Thursday, May 17, 2007

  • WALTER Anton Karlovich (1905-65), Ukrainian of physics, academician AN of Ukraine (1951). Transactionses on a nuclear physics. Supervised over a structure of the first Soviet electrostatic dynamitron up to 2,5 MeV (1935-36). The participant of a structure of a linac of electrons up to 1,8 GeV (1964, Kharkov).
  • WALTER (Walter) Bruno (an ice-film. A name and fam. Bruno Walter Shlezinger, Schlesinger) (1876-1962), the german conductor. Worked at opera theatres of Vienna, Munich, the London, Berlin, with orchestra Gevandhauza in Leipzig. In 1933 has emigrated, with 1939 in the USA. Went on tour in Russia. Has become famous for interpreting of products of V.A.Mozart, L.Beethoven, I.Brams, G.Mahler.
  • WALTER (Walther) Johannes (1860-1937), the german geologist, foreign honorary member AN the USSR (1930). Transactionses on paleoecology, the doctrine about a facies, biology starving. Developed a method aktualizma in geology.
  • WALTER Peter Aleksandrovich (1888-1947), the Russian scientist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1933). The main transactionses on aero-and hydrodynamics. It is repressed; it is rehabilitated posthumously.
  • WALTER SCOTT, see Scott Century.
  • WALTER BACKGROUND DER FOGELVEJDE (Walther von der Vogelweide) (ok. 1170 - ok. 1230), the german poet - minnezinger. Landscape and love lyrics, satirical shpruhi, directed against princely civil strifes and the papacy.
  • VALHALLA, Valgalla (other - skand. Valholl - a hall dead), in the Scandinavian mythology palace Odina where the soldiers who have gorged in battle hit and where they prolong former heroic life.
  • MILLING (preparing room), deforming in forging rolls of preparations from metal, rubber stocks, plastics materials. With the help of milling receive off-the-shelf components, precise preparations for an extrusion, etc.
  • ROLLS (from a nem. Walze - valok, a roller), the working instrument forge, crushing, etc. machines - 2 cutting, rotated in opposite directions that ensures capture and machining of the material passing between them. The surface of crusher rolls fluted, in forging rolls is present the brook conforming to a profile of a component part.
  • VALLADOLID (Valladolid), city in Spain, an administrative centre prov. Valladolid. 334 thousand inhabitants (1990). A machine industry, a chemical industry, nonferrous machine industry; manufacture of jewels. University. It is known from 10 century Church Santa-mary of ac of Antigua (11-14 centuries), church of San Pablo (15 century, in style plateresko), area Plasa framed by porticoes the Major (16 century).
  • CURRENCY (ital. valuta, characters. - cost), 1) monetary unit of any country and its phylum (golden, silver, impregnated-paper); 2) a means for accounts, impregnated-paper money, coins, bills, the check plots used in international payments (foreign exchange). See also Convertibility of currencies.
  • CURRENCY MONOPOLY, exclusive right of the state to operations with a foreign exchange, gold. It is connected to the foreign trade monopoly.
  • CURRENCY SYSTEM WORLD, the form of organization of international currency attitudes stipulated by development of the world economy and legally fixed by interstate agreements. Its defining elements: national and collective currency units, structure and structure of international merchantable assets (a currency means and stocks of gold), the mechanism of pars of exchange and courses, conditions of the relative convertibility of currencies, volume of exchange restrictions, forms of international payments, a mode of international exchange markets and world markets of gold, the status of the interstate currency - credit organizations regulating currency attitudes. See also the Golden standard, the Gold-value standard, the Jamaican agreement.
  • CURRENCY SYSTEM NATIONAL, a form of organization of currency attitudes of the state, defined by the national legislation. Its elements: national monetary unit, structure of official gold and exchange currency reserves, the par of exchange and the mechanism fomirovanija the course of exchange, conditions of convertibility of currency, availability or absence of exchange restrictions, the order of external payments of country, a mode of a national exchange market and the market of gold, the status of the national establishments regulating currency attitudes of country.
  • CURRENCY BLOCS, groupings of the states in which the currency of countries - participants was attached to currency of country - hegemon. Have arisen during a world economic crisis 1929-33 (sterling 1931, dollar 1933, golden 1933-36), were transformed to currency areas.
  • CURRENCY AREAS, the groupings of the states which have been usual in time and after 2-nd world war on the basis of currency blocs. In currency areas the known coordination of currency policy and system of external payments is carried out. The main currency areas - sterling, dollar, a franc area.
  • EXCHANGE RESTRICTIONS, system of state measures, directed on limitation of operations with a foreign exchange, gold, etc. currency values. Are established by a legislative way or administratively; a constituent part of currency policy of the state. Exchange restrictions provide: ban of sale and purchase of a foreign exchange; delivery to its state organs on an official rate; regulation of transfers and external payments, flight of capital; repatriation of profits. At exchange restrictions currency transactions are focused in central or specially authorized banks. Exchange restrictions are applied as a marginal means against a nonperishable unbalance of calculations with abroad and to pegging the exchange, and also with the purpose of survey of a means for payment of the external indebtedness.
  • CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS, banking operations on exchange markets, the bound with sale and purchase of a foreign exchange. Currency transaction implements on conditions of immediate shipment of currencies ("spot") and in the form of time bargains, i.e. delivery of currency hereafter at the rate, existing at the moment of conclusions of the transaction ("forward"). Urgent currency transactions are carried out both for insurance upon exchange risks, and for gamble on a difference between actual and expected courses. A number of currency transactions represents combination of bargains "spot" and "forward".
  • CURRENCY VALUES, values concerning which the state establishes a restricted mode of the circulation. So, in the Russian Federation to currency values concern: a foreign exchange and the documents of payment expressed in her and valuable papers, precious metals (gold, silver, platinum and platinum metals), natural precious stones in a wet and treated kind (diamonds, ruby, emeralds, sapphires, alexandrites), pearl, except for household jeweller, etc. items from these metals and stones.
  • EXCHANGE CRISIS, aggravation of antagonisms in the currency orb, showing in swings over of courses of exchange, a unbalance of balances of payments, conveyances of the loan capital. Exchange crisis is accompanied by intensifying of state interference in the form of devaluations and revaluation, introduction of exchange restrictions, an implementation obshcheekonomicheskogo character.
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