Friday, June 15, 2007

  • VERHNEKOLYMSKOE the MOUNTAINS, in the Magadan region. An altitude of 1300-2000 m. On valleys of the rivers and on downslopes hrebtov a larch thin forest and thrickets of a dwarf siberian pine; above - mountain tundra. Gold fields, tin. Mineral sources.
  • LOWLAND VERHNEREJNSKAJA, in Germany and France, between mountains JUra and the Rhine Shaly mountains. Length ok. 300 kms; on lowland Verhnerejnskoj weeps r. Rhein. Cultivation of wheat, sugar-beet; gardens, vineyards. Large cities: Strasbourg, Frankfurt - na-Majne, Mannheim.
  • VERHNEREJNSKY KALIENOSNYJ BASIN, in terrain of France (basically) and Germany. Reserves over 300 million t K2O with the mean content in ore of 23 %. Center of production - Mulhouse (France).
  • VERHNESILEZSKY - OSTRAVSKO-KARVINSKY the COAL BASIN, in Center. To Europe, in terrain of Poland and Czechia. Ok. 6500 êì2 (from them 5500 êì2 - in terrain of Poland). Uglenosny adjournments of Carbon. Reserves ok. 100 billion t up to depth of 1000 m. Carbons stone. Combustion heat of 26-30 MDZH/KG. An annual output a underground way ok. 175 million t, including 150 million t. In Poland. The main{basic} centres of production: Katowice (Poland), Ostrava (Czechia).
  • VERHNESILEZSKY MINING AREA, zinc-lead deposits of Poland (Katovitskoe and Krakow voevodstva). Ok. 2000 êì2. Reserves Zn and Pb a little bit{some} one million t. Mean content Pb of 1,2-1,5 %, Zn 5-6 %; valuable impurity{additives} Cd, Ag, Tl, Ge, Ga.
  • VERHNETAZOVSKY RESERVATION, in the Russian Federation, Yamal-Nenets and. About. The Tyumen region. It is based in 1986. The area of 631,3 thousand ga. Native born taiga forests in verhovjah r. A basin. A brown bear, caress, a sable, a lag bolt, a red grouse. Egg-laying areas of a salmon trout, nelmy, muksuna.
  • VERHNEUDINSK, the title of Ulan-Ude in 1783-1934.
  • VERHNEURALSK (up to 1775 Verhnejaitskaja strength), city (with 1781) in the Russian Federation, the Chelyabinsk region, on r. Ural, in 60 kms from zh.-d. An item. Magnitogorsk. 10,7 thousand inhabitants (1991). Alimentary, a woodworking industry. A study of local lore museum. It is based in 1734.
  • LOWLAND VERHNEFRAKIJSKAJA, in Bulgaria, between Rhodope and hr. A Sredna-mountain. Length of 160 kms; on lowland Verhnefrakijskoj weeps r. Maritsa. Cultivation of wheat, vegetables; gardens, vineyards. On lowland Verhnefrakijskoj - cities Plovdivs, Stara Zagora, Dimitrovgrad.
  • The UPPER BASKUNCHAK, urban settlement in the Russian Federation, the Astrakhan region. A railway junction. 9,6 thousand inhabitants (1991). Export salt, got{procured} on an eskar. Baskunchak.
  • The UPPER YENISEI (Ulug-Hem), the title r. Yenisei within the limits of Tuva.
  • UPPER TAGIL, city (with 1960) in the Russian Federation, Ekaterinburg region. A depot. 13,2 thousand inhabitants (1992.) state district power stations. Furniture factory, manufacture of a building materials, etc. It is based in 1716.
  • UPPER UFALEJ, city (with 1940) in the Russian Federation, the Chelyabinsk region, on r. Ufalej. A depot. 40 thousand inhabitants (1992). Nickeliferous combine, factories: metallurgical, "Metal worker", "Uralelement", etc. The Forest industry. It is based in 1761.
  • UPPER the HANGAR, the river in Transbaikalia. 438 kms, the area of basin of 21,4 thousand êì2. Runs into an eskar. Baikal. Average discharge of water 255 M3 / with. It is navigable from landing stage Kamniokan. Along the Upper Angara line{route} BAMa is built.
  • UPPER VOLT, the title of the state Burkina Faso up to 1984.
  • The UPPER MANTLE, environment of the Earth, underlying earth crust from Mohorovichicha surfaces up to depth ok. 900 kms. It is combined, presumably, pirolitom, in part eklogitom, in the upper mantle secrete an astenosphere and Golitsyn a layer. In the upper mantle processes to which are connected tectonic, magmatic and metamorphic the phenomena in earth crust develop.
  • The UPPER PYSHMA, city (with 1946) in the Russian Federation, Ekaterinburg region, in 13 kms from Ekaterinburg. 54,1 thousand inhabitants (1992). Nonferrous machine industry. Factories: himreaktivov, welded machine-building designs, a nursery metal toy, etc. Production of copper ore.
  • UPPER SALDA, city (with 1938) in the Russian Federation, Ekaterinburg region, on r. Salda. A depot. 55.1 thousand inhabitants (1992). Metal-working and an iron and steel industry. It is based in 1760.
  • UPPER TAJMYRA, the river on p-ove Tajmyr. 567 kms., the area of basin of 50,4 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water ok. 430 m3 / with. Runs into an eskar. Tajmyr.
  • UPPER TUNGUSKA, the former title r. Angara in the lower flow.
  • VIVATNYJ the CANT (vivat) (an armour. vivat - long live), the kind{view} of the panegyrical cant which has been usual in Russian music of Peter epoch. The melody had fanfarno-ruladnyj character. Were executed a mansion or group of singers primarily during court methods and festivals. Existed{breathed} up to kon. 18 century.
  • VIVACHE (vivo) (ital. vivace, vivo, characters. - alive), in music - fast rate, mean between allegro and presto; the alive, inspired character of performance{fulfillment}.
  • VIVEKANANDA Svami (1863-1902), the indian thinker - humanist, the religious reformer and the public figure. Doctrine Vivekananda promoted liberation movement in India.
  • CIVET CAT (tsivety), a stem of mammals of a set viverrovyh. Length of a body of 60-85 sm, a tail 31-48 see 4 kinds{views}, in JUgo-Vost. Asia. Object of a hunt. 1 subspecies in the Red Data Book of the International union of nature protection and natural resources.
  • VIVES (Vives) Huan Luis (1492-1540), the spanish thinker of Renaissance, the humanist and the teacher. Opposed scholasticism in protection of trial knowledge. Pedagogical ideas Vivesa have influenced J.A.Komenskogo, and also on I.Loyola.
  • VIVI, lake in northwest of Central Siberian plateau. The area 130 êì2. From Vivi escapes r. Vivi (in-leak{influx} of Lower Tunguska).
  • VIVIAN Sevastijsky (mind{wit}. ok. 320), one of a magpie sevastijskih martyrs.
  • VIVIANITE, mineral of a class of phosphates, Fe3 [PO4] 2.8Í2Î. Impurity{additives} Mn, Mg, Ca, Fe3 +. Colourless and bluish crystals, groundy units. Hardness 1,5-2; firmness of 2,7 g / sm3. Sedimental, less often hypergenic. A mineral color (a blue paint).
  • VIVIPARIJA (from an armour. vivus - alive and pario - I travail), the same, that a viviparity.
  • VIVISECTION (from an armour. vivus - alive and sectio - a sectioning) (zhivosechenie), the operation on alive animal with the purpose of study of functions of an organism, action on him{it} of different substances, development of methods of treatment, etc.
  • VIVO, in music - the same, that vivache.
  • VIVIEN DE the SEN-OPEN-HEARTH FURNACE (Vivien de Saint-Martin) Lui (1802-97), the French geographer. The writer " Histories of geography and geographycal discoverings " (1873), " the New dictionary of world geography " (t. 1-7). Transactionses on historical geography the Sowing. America, M.Azii, India.
  • VI-GAS, CH3 (C2H5O) P (O) SCH2CH2N [CH (CH3) 2] 2, a colourless liquid, têèï> 300 °S. A poisonous substance of neuroparalytic action (under foreign data). Has very high inhalation and kozhno-rezorbtivnoj a toxicity (a lethal dose at rezorbtsii through a leather of 8-10 mg).
  • VIGAN (Wihan) Ganush (1855-1920), the Czech violoncellist, the composer. The court musician in Germany. The founder of " the Czech quartet " (1891). Plays for a violoncello. International competitions by him{it}. Vigana in Prague (1950, 1955). Professor "Motsarteuma" in Salzburg (with 1873) and conservatories in Prague (with 1888).
  • VIGANO Salvatore (1769-1821), the italian ballet dancer, the ballet master. The reformer of ballet theatre, the creator of new type of a romantic choreographic drama of epoch Risordzhimento (often on a material of products{creations} of U.Shakespeare, P.Kornelja, F.Schiller, V.Alfjeri). Ballets: " Creations Prometeja, or the Authority of music and dance " L.Beethoven, "Otello", "Vestalka", "Didona", "Titaniums", etc.
