Thursday, May 17, 2007

  • The COURSE OF EXCHANGE, the price (quotation) of monetary unit of one country, expressed in monetary unit of other country. Currency attitudes of economically developed countries are based to the "swimming" courses of exchange dependent on a supply and demand on national currencies in the conforming markets.
  • EXCHANGE MARKET, set of supplies and demands on currencies. Participants of an exchange market: banks, enterprises - exporters and importers, investors, central banks, brokerage offices, etc. financial institutions. Oposreduet international payments.
  • VALJUSHKIS Gediminas (r. 1927), the Lithuanian architect, the deserved architect of Lithuania (1977). Residential district Lazdinaj in Vilnius (1965-66, 1969-73, with co-authors). The lenin premium (1974).
  • VAMPILOV Alexander Valentinovich (1937-72), the Russian playwright. Ostrokonfliktnye moral - psychologic plays: " the Higher son ", " Utinaja a hunt " (both 1970), " in the Past summer in CHulimske " (1972), satirical plays.
  • VAMPIRES (desmodovye), a set of bats. Length of a body 6,5-9 see 3 kinds, in tropics and subtropics of America. Eat only fresh blood of mammals and birds. As vampires call also representatives of some other sets of bats, napr. False vampires.
  • VAMPU SCHOOL, see. Huanpu school.
  • " VAMPUKA... ", an opera - parody ridiculing conditionalities and decayed traditions in opera performances. Music of the conductor and composer V.G.Erenberga on the text of the play " Vampuka, princess African " M.N.Volkonsky. It is put in Saint Petersburg in 1909. The title "vampuka" is routinely used as notation of all synthetic, stilted in theatrical performances.
  • VAMPUM (from indejsk. wampumpeag - filaments with the shells strung on them), a means of reminder and messaging for American Indian nations the Sowing. America. The content of the report expressed colour, quantity and interposition of shells.
  • VAN, city on the orient Turkey, on eastern coast an eskar. Van, an administrative centre ilja Van. 153 thousand inhabitants (1990). Flour-milling, a cement industry. Has arisen in 1-st millenary up to n. e. As drevnearmjansky city, till 6 century up to n. e. - Tushpa which was capital of the state Urartu. In 11 century it is seized by Byzantium, in 17 century - Turks.
  • VAN (Van), drainless brine lake on the orient Turkey. 1720 m are located on the Armenian mountains at the altitude. Ok. 3,7 thousand êì2, depth up to 145 m. For coasts of Van - burning mountains Sjuphan and Nemrut. Fishery, salt production, navigation (a train ferry on a line Ankara - Tabriz).
  • VAN, title of governors of the states and principalities in China and Korea in antiquities and Middle Ages.
  • VAN PROPADIENE (Van Allen) James Alfred (r. 1914), American astrophysicses. In the capacity of the main explorer of the space program which are carried out on an artificial satellite of the Earth "Explorer - 1", has found (1958) charged particles of high energy which are generatrix radiation belts around of the Earth (" belts Van Allen ").
  • VAN ANSHI (1021-86), the Chinese reformer; in 1070-74 and 1075-76 first minister. Has entered system of state loans to peasants, has substituted hired army the army completed by a way rekrutskogo of a panel, attempted to adjust market prices. The large part of reforms has been cancelled in 1085.
  • VAN BASTEN (Van Basten) Marko (r. 1965), the Netherlands football player. The champion of Europe 1988. The owner of the Cup of European champions (1989, 1990) in structure of a command "Milan" (Italy), the owner of the Cup of Cups (1987) in structure of a command "Ajax" (Netherlands). It adjudicated by the best football player of Europe (1988, 1990, 1992)
  • VAN is BORED (Va Buren) Martin (1782-1862), 8-th president the USA (1837-41), from Democratic party. In 1829 state secretary, in 1833-37 vice-president.
  • VAN VEJ (699 or 701-759 or 761), the Chinese painter and the poet. The founder of the Chinese monochrome landscape painting using tone capabilities of carcass. In lyrical landscapes created raised generalized modes of a nature. In verses marked hardly perceptible paints and shades of a nature. Social motives has expressed in dreams of the theoretical state.
  • VAN GOVEJ (1877-1927), the Chinese historian and the philologist. Transactionses on drevnekitajskoj epigrafike, etc.
  • VAN GOG (van Gogh) Vinsent (1853-90), the Netherlands painter, the representative of postimpressionism. Passion emotionality, ostrodramaticheskoe the perception of life, the social protest, inherent in art Van Gog, expressed him in 1-st floor. 80th in products, mellow in a gloomy gamma, proniknutyh condoling for people of transactionses; with 1888 created tragical modes in painful - case-hardened, extreme ekspressivnoj to a manner constructed on contrasts of colour, a choppy rhythm, on loose dynamics of pastose Unguentum (" Night cafe ", 1888; " the Landscape in Overe after a rain ", 1890).
  • VAN RUN (877-943), the first governor (van) in 918-943 Korean states to the Bark.
  • VALLIJSKY TONGUE (Welsh, kimrsky), falls into to the Celtic group indoevropejskoj families of tongues. Writing on the basis of the latin alphabet.
  • VALLIJTSY, see. Uelstsy.
  • VALLIS (Uollis) (Wallis) John (1616-1703), the English mathematician. One of osnovatelej the London royal society. Transactionses " Arithmetic infinite " (1655) has played the important role in building infinitesimal calculus.
  • WILD CELERY, stem of submerged perennial grasses of a set vodokrasovyh. Ok. 10 kinds, in fresh waters of tropical, subtropical and moderate belts. A wild celery spiral cultivate in aquariums.
  • VALLON (Wallon) Anri (1879-1962), the French psychologist, the public figure. The participant of movement of Resistance. The founder of school in range of nursery psychology. The main transactionses on nursery and genetic psychology, and also patopsihologii and applied psychology.
  • VALLONY, people in Belgium (ok. 3,9 million person). The USA live also in France, etc. The Aggregate number 4,1 million person (1992). Speak on a Walloon dialect of the French tongue. Believers - roman catholics.
  • VALLOTTON (Vallotton) Feliks (1865-1925), the Swiss schedule and the painter. Tense - contrast laconic xylographies, portraits, landscapes, an actuarial series (" the History of one crime "), drama scenes ("Demonstrating", 1893).
  • VALMIERA (Valmiera) (up to 1917 official title Volmar), city in Latvia, on r. Gauja. 29,8 thousand inhabitants (1990). A depot. Factories: glass-fibres, fire extinguishing equipment; furniture factory; a food-processing industry. Theatre. A study of local lore museum. It is known from 13 century, in Russian annals - Vladimerets. Church Simane (13 century).
  • The GROSS PROFIT, part of the gross income of the enterprise which remains for him minus all charges.
  • GROSS PRODUCT, part of the gross public product made at the enterprise (association) or in branch (an industry, an agriculture, construction, etc.) for the fixed season (as a rule, for year), expressed in wholesale prices.
  • GROSS INTERNAL PRODUCT (runway), parameter of statistics national the income in system of national accounts; expresses an aggregate cost of the final goods and the services made in terrain of the given country, in market prices. Under the natural - material form of a runway - set of subjects and the services used during the given year on consumption and accumulation. See also the Gross national product.
  • The GROSS INCOME, money proceeds of the enterprises of an industry and the agriculture, received from realization of production and services, minus material inputs.
  • GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT (GNP), parameter of statistics national the income in system of national accounts; it is interdependent to a gross internal product (runway). Expresses an aggregate cost of the final goods and services in market prices. Actuates cost of the goods consumed by the population and services, public procurements, capital investments and a balance balance of payments. As against a runway actuates also the sum of net produces from abroad.
  • VALSHAP (Walschap) Gerard (1898-1989), the Belgian writer. Wrote in the Netherlands tongue. The trilogy "Family Routgoftov" (1929-33), etc. novels critically picture tempers of the modern society. The anticolonial novel " Revolt in Congo " (1953.) Roman " the Lascivious son " (1958) and "Half-and-half" (1964) about a becoming of the personality. Plays.
  • VALTASAR, the son of the last tsar of Babylonia Nabonida. Has perished in 539 up to n. e. At taking Babylon by persians. Keeping in the Bible the description of feasting Valtasara (" Valtasarov feasting ") and prophesy of his death (the words which have appeared on a wall " to exchange, exchange, tekel, uparsin ") have received reflectance in art.
  • VALTER (Valters) JAnis (1869-1932), the Latvian painter. Indicative genre urban scenes, national phylums (" In the market ", 1897), realistic landscapes.
  • VALTON (Valton) (an ice-film. fam. Vallikivi, Vallikivi) Arvo (r. 1935), the Estonian writer. Books grotesque - satirical (" Eight japonok ", 1968), social stories and historical and philosophical short stories - parables (" Mustamjaeskaja love ", 1979; " Aged schety ", 1981). Collections of aphorisms (" Urgent repenting ", 1989), verses. In historical novels - stylizations about CHingishane " the Path to other end of perpetuity " (1978; in Russian transfer - " Ways converge in eternity ") - a theme of immortality, opposition of active evil and contemplative goods.
  • FRENCH HORN (from a nem. Waldhorn, characters. - a wood horn, ital. corno), duhovoj a musical instrument. Has appeared in kon. 17 century as a result of improvement of the hunting horn. The modern phylum of a french horn with valves is built in 1-st chetv. 19 century.
  • VALUA (Valois), a dynasty of the French kings in 1328-1589. The most known representatives: Charles V, Lui XI, Francis I, Genrih II, Genrih III.
  • VALUA (Valois) Ninet de (an ice-film. A name and fam. Idris Stannus, Stannus) (r. 1898), the English actress of ballet, the ballet master. There was among creators and artistic administrators (1931-63) troupes " Sedlers-Wells a ball " (about 1957 Royal ballet of the Great Britain).
  • VADZHRA, in vedijskoj, induistskoj and Buddhist mythology sacred weapons, palitsa, a scepter. Belongs Indre, and also to characters of the maximum hierarchy in the Buddhism.
  • VADZHRADHARA (sanskr. Bearing vadzhru), in the Buddhism vadzhrajany the Buddha. It was figured sitting with vadzhroj and a bell - flower.
  • VADZHRANGA, the hero induizma, the soldier - opponent Indry.
  • VADZHRAPANI (sanskr. Keeping vadzhru in an arm), in the Buddhism of a Mahajana and vadzhrajany one of bodhisatv, the terrible sentinel, the defence attorney of the Doctrine.
  • VADZHRAJANA (sanskr. A chariot vadzhry), one of directions of the Buddhism; asserts a capability of achievement of a condition buddy in mortal life.
  • VADI (arab). (ued), dry valleys in deserts of Arabia and the Sowing. Africa; are filled in with water routinely after the strong downpours. See also Cry, Uzboj.
  • VADIA (Wadia) Darashav Noshervan (1883-1969), the indian geologist. The writer of capital transactionses on geology of India. Probeed a stratigraphy, a tectonics and a geologic structure of the Himalaya zone.
  • VADIM VALIANT (?-864), polulegendarnyj the leader novgorodtsev, grandson Gostomysla. Has raised revolt against Rjurika and it is killed by him.
  • VADI-NATRUN, tectonic a hollow in Egypt, to the west from delta of Nile, at the altitude 24 m are lower than a sea level. Small-sized brine lakes. Production thrones.
  • VADKOVSKY Feodor Fedorovich (1800-44), the decembrist, the ensign. The member of Boreal and Austral societies. It is convicted on transportation for life. With 1826 in Keksgolmskoj strengths, with 1828 in Nerchinskih mines, with 1839 on a settlement.
  • VAD-MEDANI (Ued-Medani), city in Sudan, an administrative centre of Central locale. 145 thousand inhabitants (1987). A traffic centre and shopping center of Gezira - main area of an irrigation farming of country.
  • BARODA (. Baroda), city in the west India, pieces. Gujarat. 1,1 million inhabitants (1991). A traffic centre. The large centre of cotton industry in a cotton-growing area Maches - Normada. Chemical, metal-working, pharmaceutical, cement, electrotechnical, etc. the enterprises; handcrafts. Bliz Baroda, in Kojali, large petroleum refinery.
  • VADUZ (Vaduz), capital of the principality Liechtenstein, on Rhein. 4,8 thousand inhabitants (1990). A precise machine industry, a textile industry, wine-making. A state museum. The clasp of 9 century with a Gothic chapel of 15 century. Tourism.
  • VAER (from English wire - a strand), a steel wire rope for trailing a trawl.
