tartars. It is killed under the order of Ivan Terrible by the natural son... 2) Peter Fedorovich (?-1606), the grandson previous, approximated Boris Godunova, commanding Russian troops. In 1605 has come over to on party Lzhedmitrija I, has become his close confidant, it is killed together with nymas.
  • BASMACHESTVO (from the turki. basmak - to commit a bloom), after October revolution armed motion, directed against the Soviet authority in Compare. Asia. The main forces basmachestva are routed by Red Army in 1922, separate orders are finally liquidated in 1933.
  • BASNER Veniamin Efimovich (r. 1925), the Russian composer, the national actor of Russia (1982). Ballet, 4 operettas, vokalno-symphonic products; music to films (over 40, including "Blockage", 1979), songs " At an anonymous altitude " ("Tishin" film, 1964), " From what starts Rhodinum " (film " the Board and a sword ", 1968).
  • FABLE, short, quite often comic story in verses or prose, with the direct intellectual breeding attaching to the story allegorical sense. Characters animal, plants, things routinely act. Many scenes go back to Ezopu, to indian collection "Panchatantra". Bright national originality in basnjah Z.Lafontena, G.E.Lessing, I.A.Krylov.
  • BASS Vasily Aleksandrovich (1812-79), the Russian surgeon. For the first time has made imposing of a fistula on a stomach of a dog (1842).
  • BARHIN Grigory Borisovich (1880-1969), the Russian architect. The dwelling of the newspaper of "Information" in Moscow (1925-27), sanatorium in Sakah in Crimea (1929) - in forms of constructivism.
  • BARHUDAROV Stepan Grigorjevich (1894-1983), Russian jazykoved, corresponding member AN the USSR (1946). Probeed Russian (old russian tongue, leksikologiju, a lexicography, a spelling). The lenin premium (1970).
  • BARHUDARJAN Sergey Vasiljevich (1887-1973), the Georgian and Armenian composer, the honored worker of arts of Georgia (1936), the national actor of Armenia (1960). Fortepiannye plays, etc. The Professor of the Tbilisi conservatory (1941-54).
  • BARSHAJ Rudolf Borisovich (r. 1924), the Russian viola player, the conductor. In 1956-77 chief of the Moscow chamber orchestra built by him. With 1977 abroad, acts as the symphonic conductor.
  • CORVEE, the form of a ground rent, the gratuitous forced labour of the dependent peasant working natural stock in an economy of the feudal lord. In Zap. To Europe corvee was distributed since 8-9 centuries, from 12-13 centuries began to be driven out by quitrents and to 14-15 centuries has come to naught. In countries of the Orient corvee has not received a wide circulation. In Russia has appeared in days of the Kiev state. It was widely distributed in European Russia in 2-nd floor. 16 - 1-st floor. 19 centuries. After cancellation of serfdom in 1861 it was saved for vremennoobjazannyh peasants as izdolshchina. It is cancelled in 1882.
  • BARYKOVA Anna Pavlovna (1839-93), the Russian poetess. Daughter M.F.Kamenskoj. Satirical and social - accusatory verses in a race course nekrasovskoj traditions. The poem " the Fairy tale how tsar Ahrejan walked to the God to complain " (1883).
  • PROFIT, city (with 1954) in the Russian Federation, the Ulyanovsk region, on r. Profit. A depot. 21 thousand inhabitants (1991). Reducer factory, a woollen-goods factory, etc.
  • BARRIER REEFS, the coral patches extended alongshore of mainland or an island on distance from several kilometres up to many hundreds (the Major Barrier reef, 2300 kms). Are usual for warm waters Quiet, Indian and Atlantic ok.
  • BARJATINSKY Alexander Ivanovich (1815-79), prince, the Russian general - field marshal (1859). In 1856-62 commander-in-chief a troops and the viceroy on Caucasus at the last stage of the Caucasian war, has taken prisoner SHamilja (1859). Opposed incentive military reforms 60-70-Õ of 19 century.
  • BARJATINSKY Alexander Petrovich (1799-1844), prince, the decembrist, headquarters - captain. The member of the Austral society. It is convicted on transportation for life. With 1827 in Nerchinskih mines, with 1839 on a settlement in Zap. Siberia.
  • BASANAVICHJUS (Basanavicius) Jonas (1851-1927), the Lithuanian public figure and the scientist. Transactionses on an ancient and medieval history of Lithuania. Has collected and has emited 9 volumes of national fairy tales and songs. The organizer of the Lithuanian science foundation (1907).
  • BASANGOV Baatr (psevd. Gashuta Baatr) (1911-44), the calmuc writer. Stories " the Truth past a flying " (1931), "Bulgun" - about life of Kalmyks before October revolution; plays.
  • BASARABY, a dynasty gospodarej in the principality Walachia in 14-17 centuries (with rests). The largest representatives: Basarab I (mind. 1352) - the founder (ok. 1324) dynasties, Nikolay Alexander (mind. 1364), Njagoe (mind. 1521), Matej (mind. 1654).
  • BASARGIN Nikolay Vasiljevich (1799-1861), the decembrist, the lieutenant. The member of the Austral society. It is convicted on 20 flying of penal servitude. With 1827 in Nerchinskih mines, in 1835-56 on a settlement in Zap. Siberia. The writer of "Notes".
  • BASS, see Matsuo the Bass.
  • BASILAN (Basilan), city and a port in the south of Philippines, on about. Basilan, adm. ts. prov. Basilan. 200 thousand inhabitants (1980). Manufacture of a copra.
  • BARTER (from English barter - commodity exchange), the agreement of an exchange of fixed quantity of the goods (goods) on equivalent quantity at cost of other goods, i.e. without a cash drawdown (national or currency).
  • BARTINI Robert Ljudvigovich (1897-1974), the aircraft designer. Was born in Italy, in the USSR with 1923. Has developed and has created over 10 experimental and prototype airplanes. Transactionses on aerodynamics, theoretical physics.
  • BARTLETT (Bartlett) Nile (r. 1932), the American chemist - neorganik. The main transactionses on chemistry of connections with atoms in exotic oxidation states. First synthesized (1962) true chemical combination of rare gas - XePtF6.
  • BARTO Agnija Lvovna (1906-81), the Russian writer. Collections " Verses to children " (1949), " Behind colours in a winter wood " (1970). The prosaic book " To find the person " (1968) about searches of families of children who are were lost during Great Domestic war. The book of " the Note of the nursery poet " (1976). The lenin premium (1972), the State premium of the USSR (1950).
  • BARTOK (Bartok) It is white (1881-1945), the Hungarian composer, the pianist, the musical specialist in folklore. In products Bartoka elements national melosa with the modern methods of the letter combine. Opera " the Clasp of duke the Blue Beard " (1918), ballets " Wooden prince " (1917), " the Wonderful mandarin " (1926; all - dates of production), tool concerts, nursery pedagogical repertoir. Transactionses on a technique of the musical education.