  • WIGWAM, home unit of Indians the Sowing. America, dome-shaped, on a hackberry from the thin trunks, coated{obtected} with branches, a bark, mats.
  • VIGDOROVA Fried Abramovna (1915-65), the Russian writer. In art and publicistic products{creations} about the Soviet school, moral education (including " Wash a class ", 1949; " It wash the dwelling ", 1957; " whom you to him have? ", it is published in 1969) - the tightened feeling of justice, knowledge of nursery psychology.
  • VIGDORCHIK Seeds Abramovich (1908-80), the Russian scientist in range of aircraft construction, Dr.Sci.Tech. (1963), the honored worker of science and technique of RSFSR (1972). Main technologist OKB of A.N.Tupolev. Transactionses are connected to development of manufacturability of aircraft designs, an introduction in practice of aircraft construction of monolithic constructions, pressed panels, processes of steep acid pickling, new materials. The state premium of the USSR (1949, 1957).
  • VIGELANN (Vigeland) Gustav (1869-1943), the Norwegian sculptor. Portraits ("Ibsen", 1903), a monument to N.Abel (1908), band Frognerpark in Oslo (1900-43) are noted by combination of naturalism, symbolics and a sensuality to real - realistic treatment of modes{images}.
  • VERNIKOV Jacob Iljich (r. 1920), the Russian pilot. The deserved pilot - verifier of the USSR (1960), the general - major of aircraft (1971), the Hero of Soviet Union (1944). Tests of reactive fighters for spin, heavy airplanes on critical conditions of flight. First has reached{achieved} a supersonic speed in a level flight.
  • OPENING DAY (frants. vernissage, characters. - lacquered), solemn discovering of an exhibition. The title descends from custom to varnish patterns before discovering of an exhibition.
  • VERNOV Sergey Nikolaevich (1910-82), Russian physics, academician AN the USSR (1968), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1980). Probeed ultrarays in high layers of an atmosphere and outside of her{it}. The participant of discovering of an external radiation belt of the Earth. The lenin premium (1960), the State premium of the USSR (1949).
  • VALID, the title of. Alma-ata (nowadays capital of Kazakhstan) up to 1921.
  • VERNIER, the obsolete title of a vernier.
  • VERONA (Verona), city in the Sowing. Italy, in region. Venice, an administrative centre prov. Verona. 259 thousand inhabitants (1991). A traffic centre on approaches to Brenner pass in the Alpes. Metallurgy, a machine industry, chemical, mild, wood-working, a food-processing industry. University. Romanesque church Dignity - Dzeno Madzhore (5-12 centuries) and Pallatstso del Komune (it is initiated in 12 century); Gothic Palaces del Governo (12-13 centuries) and clasp Kastelvekkjo (14 century) with bridge Skaligerov.
  • VERONESE (Veronese) (an ice-film. A name of Cagliari, Caliari) Paolo (1528-88), the italian painter of Renaissance. The representative of the venetian school. Celebratory, society patterns on spirit, a panel, paintings of Veronese differ organic communication{connection} with the architecture, scope{span} of a composition, refinement of silvery colour (a fresco of country house Barbaro-Volpi in Mather, ok. 1561, " Spoilage in Cana ", 1563).
  • SPEEDWELL, stem of plants (predominary grasses) sets of a figwort family. Ok. 250 kinds{views}, primarily in moderate and cool belts of Boreal hemisphere; over 100 views on of terrain of the Russian Federation, in Compare. Asia, on Caucasus. Some kinds{views} are decorative.
  • PROBABILITIES the THEORY, section of mathematics in which under data to probabilities of one random events find probabilities of other events, the bound somehow with first. The theory of probabilities studies also random values and stochastic processes. One of primal problems of a theory of probabilities will consist in making out of the regularities originating at interaction of major figure of random factors (see. Major figures the law). The mathematical apparatus of a theory of probabilities is used at study of the mass phenomena in science and technique. Methods of a theory of probabilities play the important role at machining statistical data. See also Mathematical statistics.
  • The PROBABILISTIC AUTOMATIC CONTROL UNIT, the device (system) automatically changing the condition depending on sequence of the previous conditions and random input signals. The probabilistic automatic control unit use at simulation of complex processes, napr. Automatic control systems a traffic circulation on a crossroad of two streets.
  • PROBABILISTIC PROCESS, the same, that a stochastic process.
  • The PROBABILITY, in mathematics - the numerical characteristics of a degree of a capability of occurrence{appearance} of any random event at those or others fixed, able to be retried a unlimited number of times conditions (see. Probabilities the theory).
  • PROBABILITY THERMODYNAMIC, figure, proportional to quantity of physically discernible microscopic conditions by which the given macroscopic system condition can be realized. Napr., the condition of gas with fixed power can be realized by flock of the ways discriminating with a partition of energy between particles.
  • VERRI (Verri) Pjetro (1728-97), the italian educator. In 60-80-Õ promoted antifeudal reforms in Lombardy. Main transactionses " Speculations about political economy ".
  • VERRO, the title of. Vyru in Estonia up to 1917.
  • VERROKKO (Verrocchio) (an ice-film. A name di Mikele CHoni, di Michele Cioni) Andrea del (1435 or 1436-88), the italian sculptor, the painter, the jeweller. The representative florentinskoj schools of Early Revitalization. Combined realistic finding actions with attenuatous aristocratism (a statue "David", 1473-75, a monument kondotjeru Kolleoni in Venice, 1479-88, " epiphany of the Christ ", ok. 1470, together with Leonardo yes Vinci).
  • The VERSAILLES PEACE TREATY 1783, is signed the USA and their allies - by France, Spain, Netherlands, on the one hand, and the Great Britain - with other; has finished War for independence in Boreal America 1775-83. Great Britain has recognized independence and the sovereignty the USA.
  • The VERSAILLES PEACE TREATY 1919, the agreement which has finished 1-¯ world war. It is signed in Versailles on June, 28 by mandatory powers - winners - the USA, British Empire, France, Italy, Japan, Belgium, etc., on the one hand, and the defeated Germany - with other. Terms of the contract have been produced on the Parisian nonpredatory conference 1919-20. Under the Versailles peace treaty Germany transmitted to France Alsace and Lorraine (in borders{limits} 1870), Belgium - districts Malmedi and Ejpen, Poland - Poznan, parts of Pomorze, etc. terrain Zap. Prussia; Danzig (Gdansk) has been declared by free city. Memel (Klaipeda) it is transferred{handed} to management of mandatory powers - winners (in February 1923 it is adjoined to Lithuania). A problem on state fitting SHlezviga, austral part Vost. Prussia and the Upper Silesia should be decided by the plebiscite (boreal part SHlezviga has transfered in 1920 to Denmark, a part of the Upper Silesia in 1922 - to Poland; other batable grounds have remained with Germany). The small plot silezskoj terrains headed out to Czechoslovakia. Primordial Polish grounds - on the right to coast of Oder, Nizh. Silesia, a large part of the Upper Silesia, etc. - have remained with Germany. Saar passed on 15 flying under steering of League of the Nations, and then his{its} destiny should be decided by the plebiscite. Germany undertook to respect independence of Austria, recognized independence of Czechoslovakia and Poland. The German part of a left bank of Rhein and a strip of a dextral coast in width of 50 kms were subject to demilitarization. Colonys of Germany have been divided between main mandatory powers - winners. The overland army of Germany has been limited to 100 thousand person, other limitations in arms are established{installed} also. Germany has undertaken to pay reparations. An integral part of the Versailles peace treaty the status of League of the Nations was. The USA did not ratify the Versailles peace treaty and in August 1921 have concluded with Germany the special agreement almost identical to the Versailles peace treaty, but not keeping points about League of the Nations.
  • VERSALTSY, the title given Parisian kommunarami 1871 government (led by Tjerom), justified in Versailles, and subject to him to a troops. With the help of Prussian interventionists versaltsy have severely suppressed the Commune of Paris.
  • VESLONOSY, a set of fresh-water fishes of order osetroobraznyh. 2 kinds{views}, one - in an eskar. Erie and the rivers of an austral part the USA, length up to 2 m, weighs up to 75 kg; in the Red Data Book of the International union of nature protection and natural resources; the second - in r. Yangtze, length up to 7 m. Object of a craft.
  • SPRING, see. Seasons.
  • VESNIK Eugeny Jakovlevich (r. 1923), the Russian actor, the national actor of the USSR (1989). With 1964 at Small theatre in Moscow. Acts in film.
  • FRECKLES, yellowy-brown nevuses pigmentosus for the person on the open parts of a body (a face, arms{hand}). Occur{come up} under action of the sun (spring), sometimes radioactive radiations and chemical stimuluses.