  • VAZHA PSHAVELA (an ice-film. A name of Onions Pavlovich Razikashvili) (1861-1915), the Georgian poet. Ideas and modes of folklore and mythology are philosophically rethought in racy poems about life gortsev (" the Visitor and a host ", 1893; "Zmeeed", 1901), stories, a drama "Cast-off" (1894).
  • SHE-DEER, samka a reindeer.
  • VASE (Vasa) (Vasa), the Swedish royal dynasty in 1523-1654. Founder Gustav I. In 1587-1668 reigned also in Poland.
  • VAZARELI (Vasarely; an ice-film. fam. Vasharhej) Victor (r. 1908), the French artist. The native of Hungary, in 1930 has moved to Paris. In 1950-60-Ñ has become one of founders and the largest master op-arta. His picturesque compositions written by bright and clear tints of " a space spectrum " are based on the optical illusions bearing to effect of magicly transfigured space. Developed the art discoverings in a broad band - from the monumental architecture up to small luxury multiplej.
  • VAZARI (Vasari) Dzhordzho (1511-74), the italian painter, the architect, the historian of art. Worked primarily in Florence. The representative manjerizma (frescos in Palace Vekkjo, 1555-71); architectural ensemble Uffitsi (nowadays a museum, with 1560). " Biographies of the most well-known painters, sculptors and architects ".
  • FISCAL YEAR, legislatively content annual time of drawing up, the statement and performance of a public finance. In the majority of countries corresponds calendar (the Russian Federation, Italy, France, Germany), in some - from April, 1 till March, 31 (the Great Britain, Japan), from July, 1 till June, 30 (Canada), from October, 1 till September, 30 (USA), from March, 1 till February, 28 (Turkey).
  • BUDGET GAP, excess of charges of a public finance above his incomes, a defining unstable rule of public finances.
  • BUDGET INDEX, the same, that the cost of living index.
  • BASKET OF GOODS, the inventory and the services, the defining volume (counting upon family or per capita) and a pattern of consumption. It is applied to calculations of a budget index.
  • BJUISSON (Buisson) Ferdinand Eduar (1841-1932), the French teacher. One of organizers of pacifist movement. The creator in 1898 Leagues of the human right. Transactionses on production of a school affair and general problems of education. The initiator of school reforms in France in kon. 19 century. The Nobel Prize of the world (1927, together with L.Kvidde).
  • BJULER (Buhler) Charles (1879-1963), the german psychologist, the representative vjurtsburgskoj schools. In 1922-38 in Vienna, with 1938 in the USA. Originating of intelligence connected to occurrence of certificates sudden comprehensions ("aga-experience"). Transactionses on development of nursery intellection, on psychologic aspects of speech.
  • The REPORT (frants. bulletin, from ital. bulletino - a note, the leaf).. 1) collection of official certificates, orders and t. p... 2) the Brief official report (about course of act of war, a level of health, etc.)... 3) the Periodic or continuing issuing dedicated any circle of problems... 4) the Voting slip - the document for voting with surnames of candidates... 5) In the Russian right as the report call in a household activities the leaf of invalidity.
  • BJULOV (Bulow) Adam Genrih Ditrih a background (1757-1807), the Prussian military theorist. Has put forward the thesis about subordination of the strategy to policy; dogmatiziroval experience of management of wars of 18 century.
  • BJULOV Bernhard (1849-1929), prince, German rejhskantsler and the Prussian minister - president in 1900-09. In 1897-1900 imperial stats-secretary of foreign businesses. In 1907 has achieved building " Gottentotskogo the unit ".
  • BJULOV Hans a background (1830-94), the german pianist, the conductor, the composer, the musical critic. Pupil F.Lista. Propagandized products of Russian composers in Zap. To Europe (especially P.I.Chajkovskogo).
  • BJULOVSKY the UNIT, see " Gottentotsky the unit ".
  • BJULBJULI (korotkopalye ousels), a set of birds of order sparrow. 120 kinds, predominary in tropics and subtropics of Eastern hemisphere. 1 kind flies on the south of Uzbekistan, other - on the south Bayshore kr. And to Sakhalin.
  • BJUL-BJUL (an ice-film. A name and fam. Murtuza Meshadi Rza ogly Mamedov) (1897-1961), the Azerbaijan singer (the lyrico-dramatic tenor) and the specialist in folklore, the national actor of the USSR (1938). One of founders of the Azerbaijan modern musical theatre. With 1920 at the Azerbaijan theatre of opera and ballet. The professor of the Azerbaijan conservatory (with 1940). The state premium of the USSR (1950).
  • BJULFINGER (Bilfinger) (Bullfinger, Bilfinger) George Bernhard (1693-1750), physics and the philosopher, one of the first academicians Petersburg AN (1725-30; the foreign honorary member with 1731). By origin the German. One of organizers of Physical cabinet AN.
  • BJUNJUEL Ë., see Bunjuel L.
  • BJURAKANSKAJA ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY AN of Armenia. It is based in 1946 on Aragats. Instruments: 100-sm and 53-sm Schmidt telescopes, 2,6-th reflector, etc. The Radio astronomy station. Probes: a structure of the Galaxy, transient objects, extra-galactical astronomy, etc.
  • The BURGHERS (a nem. Burgertum), burghers (from a nem. Burger - the town-dweller).. 1) all inhabitants of Western-European medieval city... 2) the Term more often used in the historical literature for notation of interlayer of the population of medieval city.
  • BURGHERS LANKIJSKIE an ethnic generality on Sri Lanka, descendants from discards of Europeans with singalkami and tamilkami. 55 thousand person (1992). Are divided on the Portuguese and Dutch burghers lankijskih, and also t. n. Eurasians (descendants from anglo-lankijskih discards). Speak basically in English. Live primarily in cities. Believing protesters and roman catholics.
  • OFFICE (frants. bureau), 1) the collegiate body elected or founded for management fixed, primarily of administrative, managing activity in any organization, a society, establishment... 2) the Title of some establishments (napr., reference office)... 3) the Desk, it is routine with shelves, boxes both other branches and a cover.
  • VANNOVSKY Peter Semenovich (1822-1904), the Russian statesman, the general from infanterii (1883), the honorary member Petersburg AN (1888). In 1881-97 military minister, in 1901-02 minister for national enlightenment, pursued a policy of hardenings of discipline in high schools.
  • VAN - SLAJK (Van Slyke) Donald Dekster (1883-1971), the American biochemist and the chemist - analyst. The main transactionses on building methods of the analysis. In 1910 has offered a method of a qualitative analysis of amino group in the aliphatic amines, called as his name. Has created the device for a quantitative analysis of the gases keeping in blood, etc. liquids. The editor of " the Log-book of a biological chemistry " (1914-25).
  • VANSJASKY AGREEMENT 1844, between China and the USA. It is signed in d. Vansja, ok. Aomin. On Vansjaskomu to the agreement the USA have received the same privileges which the Great Britain under Nanking agreement 1842 and the supplementary agreement 1843 has achieved in China.
  • STAY ROPE (Vantaa), city in Finland, on r. Vantan-Joki. 147 thousand inhabitants (1987). The city - guide of Helsinki.
  • VANTOVYJ the BRIDGE, a flying bridge in which the main load-carrying structure - the farm - plumps from wire cables (vantov).
  • VANTOZ (from an armour. ventosus - windy), 6-th month (on February, 19/20 - on March, 20/21) the French republican calendar (1793-1805).
  • AIR COCK (frants. ventjuse, from an armour. ventjsus - windy), the valve through which it is automatically deaerated, collecting in peak levels water, heating, etc. lines
  • STAY ROPES (from niderl. want), 1) the tackles of ship standing ropes toming to sides of a spar tree and mastheads. 2) Nonrigid elements (spreading device), it is routine wire cables, for fastening suspension constructions, radio masts and so forth.
  • VANUA-LEVU (Vanua Levu), a volcanic island in Quiet ok., in group of Fiji islands. 5,5 thousand êì2. The population over 40 thousand person. An altitude up to 1031 m. Lost volcanoes. Main - Lambasa.
  • VANUATU, Republic Vanuatu (Republic of Vanuatu), the state on islands It is new. Hebrides (Espiritu Santo, Ambrim, Efate, etc.; in total ok. 80), in a southwest part Quiet ok. 12,2 thousand êì2. The population of 160 thousand person (1993), basically melanezijtsy. A urban population 18,4 (1989). Official languages - bislama, English and French. The majority of believers - presviteriane. Administrative territorial division: 11 districts. The capital - Twisted. Enters into Commonwealth. The chief of state - the president. The body of legislation - unicameral National assembly. Islands of a volcanic origin, goristy (an altitude up to 1810 ì); ok. 60 burning mountains (including 10 operational). A climate the tropical wet. Monthly mean temperatures 20-27 °S. A rainfall up to 1000 mm annually. The wet tropical forests. Islands are open by spanish seafarer P.Kirosom in 1606; in 70th of 18 century are investigated Dzh. Cook who has given them the title It is new. Hebrides. About 1906 joint colonial possession (condominium) of the Great Britain and France. In 1980 independence of Vanuatu is professed. The basis of economy - an agriculture. A main crop - a coconut palm; cultivate coffee, cocoa, a cotton. Cultivation of a large horned stock. Fishery. A logging area. Production of a manganese ore (on about. Efate). Railways no, length of motorways of 11 thousand in km (1984). Export: a copra, a fish, cocoa, wood. The main foreign trade partners: Japan, Australia, It is new. Caledonia. Monetary unit - cotton wool.
  • VANF, in etrusskoj mythologies the godhood of mors.
  • VANZETTI (Vanzetti) Bartolomeo (1888-1927), the American worker - revolutionary. The Italian by origin. On false charge in assassination it is executed. See. Sacco - Vanzetti process.
  • VANTSZY TSJAO, in the Chinese mythology the tsarevitch who has reached immortality; it was glorified by art of turning into of beasts and birds.
  • VANTSJAVICHJUS Genrikas (r. 1924), the Lithuanian producer, the national actor of the USSR (1978). With 1953 at the Kaunas theatre. In 1966-89 at the Lithuanian theatre dramas (Vilnius).
  • VANCH, the river on Pamir, dextral in-leak Pjandzha. 103 kms, the area of basin 2070 êì2. Average discharge of water ok. 50 from a river plant.
  • VANCHSKY the BACKBONE, on Pamir. Length ok. 80 kms. An altitude more than 5000 m. Icehouses (a gross area 221,1 êì2).
  • VANCHURA Vladislav (1891-1942), the Czech writer. Antibourgeois and anti-war novels " Pekar JAn Margoul " (1924), " Fields of a ploughing and war " (1925), " Three rivers " (1936), the anti-fascist art chronicle " Patterns from a history of Czech people " (1939-40), dramas, scripts and direction of films. Rasstreljan german occupiers.
  • VANSHENKIN Konstantin Jakovlevich (r. 1925), the Russian poet. Verses and prose on war, the world of a nature, a debt of the person to epoch. Poetic collections " Turning movements of light " (1965), " Trip to the friend " (1971), "Road sign" (1977), "Branch" (1981), "Sign" (1987). A poem "Human life" (1980; the State premium of the USSR, 1985). The book of memories, literary sketches " Faces and voices " (1978).
  • VANY, in the Scandinavian mythology light solar godhoods, gods of fertility, love and oof who are opposed in " the Higher Edda " to aces. In " Oracle Velvy " and " the Junior Edda " there is a story about nonpredatory finished extirpation of aces and vanov.
  • VANDRIES ZHozef (1875-1960), French jazykoved. Activities on general and indoevropejskomu to linguistics, latin, Grecian, to the Celtic tongues. The adherent t. n. Sociological school.
  • "VANEMUJNE" (Vanemuine), see. Estonian theatre " Âàíåìóéíå ".
  • VANI, city (with 1981) in Georgia, in 19 kms from zh.-d. Unit Samtredia. 6,7 thousand inhabitants (1991). A food-processing industry. A clothing factory. Theatre. A study of local lore museum. Residues of antique city (5-1 centuries up to n. e.): shore fortifications, cultural complexes, affluent burials, etc.
  • VANI, in Japanese mythology the marine godhood in appearance of the crocodile or a shark, dangerous for people.
  • VANILLIN, 3-CH3O-4-HOC6H3CHO, colourless crystals with a specific odor; tïë 81-83 °C. It is contained in fruits of vanilla. Synthesize from a guaiacol and the lignin. A vanillin - odorous substance in an alimentary and perfumery industry. His mix with a powdered sugar (1:100) calls as vanilla sugar.
  • VANILLA, stem of plants of a set of an orchid family. Terraneous or epiphytic lianes. Ok. 100 kinds, in tropics; cultivate in the same place some kinds for the sake of the fruits keeping a vanillin.