  • BARTHOLINITIS, inflammation major (bartolinievyh) glands of an entrance of the vagina.
  • BARTOLO yes Sassoferrato (Bartolus) (Bartolo da Sassoferrato, Bartolus) (1314-57), the italian lawyer, the chapter of school of postglossators. The writer of the commentary to Codification JUstiniana.
  • BARTOLOMEJ Adolf Aleksandrovich (r. 1934), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991). Transactionses under the elastic theory, plasticities and a creep. Probe of interaction of piles foundations with an ambient ground.
  • BARTOLOMMEO (Bartolommeo) Fra (an ice-film. Name Bartolommeo della the Port, della Porta) (1472-1517), the italian painter. The representative of High Revitalization to Florence. Majestic altarnye patterns (" Lamentation of the Christ ", 1515-17).
  • BARTOLD Vasily Vladimirovich (1869-1930), the Russian orientalist, academician AN the USSR (1925; the academician Petersburg AN with 1913, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science with 1917). Transactionses on a history Compare. Asia, Iran, Arabian halifata, moslem faith and a history of oriental studies.
  • BARTON (Barton) Derek Harold Richard (r. 1918), English chemists - organics. Transactionses on conformational analysis, photochemical metamorphosises and synthesis of physiologically active connections. The Nobel Prize (1969, together with O.Hasselem).
  • To BART (Barthou) Lui (1862-1934), the prime minister of France in 1913, with 1894 repeatedly minister, in 1934 Minister for Foreign Affairs. The adherent of the ex - Soviet cooperation. It is killed in Marseilles (together with Alexander I Karageorgievichem) ustashami.
  • BART - CHISHINSKY (Bart-Cisinski) JAkub (1856-1909), luzhitsky the poet. One of founders of the realistic literature luzhitskih Serbs. A poem "Groom" (1876, it is published 1926), tragedy " In strength " (1880), sonnets, ballads, lyrical verses.
  • BARUZDIN Sergey Alekseevich (1926-91), the Russian writer. Verses, stories and stories for children and youthes. Lyrical products about life of simple people: " Stories about women " (1967), " I like our street " (1969), " that was yesterday " (1975), " It is time a defoliation " (1982). The collection " Verses past a flying " (1983). The book of literary notes " People and books " (1978). The managing editor of the log-book " Friendship of peoples " (with 1965).
  • BARUN-TOREJ, saltish lake in the south of Transbaikalia. 580 êì2. Rivers Uldza and Imalka run; protokoj it is bridged about an eskar. Zun-Torej. A level and the area izmenchivy; from time to time dries up.
  • CRESCENT-SHAPED SAND DUNES (turki)., 1) non-proprietary name of stripped sands of deserts;.. 2) crescent in the plan of a clump of sands (an altitude up to 150 ì), navejannyh prevailing winds; a upwind (convex) downslope cavicorn (5-14 °) and the lengthy, the leeward (concave) - abrupt (up to 30 °) and short, passing in cuspidate "horns". Move with speed up to hundreds meters annually.
  • VELVET (velvet tree), stem of trees of a set of a rue family. Ok. 10 kinds, in Vost. Asia. For the industrial purposes the external protective tissue of an Amur cork - tree, or the amurense balsa wood is used. Wood strong, goes on hand-made articles, furniture, etc.
  • VELVET, silk or a cotton with mild heavy-bodied vertical nap (1,5-2 mm) on a front face. It is applied to sewing a coat frock, furnish, the decorative purposes.
  • The VELVET BOOK, book of genealogy of notable Russian seignioral and nobiliary surnames. It is constituted in 1687. Actuated " Gosudarev rodoslovets " 1555-56, parentage materials 2-nd floor. 16-17 centuries.
  • MARIGOLD (marigold), stem of grasses of a set of a thistle family. Ok. 35 kinds, in JUzh. And the Sowing. To America; numerous grades of a kind diverted marigold (it come from Mexico) are cultivated as the decorative; copiously blossom up to the late fall.
  • PORPOISES Nikolay Pavlovich (1839-89), the Russian historian, the professor of the Warsaw university (with 1888). Transactionses on historical geography of Russia, a history of slavs.
  • BARSOVA (an ice-film. fam. Vladimirova) Valery Vladimirovna (1892-1967), the Russian singer (a coloratura soprano), the national actress of the USSR (1937). In 1920-48 at Major theatre. The large representative of domestic vocal school. The professor of the Moscow conservatory (with 1952). The state premium of the USSR (1941).
  • BARSTOU (Barstow) Stanley (r. 1928), the English writer. The realistic trilogy " Love... Love? (1960), " Look-outs on coast " (1966), " truely valid end " (1976), the novel " the Event with the brother " (1980), stories from life of democratic layers. Main themes - influence per capita a unfavorable social surrounding, the conflict of strong feeling to norms of moral.
  • BADGER, mammalian sets kunjih. Length of a body up to 90 sm, a tail up to 24 see. Dwells primarily in woods of Eurasia. The trade value is insignificant.
  • BADGERS MAJOR AND SMALL, sand deserts northward from the Aral m., in Kazakhstan. B.Barsuki in length ok. 200 kms, M.Barsuki - ok. 100 kms.
  • BADGERS Valery Leonidovich (1928-92), the Russian geochemist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1987). Transactionses on a geochemistry of processes rudoobrazovanija, magmatic breeds and lunar soils.
  • BARSUKOVY, the Russian historians, brothers: 1) Alexander Platonovich (1844-1914). Transactionses on a genealogy and histories of the Russian nobility... 2) Ivan Platonovich (1841-1906), arheograf. Transactionses on a history of Russian church... 3) Nikolay Platonovich (1838-1906). Transactionses under the bibliography, arheografii and historiography, old russian writing. The main composition - " Life and M.P.Pogodin transactionses " (t. 1-22).
  • BART (Barth) Genrih (1821-65), the german historian, the philologist, the geographer - traveller. In 1850-55 participant of expedition Dzh. Richardson to Africa; doubly has crossed Sahara. In 1858-64 probeed Balkan p-ov and M.Aziju. Transactionses on a history of peoples the Sowing. And Center. Africa.
  • BART (Barth) John Simmons (r. 1930), the American writer. The adventurous - parody novel " Kozlojunosha Dzhajlz " (1966), a grotesque epopee "Chimera" (1972), the novel of "Letter" (1979) - prose of " black humour "; transmit attitude of nonsense and social nihilism. Roman " Day otdohnovenja " (1982).