  • EROPHILAS (ukr., the Byelorussian. - vesnavye, rus. - zaklichki), ceremonial calendar songs of call-up of the spring, dated for equinox. Before to erophilas attributed magic value.
  • EROPHILAS, order of hexapods. Side panels in scope{span} 1-8 see. Ok. 2000 kinds{views}, predominary in Boreal hemisphere. Dwell{live} for circulating water reservoirs, especially in mountains. Adult hexapods occur{come up} in the early spring. Larvas of an erophila - a forage of food fishes.
  • GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS, the same, that gravimetric analysis.
  • VESOS (Vesaas) Tarjej (1897-1970), the Norwegian writer. In novels " Black horses " (1928), "Birds" (1957), etc. - interlacing of a reality with symbolics and allegory. Roman " the Major game " (1934) from country life; short stories and verses spirit of a modernism, plays.
  • VESPASIAN (Vespasianus) (9-79), Roman emperor with 69, the founder of dynasty Flaviev. Much more widely, than his{its} precursors, distributed to provincials of the right of Roman and latin citizenship.
  • VESZPREM, city in Hungary, an administrative centre medje Veszprem. 64,3 thousand inhabitants (1991). A machine industry, textile, chemical, wood-working, a food-processing industry. A Gothic chapel of 13 century, a baroque palace of diocesan (18 century).
  • VESSEL Nikolay Hristianovich (1837-1906), the Russian teacher and the publicist. The editor of log-books "Teacher" (1861-64), " the Pedagogical collection " (1864-1882), " the Heart-felt word " (1885-1900). Transactionses under the theory of pedagogics.
  • WEST WIND (a nem. West), the same, that the west.
  • WEST WIND, in Roman mythology the goddess of a home which cult departed priestesses - vestalkami. Corresponds{meets} Grecian Gestii.
  • WEST WIND, one of the largest (a diameter of 555 kms) planetoids (¹ 4), is open{discovered} by V.Olbersom (Germany, 1807). The distance West winds from the Sun variates from 2,2 up to 2,6 and. e.
  • VESTALKI, in Other. Rome priestesses of the goddess the West winds supporting in a temple of the goddess sacred fire. Were elected from girls of notable families, should minister to the goddess 30 flying, respecting a vow of chasity. Vestalok, breaking a vow, alive instilled in ground.
  • VESTVERK (a nem. Westwerk), in karolingskih and Romanesque tserkvah (especially in Germany) cross construction in a western part of the building (with 2-3 towers discovered in a nave by passageways and chapels on choruses).
  • VESTGOTY (vizigoty), the German nation, a western branch it is ready. In nach. 5 century have intruded Italy; in 410 have plundered Rome. In 418 have based in JUzh. Gallia rannefeodalnoe the Toulouse kingdom (from Gallia in nach. 6 century are extruded by francs). In 5 century have trapped large part Pirenejskogo p-ova; their state is conquered by arabs in nach. 8 Century.
  • " VESTDOJCHE LANDESBANK GIROTSENTRALE " (Westdeutsche Landesbank Girozentrale), a central bank of federal ground Boreal Rhine - Vestfalija, Germany. It is based in 1969 as a result of interflow " Rajnishe girotsentrale und vekselbank " (Dusseldorf) and " Landesbank fjur Vestfalen girotsentrale " (Munster). Board in Dusseldorf. Executes commercial operations, including with valuable papers. 4 branches in country, 4 abroad. Affiliated establishments, branches and representations in 12 countries (including in Moscow). Total assets 132,6 billion German marks (41,7 billion dol. The USA) (kon. 1980th).
  • VERDENSKY AGREEMENT 843, for section of empire of Charles Velikogo between his{its} grandsons - Lotarem (has received terrain of Italy and ground along Rhein and Rhone - afterwards Lorraine), Charles Lysym (grounds to the west from Rhein) and Lui Nemetskim (grounds to the orient from Rhein). It is encased in Verdun.
  • VERDZHINEL (English virginal), a musical instrument, a stem of a small harpsichord. Has been distributed in 16-17 centuries in Netherlands and England.
  • VERDI (Verdi) Dzhuzeppe (1813-1901), the italian composer. The master of the opera genre who has built high samples of a psychologic musical drama. Operas: "Rigoletto" (1851), "Troubadour", "Traviata" (both 1853), "Dancing party - masquerade" (1859), " Force of destiny " (for the Petersburg theatre, 1861), " Don Karlos " (1867), "Aida" (1870), "Otello" (1886), "Falstaf" (1892); the Requiem mass (1874). With 1961 in. Busseto (Verdi Rhodinum) - competition of vocalists " Verdievskie voices ".
  • VERDICT (from an armour. vere dictum - truely said), in the criminal procedure the solution of jurymen on culpability or innocence of the indictee.
  • CORD Grigory Gurjevich (1895-1964), the Ukrainian composer and the choral conductor, the national actor of Ukraine (1960). The organizer and the chief of the Ukrainian state national chorus (from 1965 his{its} names). The professor of the Kiev conservatory (with 1947). The state premium of the USSR (1948).
  • VEREVKIN Michael Ivanovich (1732-95), the Russian playwright, a translator, corresponding member Russian AN (1782). To a comedy " And should " (1773), "Imeninniki" (1774), "Exactly" (1785).
  • VEREJSKY George Semenovich (1886-1962), the Russian schedule{chart}, the national artist of Russia (1962), the full member AH the USSR (1949). The master bright under the characteristics of an actuarial portrait, a landscape (a lithograph, an etching, drawing). The state premium of the USSR (1946).
  • VEREJSKY Orest Georgievich (1915-93), the Russian schedule{chart}, the national artist of the USSR (1983), the full member AH the USSR (1983). Son G.S.Verejskogo. Case histories to A.T.Tvardovskogo, M.A.Sholokhov products{creations}, a heavy series. The state premium of the USSR (1978).
  • VEREJSKO-BELOZERSKOE the PRINCIPALITY, destiny of the Moscow great principality in 1432-86.
  • VERELSKY the MIR, has finished the russko-Swedish war 1788-90 (3.8.1790, Verel, nowadays Vjarjalja in Finland). Has not introduced territorial changes.
  • VERENIGING (Vereeniging), city in the republic of South Africa, see. Ferinihing.
  • VERESAJ Ostap Nikitich (1803-90), Ukrainian kobzar. Acted with concerts on an archeologic cross-over in Kiev (1874), Saint Petersburg (1875).
  • The HEATHER, stem is fruticulose sets of a heath family. 1 kind{view}, in Eurasia, the Sowing. To Africa, America. A honey plant, an ornamental plant. Sometimes as a heather call kinds{views} of a stem a heath.
  • HEATH FAMILY, set of evergreens of a class of dicotyledons; bushes, it is rare subshrubs, lianes and trees. St. 3 thousand kinds{views} (ok. 100 stems), in both hemispheres; over 50 kinds{views} (20 stems) in Baltic, Siberia, on Ukraine, Caucasus, the Far East, from tundra up to subtropics, except for rainless steppes and deserts. The heather, a ledum, a ptarmigan - berry, a rhododendron concern to a heath family, etc. Many heath family are decorative.
  • VERETENITSY, a set of lizards. Length up to 1,2 m. For some legs are small or miss (a body serpentine, napr. For zheltopuzika). Ok. 80 kinds{views}, primarily in JUzh. And Center. To America. Veretenitsa brittle (length up to 60 sm) - in Eurasia.
  • BLACK-TAILED GODWITS Vasily Ivanovich (1880-1942), the Russian historian, the archivist, the doctor of historical sciences, the professor. Transactionses on diplomatics and histories of official bodies of Russia of 18 century.
  • SPINDLE, the adaptation for spinning (manual or engine) - a spoll rod of a yarn, a sliver or a filament (in a frame spinning on a spindle the cartridge, a pirn, a coil{spool}, etc. is mounted). The main{basic} action rovnichnyh, spinning, torsional, etc. machines.
  • SPINDLE of DIVISION, in biology - system of microtubules in the divided cell, ensuring a toe-out and strictly equal (at a mitosis) distribution of chromosomes between daughter cells.
  • VERETE (vereja), the aboriginal title (in central and boreal ranges of the European part of the Russian Federation and in the south Zap. Siberia) a raised dry patch among bogs, a bottom land, a coastal lowland.
  • GREAT MOGULS, dynasty of governors in t. n. Empires Mogolskoj in 1526-1858 (India). It is based Baburom. The most outstanding representatives - Akbar, Dzhahangir, the Check - Dzhahan, Aurangzeb. After capture to 1803 Delhi the English colonialists paid to Great Moguls pension, and in 1858 they have abolished a dynasty of Great Moguls officially and India has transfered under a direct control of the English corona.
  • GREAT BRIDGES, city (with 1940) on Ukraine, the Lvov region, in 16 kms from zh.-d. An item. The mine worker. 5,7 thousand inhabitants (1991). Factory of galanterejno-household items, etc. It is based in 1472.