  • VANIN Vasily Vasiljevich (1898-1951), the Russian actor, the producer, the national actor of the USSR (1949). On the scene with 1920. In 1924-49 at Theatre him. Mossoveta. It was taken out in films: " Lenin in October ", " Lenin in 1918 year ", " the Secretary of a district committee ", "Valery Tchkalov", etc. Professor VGIKa (with 1949). The state premium of the USSR (1943, 1946, 1949).
  • VANIN Stepan Ivanovich (1890-1951), the Russian scientist in range of a wood phytopathology and wood science, the doctor of agricultural sciences (1935), the honored worker of science and technique of RSFSR (1948). In 1930 has created first in the USSR stand of wood science in the Forest academy. Transactionses on biology and physiologies drevorazrushajushchih and drevesinookrashivajushchih mushrooms, to study physical-mechanical and chemical properties of wood. The writer of the first tutorials on a phytopathology. The state premium of the USSR (1950).
  • VANINI (Vanini) Dzhulio CHezare (psevd. Ljuchilio, Lucilio) (1585-1619), the italian philosopher - panteist, has tested major influence Dzh. Bruno; the priest, is accused of heresy and atheism and incinerated by inquisition.
  • VANINO, a urban settlement in the Russian Federation, Khabarovsk kr. A port in the Tatar prol. A depot. 21,6 thousand inhabitants (1991). Timber industry combine. Train ferry Vanino - Holmsk (about. Sakhalin).
  • VANICHEV Alexander Pavlovich (r. 1916), Russian heat-process engineering, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1962). Transactionses on power plants, theories of burning, etc. The Lenin premium (1957).
  • VANKAREM, headland in northwest Chukchi p-ova. A main occupied point - Vankarem. In 1934 base of the Soviet pilots saving participants of expedition on parahode "CHeljuskin". Polar station (with 1934).
  • VANKELJA the ENGINE, a rotorno-reciprocating engine of internal combustion, which design it is developed in 1957 german scientist F.Vankelem (F. Wankel). In Vankelja the engine the 3-faced curl (bucket) is spun in the cylinder special a profile. Edges of a curl cut off variable volumes of chambers in which there are routine processes for internal-combustion engines. At equal power have in 2-3 times the smaller dimensions, than reciprocating engines.
  • VANCOUVER, city in northwest USA, pieces. Washington, on r. Columbia, opposite Portland to which it is connected by the bridge. 46 thousand inhabitants (1990). A port, available for courts of admiralty. Nonferrous machine industry, a woodworking. Manufacture of electronic parts. In 1937 in Vancouver have finished flight through an arctic pole V.P.Tchkalov, G.F.Bajdukov and A.V.Beljakov.
  • VANCOUVER, city and port in Canada, on Quiet ok. 472 thousand inhabitants (1991). Lesoobrabatyvajushchaja, alimentary, machine-building (including ship-building, manufacture of the equipment for wood and mining) an industry. University.
  • VANCOUVER (Vancouver), an island in Quiet ok., for a shore the Sowing. America (Canada). 32,2 thousand êì2. An altitude up to 2200 m. Coniferous forests. Fishery. Main city and a port - Victoria. It is called by name Dzh. Vancouver.
  • VANCOUVER (Vancouver) George (1757-1798), the English seafarer. The participant of 2-nd and 3-rd expeditions Dzh. Cook (1772-79). In 1790-95 chief of round-the-world expedition, probeed the Pacific shore the Sowing. America.
  • VAN - MU SHICHZHE (a whale. poslannitsy mothers - madams), in the Chinese mythology of an entity with a body of a bird and a face of the girl, servant Si-van-mu.
  • BATHING FURNACE, 1) a furnace (electrical or flame) for heating a metal goods in a liquid medium (napr., in fused salt) at thermal or a chemical heat treatment. 2) the Flowing furnace (primarily flame) which working space is prolated in a horizontal direction and looks like a bath (napr., the tandem furnace, an open-hearth furnace, a reverberatory furnace).
  • VANNIKOV Boris Lvovich (1897-1962), the Russian statesman, the general - colonel of an engineering - ammunition service (1944), triply the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1942, 1949, 1954). With 1937 deputy narkoma, in 1939-41 narkom a defenßÑ industry, in 1942-46 narkom an ammunition, in 1953-58 1-st deputy minister of a mean machine industry of the USSR. The state premium of the USSR (1951, 1953).
  • VAN DONGEN (van Dongen) Ditty bags (1877-1968), the French artist. By origin the Dutch. Bordering on to fovizmu, in 1900th has become famous for temperamental, inking cloths with the plotting of dancers, demimondaines, women portraits.
  • VAN LIN GUAN (a whale. The wonderful officer Van), the Chinese godhood - a saver of an orifice. His statues put for an orifice in a temple, in myths he guards palace JUj-di.
  • VAN MAN (45 up to n. e. - 23 n. e.), emperor of China with 9 n. e. (as a result of palace tumble). Attempted to conduct reforms (liquidation of a private property on ground, the interdiction of sale and purchase of slaves, etc.).
  • VAN of MINES (CHen SHaojuj) (1904-74), the Chinese statesman, the member of the Political bureau of a Central Committee and the secretary of Central Committee KP of China (handheld computer) in 1931-45. In 1931 acted as the secretary general of a Central Committee of a handheld computer.
  • VAN SENT (Van Sant) Gas (r. 1952), the American film director. Worked in advertising, is engaged in painting. At kino started with malobjudzhetnyh experimental films to which have paid attention criticism. Films " the Pharmaceutical cowboy " (1979), " Wash personal staff of Idaho " (1991), " Even it happens water - rails sadly " (1994) were recognized on international film festivals. In 1995 has delivered first vysokobjudzhetnyj film " To die for... ".
  • VAN SJANCHZHI (?-878), one of chiefs in Country war 874-901 in China. In 878 his army it is routed, he has perished.
  • VAN SJAONUN (1857-1918), the Chinese actor and the playwright. Acted at different theatres of country. The best role - the poet of Lie Bo in the play " Nomadic emperor ". The writer of plays " the Bleeding in a temple of ancestors ", " Prepodnesenie maps ", a drama cycle " Three damnations ", etc. In 1912 participat in-process " Societies on reform of a drama " in Tianjin.
  • VAN TAO (1828-97), one of ideological precursors of reformatory motion in China (see " Hundred days of reforms "). A translator and the publicist. Transactionses about a political formation of countries of the West. Acted with the program of encouragement of trade and an industry.
  • VAN TIGEM F. E. Ë., see Tigem F. E. Ë. van.
  • VAN FLEK (Van Vleck) John Hazbruk (1899-1980), American physics. Transactionses on a quantum theory of magnetism and a solid. The Nobel Prize (1977, together with F.Andersonom and N.Mottom).
  • With VAN FIND FAULT, drevnekitajsky tsar of the season In-Shang. It was figured keeping birds in both arms.
  • VAN HAJZ (Van Hise) CHarlz Richard (1857-1918), the American geologist. The main transactionses on a Pre-Cambrian of Canadian shield and problems of metamorphism.
  • VAN CHUN (27 - ok. 104), the Chinese philosopher. The main composition " Weighing of reasonings " (" Lun hen ") integrates ideas konfutsianstva and daosizma, proniknuto rationalism and criticism of religious prejudices, contains the theory of three phylums of a human nature: kind, malicious, aligning kindly and angrily.
  • VAN SHU, in the Chinese mythology celestial voznichy, carrying moon.
  • VAN SHUHE (210-285), the Chinese doctor. In the book " About pulse " (t. 1-10, 280) has stated the doctrine about his diagnostic and prognostic value. Transactionses Van SHuhe has formed the basis of doctrine Ibn Siny about pulse.
  • VAN EJK (van Eyck), the Netherlands painters, founders of the Netherlands art of 15 century, brothers: 1) Hubert (ok. 1370-1426), probably, the beginnings " the Ghent altar ". 2) JAn (ok. 1390-1441) which art, founded on submissions about unity and harmony of universe, has innovatively reflected diversiform beauty of the substantial world and the person. In a new fashion having applied technique of painting by oil, convincingly transmitted illusion gap-filling light of the space, the object world. Religious patterns, portraits (" the Ghent altar ", is ended 1432; a portrait of marital partners Arnolfini, 1434), miniatures.
  • VAN JANMIN (Van SHouzhen) (1472-1529), the Chinese philosopher - neokonfutsianets, the writer, the statesman. Started with unity of knowledge and action in moral conduct and asserted, that the knowledge is determined by moral standards, congenitals inherent in the person. His doctrine was distributed also in Korea and Japan.
  • VANAG (Vanag) Julias (1903-86), the Latvian writer. Collections of lyrical verses " the Steep ploughing " (1950), " Bitter flowers " (1960), "Poetry" (1973), " Recollect, a youth washing " (1976); plays.
  • VANADATES of metals, salt vanadic acids, not discharged in a free state, napr. Vanadate of natrium NaVO3. Vanadates - intermediate products in manufacture of vanadium, components of glasses, glazes, laser materials, crystalline phosphors, etc. reactants in an analytical chemistry. Apply in an analytical chemistry.
  • VANADATES NATURAL, group of minerals, salt orthovanadic acid H3 (VO4). Ok. 50 minerals. Structures island, chain, layered. Yellow, red, burovato-red powders, scurfs, less often crystals. Hardness 1-4; firmness of 2,5-7 g / sm3. Ore of vanadium, sometimes uranium.
  • VANADIC ORE, main minerals: vanadinite, dekluazit, kuprodekluazit, karnotit. Deposits magmatic, kontaktovo-metasomaticheskie, hydrothermal. Content V2O5 in ore from 0,1-1,0 up to 29 %; impurity Fe, Ti, U, Pb, Zn, Cu, Mo, Al, P. Main getting foreign countries: the republic of South Africa, the USA, Finland, Chile.
  • VANADIUM (an armour. Vanadium), V, chemical element V of group of a periodic system, atomic number 23, atomic weight 50,9415. The title on behalf of drevneskandinavskoj goddesses of beauty Vanadis. Grey - steel solid metal. Firmness of 6,11 g / sm3, tïë 1920 °C. It is resistant against action of water and many acids. In earth crust it is absent-minded, often accompanies gland (iron oxides - the important industrial source of vanadium). Alloying constituent of structural steel and the alloys used in air and a space technology, marine shipbuilding, a component of superconducting alloys. Connections of vanadium use in a textile, paint-and-varnish, glass industry.
  • VANADIUM OXIDE, V2O5, red or yellow - red crystals; tïë 680 °C. Badly solves in water. The catalyst at obtaining sulfuric acid, a component of special glasses, glazes and luminophores.
  • VANAPRASTHA, in ancient India a wood hermit, the third Ashram in life an aria.
  • VANAHALBY, in the Estonian mythology evil spirits the woods analogous slavonic leshemu.
  • VANGENGEJM Alexey Feodosjevich (1881-1942), the Russian meteorologist. The organizer and the first chief (1929-35) Hydrometeorological services of the USSR; the organizer (1930) Weather bureaus of the USSR (nowadays Roskomgidromet).
  • VANDALISM, wanton destruction cultural and material assets.
  • VANDALS, group of the German nations. In 429-439 have conquered the Sowing. Africa also have based rannefeodalnoe a kingdom. In 455 have plundered Rome, have deleted many monuments of an ancient art. To 534 state of vandals it is conquered by Byzantium.
  • VAN - DE-GRAAFA the GENERATOR, see in an item. The electrostatic generator.
  • VANDEJSKIE WARS, governments of France against rebels - royalists in western provinces of country during Great French revolution and the Directory. The title on department Vendee - to the main locus in 1793. Alongside with nobility and clergy in rebelions the part of peasantry participat. Culminations Vandejskie of war have reached in 1793. The considerable sequence Vandejskih of wars - Kiberonskaja expedition 1795.
  • VANDEMER (from an armour. vindemia - a vintage), 1-st month (on September, 22/23 - on October, 21/22) the French republican calendar (1793-1805).
  • VANDEMERSKY REBELION, armed performance of the French royalists (aspiring to reduce a monarchy) in Paris on October, 3-5 (11-13 vandemjera) 1795. It is suppressed by the general Napoleon Bonaparte.
  • VANDER (Wander) Charles Fridrih Wilhelm (1803-79), the german teacher. Supported building unified school for children of all estates. Transactionses on theories of pedagogics and tutorials.