  • BART (Barth) Charles (1886-1968), the Swiss Protestant theologian, one of osnovatelej dialectic theology. The adherent of Christian socialism, the inspirer of Christian resistance to a hitlerite mode.
  • BART (Barthes) Rolan (1915-80), the French culturologist of a semiotics direction (see. A semiology, Structuralism). The explorer of tongues of the literature, a mode, advertising, a photo, the writer of books of "Mythology" (1957), " System of a mode " (1967), "S/Z" (1970), " Fragments of a love discourse " (1977), " the Chamber lutsida " (1980).
  • BART (Barth) Thomas Fredrik Vejbej (1899-1971), the Norwegian petrographer and the geochemist. Transactionses on genesis of rocks, volcanologies, to geochemical cycles.
  • BARTANG (on the average flow Murghab, in upper - Oksu), the river on Pamir, in Tadjikistan (verhovje in Afghanistan), dextral in-leak Pjandzha. 528 kms, the area of basin of 24,7 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water 128 m3 / with. On Bartange - SHudzhanskaja a river plant.
  • BARTANGTSY, one of pripamirskih peoples.
  • BARTELEMI (Barthelemy) Ogjust (1796-1867), the French poet - satirist. In iroikomicheskih poems "Jesuits" (1826), " Rome in Paris " (1827) ridiculed a royal yard and church.
  • BARTELS Iogann Martin Christians (Martin Fedorovich) (1769-1836), the Russian mathematician, corresponding member Petersburg AN (1826). The German by origin. In 1808-20 professor Kazan, with 1820 - Derptskogo universities. Transactionses on a function theory and an analytical geometry.
  • BARTENEV Victor Ivanovich (1838-1918), the Russian revolutionary, in 1870 member - founder and the secretary of Russian section of 1-st Internatsionala. In 1872 has returned to Russia, with 1874 ministered on railways.
  • BARTENEV Peter Ivanovich (1829-1912), the Russian historian, arheograf. The founder and the editor of the log-book " Russian archive ". Publications of documents on a political, cultural and military history of Russia of 18-19 centuries.
  • BARTENEV (Bronevskaja) Ekaterina Grigorjevna (1843-1914), Russian revoljutsionerka, the publicist. Wi V.I.Bartenev. The member - founder of Russian section of 1-st Internatsionala, in 1871 participant of the Commune of Paris. In 1889 one of secretaries of 1-st congress of 2-nd Internatsionala. Articles on a working problem.
  • BARREL (English barrel, characters. - a barrel), a measure of capacity and volume in system of the English measures. In the USA distinguish barrel dry - 115,628 dm3 and petroleum - 158,988 dm3. The English barrel (for loose substances) is peer 163,65 dm3.
  • BARRICADE (frants. barricade), a synthetic defensive obstacle from logs, a B/S with sand, stones, etc. across streets, roads, for bridges, in mountain passes, etc.
  • BARRINDZHERA the CRATER, the same, that Arizonsky a crater.
  • BARRIOS (Barrios) Husto Rufino (1835-85), the president of Guatemala with 1873; in 1871-1873 commander-in-chief army. Has placed a mode of dictatorship, at the same time promoted economic development of country, has achieved slackening influence of church. Aspiring to aggregate the central - American countries in the confederated states, Barrios began war from El Salvador in which has been killed.
  • The BARRISTER (English barrister, from bar - a barrier in a court-room behind which are the judge), the attorney, the representative of one of lawyer trades in the Great Britain. As against the solicitor, has the right to act in all costs, gives the conclusions under most composite legal problems, etc.
  • BARRO (Barrault) Jean Lui (1910-94), the French actor and the producer. At theatre with 1931. In 1940-46 in " Komedi Fransez " (Paris), with 1946 headed from M.Reno (with a rest) natural troupe. It was taken out in films " Children paradise apple ", etc.
  • BARRO (Barrot) Odilon (1791-1873), the French prime minister since December 1848 till October 1849. Before February revolution 1848 headed liberal - monarchic opposition. In 1872-73 chairman of the Council of state.
  • PORPOISE, the same, that a leopard.
  • BARSAK (Barsacq) Andre (1909-73), the French producer, the theatrical artist. At theatre with 1928. With 1940 headed theatre " Studio ". Put the modern incentive French and Russian classical plays.
  • BARSAKELMESSKY RESERVATION, in Kazakhstan, the Kyzyl-Orda region, on about. Barsakelmes in the Aral m. It is based in 1939. The area ok. 20 thousand ga. A saiga, a Middle Asian gazelle, an onager. A desert vegetation.
  • BARCELONA, (Barcelona), city and a port in a north of Venezuela, an administrative centre pieces. Ansoategi. 247 thousand inhabitants (1990, with suburbs). Textile, tanning, a food-processing industry. It is based in 1637.
  • The LORDLY CONFEDERATED STATES, in 1768-72 armed union Polish shljahty against king Stanislav Ponjatovskogo and Russia. It was formed in. A bar (Podolia). Depressing by a royal troops of the Lordly conference has created soil for 1-st unit (1772) of Speech Pospolitoj.
  • PORPOISES Alexey Kirillovich (1673-1736), spravshchik a synodal printing house in Moscow, the pupil of brothers Lihudov.
  • PORPOISES Anton Alekseevich (1730-91), Russian jazykoved, the member of the Russian academy (1783), the professor of the Moscow university (with 1755). The writer of grammar, the explorer of syntax of Russian.
  • PORPOISES Elpidifor Vasilyevich (1836-1917), the Russian specialist in folklore, the explorer of old russian writing. Transactionses: " Lamentations of Boreal edge " (hours 1-3, 1872-86), " the Word about shelf Igoreve as an art monument Kiev druzhinnoj Russia " (t. 1-3, 1887-89, it is not concluded). Has collected an extensive collection of ancient manuscripts.
  • PORPOISES Nikolay Ivanovich (1839-1903), the Russian spiritual writer, the professor of homiletic theology of the Petersburg spiritual academy (1869-89). The writer of numerous compositions on homiletic theology, poimenics, histories of church.
  • BARON BRAMBEUS, see Senkovsky About.
  • BARON MJUNHGAUZEN, see. Mjunhgauzen.
  • BARONET (English baronet), a hereditary nobiliary title in England.
  • BARONY (Baronius) Caesar (1538-1607), the roman catholic church historian, the member of a monastic Roman congregation oratoriantsev, a cardinal bird. The writer of " the Church annals " (t. 1-12, 1588-1607) - a monumental history of Christian church (envelops twelve centuries n. e.), the Protestant 13-languid tserkovno-historical compilation written in a balance weight " Magdebourg tsenturii ".
  • BARONS (Barons) Krishjanis (1835-1923), the Latvian specialist in folklore, the writer, the leader mladolatyshej. Stories, verses, feuilletons. Has emited " the Latvian national songs " (1894-1915).