  • GREAT LAKES (Great Lakes), system of lakes (the Upper lake, Guron, Michigan, Erie and Ontario) in the USA and Canada. 245,2 thousand êì2, water volume of 22,7 thousand êì3 - the largest clump of a fresh water on the Earth. A drainage on r. St.. Lawrence (from an eskar. Ontario) in Atlantic ok. Intensive navigation. Fishery. Lock canals have created a waterway for courts of admiralty in length ok. 3000 kms. Great Lakes are connected by shipping canals with r. Hudson and with bass. Mississipi. Main ports: Chicago, Milwaukee, Detroit, Cleveland, Buffalo, Toronto.
  • GREAT PLAINS (Great Plains), the submontane plateau flanging from the orient Cordilleras the Sowing. America, in the USA and Canada. Length ok. 3600 kms, width of 500-800 kms. An altitude from 500 m on the orient up to 1700 m in the west. It is combined by crystalline breeds, limestones, sandstones and loess-like loams. It is hardly dismembered; in the south karst. Deposits of petroleum and gas, brown coal, potassium salts. Steppe and semidesert landscapes. Pascual cattle breeding, agriculture.
  • " GREAT CHETI-MINEI ", collection paterikov, zhity sacred, compositions of ecclesiastical writers, kormchih books, certificates{acts}, letters, etc. Are constituted in 30-40-Ñ by of 16 century in Moscow under a guiding of metropolitan of Macarius. 12 volumes, 27 thousand handwritten pages with a decorative pattern.
  • GREAT GOGOTUN, in egyptian mythology the godhood by the way the white goose, which mode{image} goes back to myths about a birth of the sun in appearance of a bird.
  • GRAND DUKE, 1) the chapter of great principalities in Russia 10-15 centuries and Russian state 15 - is grey. 16 centuries 2) In Russian empire the member of an imperial surname, the close relative of emperor or the empress (the circulation - " your imperial highnes "). 3) the Part of a full title of the Russian emperor (" grand duke Finnish " and so forth).
  • The GREAT MASTER, see. The grandmaster.
  • GREAT OCEAN, see. Pacific ocean.
  • The GREAT FAST, the season{term} (7 weeks before passover) during which believers - christians abstain from vegetarian nutrition, do not participate in amusements, do not marry.
  • GREAT MARCHING, see. A northwest marching.
  • " GREAT SPLIT ", in a history of the papacy the season{term} (1378-1417) when an apostolic see two or simultaneously took three dads struggling among themselves. The end to " Great split " has put Konstantssky the cathedral 1414-18 which eliminated of three dads and have elected new dad (Martina V).
  • GREAT USTYUG, city in the Russian Federation, the Vologda region, on r. Sukhona. A depot. 36,2 thousand inhabitants (1992). Factories: mechanic, litejno-mechanic, sudostroitelno-repair; shchetinno-brush factory; wood-working, mild and a food-processing industry. Center of art handcrafts (since 17 century): blackening on silver (see. Velikoustjuzhskoe blackening on silver), a canework, a thread and paintings on a birch bark (factory " Velikoustjuzhskie patterns "), a pinching out, etc. The Study of local lore museum. It is known with 1207. Monuments of 17 architecture century: church of Ascension, Mihailo-archangelical and the Trinity - Gledensky a monastery, the Dormition fast.
  • GREAT SILK PATH{ROUTE}, to antiquities and Middle Ages karavannaja road from China in countries Compare and Forward{Front} Asia.
  • The GREAT BRITAIN, the largest island in structure of the British islands. The area ok. 230 thousand êì2. See. The Great Britain (state).
  • The GREAT BRITAIN, Britain, United Kingdom Great Britain and Boreal Ireland (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland), the state in Severo-Zap. To Europe, on the British islands (about. The Great Britain and a north-east part about. Ireland, about. Maine and Norman islands). 244,1 thousand êì2. The population 58,1 million person (1993), including 80 % - Englishmen, 15 % - Scots, uelstsy (or vallijtsy) and Irish. A urban population of 91 % (1985). The official language - English. The majority of believers - protesters. The Great Britain will consist of 4 administrative - political parts (historical provinces): England (39 counties, 6 metropolitenskih counties and B.Londona), Wales (8 counties), Scotland (9 areas and island terrain) and the Sowing. Ireland (26 districts). The special mode is established{installed} for about. Maine and Norman islands. Capital - the London. The Great Britain - the constitutional monarchy. The chief of state - king (queen). The body of legislation - two-chamber parliament (a House of Commons and a House of Lords). The Great Britain heads Commonwealth. The Great Britain is washed against Atlantic ok. And his{its} seas. In a north and the west the mountain relief - Northern highlands (up to 1343 ì), Penninskie both Cambrian mountains prevails{dominates}; in the south and a southeast - hilly plains. A climate moderate, oceanic, the wet. Mean temperatures of January from 3 up to 7 °S, July 11-17 °S. A rainfall up to 3000 mm in the west and 600-750 mm in a southeast annually. The main{basic} rivers - Thames, Severn, Trent, Mersi, Clyde, in a north is a lot of lakes (the Elaeagnus - Ness, Loch Lomond, the Elaeagnus - her, etc.). In mountains - peat bogs; moorlands. Woods (the oak, a beech, a birch) take 9 % of terrain of the Great Britain. Numerous national wildlife reserves of a nature and parks for recreations (Peak - Distrikt, Snoudonija, etc.) . In 1-st thousand up to n. e. Terrain of the modern Great Britain colonized kelty. In 1 century n. e. The large part of the British islands is conquered by Romans, and after their maintenance{drift} in 5-6 centuries - anglo-saxons. After Norman seizure of England 1066 the process of feudalization accompanied with political association of country and a centralization of the government was finished. In 2-nd floor. 13 century there was an English parliament, the class monarchy was issued. Centenary war 1337-1453 with France has reduced in loss of the terrains conquered in France in 12 century. Development of commodity-money attitudes{relations} and class struggle of peasantry (revolt 1381, etc.) have reduced Uota Tyler (in 15 century) in almost full liquidation of personal relation of peasants. During Scarlet and the Cottage rose of war (1455-85) it has been largely deleted aged to know. Elevation of new nobility (dzhentri), the bound with the market, development of capitalist elements have discovered a path{route} to establishment absoljutizma (kon. 15 - nach. 16 centuries) . In 16 century process of initial accumulation of capital which basis{fundamentals} has constituted obezzemelivanie peasantry (see has deployed. A fencing.). In season{term} Reformatsii (1530th) the anglican church is built. The English revolution of 17 century has supplied{ensured} the statement{confirmation} of a capitalism. In kon. 17 century were issued political parties - tori and vigi (in it is grey. 19 century were transformed accordingly to Conservative and Liberal consignments). Capture of colonys (seizure of Ireland began in 12 century) kept . The long-lived extirpation with France for trade and colonial hegemony was finished in 18 century by victory of the Great Britain; huge possessions in India and the Sowing have been seized. To America. As a result of War for independence in the Sowing. To America 1775-8313 North American colonys were separated from the parent state and have formed an independent state - the USA. In kon. 18 - nach. 19 centuries. The Great Britain - the main organizer of coalitions against revolutionary, and then napoleonic France. In kon. 18 - 1-st floor. 19 centuries there was an industrial tumble, in 1830th the factory system of manufacture was affirmed, the industrial bourgeoisie has become a ruling class (parliamentary reform 1832). In 30th the servitude in the English colonys in Center is legislatively cancelled. To America. To it is grey. 19 century. The Great Britain has achieved world industrial monopoly. In 1830-40-Ñ the first mass revolutionary movement of proletariat - chartizm has deployed. In 1868 the British congress of trade-unions is built. In 19 century. The Great Britain was the largest colonial power of the world, having executed{having come true} colonization of Australia, Is new. Zealand, having conquered extensive terrains in Asia and Africa, having finished capture of India, Egypt, conducting wars against China (1840-42, 1856-1860), having suppressed national-liberation motion in India (1857-59), revolts in Ireland (1848, 1867, etc.). Intensifying of liberation movement in pereselencheskih colonys (revolt in Canada 1837-38, etc.) has forced the Great Britain to go on building of system of dominions (1-st - Canada, with 1867). From the extremity of 19 century. The Great Britain has lost world industrial monopoly. The Great Britain has played an active role in building Antanty and in preparation of 1-st world war. The Great Britain - one of main participants of 1-st world war as a result of whom she has received a considerable proportion of former German possessions in Africa and a large part of the terrains which have been taken away from Turkey. Policy of "reconciliation" of fascist aggressors (Munich agreement 1938, etc.), Carried out{Spent;Conducted;Performed} by governments of the Conservative party (in 20-30-Ñ almost permanently for an authority), has facilitated Germany a unloosening of 2-nd world war which the Great Britain has entered on September, 3 1939. After an offence of Germany to the USSR, in conditions of an immediate threat of encroachment of a fascist troops to the Great Britain, U.Churchill government went on the military union from the USSR. Together with the USSR and the USA the Great Britain was one of main participants of an antihitlerite coalition. During disintegration of the British colonial empire independence have received to it is grey. 1970th almost all English colonys. After 2-nd world war of government of the Great Britain labourists (1945-51, 1964-70, 1974-1979) and conservators (1951-64, 1970-74, with 1979) alternately formed. The Great Britain - economically developed industrial country. A lobe in a runway (1992, %): an industry 24,1, an agriculture 1,8. Production (1992, one million ò) petroleum 94,3, a natural gas 55,2 billion. M3, mineral coal 80,8. Manufacture of the electric power 304,5 billion kVt.ch (1985), primarily on TES. Black and nonferrous machine industry (14,9 million t steel and 252 thousand t secondary aluminium in 1992). A master industry - a machine industry, including electrotechnical and radio electronic, transport (an airrocket manufacturing, avto-and shipbuilding), traktoro-and machine-tool construction. It is developed oil refining, chemical (manufacture of plastics materials and synthetic resins, chemical fibers, synthetic rubber, sulfuric acid, fertilizers), textile, a flavoring industry. Large boot, sewing, etc. branches of a light industry. The agriculture high-intensitily, ensures 3/4 requirements of country for the foodstuffs. Main branch of an agriculture - meat-and-milk and a dairy husbandry. A livestock (1992, one million) Large horned stock 11,6, pigs 75, ovets 28,9, a poultry 131. In a plant growing the grain husbandry (14,2 million t wheat and 7,4 million t barley in 1992) prevails{dominates}; cultivation of sugar-beet, a potato growing. Fishery. Length (1992, one thousand in km) railways 37,8, motorways 358. The tonnage of a marine merchant marine fleet 4,3 million t. Deadweight. Main ports: the London, Liverpool, Manchester, Milford-Hejven, Hull, Sauthempton, Immingem. Export: machines and the equipment, petroleum and petroleum, production of a chemical industry. The main{basic} foreign trade partners: countries of EU, the USA, Japan. The Great Britain - the big exporter of the capital. Foreign tourism (ok. 12 million person annually). Monetary unit - pound sterling.