  • VAN - DER-VAALSA an EQUATION offered J.D.Van-der-Vaalsom (1873), the equation of state of real gas which is taking into account an extremity of volume of molecules and availability of intermolecular attractive forces; for one asking looks like: (p+a/V2) (V-b) V = RT, where: p - pressure, V - molar volume, T - absolute temperature, R - gas constant, a and b - the stationary values defining interaction of molecules of the given substance.
  • VAN - DER-VAALSOVY FORCES, intermolecular forces.
  • VANDERVELDE (Vandervelde) Emil (1866-1938), the Belgian socialist, the reformist. With 1900 chairman of International socialist office of 2-nd Internatsionala. A member of Parliament with 1894. In 1914 has come in government and up to 1937 repeatedly was minister (foreign businesses, justicia, etc.).
  • VENDEE, department in the west France, the centre royalist mjatezhej in the season of Great French revolution and the Directory.
  • VANDOMSKAJA the COLUMN, on Vandomskoj a square. Paris, content in 1806-10 (architects Z.B.Leper and Z.Gonduen) in honour of victories of Napoleon I. According to the decree of the Commune of Paris 1871 it eroded as a numeral of militarism. It recovered in 1875.
  • WALTER Anton Karlovich (1905-65), Ukrainian of physics, academician AN of Ukraine (1951). Transactionses on a nuclear physics. Supervised over a structure of the first Soviet electrostatic dynamitron up to 2,5 MeV (1935-36). The participant of a structure of a linac of electrons up to 1,8 GeV (1964, Kharkov).
  • WALTER (Walter) Bruno (an ice-film. A name and fam. Bruno Walter Shlezinger, Schlesinger) (1876-1962), the german conductor. Worked at opera theatres of Vienna, Munich, the London, Berlin, with orchestra Gevandhauza in Leipzig. In 1933 has emigrated, with 1939 in the USA. Went on tour in Russia. Has become famous for interpreting of products of V.A.Mozart, L.Beethoven, I.Brams, G.Mahler.
  • WALTER (Walther) Johannes (1860-1937), the german geologist, foreign honorary member AN the USSR (1930). Transactionses on paleoecology, the doctrine about a facies, biology starving. Developed a method aktualizma in geology.
  • WALTER Peter Aleksandrovich (1888-1947), the Russian scientist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1933). The main transactionses on aero-and hydrodynamics. It is repressed; it is rehabilitated posthumously.
  • WALTER SCOTT, see Scott Century.
  • WALTER BACKGROUND DER FOGELVEJDE (Walther von der Vogelweide) (ok. 1170 - ok. 1230), the german poet - minnezinger. Landscape and love lyrics, satirical shpruhi, directed against princely civil strifes and the papacy.
  • VALHALLA, Valgalla (other - skand. Valholl - a hall dead), in the Scandinavian mythology palace Odina where the soldiers who have gorged in battle hit and where they prolong former heroic life.
  • MILLING (preparing room), deforming in forging rolls of preparations from metal, rubber stocks, plastics materials. With the help of milling receive off-the-shelf components, precise preparations for an extrusion, etc.
  • ROLLS (from a nem. Walze - valok, a roller), the working instrument forge, crushing, etc. machines - 2 cutting, rotated in opposite directions that ensures capture and machining of the material passing between them. The surface of crusher rolls fluted, in forging rolls is present the brook conforming to a profile of a component part.
  • VALLADOLID (Valladolid), city in Spain, an administrative centre prov. Valladolid. 334 thousand inhabitants (1990). A machine industry, a chemical industry, nonferrous machine industry; manufacture of jewels. University. It is known from 10 century Church Santa-mary of ac of Antigua (11-14 centuries), church of San Pablo (15 century, in style plateresko), area Plasa framed by porticoes the Major (16 century).
  • CURRENCY (ital. valuta, characters. - cost), 1) monetary unit of any country and its phylum (golden, silver, impregnated-paper); 2) a means for accounts, impregnated-paper money, coins, bills, the check plots used in international payments (foreign exchange). See also Convertibility of currencies.
  • CURRENCY MONOPOLY, exclusive right of the state to operations with a foreign exchange, gold. It is connected to the foreign trade monopoly.
  • CURRENCY SYSTEM WORLD, the form of organization of international currency attitudes stipulated by development of the world economy and legally fixed by interstate agreements. Its defining elements: national and collective currency units, structure and structure of international merchantable assets (a currency means and stocks of gold), the mechanism of pars of exchange and courses, conditions of the relative convertibility of currencies, volume of exchange restrictions, forms of international payments, a mode of international exchange markets and world markets of gold, the status of the interstate currency - credit organizations regulating currency attitudes. See also the Golden standard, the Gold-value standard, the Jamaican agreement.
  • CURRENCY SYSTEM NATIONAL, a form of organization of currency attitudes of the state, defined by the national legislation. Its elements: national monetary unit, structure of official gold and exchange currency reserves, the par of exchange and the mechanism fomirovanija the course of exchange, conditions of convertibility of currency, availability or absence of exchange restrictions, the order of external payments of country, a mode of a national exchange market and the market of gold, the status of the national establishments regulating currency attitudes of country.
  • CURRENCY BLOCS, groupings of the states in which the currency of countries - participants was attached to currency of country - hegemon. Have arisen during a world economic crisis 1929-33 (sterling 1931, dollar 1933, golden 1933-36), were transformed to currency areas.
  • CURRENCY AREAS, the groupings of the states which have been usual in time and after 2-nd world war on the basis of currency blocs. In currency areas the known coordination of currency policy and system of external payments is carried out. The main currency areas - sterling, dollar, a franc area.
  • EXCHANGE RESTRICTIONS, system of state measures, directed on limitation of operations with a foreign exchange, gold, etc. currency values. Are established by a legislative way or administratively; a constituent part of currency policy of the state. Exchange restrictions provide: ban of sale and purchase of a foreign exchange; delivery to its state organs on an official rate; regulation of transfers and external payments, flight of capital; repatriation of profits. At exchange restrictions currency transactions are focused in central or specially authorized banks. Exchange restrictions are applied as a marginal means against a nonperishable unbalance of calculations with abroad and to pegging the exchange, and also with the purpose of survey of a means for payment of the external indebtedness.
  • CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS, banking operations on exchange markets, the bound with sale and purchase of a foreign exchange. Currency transaction implements on conditions of immediate shipment of currencies ("spot") and in the form of time bargains, i.e. delivery of currency hereafter at the rate, existing at the moment of conclusions of the transaction ("forward"). Urgent currency transactions are carried out both for insurance upon exchange risks, and for gamble on a difference between actual and expected courses. A number of currency transactions represents combination of bargains "spot" and "forward".
  • CURRENCY VALUES, values concerning which the state establishes a restricted mode of the circulation. So, in the Russian Federation to currency values concern: a foreign exchange and the documents of payment expressed in her and valuable papers, precious metals (gold, silver, platinum and platinum metals), natural precious stones in a wet and treated kind (diamonds, ruby, emeralds, sapphires, alexandrites), pearl, except for household jeweller, etc. items from these metals and stones.
  • EXCHANGE CRISIS, aggravation of antagonisms in the currency orb, showing in swings over of courses of exchange, a unbalance of balances of payments, conveyances of the loan capital. Exchange crisis is accompanied by intensifying of state interference in the form of devaluations and revaluation, introduction of exchange restrictions, an implementation obshcheekonomicheskogo character.
  • VALDIS (Waldis) Burkard (1490-1556), the german poet. The "Burgher" drama "Parable of the prodigal son" (1527), the collection basen " Recreated Ezop, re-layed verses " (1548).
  • VALDMJULLER Ferdinand (1793-1865), the Austrian painter. The representative bidermejera. Portraits ("A.K.Razumovsky", 1835), poetic landscapes and scenes of a country household activities (" Collectors of brushwood in Austrian to a wood ", 1855) differ easygoing attitude to people, thinness of supervision.
  • VALDHAJM (Waldheim) Kurt (r. 1918), the federal president of Austria in 1986-92. The secretary general of the United Nations in 1972-81. In 1968-70 Minister for Foreign Affairs of Austria.
  • VALDSHNEP (a wood wood - cock), a bird of a set of plover birds. Length ok. 35 see. Dwells in woods of Eurasia. In the spring for samtsov current flights (morning and vesper traction). Object of game hunting.
  • VALE INKLAN Ramon Maria del (1869-1936), the spanish writer. In early prose - refined arhaichnost, influence of a modernism, entrainment for an erotic theme (a prosaic cycle of "Sonata" 1902-05). In a series of novels about karlistskih wars, original dramas - acute social krititsizm, diversity of phylums, a hyperbolization, a block type. A novel - pamphlet "Tyrant Banderas" (1926), dilogija " áúÑnÑ iberijskogo a circus " (" the Yard of miracles " 1927; " Long live wash the sovereign! ", 1928).
  • VALE (Valier) Maks (1895-1930), the german engineer, the propagandist of idea of outer-space flights. In 1928-29 conducted experiences on application of jet engines on automobiles, hand cars, etc. Has perished at experiments with liquid jet engines.
  • VALE-I-KAVEDES (Valle y Caviedes) Huan del (ok. 1652-1694), the Peruvian poet - satirist. Follower Ô. de Kevedo-i-Viljegasa. His satyrs and epigrammy missed in the oral form (the collection " Zubastyj Parnassus " is published only in 1873).
  • VALLEJO (Vallejo) Sesar (1892-1938), the Peruvian writer. In the lyrics noted by influence of a modernism, - elements of traditional American Indian attitude, motives of loneliness, mors, human travails (collections " Black heralds ", 1918; "Trilse", 1923; " CHelovechji verses ", are published 1939). Roman about the Peruvian workers - Indians of "Tungstens" (1931). The book of sketches " Russia, 1931 year " (1931).
  • VALZER (Walser) Martin (r. 1927), the german writer, the member " Groups 47 ". Social criticism, bright satirical figurativeness in the trilogy " Half of game " (1960), "Unicorn" (1966), "Downfall" (1973). The spiritual degradation of the personality, impotent to stand up to to social and ideological mechanisms of a society, tragical dissociation of people in novels " Disease Gallistlja " (1972), " On the far side to love " (1976), " the Swan dwelling " (1980), "Surf" (1985); stories, plays.
  • VALZER Robert (1878-1956), the Swiss writer. Wrote in German. In social novels "Family Tanner" (1907), "Mate" (1908), " JAkob background Gunten " (1909), in short stories - a parody to the law order in Switzerland.
  • VALKIRII (dr .-ñêàíä. Valkyrja, characters. - choosing killed), in the Scandinavian mythology the militant maidens deciding on will of God Odina outcome of battles. Took most brave of the gorged soldiers and entrained in Valhallu. Mode Valkirii utilised in music and poetry (R.Wagner opera " Âàëüêèðèÿ ", etc.).
  • VALMI (Valmy), settlement in France, to the west from Verdun (department Marne). Ok. Valmi 20.9.1792, during war of revolutionary France against 1-st antiFrench coalition, the French army for the first time has divided a troops of avstro-Prussian interventionists and the French royalists.
  • VALMIKI, the legendary old indian poet. It is considered the writer of the initial text of poem "Ramajana". Valmiki - one of heroes of its 1-st and 7-th books of more serotinal origin.
  • The HIP ROOF, 4-ñêàòíàÿ, with triangular slopes (valmami) from the pipit up to a corbel on the end parties. If valma does not reach a corbel, the roof calls poluvalmovoj.
  • VALRAS (Walras) Leon Goosefoot Espri (1834-1910), the Swiss economist. Has constructed a general economic-mathematical model of a national economy.
  • VALRAF (Wallraf) Gjunter (r. 1942), the german writer, the member " Groups 61 ". Publicistic sketches (" Undesirable reportings ", 1970) and documentary books " the Birth of sensation... " (1977), " Witnesses for the prosecution... " (1976), " the Manual on "Bild" (1981), " On the fundus " (1985).
  • VALSAMON Theodore (ok. 1140 - after 1195), the byzantian canonist. The writer of explanation on the nomocanon of the Photius including in structure Pidaliona - Grecian Kormchej - and becoming one of the major documents of the christian law of the Orthodox church.
  • WALTZ - BOSTON, the American ball dance of a loose composition, with a characteristic straddle on the first lobe of a timing period. The musical dimension 3/4.
  • WALTER, an automatic 8-shooter gun of german firm " Walter ", templet of 9 mm. Comprised in the inventory fascist army (the sample 1938), was applied in 2-nd world war.
  • WALTER Alexander Filippovich (1898-1941), Russian physics, corresponding member AN the USSR (1933). The main transactionses on a breakdown of dielectrics.