  • BARONSK, the informal title of. Ekaterinenshtadt (nowadays Marks of the Saratov region) up to 1920.
  • BARORECEPTORS (from grech. baros - gravity and receptors), sensing nerve terminations in walls of blood vessels; accept changes of a blood pressure and reflexly adjust his level.
  • BAROTHERAPY (from grech. baros - gravity and therapy), use in the medical purposes heightened or a underpressure of air. The general barotherapy is carried out in altitude chambers. Banks concern to methods of an aboriginal barotherapy.
  • BAROTRAUMA (from an armour. baros - gravity and a trauma), damage of an acoustic organ, lungs, etc. at sharp differential of an atmospheric pressure; can arise at explosions, and also for pilots, parachuters, divers.
  • BARRAGAN (Barragan) Luis (r .1901), the mexican architect. Using a flame brick, a stucco moulding and a raw tree, tried to achieve harmonic connection of a house and an ambient garden (a residence Dignity Kristobalt, 1967-68; private construction in Mexico and his suburbs).
  • BARRAGE (from frants. barrage - an obstacle), a way of protection of shafts and pits from underground waters by full or partial protection of productions with the help of water-proof devices.
  • LOITERING, flight of airplanes - fighters above fixed area with the purposes of cover of terraneous objects. Since 60th the term "air alert" is used.
  • BARRACUDAS (barracudas), set of marine predatory fishes of order kefaleobraznyh. Length up to 3 m. Ok. 20 kinds, in tropical and subtropical seas Atlantic, Indian and Quiet ok., including on 1 kind in Black and Japanese seas. Eat only fishes. Hunt often together with sharks; assault people.
  • BARRAND (Barrande) Joahim (1799-1883), the French geologist and a paleontologist, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1877). From 1831 cable cores in Czechia. Transactionses on a stratigraphy nizhnepaleozojskih adjournments of Czechia. Has secured (having dismembered on departments and storeys) Silurian system. The writer of the capital multivolume monography on paleontology (1852-94).
  • BARRANCABERMEJA (Barrancabermeja), city in northwest of Columbia. 137 thousand inhabitants (1992). A port on r. Magdalena. Center of production and petroleum refining. Petrochemistry.
  • BARRANQUILLA (Barranquilla), city in northwest of Columbia, an administrative centre of department Atlantiko. 1,35 million inhabitants (1985, with suburbs). A port on r. Magdalena, available for ocean goers. An international airport. Textile, oil refining, metal-working, cement, chemical, a flavoring industry. Universities. It is based in 1629.
  • BARRANKOSY (isp. barrancos), the steep erosive furrows gashing in a radial direction downslopes of cones of burning mountains.
  • SCRAPE (Barras) Pol (1755-1829), one of organizers termidorianskogo tumble 1794 (France). In 1792 it is selected in the Convent, has adjoined to jakobintsam; entered in the Directory later, promoted coming to power of Napoleon Bonaparte.
  • To BARRA Mohammed Siad (r. 1919), the president of Somalia in 1976-91, the general - major (1966). With 1965 commanding army. In 1969 - June 1976 presidents of Supreme revolutionary advice and the head of government.
  • BARMITSA.. 1) in Other. Russia kolchuzhnaja an iron grid; it was attached to a top section of the soldier for protection of a neck... 2) In a Western-European medieval armour metal oplechje to which an armour and a top section fastened.
  • BARMY, precious oplechja, decorated with plotting of religious character, for the byzantian emperors, Russian princes and tsars 14 - nach. 18 centuries. Were mounted during crowning and solemn outputs.
  • The BARN (English barn), unit of an efficient lateral section of processes of crash nuclear or nuclear particles, would be meant. 1. = 10-24 ñì2=10-28 m2.
  • BARNAV (Barnave) Antoine (1761-93), the French sociologist, one of chiefs feljanov. Asserted, that public advance depends on a geographic situation: economic changes called by her result in redistribution of oofs and an authority. It is executed in the season jakobinskoj dictatorships.
  • BARNARD (Barnard) Christian (r. 1922), juzhnoafrikansky the surgeon. For the first time has made replanting (1967) and a place (1974) hearts ill. In the co-authorship from Z.Standerom has published the antiracist novel " Undesirable elements " (1974).
  • BARNARD Edward Emerson (1857-1923), the American astronomer. Has received numerous snapshots a Milky Way, galaxies and sidereal clumps. Probeed dark nebulosity. The guide of Jove Amalteju (1892), some comets has discovered.
  • BARNAUL, city (with 1771), in the Russian Federation, the centre Altay kr., landing stage on r. Ob. A railway junction. 606 thousand inhabitants (1992). A machine industry (factories: motor, boiler, mechanical presses, a transport machine industry, etc.), chemical, mild (cotton, blend combines), a food-processing industry. 6 high schools (including. The Altay university). 4 theatres. A museum graphic and an applied art. It is based in 1730.
  • BARNET Boris Vasiljevich (1902-65), the Russian film director, the honored artist of Russia (1935). Skilful combination of lyrics, buffoonery, elements satyrs gives special colour to films: " the Girl with a box " (1927), "Surburb" (1933), " Exploit of the scout " (1947), "Optional stop" (1963), etc. The State premium of the USSR (1948).
  • BARNETT (Barnett) Semjuel Jackson (1873-1956), American physics. In 1909 has discovered the effect called as his name. Activities on study of the electrical and magnetic phenomena, gyromagnetic effect, a geomagnetism.
  • BARNETTA the EFFECT, rotation of a ferromagnetic sample increases his magnetization lengthwise axis rotations. S.Barnettom (1909) is open. Indicates communication of nuclear magnetic moments with mechanical moments. The boomerang effect calls the Einstein - de Haaza as effect.
  • BARNOVI (Barnaveli) Vasily Zaharjevich (1856-1934), the Georgian writer. Historical novels " Dawn Isani " (1901), " Great Mouravi " (1925), " Fall Armazi " (1926), "Revenge" (it is published in 1938). Realistic stories and sketches about the modern Georgia.
  • BARNS (Barnes) Dzhulian (r. 1946), the English prose writer. Novels " Flaubert Parrot " (1985), " the History of the world in 10 and a half chapters " (1989), "Porcupine" (1992).
  • BARODA, see. Baroda.
  • ALTITUDE CHAMBER (from grech. baros - gravity and the chamber), the sealed chamber in which there is the under (altitude chamber) or heightened (copression chamber) an air pressure. It is used for different experiments in aircraft, astronautics, in medicine; for test air and weather instruments, etc.