  • VELIKOVSKY Samarias Izrailevich (1931-90), the Russian literary critic, the Doctor of Philology (1977). The main{basic} activities are dedicated the French literature of 19 century, the French poetry, filosofsko-literary flows of 20 century, first of all existentialism. Books: " Poets of the French revolutions. 1789-1848 " (1963), "Edges" of unfortunate consciousness " (1979), " Odissej. Probes on a social history and a history of crop " (1989), etc.
  • "VELIKOGERMANTSY", a political trend in Germany 19 century, aspiring{trying} (as against "malogermantsev") to association of the German states under hegemony of Austria.
  • VIAREDZHO (Viareggio), a climatic health resort in Italy, on coast Ligurijskogo in m., to northwest from Pisa.
  • VIBRATO (ital. vibrato, from an armour. vibro - koleblju), alternations of a pitch of a tone (frequency vibrato) or volume levels (peak{amplitude} vibrato). It is applied in singing, the game on string stringed and duhovyh instruments, in electroorgans. The note with vibrato becomes warm, emotionally saturated.
  • The VIBRATOR (from an armour. vibro - koleblju (s)), system in which can be excited oscillations (mechanic, electromagnetic, etc.). Napr., the vibrator in radio physics and radio engineering - a cutting of a straight-line{rectilinear} explorer on which the alternate current raying electromagnetic waves flows; in electric technique - a movement of probing devices of vibrational type (napr., frequency meters). The vibrator - an action of all shake-out machines.
  • VIBRAFON, an impact musical instrument with a fixed altitude of sounding, phylum of a xylophone.
  • VIBRATIONAL DISEASE, the occupational disease stipulated by a long-term environment of vibration. It is defined by changes of vessels of extremities, the nervimuscular and kostno-articulate apparatus, etc.
  • The SHAKE-OUT MACHINE, the machine to which action oscillating motion for implementation or intensification of executed{designed} process intercommunicates. Distinguish shake-out machines with mono-, bi-and polyharmonic oscillations; shock-free and shock - vibrational. Formings of concrete products, dippings in a ground of stilts and pipes, etc. (napr are applied in construction to condensation of road carpets., vibrorollers, vibrating hammers); at manufacturing foundry cores, knock-out of casting boxes (vibrational lattices); for boring rocks, loading and transportation of mined rock (shaking conveyors); a screening (shakers); in machines of a food-processing industry, an agriculture, etc.
  • VIBRATIONAL MACHINING, machining method of component parts and preparations in abrasive medium (sometimes with the additive of chemicals) at influence on medium or an item of mechanic oscillations. It is applied to clearing a casting, descaling and corrosion products from a surface of a component part, deburring and a flash, reduction of a surface roughness, etc.
  • The VIBRATIONAL ADJUSTER, automatic regulator, which actuator is in a mode of continuous oscillations (vibrations). The vibrational adjuster of an electric pressure, which actuator - the electromagnetic relay assembly is most distributed - closes (at a voltage reduction) and disconnects (at his{its} increase) an exciting circuit of the electric generator.
  • The VIBRATIONAL TRANSPORT, devices for directed conveyance of loose and lumpy materials, pastes, the liquids, carried out by vibration working (gruzonesushchih) organs of shake-out machines (conveyers, pompes, feeders, bathers, bunkers).
  • VIBRATION (from an armour. vibratio - oscillation), mechanic oscillations in technique (machines, mechanisms, designs and so forth). Useful vibration is excited deliberately by vibrators (actions of shake-out machines) and used in construction, a machine industry, medicine, etc. Harmful vibration arises, napr., at motion of vehicles, activity of engines, turbines, etc. can reduce in violation{disturbance} of mode of behaviors and to destruction. To vibration protection apply a vibration insulation. Action of vibrations on an organism can be both beneficent, and harmful (vibrational disease) in frequency function of vibrations.
  • VIBRIOSIS, the same, that kampilobakterioz.
  • VIBRIO (frants. vibrion, from an armour. vibro - I oscillate, curl), a stem of bacteria. Gram-negative, curved by the way a comma of a bacillus. Are capable to fast oscillating motions (from here the title). Dwell{live} in water reservoirs, soil, contents of an intestines. Pathogenic kinds{views} of a vibrio invoke{produce} a vibriosis for animal and a cholera in the person.
  • VIBRO... [from an armour. vibro - koleblju (s)], the part of the composite words meaning: relating oscillating motions, vibration.
  • VIBRATION INSULATION, structural protection, machines, devices and people from an ill effect of vibration by introduction of snubbers between sources of vibration and protected objects.
  • VIBROTHERAPY, method of treatment of diseases of peripheric nervous system, aseptic inflammatory and other processes with the help of vibration created by special apparatuses (primarily in the form of vibrational massage). Improves a blood circulation, a metabolism, boosts neurotrophic functions.
  • VIBROTRAUMA, pathological changes in tissues and the organs, originating under influence of a short-lived judder.
  • VIVALDI (Vivaldi) Antonio (1678-1741), the italian composer, the violinist - virtuoso. The creator of a genre of a solo tool{instrument} concert and alongside with A.Korelli - koncherto grosso. His{its} cycle "Seasons" (1725) - one of early samples programmnosti in music. St. 40 operas, an oratorio, a cantata; tool{instrument} concerts of different structures (465), etc.
  • VIVARIUM (an armour. vivarium, from vivus - alive), a room for the content (sometimes and cultivations) predominary laboratory animal.
  • VIVASVAT (sanskr. Irradiant), vedijsky the god of light and the sun, the grandparent of people. Son Aditi.
  • SUSPENSIONS, suspensions in which particles settle or float very slowly because of a small difference in densenesses of a dispersed phase and a disperse medium.
  • WEIGHING, definition of mass of bodies through weights. At weighing on the beam balance, not requiring of a split-hair accuracy, the mass of a body strikes root to an equal algebraic sum of masses of weights, the balance a body, and indications{readings} of a reading device of weights.
  • ARMING{PLATOON}, the military subdividing consisting of several (2-4) branches, calculations or crews. Is part of a company (battery) or directly in connection, a part, etc.
  • VZDORNOV Herald Ivanovich (r. 1936), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1994). Transactionses on a history of old russian art and crop. The state premium of the USSR (1982).
  • BEACH, 1) a part of a surface starving, accumbent to coast. 2) the Bayshore strip dry (napr., the Riga beach). 3) A beach wellhead - avandelta the rivers and the conforming part of a surface starving.