  • VALUEV Dmitry Aleksandrovich (1820-45), the Russian historian, the Slavophile. Has laid foundation to study of regionalism. Has emited " Sinbirsky the collection " and " the Collection of historical and statistical cramps on Russia and peoples to her edinovernyh and edinoplemennyh " (2 t.).
  • VALUEV Peter Aleksandrovich (1815-90), columns (with 1880), the Russian statesman. In 1861-68 Minister of Internal Affairs, supervised zemskoj and censorial reforms. In 1872-79 minister for the state-owned properties, in 1879-81 chairman of the cabinet council. Manoeuvred between " liberal bureaucrats " and conservators. The writer of "Diary".
  • VALUJ, a flap-type mushroom of a stem of russules of the order agarikovyh. It is edible. It is used for a salting, but demands the long-lived steeping.
  • VALUJKI, city in the Russian Federation, the Belgorod region. A railway junction. 35,3 thousand inhabitants (1992). A food-processing industry. It is based in kon. 16 century.
  • The BOULDERS, rolled rock wastes in the dimension from 10 sm up to 10 m across diameter. The rolled form acquire at transmission by water-courses and icehouses; are distributed in alluvial and glacial drifts.
  • HOG LAMB, hog lamb; it is well fattened.
  • SHAFTS ROMAN, system of shore fortifications of Roman empire in 1-2 centuries for protection against incursions of barbarians. Were guarded 15-25-òûñÿ÷íûì by army. Are most known: Trajans the bank in terrain of the modern Moldova and Romania, Adrianov and Antoninov in England, Verhnegermansky and Retijsky in ancient Germany.
  • VALBERHOVA Maria Ivanovna (1788/89-1867), the Russian actress. Daughter I.I.Valberha. With 1807 (with a rest) on the St.-Petersburg scene. Of comedy talent Valberhovoj thought much A.S.Pushkin, V.G.Belinsky.
  • VALBUENA (Balbuena) Bernardo de (1568-1627), the spanish poet, diocesan of Puerto Rico. Follower Ë. de Gongory-i-Argote. The writer epicheskoj poems " Majesty of Mexico " (1604), etc. The Majority of his manuscripts has burned down at the fire of a bishopic palace made by the Dutch pirates.
  • VALDEK-RUSSO (Waldeck-Rousseau) Ren (1846-1904), the prime minister of France in 1899-1902; in conditions of the political crisis called Drejfusa by business, has formed a cabinet, plugging all groupings from versaltsa general G.Galife up to socialist A.Miljerana.
  • VALDEMAR I (Valdemar) (1131-82), king of Denmark with 1157. Has trapped for pomorskih slavs about. Rujanu (Rjugen; 1169). Rested on church, pacified mutinous feudal lords.
  • VALDEMAR II (1170-1241), king of Denmark with 1202. Has subordinated a number of terrains in the Sowing. Germany (has lost them, having sufferred a defeat in 1227 from severogermanskih princes) and the Sowing. Estonia (Estljandiju, 1219).
  • VALDEMAR IV Atterdag (Atterdag) (ok. 1320-75), king of Denmark with 1340. Has reduced the Crown above mostly country. In war with Hansa 1367-70 has sufferred a defeat.
  • VALDEN (Walden) Paul (Paul Ivanovich) (1863-1957), the Russian chemist, academician AN the USSR (1925; the academician Petersburg AN with 1910, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science with 1917), foreign honorary member AN the USSR (1927). By origin the Latvian. With 1919 in Germany. Transactionses on electrochemistry of solutions, an optical isomerism (has discovered t. n. Walden Inversion), histories of chemistry.
  • VALDENGO (Valdengo) Dzhuzeppe (r. 1914), the italian singer (baritone). The soloist of theatres " Ac the Rock " (1938-46), "Underground railway - opera" (1947-54), etc., has become famous in consignments of operas Dzh. Verdi - Amonasro, JAgo, Falstaf ("Aida", "Otello", "Falstaf"). The book " I chanted from Arturo Toskanini " (1962)
  • VALDERZE (Waldersee) Alfred a background (1832-1904), the German general - field marshal (1900). In 1888-91 chief of a General Staff, supported preventive war against Russia and France. In 1900-01 commanded a consolidated troops of the mandatory powers at depressing Ihetuanskogo of revolt.
  • VALDES LEAL (Valdes Leal) Huan de (1622-90), the spanish painter. The representative of serotinal Baroque. Ekzaltirovannye the religious patterns preaching temporality of life (" Putting off from a cross ", 1660th).
  • VALDES (Valdes) Huan de (1500-41), the spanish writer and the scientist - educator. The writer of the tract " the Dialogue about tongue " (1530-36), etc.
  • VALDIVIA, city and port in the south of Chile, on r. Valdivia. 121,8 thousand inhabitants (1990). Alimentary, pulp and paper, ship repair facilities. University. It is based in 1552.
  • VALDIVIA (Valdivia) Pedro de (1500?-1554?), spanish konkistador, participat in seizure of Peru and Chile, led bitter extirpation against araukanov. Letters of Valdivia to emperor Charles V - a valuable source on a history of Chile.
  • VACUUM FORMING, way of manufacturing of items from sheet thermoplastics. An item of a required profile receive at the expense of the swing pressure originating owing to rarefaction in a cavity above which the leaf is made fast. It is applied, napr., in manufacture of containers, component parts of refrigerators, bodies of devices.
  • AIR VOID - EXTRACTION (in medicine), the operation of extraction of a fruit during stems the special apparatus - a vacuum extraction still which calyx sticks to the head of a fruit (at the expense of rarefaction of air). Apply predominary at a begun asphyxia of a fruit.
  • VAKF (vakuf) (the arab.), in Muslim countries property (movable and immovable), refused by the state or a separate face on the religious or charitable purposes. It was saved in some modern countries of the Orient.
  • VAKH (grech)., Bahus (armour)., in antique mythology one of names of the god of wine growing Dionisa.
  • ORGIES, in Other. Rome festivals in honour Dionisa (Vakha), from 2 century up to n. e. Gained character of orgies. Figuratively - a feral orgy, an orgy.
  • VAKHANKA, in antique mythology sputnitsa god Vakha.
  • VACCINE (from an armour. vaccina - cow), a drug from the alive (neutralized) or killed microorganisms (and also from separate antigenic components of a microbial cell) and products of their vital activity (see. An anatoxin). It is applied with the medical and prophylactic purposes.
  • VACCINATION, see in an item. An immunization.
  • The BANK (platen), curvilinear architectonic oblom, semicircular in a cross section.
  • The BANK, in economy - total amount of production in the value terms, made for any fixed season.
  • The BANK, the machinery parts relaying a twisting moment and bolstering rotating parts. Distinguish shafts direct (the smooth and stepwise), elbow, pinion shafts, etc., and also flexible shafts and torsion bars (transmit only a twisting moment).
  • The BANK, 1) the high landfill, routinely combined with a pit ahead. Ministered an interrupting for the attacking opponent, a battle item defending. It was applied before 1-st world war. 2) System of reinforced strips and items (see " the Atlantic bank ", Shafts Roman, " Eastern bank ").
  • POWER TAKE-OFF SHAFT, the mechanism relaying a part of an engine power of a tractor, self-propelled chassis, the automobile for actuating actions of trailer, hinged or fixed instruments.
  • The BANK TECTONIC, in geology - cavicorn, quite often asymmetric raising, characteristic for ramps. With tektonichskim the bank clumps of petroleum and gas often are connected.
  • VALAAMOVA the SHE-ASS, in the Bible unexpectedly started talking she-ass of the divinator of Balaam. Expression " Valaamova a she-ass " is applied in ironical sense in relation to unexpectedly started talking, routinely silent person.
  • VALAAMSKIE ISLANDS, group of islands in a northwest part Ladoga an eskar. Will consist from about. Balaam (28 êì2) and over 50 small-sized. A gross area 36 êì2. An altitude up to 70 m. Islands are coated primarily with coniferous forests. On about. Balaam - a settlement, buildings Valaamskogo of a monastery. Tourism.
  • VALAKHILI, in mythology induizma volant dwarfs; wise and virtuous guides of heavenly beings.
  • VALAMAT-BACK Gafar Rustamovich (r. 1916), the Tadjik ballet dancer, the ballet master, the national actor of the USSR (1976). Worked at the Tadjik theatre of opera and ballet by him. Ajni; with 1965 chief of band of dance "Lola". The state premium of the USSR (1949).
  • VALANS (Valence), city in a southeast of France, on r. Rhone, an administrative centre of department Drom. 102 thousand inhabitants (1992). Flavoring, textile, tanning, a paper industry; manufacture of hours.
  • VALIHANOV CHokan CHingisovich (1835-1865), the Kazakh educator, the traveller, the ethnographer, the specialist in folklore, the explorer of a history and crop of peoples Compare. Asia, Kazakhstan and Zap. China ("Kirghiz", 1858; " Sketches of Dzungaria ", 1861); sustained close connections with Russian democratic intelligency. The writer of heavy drawings and water colours.
  • It is SHAKY, city in Russian empire. It is known from 13 century. Till 17 century - Peddel. In 1920 it separate into cities Valga (nowadays in Estonia) and the Cutting (in Latvia).
  • The Russian historian, arheograf, the doctor of historical sciences, the professor is SHAKY Sigizmund Natanovich (1887-1975). Transactionses and publications on a history of public idea and revolutionary movement in Russia, historiography, a source study.
  • CUTTING, (Valka), city in Latvia, bliz zh.-d. An item. Valga. 8,2 thousand inhabitants (1990). Wood-working and a light industry. A study of local lore museum. It is known from 13 century. Borders on to. Valga (Estonia) with which up to 1920 compounded one city - It is shaky.
  • ROLLS, city on Ukraine, the Kharkov region, bliz zh.-d. An item. Kovjagi. 11,0 thousand inhabitants (1991). Manufacture of furniture, a building materials; a clothing factory. It is based in 1646 as strength, city with 1780.
  • ROLLS ROLLING, the action of the rolling mill executing a strain of metal for collimating to him required dimensions and the form.
  • VALLA Lorentso, see Lorentso Valla.
  • VALLAK (Vallak) Peet (an ice-film. A name and fam. Peeter Pedajas, Pedajas) (1893-1959), the Estonian writer. Collections of short stories " Clamp of brains " (1926), " Affairs navyvorot " (1935) about life of inhabitants of urban fringes of Estonia; " Grains from many bins " (kn. 1-3, 1945-48).
  • VALLATHOL Narajana Menon (1878-1958), the indian poet. Wrote in tongues malajalam and a Sanskrit. National-liberation, international motives (verses " the Bleeding of India ", " Seventh November ").
  • VALLAH (Wallach) Otto (1847-1931), german chemists - organics. Has discovered and probeed many terpenes. The Nobel Prize (1910).
  • VALLE PUSSEN, see Ac Valle Pussen.
  • VALLENBERGI (Wallenberg), financial and industrial group of Sweden. Has arisen in nach. 20 century. Monitors banks and insurance companies. It is connected to the largest concerns of electrical industry and shipbuilding in countries Zap. Europe.
  • VALLEN-DELAMOT (Vallin de la Mothe) Jean Batist Michel (1729-1800), the French architect. Worked in Russia in 1759-75. Construction in Saint Petersburg: Gostinyj a yard (1761-85), the Small Hermitage (1764-67) in style of an early Russian classicism. Participat in designing the building AH (1764-88) and warehouses " New Holland " (1765-80).
  • VALLENTIN (Vallentin) Maxim (1904-1987), the german producer, the theatrical figure. In 1950 has created in Berlin studio " Pullet band " (about 1952 Theatre him. Maxim Gorkogo).
  • VALLENSHTEJN (Valdshtejn) (Wallenstein) Albrecht (1583-1634), the commander, with 1625 commander-in-chief a troops gabsburgskogo the unit in Thirty-year war 1618-48. Has gained a number of victories above a troops of danish king Christian IV and german Protestant princes. Has sufferred a defeat at Ljuttsene from army of the Swedish king Gustava of II Adolf (1632). Under the charge in the relations with the enemy it is discharged of a command and it is killed by the officers.
  • VALLERIUS (Wallerius) JUhan Gottshalk (1709-85), the Swedish chemist, the honorary member Petersburg AN (1776). The main transactionses on problems of a general chemistry. Has entered system of natural grading of minerals.
  • VALLES (Valles) ZHjul (1832-85), the French writer, the political figure. The member of 1-st Internatsionala. The participant of the Commune of Paris 1871. In the autobiographical trilogy "Jacque Ventra" (1879-86, posthumously) - a history of the Commune of Paris. Emitted the newspaper " Kri dju pepl "; books of sketches.