  • BAROMETER (from grech. baros - gravity and... Meter), a gauge meter of an atmospheric pressure. In a mercurial (liquid) barometer the atmospheric pressure is measured on an altitude of a mercury column in soldered from above to the tube lowered by the open extremity in a vessel with mercury. Mercurial barometers - most precision instruments, are equipped with them meteorological stations and on nymas activity of other kinds of aneroids and a hypsothermometer is checked.
  • The BAROMETRIC HIGHT FORMULA, determines relation of an atmospheric pressure to an altitude. It is used, napr., for graduation of altimeters, in barometric a levelling procedure, at construction of a standard atmosphere.
  • PRESSURE OBSERVATION, method of approximated definition of an altitude difference between 2 points on values of an atmospheric pressure in these points.
  • BARON (from sr .-eyelid.s of an armour. baro, a stem. Item baronis), in Zap. To Europe in Middle Ages the direct vassal of king, later a nobiliary title (in Russia it is entered by Peter I for the maximum Baltic nobility of a german origin).
  • BARI (De Bari, de Bary) Genrih Anton de (1831-88), german botanik, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1880). Transactionses on a mycology. Has placed a role of parasitic fungi in diseases of higher plants.
  • BARI Nina Karlovna (1901-61), the Russian mathematician, the doctor of physical and mathematical sciences, the professor. Transactionses on a function theory, including under the theory of numbers.
  • BARIBAL (black bear), mammalian sets of bears. Length on the average 1,75 m. A coat routinely black. In woods the Sowing. America. It is small. In national parks the USA number is recovered.
  • BARIUM (an armour. Barium), Ba, the chemical element of II group of a periodic system, atomic number 56, atomic weight 137,33, falls into to earth metals. The title from grech. barys - heavy. Siver-white mild metal; firmness of 3,78 g / sm3, tïë 727 °C. it is chemical very awake, at calefaction ignites. Minerals: barite and witherite. Apply in a vacuum technology as a gas absorber, in alloys (typographical, bearing); salt a barium - in manufacture of paints, glasses, enamels, in ordnance, medicine.
  • BARINAS (Barinas), staff in northwest of Venezuela. 35,2 thousand êì2. The population of 456 thousand person (1989). Adm. ts.-. Barinas.
  • BARYON CHARGE (baryon number) (B), one of internal performances of baryons. For all baryons B = +1, and for their antiparticles B =-1 (for remaining fundamental particles B = 0). The algebraic sum of the baryon charges, logging in particles, is saved at all interactions.
  • BARYONS (from grech. barys - heavy), "heavy" fundamental particles with a half-integral spin and mass, not smaller mass of a proton; participate in all known fundamental interactions. Nucleones, superprotons concern to baryons and many from t. n. Resonances.
  • BARISAN (Barisan), mountains on a southwest about. Sumatra, in Indonesia. Length ok. 650 kms, an altitude up to 3805 m (a burning mountain of Kerintji). Evergreen tropical forests.
  • BARITE (heavy spar), mineral of a class of sulphates, BaSO4. Impurity Sr (sometimes up to 20 %), Ca, Pb. Hardness 3-3,5; firmness of 4,3-4,5 g / sm3. By origin hydrothermal and hypergenic. Main ore Ba; a filling agent in rubber and a paper industry; an adulterant at boring, etc.
  • BARITO (Barito), the river on about. Kalimantan, in Indonesia. Ok. 880 kms, the area of basin ok. 100 thousand êì2. Runs in JAvanskoe m., derivating delta. It is navigable from verhovjev. In delta - seaport Bandjarmasin.
  • BARITOSIS, the pneumokoniosi stipulated by influence of a dust, keeping a barium and his connections.
  • BAROMETRIC SYSTEM, range of the under or a supertension in an atmosphere (napr., a cyclone and an anticyclone) with characteristic distribution of an atmospheric pressure, and accordingly and a wind.
  • BAROMETRIC FIELD, spacing of an atmospheric pressure. It is defined by system of equipressure surfaces - isobaric surfaces, and above ground - system of equipressure lines - isobars.
  • BARIUM OXYHYDROXIDE, Ba (OH) 2, colourless crystals. A water solution of a barium of oxyhydroxide - baryta water. It is applied as reagent on a sulphate and carbonates - ions, a component of lubrications, to clearing vegetative and animal oils, removal of a sulphate - ion from industrial solutions.
  • BARIUM CARBONATE, BaCO3, colourless crystals. In water it is practically insoluble. Will derivate a mineral witherite. Apply in manufacture of an optical glass, enamels, glazes, a red brick.
  • BARIUM the SULPHATE, BaSO4, colourless crystals. In water it is practically insoluble. Will derivate a mineral barite. The paper filler, a component of lithopone, a contrast means at a roentgenoscopy.
  • BARK (goll. bark), a marine sailing vessel (3-5 spar trees) with fore-and-aft sails on an aftermast (mizzen mast) and direct on remaining.
  • BARK Peter Lvovich (1869-1937), the Russian statesman. In 1907-11 managing director Volzhsko-Kamskogo of a business bank. In 1914-17 Minister of Finance. With 1918 in emigration.
  • BARK (ital. barca), river cargo non-propelled flat-bottomed wooden a vessel of a light-weight construction without a control surface.
  • BARDIN (Bardeen) John (1908-91), American physics, foreign member AN the USSR (1982). Has created the first transistor (1948, together with U.Brattejnom). One of writers of the microscopic theory of a superconductivity (1957.) Bardin - the unique scientist doubly awarded with the Nobel Prize on physics (1956, together with Brattejnom and U.Shokli; 1972, together with L.Kuperom and Dzh. SHrifferom). A golden medal him. Lomonosov AN the USSR (1988).
  • BARDIN Ivan Pavlovich (1883-1960), the Russian scientist, academician AN the USSR (1932), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1945). Supervised over designing of the large metallurgical enterprises, building of metallurgical units, development and an introduction in the USSR continuously cast become also an oxygen-steelmaking process. The lenin premium (1958), the State premium of the USSR (1942, 1949).
  • BARDIN Olga Vasiljevna (r. 1932), the Russian singer (a lyrico-dramatic soprano), the national actress of the USSR (1978). With 1962 at the Saratov theatre of opera and ballet, with 1984 in Roskontserte.
  • BARDIN Sofia Illarionovna (1852-83), revolutionary narodnitsa. One of organizers mug "Frichej", groups of "muscovites". In 1877 on " process 50-òè " has said revolutionary speech. It is banished to Siberia, in 1880 ran. Being hardly ill has committed suicide in Geneva.
  • BARDO (Bardot) Brizhit (r. 1934), the French film actress. In films of 1950th (" And the god has created woman..., "Parizhanka", etc.) acted in roles of pullet girls which, most above putting natural feelings, entered the conflict to norms of moral. Films of 1960th: "True", " Babetta goes on war ", " Private life ", etc. have made its sex - numeral of the generation. With 1973 it is not taken out.