  • EXPLOSION, discharging of a plenty of power in restricted volume for short period. Explosion results in education of hardly heated gas with very high pressure, which at expansion renders mechanic influence (pressure, destruction) on ambient bodies. In a solid medium it is accompanied by its{her} destruction and cleavage. Explosions descend at the expense of discharging chemical power (primarily blasting explosives), a nuclear energy (atomic explosion), an electromagnetic energy (iskrovyj category{discharge}, a laser-induced spark, etc.), a mechanical energy (at fall of meteorites on a surface of the Earth, eruption of burning mountains, etc.). Designed explosions implement basically industrial blasting explosives and base many production processes. See also the Directed blast.
  • FUZES, the devices reporting an explosive pulse to an explosive charge of ammunition gear, the mine, missile, charge, torpedo, etc. Fuzes can work at meeting with the purpose, in fixed interval of time, on the given depth underwater, etc.
  • BLAST WAVE, the shockwave originating at explosion. The front of blast wave goes from a shot point with the speed, exceeding the speed limit a note, thus the surface of front of blast wave monotonically increases, and speed of its{her} motion and intensity diminish.
  • SHOT EXPLODER (the blasting machine), transportable a source of a current flow for blasting electrical detonators. Are applied to industrial blasting and in military science.
  • EXPLOSIVE MACHINING, way of machining of metals (a weldment, an extrusion, hardening{strengthening}), it is based on use of power of explosion. At an explosion welding there is an impact of component parts and the cumulative jet of metal welding component parts will be derivated. The extrusion consists in instantaneous (ms, a mcs) the appendix to sheet preparation of mechanic pressure{voltage;stresses}, is significant superior limit of elasticity{elastic strength;elastic limit} of a material.
  • EXPLOSIVE TECHNOLOGY, controlled fracture, conveyance, structural change and forms natural (rocks, ice, wood) or synthetic materials (metals, plastics materials, concrete, etc.) which implements at the expense of the power secreted at explosion of industrial blasting explosives. It is applied in mining, construction, metal working, etc.
  • BLASTING EXPLOSIVES (explosive), personal chemical combinations or the mixes which are capable under influence of an external pulse (impact, heat, etc.) to self-propagating with a high speed (km/s) of a chemical change with education of light-end products and a calorification.
  • PENALTY ADMINISTRATIVE, the punitive measure for administrative misconduct (offence). Kinds{views} of penalties administrative: the warning, the fine, administrative arrest, compensated taking or confiscation of the subject which has shown the instrument of committing or object of an offence, correctional labor, forfeiting of special rights.
  • PENALTIES INDISPUTABLE, penalty of the indebtedness under orders of the authorized organs and the executive inscriptions of notaries without trial in court, arbitration court and other organs.
  • HONEY FLOW, the same, that a honey harvest.
  • BRIBERY, obtaining by the official by any way and in any form of material assets or granting to him of material values for committing (or omittance) in interests of the briber of the actions, included in competence of the given official.
  • VIADUCT (from an armour. via - road, a path{route} and duco - I lead), the structure of bridge type erected on traverse of road with a coulee, a hollow, a mountain gorge, etc. The Viaduct routinely build at economic or technical inexpediency of erection of high landfills. Stone viaducts are known from times Other. Rome.
  • VIAM, see. Air materials institute.
  • VIAN (Vian) Boris (1920-59), the French writer, the playwright. Constructed on mixture{mixing} of pathetics and a parody Vian creativity was one of early developments nonconformist " youth clamp " in western crop 50-70-Õ 20 century: " Foam of days " (1947), " Autumn in Peking " (1947), " the Red grass " (1950), "Serdtseder" (1953). Plays " the Overall knackery " (1950), " Lunch of generals " (it is published in 1962), " Builders of empire " (1959). Poetic collections (" Texts and songs ", are issued in 1966).
  • VECHORKA, in vostochnoslavjanskoj mythologies the goddess of a vesper dawn.
  • VESHIN JAroslav (1860-1915), the Bulgarian painter. Realistic cloths on themes of the Balkan wars 1912-13, household scenes.
  • VESHSHELENI Miklosh (1796-1850), baron, one of chiefs of nobiliary opposition in the Hungarian state collection in 1830-1840-Õ. Supported independence of country from Gabsburgov, realization of restricted bourgeois reforms.
  • REAL NUMBER, the same, that a real number.
  • SUBSTANCE, kind{view} of a matter which has a rest-mass (fundamental particles, atoms, molecules, etc.). In chemistry of substance it is accepted to section on simple, derivated by atoms of one chemical element, and composite (chemical combinations).
  • PROPRIETARY INTEREST, version of the proprietary interests relating figure of the absolute powers. Object of a proprietary interest is the concrete thing. Kinds{views} of a proprietary interest: the property right, easements, the right of the lien, etc.
  • THING, in a civic right - the legal object of the property and other proprietary interests. The proprietor has the right to possess, use and dispose of a thing in the limits statutory.
  • THING, in philosophy - the subject of a material real having relative independence and resistance of existence.
  • "TRANSCENDENTAL OBJECT" (a nem. Ding an sich), the philosophical concept meaning things, as they exist{breathe} in themselves (" in themselves "), how they are " for us " in knowledge; one of central concepts of " Criticism of clear reason " I.Kanta.
  • WINNOWING, the machine for secretion of a grain from a heap received{obtained} after a thrashing of agricultural crops. It is substituted by more perfect grain-cleaning machines.
  • ONE-TO-ONE CORRESPONDENCE, such correspondence between elements of two flocks at which to each element of the first flock there corresponds{meets} one fixed element of the second flock, and to each element of the second flock - one fixed element of the first flock.
  • RELATIVELY PRIME FIGURES, the natural numbers which are not having common divisors, distinct from 1; napr., 15 and 16.
  • The RELATIVE{MUTUAL} EDUCATION{LEARNING} (Bell - Lankasterskaja system), system of education{learning} in an elementary school at whom the higher and more aware pupils under a guiding of the teacher led occupations with other pupils. It is developed by the English teachers A.Bell (1753-1832) and Dzh. A Lancaster (1778-1838). In Russia it was used with 1818; some schools acted till 1860th.
  • INTERACTION, the philosophical grade reflecting processes of influence of objects against each other, their relative{mutual} condition and causing by one object other. Interaction - the generalpurpose form of motion, development, determines existence and structural organization of any material system.
  • INTERACTIONS FUNDAMENTAL in physics, are known 4 types: the strong, electromagnetic, weak and gravity. For protons at power ~1 GeV intensity stipulated with these interprocess communications concern accordingly as 1:10-2:10-10:10-38. The consolidated theory of electromagnetic and weak interactions (weak coupling) is developed. There are the models including as well a strong coupling (great association). Attempts are done{made} to describe all 4 interactions on the unified basis{fundamentals}.
  • INTERCHANGEABILITY, in technique - property of equal component parts, clusters or integrated machines, mechanisms, apparatuses and other designs, permitting to assemble or change{interchange} them without preliminary adjustment.
  • INTERCHANGEABILITY of RESOURCES{SAFE LIFES}, possibility of using of miscellaneous kinds{views} of resources{safe lifes} for achievement of an economic optimum. Distinguish interchangeability of resources{safe lifes} technical and economic. Economic-mathematical models of calculations of efficacyy of the relative{mutual} changing of resources{safe lifes} are developed.
  • INTERCHANGEABILITIES the LAW, the same, that the Bunsen - Rosko the law.
  • INTERRELATION, in philosophy - the relative{mutual} condition of objects the friend the friend; see. Communication{connection}.
  • UPLIFT, in geology - a steeply dipping fault on which breeds of a trailing wing are biased up concerning breeds of a lying wing.
  • WESTERN (from English western - western), the genre of the American kino which was become popular also outside the USA. The scene of a western is scooped, as a rule, from a history of assimilation of the long-distance West. The term "western" is used also with reference to the American literature of an adventure genre with analogous scenes.
  • VESTEROLEN (Vesteraalen), islands bliz a northwest shore Scandinavian p-ova, in structure of Norway. The area of 3,6 thousand êì2. The main{basic} islands: Hinne, Lang, Anna, Hadsele. An altitude up to 1266 m. Fiords, peat bogs, meadows. Port Harstad. Fishery.
  • VESTEROS, city and a port in Sweden, on an eskar. Melaren, an administrative centre lena Vestmanland. 121 thousand inhabitants (1993). Electrical industry, nonferrous machine industry.
  • VESTERPLATTE (Westerplatte), peninsula in the Gdansk bay, for an orifice in a port. In nach. 2-nd world war Polish garrison Vesterplatte (182 persons) 1-7.9.1939 gerojski combated to superior forces of a fascist troops and fleets. In 1966 on Vesterplatte the monument to heroes Vesterplatte is established{installed}.
  • VESTIBULAR DISTRESSES, vertigo, unbalance, nausea, etc. at an irritation and diseases of a vestibular apparatus.
  • VESTIBULAR APPARATUS (from an armour. vestibulum - a vestibule), a sense body for vertebrates and the person, accepting repositionings of a head and a body in the space, and also a driving direction. It is located in semicircular channels and saccules of an internal ear.