  • VALLETTA (Valletta) (Ac - Valletta), capital of Malta, a port on Mediterranean m. of 9,2 thousand inhabitants (1990). An international airport. Shipyards; alimentary, textile, a light industry; handcrafts. University, the Armory Museum, art passageway, an architectonic monument of 16-18 centuries. It is based in 60th of 16 century. It is called named the master of order ioannitov as Z.Parizo de Ac the Jack.
  • VALLIZER (Walliser) Otto (r. 1928), the german geologist, a paleontologist, the foreign member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; foreign member AN the USSR with 1988). Transactionses on biostratigraphy, paleoecology and organic evolution. The writer of classical activities on goniatitam Devonian and Carbon, konodontam mean Paleozoic and tentakulitoidejam Devonian.
  • VALENTINE Nikopolsky (Armenian) (mind. ok. 319), one of a magpie of five Christian martyrs damaged in Nikopol Armenian in the persecution of emperor Litsinija. Memory in the Orthodox church on July, 10 (23).
  • VALENTINE Rimljanin (mind. 269), the martyr, the presbyter in Rome, damaged in persecution of emperor Klavdija II. Memory in the Orthodox church on July, 6 (19), in Roman catholic on February, 14.
  • VALENTINIAN I (Valentinianus) (321-375), Roman emperor with 364, steered (in 367-375 together with son Gratsianom) a western part of Roman empire (in eastern - his brother and sopravitel Valent). Led wars against alemannov, kvadov, etc. nations.
  • VALENTINO (Valentino) Rudolf (an ice-film. A name and fam. Rodolfo Guljelmi di Valenitino) (1895-1926), the American film actor. By origin the Italian. Has become famous in silent films of 20th (" Four riders of the Apocalypse ", "Sheikh", " Blood and sand ", " the Son of the sheikh ", etc.), having created a mode exotic " the latin lover ", the fatal temper. The early mors of the actor has called a mass hysteria and a series of suicides among his admirers. Valentino - one of legends of a cinematograph, the hero of novels, plays (to him "Valentino" feature film, 1977 is dedicated, producer K.Russell)
  • VALENCE BAND, best of the allowed Bloch bands of electrons of a solid in which at the temperature of 0 To all energy state are occupied (see. Band theory). At Ò> 0 To generatrix in a valence band of a vacant electron site participate in electric conductivity. Concept of a valence band routinely apply in physics of semiconductors and dielectrics.
  • VALENCE (from an armour. valentia - force), ability of atom of a chemical element (or nuclear group) to organize fixed figure of chemical bonds with other atoms (or nuclear groups). Instead of valence often use more fine-bored concepts, napr. Oxidation state, a coordination number.
  • VALER (frants. valeur, characters. - value), in painting and the schedule shade of the tint expressing (in interrelation with other shades) a fixed ratio of light and a shade. Application of system valerov allows is more thin also the richman to show subjects in svetovozdushnoj to medium.
  • VALERA Huan (1824-1905), the spanish writer. Psychologic, realistic novels " Pepita Himenes " (1874), " Donja Ljus " (1879), " Illusions of doctor Faustino " (1875). Criticism.
  • VALERI Pol (1871-1945), the French poet. Essentials of philosophical lyrics (" Juvenile Park ", " the Marine cemetery ", "Charm") - speculations about impotence of reason adequately to perceive a reality and about a nature of creativity. An essay about S.Mallarme, S.Bodlere, etc. Filosoficheskie (in the form dnevnikovyh records) "Writing-books" (t. 1-29, 1894-1945; are issued 1957-61).
  • VALERIANAS (Valerianus) (193-260), Roman emperor with 253, regulations together with son Gallienom. At a nem there were persecutions of Christians. Has died in a film during war with persians.
  • VALERIANAS Roman (mind. ok. 230), the Christian martyr, the marital partner of martyress Kikilii Roman. Memory in the Orthodox church on November, 22 (on December, 5), in Roman catholic on April, 14.
  • VALERIANAS Trapezundsky (mind. 305), the Christian martyr damaged in persecution of emperor Diokletiana. Memory in the Orthodox church on January, 21 (on February, 3).
  • VALERIANA (valerian), stem of perennial grasses of a set valerian. St. 200 kinds, in Eurasia, JUzh. And the Sowing. To America. Garden heliotrope (an altitude of a stalk up to 2 ì) cultivate for obtaining from roots and rootstocks of abirritating pharmaceuticals.
  • VALERIANIC ACID, ÑÍ3 (ÑÍ2) 3-ÑÎÎÍ, têèï 185,4 °S; it is contained radically Valerianas. Use in manufacture odorous, medicinal, etc. substances. See also Isopropyl acetic acid.
  • VALERY Melitinsky (mind. 298), one of thirty three Christian martyrs - soldiers, postradavshchih in the Melitin in persecution of emperor Diokletiana. Memory in the Orthodox church on November, 7 (20).
  • VALERY Sevastijsky (mind. ok. 320), one of a magpie sevastijskih martyrs.
  • FELL, in the Scandinavian mythology one of gods - aces, son Odina and Rind, the brave soldier, the avenger for death Baldra.
  • VALIEV Kamil Ahmetovich (r. 1931), Russian physics, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1984). The main transactionses on physicotechnological problems of microelectronics, solid-state physics and liquids. Under Valiev guiding the major nomenclature of integrated circuits is built. The lenin premium (1974).
  • VALIESARSKY the AGREEMENT, for armistice between Russia and Sweden, has finished the russko-Swedish war 1656-58 (20.12.1658, d. Valiesar, bliz Narva). To Russia headed out Kokengauzen, JUrjev, Marienburg, Syrensk.
  • WALACHIA, historical range in the south of Romania, between Carpathian mountains and Danube; it is divided r. Olt on Munteniju and Olteniju. Since 14 century. Walachia - the feudal principality, since 16 century - under turkish domination. On Adrianopolskomu to the peace treaty 1829 it is actually self-contained (under the protectorate of Russia up to 1856). In 1859-61 it was aggregated from Moldova in the unified state (since January 1862 - the Romanian principality).
  • VALASHSKOE REVOLT 1821, revolt in Walachia and some areas of Moldova against a press of aboriginal boyars and Greeks - fanariotov, turkish domination. The chief - T.Vladimiresku.
  • WALBRZYCH (Walbrzych), city on a southwest of Poland, administrative centre Valbzhihskogo voevodstva. 141 thousand inhabitants (1992.) Center Nizhnesilezskogo of a coal-mining district. A machine industry. A mountain museum. Bliz Walbrzych - mountain balneoklimatichesky a health resort - SHCHavno-zdruj.
  • VALVASOR (Valvasor) Ivan Vajkhard (1641-93), jugoslavjansky the historian, the writer of the istoriko-geographycal compositions, laid foundation historiography of Slovenia.
  • VALGA, (Valga), city in Estonia, on r. Pedeli (basin an eskar. Vyrtsjarv). A railway junction. 17,9 thousand inhabitants (1991). Manufacture of mixed foods, a meat-packing factory, sewing, furniture factories, etc. The Study of local lore museum. It is known from 13 century. Borders on to. A cutting (Latvia) with which up to 1920 compounded one city - It is shaky.
  • VALGALLA, see. Valhalla.
  • VALDAI, city (with 1770) in the Russian Federation, the Novgorod region, on Valdai an eskar. A railway junction. 19,7 thousand inhabitants (1992). Factories: the "Jove", mechanic; a food-processing industry. A study of local lore museum. Iversky a monastery (17 century). It is known about 1495. Center of leisure time activities and tourism.
  • The VALDAI HIGH GROUND (Valdai), in northwest of the European part of the Russian Federation. A relief hilly; a watershed verhovjev Volga, Zap. Dvina, etc. The Altitude up to 343 m. It is a lot of lakes, including. Seliger, Valdai, etc. Tourism.
  • VALDEMAR Krishjan (1825-1891), the Latvian public figure, the publicist and the economist. The leader mladolatyshej. The editor - publisher of the newspaper " Peterburgas avizes ".
  • VALDEMARPILS (up to 1917 official title Sasmakken), city in Latvia, on coast an eskar. Sasmakas, in 27 kms from zh.-d. An item. A bench. 1,6 thousand inhabitants (1991). Mild and a food-processing industry. It is known from 16 century.
  • VALEK Miroslav (1927-91), the Slovak poet. Collections of civil, filosofsko-intellectual and intimal lyrics "Attraction" (1961), "Disturbing" (1963), " Love in a goosellesh " (1965), " the Forbidden love " (1977), a poetic composition "Word" (1976). Publicism.
  • VALENSA (Walensa) Leh (r. 1943), Polish state and the public figure. In 1990-96 president of Poland. One of osnovatelej (1980) and the leader profobedinenija "Solidarity" (up to 1991). The Nobel Prize of the world (1983).
  • GULF OF VALENCIA Mediterranean m., for eastern coast of Spain. Length of 42,5 kms, width of 144,5 kms, depth up to 500 m. A primary port - Valencia.
  • VALENCIA (Valencia) autonomous region on the orient Spain, for Mediterranean m. of 23,3 thousand êì2. The population 3,8 million person (1992). Adm. ts. - Valencia. Actuates prov. Alicante, Valencia, Kasteljon-de-la-Plana.
  • VALENCIA, city in a north of Venezuela, an administrative centre pieces. Karabobo. 903 thousand inhabitants (1990). Petrochemical, pulp and paper, textile, a leather and foot-wear industry. University. It is based in 1555.
  • VALENCIA, city in Spain, an administrative centre of autonomous region prov. Valencia. 753 thousand inhabitants (1991). A port on Mediterranean m. An international airport. A railway junction. A machine industry, a chemical, flavoring, wood-working, textile industry. 2 universities. A museum of fine arts, etc. It is based in 2 century up to n. e. Romans. A cathedral (13 - kon. 14 centuries), reinforced gate Torres de Serranos (13-14 centuries) and Torres de Kuarte (15 century), kolehio del Patriarka (16 century, in an interior painting Muriljo, Surbarana, Ale Greko), palace Aguas (Baroque, 18 century).
  • VALENT (Valens) (ok. 328-378), emperor of eastern part of Roman empire with 364. The brother and sopravitel Valentiniana I. Has sufferred a defeat from vestgotov in Adrianopolskom battle 378, has perished.
  • VALENT (Ual) Sevastijsky (mind. ok. 320), one of a magpie sevastijskih martyrs.
  • VALENTE (Valente) Hose Anhel (r. 1929), the spanish poet. With 1955 lives abroad (the Great Britain, Switzerland). Books of lyrics " something like hope " (1955), " Verses for Lazarus " (1959), " Memory and marks " (1966), "Initial point" (1972). Transfers of the English and italian poets, a literary - critical essay.
  • VALENTINE (mind. ok. 160), the creator of one of the most influential gnosticheskih religious - philosophical doctrines. It come from Egypt, with 136 in Rome, has died on about. Cyprus. Founded him the sect existed down to 5 century.
  • FROND (from grech. baion - a palm branch), leaves of ferns.
  • VAJJAN-KUTJURE Pol (1892-1937), the French writer. The collection of stories " the Dancing party blind " (1927), the autobiographical book "Childhood" (it is published 1938). The book " On a service of reason " (1937).
  • VAK, see. The maximum attestative committee.
  • VACANCY, one of kinds of structural defects of a crystal lattice - point of the lattice in which there is an atom or an ion (vakansionnyj a unit).
  • VACANCY (from an armour. vacans - empty, loose), the unreplaced position in establishment, an educational institution.
  • VAKASHSKIE TONGUES, group of affine tongues of American Indian peoples vakashi. Actuates tongues nutka and kvakiutl, etc. Enters in mosanskuju the group of tongues representing possible branch algonkino-vakashskoj of macrofamily.
  • WAKAYAMA, city and port in Japan (about. Honshu), an administrative centre of prefecture Wakayama. 396 thousand inhabitants (1992). A chemical, oil refining and textile industry. Iron and steel industry, a machine industry. A rayon industry, lacquered items. Center of area of a gardening.
  • VAKENBUH (from vakus and a nem. Buch - the book), a list of peasant farms and their feudal services in Estonia and Latvia 14-19 centuries.
  • VAKSMAN (Waksman) Zelman (1888-1973), the American microbiologist. For the first time has secured a number of antibiotics. In 1944 has discovered a streptomycine. The Nobel Prize (1952).
  • VACUOLES (frants. vacuole, from an armour. vacuus - empty), cavities in animal and plant cells or unicells. Distinguish alimentiry and sokratitelnye (pulsing) vacuoles regulating an osmotic pressure and employees for breeding from an organism of decomposition product.