  • BARDOJTS, in Prussian mythology the god of navigation.
  • BARDHAMAN (Burdvan), city on the orient India, pieces. Zap. Bengal. 245 thousand inhabitants (1991). A food-processing industry, a general machine industry.
  • BARDHAN SHanti (1916-54), the indian choreographer. In 1943 has organized troupe " Small ballet ". Has created national ballets " Spirit of India " (1944), " India is immortal " (1946), " Discovering of India " (1947). In productions used forms of indian classical and national dance.
  • BAREILLY, city in India, pieces. Uttar Pradesh. 583 thousand inhabitants (1991). An alimentary, chemical, textile industry.
  • BAS-RELIEF (frants. basrelief), a low relief in which the convex plotting acts above a plane of a background no more than on half of the volume.
  • BARENBOJM (Barenboim) Daniel (r. 1942), the conductor and the pianist. Acts in chamber bands. In 60th the chief of the London chamber orchestra, in 1975-89 main conductor of the Parisian orchestra, with 1989 acts with the Chicago symphonic orchestra.
  • BARENTS (Barents, Barendsz) Willem (ok. 1550-97), the Netherlands seafarer. In 1594-97 supervised over 3 expeditions on the Sowing. Ledovitomu ok. In searches of north-east pass from Atlantic ok. In Quiet. Expedition 1596-97 has discovered islands Ursine and Spitsbergen (repeatedly). It is buried on It is new. To the Earth.
  • BARENTSBURG (Barentsburg), city and a port in the west about. Spitsbergen (Svalbard, Norway). Production of mineral coal.
  • BARENTS SEA, marginal sea the Sowing. Ledovitogo ok., between boreal coast of Europe and islands Spitsbergens, Franz Josef land also It is new. The Earth. 1424 thousand êì2. It is located on a shelf; depth predominary from 360 up to 400 m (the greatest - 600 ì). Large about. Kolguev. Bays: the Porsanger-fiord, Varanger Fjord, Motovsky, Kola, etc. The Strong influence of warm waters Atlantic ok. Stipulates nezamerzaemost a southwest part. A salinity of 32-35 ‰. Into Barents sea runs r. Pechora. Fishery (a cod, a herring, a haddock, a flounder). An environmental setting unfavorable. Has major transport value. Major ports: Murmansk (Russian Federation), Varde (Norway).
  • The BARRETTER (English barretter), the electronic device by the way the filled hydrogen of a glass bottle inside which there is a fine wire. The current of the barretter in a fixed range of values of pressure is practically constant. Use for a constant-current regulation.
  • The BARGE (frants. barge), the non-propelled cargo vessel transposed by a towing line or a mule.
  • BARI (Bari), city and a port in JUzh. Italy, an administrative centre prov. Bari. 355 thousand inhabitants (1990). Oil processing and petrochemistry, metallurgy. University. A national archeologic museum, picture passageway.
  • BARI (Barye) Antoine Lui (1795-1875), the French sculptor and the painter. The representative of romanticism. Full dramatic nature and plastic power of the plotting animal ("Lion", 1836).
  • BARBERINO (Barberino) Franchesko yes (1264-1348), italian kurtuaznyj the writer (see. Kurtuaznaja the literature). The writer of encyclopaedic tracts " About regulations of conduct and tempers the seigneur " and " Instructions of Love " (italian verses in tracking latin commenting prose; are issued in 1640).
  • BARBES (Barbes) Armand (1809-70), the French revolutionary. Together with L.O.Blanki participat in 30th in building secret republican societies.
  • BARBIZONSKAJA SCHOOL, group of the French painters - landscape writers (T.Russo, Z.Djupre, N.Diaz, S.F.Dobinji, K.Truajon), working in d. Barbizon (Barbizon) bliz Paris in 30-60-Ñ of 19 century. Have addressed to the direct plotting of a nature, light and air, have played the important role in development of a realistic landscape.
  • The BARBITURIC ACID, colourless crystals, tïë 248 °S (with decomposition). Derivative the barbituric acid - eurysynusic hypnagogues (barbituraty).
  • BARBOZA remote control BOKAZHE (Barboza do Bocage) Manuel Maria (1765-1805), the Portuguese poet. It was pursued by the state and church as the freethinker. The preromantic lyrics was included in the book of "Poem" (t. 1-3, 1791-1804).
  • BARBOTAGE (splashing) (from frants. barbotage - agitating), passing through a liquid of gas or fallow under pressure. It is applied in an industry and laboratory practice primarily to agitating liquids, calefaction by their direct steam, absorption gazo-or vaporous substances by solvents.
  • BARBU (Barbu) Eudzhen (1924-92), the Romanian writer. A social - moral problematics in novels "Hole" (1957), " Boreal highway " (1959), "Prince" (1969); novel "Inkognito" (t. 1-3, 1975-78).
  • BARBUSY.. 1) the title of fishes of a stem adopted in an aquarian fish farming puntius and some other a set karpovyh. Length up to 10 see. Cultivate ok. Beautifully colored 50 kinds. In vivo many kinds dwell in water reservoirs JUzh., JUgo-Vost. Asia and Africa... 2) the Same, that barbels.
  • BARBE (Barbier) Ogjust (1805-82), the French poet. The collection of the satirical poems "JAmby" (1831) scourging the bourgeois world, the collection of sonnets " Heroic consonances " (1843).
  • BARBJUS (Barbusse) Anri (1873-1935), the French writer and the public figure, foreign honorary member AN the USSR (1933). The anti-war novel "Fire" (1916) about revoljutsionizatsii consciousnesses of masses during 1-st world war which participant was Barbjus. The collection of short stories of "Incident", " Truthful histories ", 1928. October revolution has perceived as an event of world historic importance: the booklet " Light from an abyss " (1920). European bourgeois civilization Barbjus, the member French KP, contrasted construction of socialism in the USSR (the book "Russia", 1930; the apologetic book "Stalin", 1935). The organizer of international antimilitarist association of persons prominent in cultural matters "Klarte" (1919; the issuing of log-book "Klarte", 1919-24).
  • BARVENKOVO, city (with 1938) on Ukraine, the Kharkov region. A depot. 14,8 thousand inhabitants (1991). A machine works, a food-processing industry. It is based in 17 in
  • PERIWINKLE, stem of perennial grasses of a set of a dogbane family. 7 kinds, in Europe and Zap. Asia. Ornamental plants.
  • BARGUZIN, the river in Vost. Siberia (Buryatiya). 480 kms, the area of basin of 21,1 thousand êì2. Runs into an eskar. Baikal. Average discharge of water 130 m3 / with. It is used for an irrigation. It is navigable on 204 kms from a mouth.