  • VESTINGAUZ (Westinghouse) George (1846-1914), the American inventor and the industrialist. In 1869 has taken out a patent on an air-operated{an air-powered;a pneumatic} railway brake.
  • " VESTINGAUZ the ELECTRICIAN " (Westinghouse Electric), the electrotechnical company the USA. It is based in 1886. Issues an electrical equipment, has a wireless and television broadcasting stations. Sales volume 12,5 billion dol., a net profit 822 million dol., figure occupied in 120 thousand person (kon. 1980th).
  • WEST INDIES (English West Indies, characters. - Zap. India), non-proprietary name of islands Atlantic ok. Between mainlands the Sowing. And JUzh. America. Actuates islands: Bahama, B.Antilskie, M.Antilskie, etc. The Large part of islands is open{discovered} during H.Columbus (1492-1502) inaccurately accepting them for a part of India floats. As against India (East Indies) these islands become to call as West Indies later. A gross area of islands ok. 240 thousand êì2. The population 35 million person (1993). On islands the states are located: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Haiti, Grenada, Dominica, Dominican republic, Cuba, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sent-Keats and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica, possessions of the Great Britain, Netherlands, France and the USA.
  • WEST WIND - INDSKAJA the COMPANY Netherlands, a commercial firm in 1621-1791. Has received from the Netherlands General staffs the sole right of trade and colonization in America and Zap. To Africa. Has trapped a part of terrain of Brazil, a number{series} of islands of West Indies, a part of eastern shore the Sowing. America (it is based. It is new. Amsterdam). A large part of possessions has lost already in 2-nd floor. 17 century.
  • WEST WIND - INDSKAJA the FEDERATION, existed{breathed} in 1958-62; it has been built by the Great Britain in structure of its{her} island possessions in the Caribbean m. (Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, Antigua, Montserrat, Sent-Keats - Nevis - Anguilla, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent).
  • WEST WIND - INDSKOE the PEST (the American Mediterranean sea), non-proprietary name of the Caribbean m. and Mexican a hall.
  • WESTMINSTER (Westminster), administrative division and one of historical areas B.Londona (Great Britain). 176 thousand inhabitants (1986). A site of a royal residence, parliament, etc. government offices. Bekingemsky a palace (19-20 centuries) - a residence of the English kings. The westminster abbey (13-19 centuries) - a tomb of the English kings, the statesmen, well-known people (I.Njutona, C.Darvina, C.Dickens, etc.).
  • VESTMINSTERSKY the STATUS 1931, is adopted by the English parliament. Has officially consolidated the solution of Imperial conference 1926 about independence of dominions in internal and foreign affairs, their equality with the parent state. In practice the Great Britain saved the supervisory control above foreign policy of dominions, reduced in accordance with their development and strengthening of their independence.
  • " The BULLETIN of EUROPE ", 1) the log-book, 1802-30, Moscow, 2 times a month. N.M.Karamzinym is based. Took up problems of the literature, external and internal policy, public life of foreign countries. 2) the Monthly literary - political magazine of a liberal direction, 1866-1918, Saint Petersburg (in 1866-67 on 4 volumes annually). The editor - publisher - M.M.Stasjulevich (on 1908).
  • " The BULLETIN of NATIONAL WILL ", the log-book narodovoltsev, 1883-86, Geneva, 5 numbers. Editors - L.A.Tikhomirov, M.N.Oshanina, P.L.Lavrov.
  • " The BULLETIN of the CONSIGNMENT of NATIONAL FREEDOM ", the weekly of a consignment of cadets, 1906-18 (with rests), Saint Petersburg. It is closed under the solution of the Soviet guiding.
  • " The BULLETIN of RUSSIAN REVOLUTION ", the clandestine log-book, organ of a consignment eserov, 1901-05, Paris - Geneva, 4 numbers.
  • VETERINARNO-SANITARIAN FACTORY (salvage factory), the enterprise, decontaminating corpses animal, industrial waste products of meat-packing factories both the kozhevenno-raw enterprises and processing them on a meat-and-bone meal in a forage animal.
  • VETERINARNO-SANITARIAN, system of measures under the supervisory control of a veterinarno-sanitary condition of animal husbandry and quality received, and also imported and exported cattle-breeding products and raw material. Implements experts of veterinary establishments. The VETERINARY DISPENSARY, veterinary establishment in an occupied point, renders medical and a disease-prevention service animal, carries out{conducts} a veterinarno-forest hygiene in maintained terrain.
  • BRANCH, city (with 1925) in Belarus, Gomel region, landing stage on r. Sozh. 9,6 thousand inhabitants (1991). Mild, a food-processing industry. It is based in 17 century.
  • VETKOVSKOE the CONSENT (vetkovtsy), group of old believers beglopopovskogo the sense, moved in kon. 17 century from Russian state on about. A branch on r. Sozh (then terrain of Speech Pospolitoj, nowadays Gomel region. Belarus). Has lost value in kon. 18 century.
  • WHITE WILLOW (basket willow), tree of a stem a willow.
  • VETLUGA, the river at the centre of the European part of the Russian Federation, the left-handed in-leak{influx} of Volga. 889 kms, the area of basin of 39,4 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water in a lower reaches 255 m3 / with. Driveable. It is navigable on 700 kms from a mouth.
  • The VETO (from an armour. veto - I provide against), 1) in state law the interdiction imposed by one public authority (chief of state) on the solutions of other state organ. The institute of the veto has arisen in Other. Rome. It is most known t later. n. Loose (liberum) the veto: in Poland 17-18 centuries the solution of parliament was deemed accepted, if for him{it} all deputies voted. In some modern states the veto power is routinely granted the chief of state concerning the laws adopted by parliament. 2) the Veto power call also foreseen as the UN Charter the principle of unanimity of permanent members of Security Council of the United Nations at a decision making under substantive questions.
  • CLOTH, rarefied inclement cotton of a calico weave (such as a tobacco cloth). Apply to cover{coating} of a layer of cotton wool or batting at sewing a winter outerwear. As cloth also call waste products of textile manufacture, aged things.
  • WEATHER SHAKE (anemone), stem of rhizomatous grasses (occasionally subshrubs) sets of a crowfoot family. Ok. 150 kinds{views}, on all terrestrial globe. Many of them - prevernal plants, some are decorative. 2 kinds{views} are guarded.
  • WINDY BELT, block in a north of Vost.-european plain, to the south from Onega bay. An altitude up to 336 m.
  • VETROAGREGAT, system from the windmill and presented by him{it} in motion of machines (pompes, electricity generators, etc.).
  • VETROVA Maria Fedoseevna (1870-97), revolutionary narodnitsa, the member " Groups narodovoltsev ". In 1896 it is encased in the Peter and Paul Fortress. In a mark of the protest against a prison mode sozhgla itself.
  • The WINDFALL, separate trees and standling timbers, fallen a wind.
  • VETROVSKAJA DEMONSTRATING, on the area of the Kazan cathedral in Saint Petersburg (4.3.1897) in the form of a funeral service for M.F.Vetrovoj. It is dispersed by police.
  • VETROGONNYE the MEANS, the medicinal substances reducing education of gases in a gastrointestinal tract and promoting them othozhdeniju at a meteorism (napr. Fennel water).
  • The WINDMILL, uses a wind power for a yield of a mechanical energy. Propeller-type windmills for which the fulcrum pin of the windwheel coincides a direction of an air flow are distributed predominary.
  • WIND ENERGETICS, branch of energetics, the bound with development of methods and a means for transformation{conversion} of a wind power to mechanic, thermal or electrical power. A wind - an iterated energy source. Wind energy can be utilised practically everywhere; application of wind driver generators in an agriculture is most long-range.
  • WINDS ABORIGINAL, with restricted regional{spatial} distribution{propagation}. Are secreted with speed, repeatability, a direction or other features (napr., breezes, a foehn, a milletgrass, a dry wind, a Mediterranean wind, hamsin, it mountain - dolinnye, glacial, etc. winds).
  • CHICKEN POX, acute virus infection predominary children with a fever and a crop by the way it is bubble, drying up in crusts. Infection from ill through air.
  • VETTERN, lake in the south of Sweden. The area over 1,9 thousand êì2, length of 129 kms, depth up to 119 m. It is located in a hollow lednikovo-tectonic an origin. Navigation (logins the Geta-channel). To Vetternu national park Tiveden borders on. A primary port - Jencheping.
  • VETTSHTEJN (Wettstein) Rihard a background (1863-1931), Austrian botanik, foreign corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1924) and foreign honorary member AN the USSR (1927). The writer of the concept of an origin of a flower pokrytosemennyh plants from a strobile gymnosperm. Has discovered a seasonal dimorphism for seed plants.
  • The OLD TESTAMENT, see in an item. The Bible.