  • VAKUS (est. vakus), 1) an administrative and territorial unit in Middle Ages for estov and livov (10-100 peasant farms). 2) Collection of peasants - dvorohozjaev in Baltic till 17 century (1-5 yearly) for payment of a tax, fulfilment of natural duties and court.
  • AIR VOID in a quantum theory of a field, the lowest energy state of a quantum field. The average of particles - field quantums - in vakkume is equal to zero, however in vacuo there can be a birth of virtual particles which influence physical processes (that is revealed experimentally).
  • AIR VOID (from an armour. vacuum - vacuum), a condition of gas at pressures p, lower, than atmospheric. Distinguish a rough vacuum (in vacuum devices and installations to him there corresponds range of pressures p above 100 Pa), mean (0,1 Pa

  • VACUUM OPERATION, removal (suction) of gas, fallow from apparatuses (vessels) with the purpose of obtaining in them subatmospheric pressures.
  • VACUUM OPERATION of CONCRETE, removal (suction) from a dense concrete mix in a casing exuberant (over necessary for a hydration of cement) waters, and also air. Allows to increase toughness, frost resistance of concrete, gear ups process of his concreting.
  • The VACUUM GAUGE (from air void and... Meter), a gauge meter of subatmospheric pressure. Are distributed liquid, ionization, thermal, etc. vacuum gauges.
  • The VACUUM FURNACE, ministers for heating and swim pants of metal in vacuo. Distinguish the arc, inductive, cathode-ray and plasma vacuum furnaces. Allows to clear efficiently metal of gases, impurity, nonmetallics. Apply to obtaining metal and special high-duty alloys.
  • The VACUUM PUMP, ministers for removal (roll-out) of gases or steams from selfcontained volume (system) with the purpose of obtaining in a nem of air void. The main phylums of vacuum pumps: mechanic, jet, sorption, cryogenic.
  • VINERS, Russian writers, brothers, co-authors: Arcady Aleksandrovich (r. 1931) and George Aleksandrovich (r. 1938). Masters of a detective genre. The first story - " Hours for Mr Kelly " (1967). The greatest success had the novel " Ayr mercies " (1976; it is picturized under the title " the Rendezvous point to change it is impossible " from V.S.Vysotskim in the main part). Novels " gospels from the executioner " (1979), " the Hinge strain and a stone " (1984), books " Oshchupju at midday " (1969), " to not lose the person " (1978), " Karsky road " (1983), etc.
  • VAJNONEN Vasily Ivanovich (1901-64), the Russian ballet master, the honored artist of Russia (1939). Worked at the Leningrad theatre of opera and ballet by him. Kirov, Major theatre. Has delivered " the Flame of Paris " to B.V.Asafjeva. The state premium of the USSR (1947, 1949).
  • WEINSTEIN Boris Konstantinovich (r. 1921), Russian physics, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1976). Transactionses under the theory rentgeno-and electron diffraction studies, to a structural analysis of crystals, a structure of biological crystals and macromolecules, a submicroscopy.
  • WEINSTEIN Lev Albertovich (1920-89), Russian radio physicses, corresponding member AN the USSR (1966). The main transactionses on diffraction and wave propagation, an electronics engineering, statistical radio physics. The state premium of the USSR (1990, posthumously).
  • VAJNJUNAS Stasis (1909-82), the Lithuanian composer and the pianist, the national actor of Lithuania (1959). The concordance, concerts for instruments with an orchestra, chamber music. The professor of the Lithuanian conservatory (with 1953). The state premium of the USSR (1951).
  • WYOMING (Wyoming), staff in the west the USA. 253,6 thousand êì2. The population of 470 thousand person (1993). Adm. ts. - Cheyenne.
  • VAJPREHT (Weyprecht) Charles (1838-81), the Austrian polar explorer. In 1872-74 supervised together with J.Pajerom expedition on vessel "Tegethof" which has discovered Franz Josef land (1873).
  • VAJROCHANA (sanskr. Irradiant), in the Buddhism of a Mahajana and vadzhrajany - budda, releasing light. In vadzhrajane it was figured by a white, with chakroj in an arm.
  • WEISS (Weiss) Peter (1916-82), the german writer. From 1939 cable cores in Sweden. Novels, the trilogy " the Aesthetics of resistance " (1975-81), about the modern working-class movement. Mnogochislennnye the plays distinguished acute publitsistichnostju, a social - critical and moral - humanistic problematics (including documentary anti-fascist "Investigation", 1965).
  • VAJSKOPF (Weisskopf) Victor Frederik (r. 1908), the physics - theorist, the foreign member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; foreign member AN the USSR with 1976). Was born in Austria, worked in Germany and Denmark, with 1937 in the USA. In 1961-65 director of the European nuclear research centre. The main transactionses on nuclear physics and fundamental particles, a quantum theory of a field and a quantum electrodynamics.
  • VAJSKOPF (Vejskopf) Frants Charles (1900-55), the german writer. Many years of cable cores in Prague. Anti-fascist novels ("Tempting", other title "Lissi", 1937), a cycle of novels about disintegration of an austro-hungarian monarchy " Children of the time " (50th). Publicism.
  • VAJSFELD Ilya Veniaminovich (r. 1909), the Russian critic and the theorist of kino, the honored worker of arts of Russia (1969), the doctor of art criticism. Transactionses in range of motion picture arts. Professor VGIKa (with 1967).
  • VAJTARANI (sanskr. Ferrying), in mythology induizma the sacred river separable alive from a kingdom dead.
  • VAJTS (Waitz) George (1813-86), the german historian. Transactionses on a history of official bodies and the social system of medieval Germany. In feudalism saw political attitudes, founded on vassalitete in combination to system of benefices.
  • VAJTS (Waitz) Greta (r. 1953), Norwegian sportsmenka (track and field). One of the strongest marafonok the world in 1980th. CHempionka the world (1983) and the silver prize-winner of Olympic Games (1984.) 9-fold winner of a traditional marathon in New York (1978-80, 1982-86, 1988) and twofold a traditional marathon in the London (1983, 1986).
  • VAJTSZEKKER (Weizsaecker) Victor a background (1886-1957), the german doctor - neurologist, the representative of a psychosomatic direction to medicine.
  • VAJTSZEKKER (Weizsaecker) Charles Fridrih a background (r. 1912), german physics and the philosopher, brother R.Vajtszekkera. The director (1969-80) Institutes Maksa of the Planck on probe of living conditions in the technological world (SHtarnberg, Bavaria). Transactionses on a nuclear physics, an astrophysics and a cosmogony, philosophy of a nature and philosophical problems of natural sciences.
  • VAJTSZEKKER Rihard a background (r. 1920), the president of Germany in 1984-94. With 1969 in structure of a guiding of Christian Democrat union (HDS). In 1981-84 ruling burgomaster Zap. Berlin.
  • VAJSHESHIKA, one of 6 orthodox (admitting authority ved) systems of indian philosophy. It is based by Canada. In polemic with the Buddhism settled substantial existence of grades alongside with things. In the atomistic concept vajsheshiki, as against ancient greek atomistov, the cause of motion of atoms considers supernatural force - adrishta (invisible).
  • VAJSHII (sanskr)., members of one of 4 varn in Other. India, all over again integrated full obshchinnikov, basically of farmers, breeders, and later and dealers, some handicraftsmen. In Middle Ages to vajshii ranked only dealers.
  • VAZGEN I (Levon Karapet Abramovich Palchjan) (1908-94), with 1955 supreme patriarch and catholicos of all Armenians. In 1943 has accepted monasticism and a dignity of archimandrite, with 1951 diocesan. In 1947-55 headed the Armenian archdiocese in Romania.
  • PETROLATUM (frants. vaseline), uniform salve-like mass, a mix of heavy hydrocarbon oil and solid hydrocarbon (paraffin, a ceresine, etc.). Receive fusion of hydrocarbon in oil with afterpurification of a mix by sulfuric acid and claying. In medicine - the basis of ointments; in technique - for impregnation of paper capacitors and in the capacity of a grease.
  • VAZEH (an ice-film. Name Mirza SHafi) (1796-1852), the Azerbaijan poet, the educator. In satirical verses dissected faults of a society, invoked for extirpation for individual liberty; many lyrical verses become national songs. Wrote in forms of a gazelle, rubai, mesnevi, etc.
  • VAZOV Ivan (1850-1921), the Bulgarian writer, the public figure. Revoljutsionno-patriotic verses, a cycle liroepicheskih poems " the Epopee forgot " (1881-84), a novel - epopee " Under a yoke " (1889-90) - about national-liberation extirpation. Social - accusatory stories, stories, the novel "New Land" (1896), historical dramas from life of medieval Bulgaria " To an abyss " (1908), "Borislav" (1909), a comedy " Researchers of cushy jobs " (1903).
  • VASOPRESSINUM (antidiuretic hormone), neurohormone animal and the person, produced in a hypothalamus; acts in a hypophysis from which it is secreted in blood. Boosts a back suction of water in renal kanaltsah and thus reduces a diuresis. Invokes reductions of capillaries of blood system. On a chemical nature - a peptid.
  • VAZUZA, the river at the centre of the European part of the Russian Federation, dextral in-leak of Volga. 162 kms, the area of basin of 7,1 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water 39 m3 / with. Bliz a mouth - Vazuzskoe vdhr. For water supply of Moscow.
  • VAJBHASHIKA (sarvastivada), philosophical school of the Buddhism hinajany. Has developed in 3-2 centuries up to n. e. The main source - tract Vasubandhu "Abhidharmakosha". Has advanced Buddhist doctrine about Dharmas.
  • VAIGACH, island on border Barentseva and Karskogo seas, in structure of the Russian Federation. Ok. 3,4 thousand êì2. An altitude up to 170 m. Tundra vegetation. Occupied points: Vaigach, the Long Lip, Varnek. Polar station (with 1950).
  • VAJDA, a stem of grasses of a set of a cruciferae family. Ok. 60 kinds, in Eurasia and the Sowing. To Africa. Vajdu retuse, etc. kinds sometimes cultivate on a forage. Vajdu dyeing before cultivated in Zap. To Europe as a dyestuff plant (leaves contain an indigo).
  • VAJDA (Wajda) Andrzej (r. 1926), the Polish producer. Films: "Channel" (1957), " Ash and diamond " (1958), "Ash" (1965), " All on sale " (1969), "Birch grove" (1971), " the Person from marble " (1976), " Without narcosis " (1978), " the Person from gland " (1981), "Danton" (1983), " the Chronicle of love incidents " (1986). His films about historical paths of development of Poland, tragical conflicts of duties in attitudes between the personality and a society. Works at theatre.
  • VAJZHGANTAS (an ice-film. A name and fam. JUozas Tumas, Tumas) (1869-1933), the Lithuanian writer. Has realistically reflected life of Lithuanian people kon. 19 - nach. 20 centuries in novels "Flashes" (1917-33), " the Cancer of family " (1927-29), stories " the Uncle and the aunt " (1921), "Dumb" (1930), " ZHemajtijsky Robinzon " (1932), etc.
  • VAJZHGANTAS, in the Lithuanian mythology the godhood of a flux.
  • VAJZENBORN (Vejzenborn) (Weisenborn) Gjunter (1902-69), the german writer. The participant of movement of Resistance. In 1942-45 prisoner of fascist prison. Plays, including a drama "Underground workers" (1945), the collection of prosaic fragments "Memorial" (1948) about anti-fascist extirpation in Germany 1933-45. Roman "Persecutor" (1961).
  • VAIL Peter Lvovich (r. 1949), the Russian writer, the essayist. With 1977 in the USA. The main orb of interests: the Russian literature of 19 and 20 centuries, the modern crop. It was published in emigrant issuings "Continent", " Time and we ", "Edges", "Echo", etc. With 1993 managing editor of Russian service of radio station " Freedom ". Books (together with A.A.Genis): " the Modern Russian prose " (1982), " Lost paradise. Emigration: attempt of a self-portrait " (1983), " 60. The world of the Soviet person " (1988), " Native speech " (1990), etc.
  • VAJMAN Seeds Teodorovich (r. 1924), the Russian literary critic, the Doctor of Philology (1970). The main orb of interests - the theory of the literature, a history of the foreign literature. Books: " Rabelais Art method " (1960), " Dante and a problem of a germing of realism " (1961), " the Marxist aesthetics and problems of realism " (1964), " Realism as an antipode of religion. Etudes about poetics Bokkachcho " (1966), " Balzakovsky a paradox " (1981), " Harmonies a mysterious authority. About organic poetics " (1989), etc.