  • BARGUZINSKAJA the HOLLOW, an intermountain hollow, primarily on mean flow r. Barguzin, between Barguzinskim and Ikatskim hr., in Buryatiya. Length of 200 kms, width up to 35 kms, an altitude from 470 up to 600 m.
  • BARGUZINSKY RESERVATION biosphere, in the Russian Federation, Buryatiya, on north-east a shore of Baikal and western downslopes Barguzinskogo hr. It is based in 1916. The area of 374,3 thousand ga; zapovedna also a three-kilometer strip of lakescape the area of 150 thousand ga. Mountain larch and dark coniferous (a spruce, a fir, a pine Siberian cedar) woods, mountain tundra and an alpinetundra belt. Barguzinsky a sable, a maral, a musk deer, a brown bear, a lag bolt, etc.; in coastal waters - the Baikal seal.
  • BARGUZINSKY the BACKBONE, in Vost. Siberia (Buryatiya), along a north-east coast an eskar. Baikal. Length of 280 kms, an altitude up to 2840 m. A larch taiga. Mineral sources.
  • MALT - RESIDUE potato, grain, treacly, a side product of alcohol manufacture. I skin (92-94 % of water, 6-8 % of dry matter) and an ensilaged malt - residue use for a fattening primarily a large horned stock, dried - all agricultural animal.
  • MALT - RESIDUES Jacob Juljevich (1857-1929), the Russian microbiologist. The main transactionses are dedicated study of causal organisms of a rabies, a diphtheria, belly and returnable typhoids. Studied also a microflora of the Odessa firths. Irrespective of E.Bering and V.Ru has developed a technique of preparation and has received antidiphtherial whey (1893).
  • BARDEM, (an ice-film. fam. Bardem Munjos, Bardem Munos) Huan Antonio (r. 1922), the spanish scripter and the producer. Social - critical films " Mors of the bicyclist ", 1955 are most significant in his creativity; "Revenge", 1957; "Most", 1976 and " Seven days in January, 1979 (two last have received a main prize of the Moscow international film festival).
  • BARDIN Dzhon
  • BARANOVSKY Peter Dmitrievich (1892-1990), the Russian explorer and the restorer of monuments of the architecture. Has developed new methods of restoral, recovered the monuments eroded in the season of Great Domestic war 1941-45 (Pjatnitskaja church in Chernigov), during renovation of Moscow salvaged from destruction masterpieces of Russian art of building (including. Vasily Blazhennogo a temple, Krutitsky band of a farmstead, etc.); on Baranovsky the most precise architectonic measurements the church Kazan Bozhiej Mothers recovered in Moscow, and also are recovered other demolished construction
  • BARANOVSKY Stepan Ivanovich (1817-90), the Russian scientist and the inventor. In 1860th has constructed the air motor for the locomotive ("duhovik" Baranovsky) and together with son V.S.Baranovskim - a pneumatic motor for a submersible; in 1880 has created a model of a flight vehicle more hardly air ("letun" Baranovsky). Baranovsky has created the mechanism for reconnaissance survey districts ("putemer" Baranovsky).
  • BARANSKAJA Natalia Vladimirovna (r. 1908), the Russian writer. In stories and stories - peripetias of women destinies, social - psychologic conflicts of duties. Broad popularity was received with the story " Week as week " (1969). Collections: " Negative ZHizel " (1977), " a Portrait presented to the friend " (1982), "Rememberance day" (1989), etc.
  • BARANSKY Nikolay Nikolaevich (1881-1963), Russian ekonomikogeograf, corresponding member AN the USSR (1939), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1962). Transactionses under the theory and methodologies of socio economic geography and economic cartography. The tutorial on economic geography of the USSR for high schools (16 issuings with 1935). The state premium of the USSR (1952).
  • RAMS (argalis), stem of cloven-hoofed animals of a set polorogih. Length up to 2 m, weigh up to 200 kg. 2 kinds: an archar and the snow ram (sometimes secrete 8 kinds), will derivate many subspecies. Dwell primarily in high mountain areas. Object of a hunt (meat, a leather). In a number of places are small. Tame in an extreme antiquity.
  • BARAN, city (with 1972) in Belarus, Vitebsk region, on r. Adrov, in 9 kms from zh.-d. An item. Orsha. 14,1 thousand inhabitants (1991).
  • BARATAEV Michael Petrovich (1784-1856), prince from stem Baratashvili, the Georgian historian. Main transactionses - " Numizmaticheskie the facts of the Georgian kingdom " (t. 1-2, 1844-45).
  • BARATASHVILI Nikoloz Melitonovich (1817-45), the Georgian poet - romantik. Problems of the Georgian history, belief in the future of people, psychologism and steep lyricism in a poem " Destiny of Georgia " (1839), verses "Merani", " the Tomb of tsar Iraklija " (both 1842). Has rendered the considerable influence on development of the Georgian poetry.
  • BARATYNSKY (Boratynsky) Eugeny Abramovich (1800-44), the Russian poet. Original development of genres elegii and messages ("Finland", "Razuverenie", "Confession", " Two lobes "); poems ("Eda", "Dancing party"), noted by lyricism, psychologic and philosophical depth. In the collection "Twilights" (1842) - the contravention of historical advance and the spiritually - aesthetic human nature, refracted through tragical consciousness of the poet.
  • BARBADOSTSY (the self-title - bedzhenz), people, the main population of Barbados (250 thousand person), primarily descendants of the slaves exported from Africa in 17 - nach. 19 centuries. An aggregate number of 350 thousand person (1992), including in the USA 35 thousand person, the Great Britain 35 thousand person, Canada 30 thousand person. Speak on a dialect of the English tongue. The majority of believers anglikane, is methodists, moravian brothers, roman catholics.
  • BARBERRY, stem of bushes of a set of a barberry family. Ok. 500 kinds, primarily in Boreal hemisphere. The decorative, berrylike (fruits use in a food-processing industry as seasoning), dyeing and medicinal (apply at parent bleedings and as a cholagogue means) plants. Honey plants.
  • "BARBAROSSA" (Barbarossa), the code name of the plan of aggressive war of fascist Germany against the USSR. It is developed in 1940. Provided fulminant rout of the main forces of Red Army to the west of the rivers Dnepr and Zap. Dvina, and then an output on a line Arkhangelsk - Volga - Astrakhan. War was supposed to be scored within 2-3 months. Implementation of the plan " Barbarossa has been thwarted by heroic extirpation of peoples of the USSR.
  • BARBARUS É., see J.
  • BARBASHIN-SHUJSKY Vasily Ivanovich (? - ok. 1571), prince, voevoda in a marching to Astrakhan 1554 and in Livonskoj to war. In 1560 has routed konnitsu Livonskogo orders. Oprichnik.
  • BARBER (Barber) Semjuel (1910-81), the American composer. Operas " Âàíåññà " (1957), " Anthony and Kleopatra " (1966), ballet "Medea" (1946), orchestral, kamerno-tool compositions.
  • BARBERA (Barbera) Joseph (r .1911), the American film director - intensifier and the artist. In 1937-57 at studio " Underground Goldvin Mayer " (after to him it refused in-process at U.Disney studio). Together with U.Hanna " the Bear of Yoga ", "Flinstony" creates popular heroes of cartoon films of the cat of Thom and young mouse Dzherri, and then, in 1957, studio " Hanna-Barbera Prodakshnz " where popular multiplication serials "Family Dzhetsonov" have been removed, etc.
  • BARANAUSKAS (Baranauskas) Antanas (1835-1902), the Lithuanian poet and jazykoved. Diocesan. In a poem " Anikshchjajsky the milletgrass " (1859, the issuing 1860-61) has sung of amenities of nature and an intellectual wealth of people. First Lithuanian dialektolog, the creator of the Lithuanian grammar nomenclature.
  • BARANAUSKAS (Baranauskas) Antanas (1835-1902), the Lithuanian poet and jazykoved. Diocesan. In a poem " Anikshchjajsky the milletgrass " (1859, the issuing 1860-61) has sung of amenities of nature and an intellectual wealth of people. First Lithuanian dialektolog, the creator of the Lithuanian grammar nomenclature.
  • BARANETSKY (Joseph) Vasilyevich (1843-1905), the Russian physiologist of plants, corresponding member Petersburg AN (1897) Has got hoarse. The main transactionses on the osmotic phenomena and a guttation for plants, to problems of a photosynthesis. Has proved a symbiotic nature of lichens (1867, together with A.S.Famintsynym).
  • BARANI (Barany) Robert (1876-1936), Austrian otorinolaringolog. Transactionses on physiology and a pathology of a vestibular apparatus, methods of his probe and surgical treatment. The Nobel Prize (1914).
  • The MUTTON PEAS, the same, that a chick pea.
  • BARANNIKOV Alexander Ivanovich (1858-83), the revolutionary populist. The member " the Earth and will ", executive committee " National will ", the participant of attempts at Alexander II. In 1882 it is sentenced to irredeemable penal servitude. Has died in Peter and Paul kpeposti.
  • BARANNIKOV Alexey Petrovich (1890-1952), the Russian philologist, academician AN the USSR (1939). Transactionses on medieval and new indian tongues, the old indian literature, tongue, a household activities, folklore and a history of study the gipsy.
  • RAMS Alexander Andreevich (1746-1819), the first main governor of Russian settlements in America (1790-1818). Has placed business relations with California, the Hawaiian islands, China.
  • RAMS Vadim Iljich (r. 1930), the Russian literary critic, the Doctor of Philology (1974), the professor (1979). The main orb of interests - a history of the Soviet literature of 20 century. Books: " To be on ground the person. About the literature of our days " (1966), " Revolution and destiny of the artist. A.Tolstoj and his path to socialist realism " (1967), " Time - thought - a mode. Articles about the Soviet literature " (1973), " To reach essence: 70th in the literature " (1980), " Fire and ash a boon. M.Gorky. Creative search and destiny " (1990), etc.
  • RAMS Vladimir Iljich (1892-1972), Russian radiogeohimik, one of creators of applied radiogeology. The honored worker of science of Russia (1935). Transactionses on study of a radioactivity of natural waters, soils and rocks. The founder of a method of a microradiography. The state premium of the USSR (1950).
  • RAMS Vladimir Jurjevich (r. 1939), Russian physics, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1990). The main transactionses on plasma physics, a solid-state physics, biophysics. The state premium of the USSR (1982).
  • RAMS Nikolay Varfolomeevich (1909-89), the Russian architect, the national architect of the USSR (1972), the full member AH the USSR (1979). In 1938-50 chief architect of Leningrad, one of writers of designs of the Master plan of development of city, of some buildings and bands (a square. Lenina with the building of the Finnish passenger depot, 1943-60). Transactionses on town-planning. The state premium of the USSR (1979).
  • RAMS Paul Aleksandrovich (1892-1962), Russian botanik, corresponding member AN the USSR (1943). Transactionses on structural botany, an embryology, a plant ecology, a history of botany.
  • RAMS Peter Ionovich (1892-1933), military and the statesman. During the Civil war took different command positions in Red Army. Since January 1932 deputy narkoma a basic industry and the chief of Headquarters of an aircraft industry of the National Commissariat of a basic industry. One of organizers of mean technical and maximum air education in the USSR. Has perished in fatal flight accident.
  • RAMS Feodor Iljich (1886-1965), the Russian scientist, the doctor technical sciences. Has based engineering school of commercial fishery, has created the theory of an optimum catch with allowance for prirodoohranitelnyh factors on the basis of which the modern regulations of fishery adopted in all countries with a developed fishery are developed.
  • BARANOVA the ISLAND (Sitka), in arh. Alexander (the USA, pieces. Alaska). 4,2 thousand êì2. An altitude up to 1432 m. Coniferous forests. Fishery, a logging area. The main occupied point and a port - Sitka. It is called named A.A.Baranova.
  • BARANOVICH Lazarus (ok. 1620-93), the Ukrainian tserkovno-political figure, the writer. The adherent of recombination of Ukraine with Russia, at the same time settled independence of the Ukrainian clergy of the Moscow patriarch. With 1657 Chernigov archbishop; has based a printing house.
  • BARANOVICHI, city (with 1919) in Belarus, the Brest region. A railway junction. 166,7 thousand inhabitants (1991). Mild (a cotton software; knitted, sewing, boot factories), alimentary (meat, canning, etc.) an industry. A machine industry (factories: automobile units, automatic transfer lines, stankoprinadlezhnostej, etc.). Manufacture of a building materials, products of household chemical goods, toys, art items, etc. The Study of local lore museum. Has arisen in 70th of 19 century.
  • RAMS - ROSSINE Vladimir Davidovich (1888-1942), the Russian and French artist. From 1925 cable cores in Paris. Searches in spirit kubofuturizma have reduced it in 1913 from painting in building a driving sculpture. Having become one of founders of a kinetic movement, developed in 1920th also principles of a son of lumiere, having constructed klavir "opto-fonik". Has perished in fascist concentration camp.
  • BARANOVSKY Vladimir Stepanovich (1846-79), the Russian inventor. Son S.I.Baranovsky. Has created (1872-75) 2,5-inch rapid-fire pappus with the unitary cartridge, etc. Has perished at test of the cartridge.