  • VAJNBERG Mechislav Samuilovich (1919-1996), the Russian composer, the national actor of Russia (1980). One of master symphonists - 20 concordances, including " Flowers of Poland " (1965), the Chamber concordance (1986), opera " the Madonna and the soldier " (1970), ballet " Golden kljuchik " (1962), 16 string quartets, etc. The State premium of the USSR (1990).
  • VAJNBERG (Uejnberg) (Weinberg) Stephen (r. 1933), American physics. Transactionses on an elementary particle physics. The Nobel Prize (1979, together with S.Gleshou and A.Salamom) for building of the consolidated theory of electromagnetic and weak interactions.
  • VAJNERT (Weinert) Erih (1890-1953), the german writer. In 1933-1946 in anti-fascist emigration, the participant of a civil war in Spain 1936-39. The president of national committee " Loose Germany " (1943-45). Patriotic and anti-fascist lyrics.
  • VAVILOV Sergey Ivanovich (1891-1951), Russian physics, the founder of the Soviet scientific school physical opticians, the academician (1932) and the president (with 1945) AN the USSR. Brother N.I.Vavilov. Fundamental transactionses on physical optician, primarily on a luminescence and its operational use. Under Vavilov guiding the Cherenkov radiation - Vavilov is open. Transactionses on philosophy of natural sciences and a history of science. The popular writer of science. The first chairman of board of the All-Union society "Knowledge" (with 1947), managing editor BSE (with 1949). The state premium of the USSR (1943, 1946, 1951, 1952, posthumously).
  • VAVILOVSKOE SOCIETY GENETIKOV AND SELECTORS, at the Russian Academy of Science. It is based in 1992 on the basis the Russian republican society and of some branches of the All-Union society genetikov and selectors by him. N.I.Vavilov (1966-91). Central advice - in Saint Petersburg. In 1993 ok. 5 thousand person.
  • BABYLON, ancient city in Mesopotamia, to a southwest from the modern bagdad. In 19-6 centuries up to n. e. Capital of Babylonia. Archeological excavations with 1899.
  • BABYLONIA, the state nach. 2-nd thousand - 539 up to n. e. In the south of Mesopotamia (terrain of the modern Iraq). In the season of bloom (at Hammurapi, 18 century) - a centralized slave state. It is conquered by persians.
  • The BABYLONIAN FILM, the season in a history of ancient Jews with 586 on 539 up to n. e. (from violent resettlement of a part of Jews to Babylonia after taking Jerusalem by the babylonian tsar by Nabuchodonosor II before their recurring to Palestine after seizure of Babylonia by the persian tsar by Mineral tar II).
  • BABEL, in the Bible the story about attempt to construct after a Flood Babylon and a tower up to heavens. Angry with impudence of people the God " has mixed their tongues " so, that people have ceased to perceive one another, and has scattered them on all ground. Figuratively - turmoil, full disorder, vanity.
  • VAVRA Otakar (r. 1911), the Czech film director. Films: " the Dumb barricade " (1949), "John Hus" (1955), "Citizen Brih" (1959), " the Romance for a cornet " (1967), " Days of betraying " (1973), "Sokolovo" (1974), " Discharging of Prague " (1976), " Journeys Yana Amos " (1983), etc.
  • VAVRZHINETS FROM BRZHEZOVY (Lawrence from Brzhezovy) (1370 - after 1437), Czech hronist, the poet, the writer. Main transactionses - " the Hussite chronicle " (in latin tongue).
  • CROWBARS, the river in Slovenia, the left-handed in-leak of Danube. 433 kms, the area of basin of 19,6 thousand êì2. The beginning in Tatra mountains. Average discharge of water 152 m3 / with. A coordinated hydroelectric system.
  • CROWBAR, the river in a north of the European part of the Russian Federation, the left-handed in-leak the Sowing. Dvina. 575 kms, the area of basin of 44,8 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water ok. 400 m3 / with. Driveable. It is navigable on 355 kms from a mouth.
  • VAGABZADE Bahtijar Mahmud ogly (r. 1925), the Azerbaijan poet, the national poet of Azerbaijan (1984). Collections of verses and poems of "Meditation" (1959), " I do not want dormancy " (1970), "Mugam" (1982), " we on one ship " (1983; the State premium of the USSR, 1984), dedicated a modernity. Dramas.
  • VAGAJ, the river in Zap. Siberia, the left-handed in-leak of Irtysh. 555 kms, the area of basin of 23 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water for a seconds. Black 20,6 m3 / with. It is navigable in a lower reaches. In mouth Vagaja (" Ermakova a pool ") has perished Ermak.
  • VAGANOV Eugeny Aleksandrovich (r. 1948), Russian biophysics, the dendrologist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991). The main transactionses in range of development of methods and instrumentation for the automized analysis climatic and ecological factors at probe of growth of woody plants.
  • VAGANOV Agrippina Jakovlevna (1879-1951), the Russian actress of ballet, the teacher, the national actress of RSFSR (1934). In 1897-1916 in Mariinsk theatre. In 1921-51 teacher of the Leningrad choreographic school, with 1946 professor. With 1931-37 artistic administrator of ballet troupe of the Leningrad theatre of opera and ballet by him. Kirov. Pedagogical system Vaganovoj (" the Fundamentals of classical dance ", 1934) is applied in many countries. The state premium of the USSR (1946).
  • VAGANTY (from an armour. vagantes - nomadic) (goliardy), in medieval Zap. To Europe nomadic poor students, the lowest kliriki, shkoljary - initiators parody, love, drinking songs. 12-13 centuries - time of bloom freethinking, antiascetical, an ecclesiastical writing vagantov, basically pesennoj. Were pursued by official church.
  • VAGARSHAPAT, drevnearmjansky city. It is based in 2 century up to n. e. Capital of Armenia in 2-4 centuries n. e. Ok. Vagarshapat there was a monastery Echmiadzin, which title in 1945 has received also city.
  • VAGARSHJAN Vagarsh Bogdanovich (1894-1959), the Armenian actor, the producer, the playwright, the national actor of the USSR (1954). With 1923 at the Armenian Theatre him. Sundukjana (Yerevan). The professor of the Yerevan theatrical institute (with 1946). The state premium of the USSR (1941, 1952).
  • VAGENBURG (from a nem. Wagen - a carriage and Burg - protection), strengthening from carriages in the form of a quadrilateral, a circle or a half-disk, sometimes strengthened a pit, etc. interruptings. It was applied in an antiquity (cecidiums, germen, gunny) and in Middle Ages (crusaders, Swisses, hussites) to cover of a troops from attacks of the opponent (see also Walk - city).
  • VAGINAS Vsevolod Ivanovich (1823-1900), the Russian historian, Siberian oblastnik. One of editors and publishers of the liberal newspaper "Siberia". Transactionses on a history, ethnographies and economy of Siberia.
  • VAGINISMUS (from an armour. vagina - a sheath), convulsive reduction of muscles of a sheath and the pelvic bottom, handicapping coitus.
  • VAGINITIS (colpitis), inflammation of a sheath. (Trichomoniasis) is invoked by different bacteria, Protozoa, etc. Shows feeling of a burning sensation in range of outside sexual organs and leucorrhea.
  • VAGINOV Konstantin Konstantinovich (1899-1934), the Russian writer. Collections of verses " Traveling in chaos " (1921), " Experiences of connection of words by means of a rhythm " (1931). In novels " the Goaty ode " (1928), " Transactionses and days Svistonova " (1929), "Bambochada" (1931) is grotesquely figured destiny of intelligents in conditions of disintegration of aged crop.
  • VAGIF Molla Pans (ok. 1717-97), the Azerbaijan poet and the statesman. The adherent of the union with Russia. Has created samples love, gedonicheskoj, philosophical lyrics. Has affirmed in the Azerbaijan poetry the form goshma.
  • WAGNER (Wagner) Adolf (1835-1917), the german economist. Has tested influence of ideas of historical school; considered, that legal relations play defining role in economic life.
  • WAGNER Vladimir Aleksandrovich (1849-1934), the Russian biologist and the psychologist, the founder of comparative psychology in Russia. The professor St.-Petersburg, then the Leningrad university (1906-31). Transactionses on instinctive activity animal, etc.
  • WAGNER Egor Egorovich (1849-1903), Russian chemists - organics. Has developed (1888) method of definition of a structure unlimiting organic compounds. Has discovered (1897) t. n. A camphenic redistribution of the first stem (Wagner redistribution - Meervejna).
  • WAGNER Nikolay Petrovich (1829-1907), the Russian zoologist and the writer, corresponding member Petersburg AN (1898). The main transactionses on a fauna of Invertebrata of White m., an entomology. Has discovered the phenomena of a pedogenesis for hexapods (1862). The writer of " Fairy tales of the Cat - Murlyki " (1872), etc. literary and art products.
  • WAGNER (Wagner) Otto (1841-1918), the Austrian architect. The representative of the austrian style "modernist style". In an interior of the building of GPO in Vienna (1904-1906) has acted as the precursor funktsionalizma.
  • WAGNER Rihard (1813-83), the german composer, the conductor, the musical writer. The reformer of opera art. In an opera - drama has executed synthesis filosofsko-poetic and the musical began. In products it has found expression in developed system of motifs, vokalno-symphonic style of intellection. The innovator in range of harmony and orkestrovki. The majority of the musical dramas is based on mythological scenes (natural librettoes). Operas: "Rientsi" (1840), " the Flying Dutch " (1841), "Tangejzer" (1845), "Loengrin" (1848), " Tristan and Izolda " (1859), " Nuremberg mejsterzingery " (1867), "Parsifal" (1882); the tetralogy " the Ring nibelunga " - " Gold of Rhein ", "Valkirija", "Zigfrid", " Death of gods " (1854-74). Publicistic and musical - aesthetic activities: " Art and revolution ", " the Piece of art of the future " (1848), " Opera and a drama " (1851), etc.
  • WAGNER the LAW (National Labor Relations Act), in the USA the law (1935) about regulation of labour relations. It is introduced by senator R.Wagner. Has proclaimed the right of working collective agreements on the conclusion, on strike, etc. Adopted in 1947 antiworker the Taffeta - Hartli the law in essence has substituted Wagner law.
  • WAGNER - JAUREGG (Wagner-Jauregg) JUlius (1857-1940), the Austrian psychiatrist. Has justified (1918) and has inserted a pyrotherapy in treatment of a general paralysis. The Nobel Prize (1927).
  • VAGNORJUS (Vagnorius) Gediminas (r. 1957), the Lithuanian political figure. With 1980 worked the engineer - economist. With 1988 on scientific activity in Institute of economy Lithuanian AN. With 1991-92 chairman of SM of Lithuania.
  • LORRY (frants. wagonnet), an open wagon of small capacity (0,5-6 m3) for a shipping goods, and also the carriage on 6-18 the person transposed on narrow-gauge railroad tracks (inside the enterprises, on mines).
  • VAGRAM (Wagram), settlement in Austria, severo-to the east of Vienna. Ok. Vagrama 5-6.7.1809, during the avstro-French war 1809, the French troops of Napoleon I in decisive battle have defeated the Austrian army ertsgertsoga Charles and have forced her to departure; 12.7 armistice, 14.10 - SHenbrunnsky the world 1809 has been encased.
  • CUPOLA INSTALLATION, shaft kiln, primarily for swim pants of cast iron in casting houses. Sometimes for preheating air of a cupola installation are equipped with recuperators.
  • VAD, a mineral of group of a psilomelan, the collective title groundy and sazhistyh units water MnO2 with variable impurity level K, Ba, Cu, Zn, Fe, Pb, W, Li, Co, Ni. A version vada - asbolan (up to 17 % CoO alongside with Ni and Cu). Hardness 1-4; firmness of 2,8-4,4 g / sm3. Hypergenic. Ore of manganese, a cobalt and a nickel.
  • CUPOLA INSTALLATION, shaft kiln, primarily for swim pants of cast iron in casting houses. Sometimes for preheating air of a cupola installation are equipped with recuperators.
  • VAD, a mineral of group of a psilomelan, the collective title groundy and sazhistyh units water MnO2 with variable impurity level K, Ba, Cu, Zn, Fe, Pb, W, Li, Co, Ni. A version vada - asbolan (up to 17 % CoO alongside with Ni and Cu). Hardness 1-4; firmness of 2,8-4,4 g / sm3. Hypergenic. Ore of manganese, a cobalt and a nickel.
  • VADEMEKUM (from an armour. vade mecum - go with me), the guidebook, the pocket manual, the index.
  • VADZHAPEJA, vedijsky sacramental of consecration on a kingdom, plugging trot race of a chariot.