  • HAM, the smoked, baked or boiled meat product prepared from a salinous pork ham.
  • VETCHINKIN Vladimir Petrovich (1888-1950), the Russian scientist, the honored worker of science and technique of Russia (1946). One of organizers of a TsAGI. Transactionses on propellers, a flight dynamics of an airplane and a missile, wind energetics, etc. The State premium of the USSR (1943).
  • WATERHEMLOCK (water hemlock), stem of perennial water and paludous grasses of a set umbrella. Ok. 10 kinds{views}, primarily in the Sowing. To America. In Eurasia the waterhemlock toxicant is distributed, which all parts contain a toxin triggering poisonings (often fatal) for the person and domestic animals.
  • WATERHEMLOCK buoyant, a navigation mark by the way reinforced on zajakorennom a float of a pole with any figure (a cone, a sphere, etc.), colored in fixed colour, or check box. Stakes minister for protection{enclosure} of navigational hazards, areas of parking of courts, manufacture of activities, etc.
  • "STAKES", " the Collection of points about Russian intelligency " (Moscow, 1909), is exhausted by group of the Russian religious philosophers and publicists (N.A.Berdjaev, S.N.Bulgakov, P.B.Struve, S.L.Frank, M.O.Gershenzon, A.S.Izgoev, B.A.Kistjakovsky), appearing with criticism of philosophy and practical installations revolutionary, sotsialisticheski tuned intelligency - atheistic materialism, political radicalism, idealization of people (in marxism - proletariat), etc. "Stakes" professed a primate of spiritual life above public: " internal life of the personality is a unique creative power of human life ".
  • VECHE, public assembly in ancient and medieval Russia in 10-14 centuries. The greatest development - in Russian cities 2-nd floor. 11-12 centuries. Decided problems of war and peace, invoked and proscribed princes, passed laws, concluded contracts with other grounds, etc. In Novgorod, Pskov and ground Vjatskoj it was saved up to kon. 15 - nach. 16 centuries.
  • VESPER EDUCATION{LEARNING}, form of organization of educational process for the faces combining study with professional labour activity. Provides realization by the teacher of regular occupations with educational groups of permanent structure in convenient for pupils an off-duty time, often in the evening (from here the term).
  • ROCKETS, a stem of mammals of a section of bats. Length of a body 1-5 see 7 kinds{views}, in deciduous and mixed forests of Europe, Forward{Front}, Vost. And JUgo-Vost. Asia. In deciduous forests and parks of Caucasus a routine yellow rocket. In the European part and on Caucasus dwell{live} a small and huge rocket; last - it is guarded.
  • VECHERNJA, the church service committed in the evening; in holidays it is bridged together with morning in structure of all-night vigil (all-night).
  • VECHINY (from an armour. vicinus - the neighbour), dependent peasants in Moldova (with nach. 16 century), bearing duties for the benefit of landowners and the states.
  • PERMAFROST (permafrost), the multivalued term conforming to concepts: permfrost rocks, perennial kriolitozona.
  • PERPETUALLY MODES{IMAGES}, literary characters to which limiting{marginal} art obobshchennost and spiritual depth inform common to all mankind, vsevremennoe value (Prometej, Don Kihot, Don ZHuan, Hamlet, Faust, Medzhnun).
  • PERPETUALLY SNOW, perennial clumps of snow and ice in polar countries and in mountains are higher than a snow limit.
  • PERPETUUM MOBILE (an armour. perpetuum mobile - perpetuum a mobile), 1) a perpetuum mobile of 1-st stem - envisioned, continuously operational machine which, being time started, would commit activity without obtaining power from the outside. The perpetuum mobile of 1-st stem contradicts conservation law and energy conversions and consequently is impracticable. 2) the Perpetuum mobile of 2-nd stem - the envisioned thermal machine, which as a result of committing cycling process (cycle) completely will transform{reform} the heat received from any one "inexhaustible" source (ocean, an atmosphere, etc.), to activity. Action of a perpetuum mobile of 2-nd stem does not contradict conservation law and energy conversions, but upsets the second law of thermodynamics and consequently such engine is impracticable.
  • PERPETUALLY JEW (Agasfer) (an armour. Ahasverus), the hero of medieval legends, the Jew - wanderer convicted by the God on perpetually life and for the fact that has not given wandering to the Christ to have a rest (on many versions, has banged it{him}) on ways to Golgotha. To a legend about Agasfere reverted I.V.Gete, german poet - romanticism (K.F.Shubart, N.Lenau), E.Sju, etc.
  • "EVERLASTING PEACE" between Russia and Speech Pospolitoj (Moscow, 6.5.1686). Has confirmed conditions Andrusovskogo of armistice 1667. Has assigned to Russia Left-bank Ukraine and Kiev, has caused sharing{participation} Russia in an antiturkish coalition.
  • The PERPETUALLY FIRE, flame permanently bolstered in special torches for monuments, on memorial complexes, cemeteries, tombs; a numeral of memory{remembrance} of the gorged heroes, their exploits, victims of fascism, etc. For the first time Perpetually fire is lighted in 1920 on a tomb of the Unknown soldier in Paris, in the USSR - in 1957 in Leningrad on the Battlefield for a monument to " Fighters of revolution ". Perpetually fire is lighted on a tomb of the Unknown soldier for the Kremlin wall in Moscow (1967), in other occupied points, and also in places of memorable events.
  • SIGNAL, in Russian army (on fleet) the soldier (mariner) assigned for fulfilment of service assignments{orders} of the officer, maintenance{drift} for his{its} horse, etc.
  • VESTRIS (Vestris) Gaetano Apollino Balthasar (1729-1808), the italian ballet dancer, the ballet master. Worked in " the Parisian opera ". Successfully combined high dancing skill with a pantomime.
  • WESTPHALIA (Westfalen), historical range between the rivers Rhein and Weser in Germany (in an early Middle Ages - terrain of moving vestfalov, a western branch of saxophones). In 1815-1945 Prussian province (the centre - Munster), about 1946 part of ground the Sowing. Rhine - Vestfalija.
  • VESTFALSKY the MIR 1648, two peace treaties preformed{readied} in Munster and Osnabrjuke (Westphalia). Has finished Thirty-year war 1618-48. Sweden has received a mouth almost all navigable rivers the Sowing. Germany, France - a part of Alsace, for German knjazjami rights of sovereign sovereigns have been actually adjudicated. Has consolidated and has strengthened political dissociation of Germany.
  • WEST WIND - FIORD (Vest Fjord), a channel between a coast Scandinavian p-ova and islands Lofotenskimi. Length of 203 kms, width from 11 kms in a north up to 74 kms in the south. A catching rattles and a herring.
  • "BALANCE", literary and critical monthly, 1904-09, Moscow, publishing house " Scorpius ". An organ of symbolism. In a nem cooperated A.Belyj, V.J.Bryusov, A.A.Blok, M.A.Voloshin, Vjach. I.Ivanov, V.V.Rozanov, etc.
  • BALANCE (an armour. Libra), zodiacal mia maid.
  • BALANCE, the device for definition of mass of bodies on the gravity operational on them. Distinguish balance: exemplary (for check of weights), laboratory (analytical, microanalytical, testing, etc.) and general purpose; on a mode of functioning - lever, spring, electrostrain-gauge (see. A tensometer), hydraulic and hydrostatic.
  • EVERYTHING, 1) the pribaltijsko-Finnish nation in Priladozhje and Belozerje. An agriculture, crafts. Since 9 century in structure of the Kiev Russia. Descendants vesej - vepsy. 2) the Title of a small village settlement for slavs.
  • VESEGONSK, city (with 1776) in the Russian Federation, the Tver region, landing stage on Rybinsk vdhr. A depot. 9,7 thousand inhabitants (1993). Wood-working combine, a flax-spinning mill, etc.
  • VETALY, in induistskoj mythologies the spirits living on cemeteries. Accompany SHivu.
  • VETEMAA (Vetemaa) Ann (r. 1936), the Estonian writer. A cycle of " small novels ", including "Monument" (1965), " Eggs on - kitajski " (1972); the stylized transposition of the Estonian epos - the novel of " Memory Kalevipoega " (1971), novels " the Silvery tape " (1977), "Moebius band" (1985), etc., plays put the modern social - ethical and philosophical problems.
  • WIND, air motion concerning a surface, called by a nonuniform distribution of an atmospheric pressure and directed from high-pressure to low. The wind is defined by speed and a direction. Speed expresses in ms, km/h, in clusters or approximately in balls on the Beaufort to a scale.
  • The VETERAN (an armour. veteranus, from vetus - aged), 1) in Other. Rome the soldier who have served time in army. Veterans were allotted with ground (in Italy and provinces) or received the pecuniary reward, and also rights of Roman citizenship, were released of duties. 2) the Aged soldier; the participant of a war in past. 3) the Person long studying on any field.
  • VETERINARY SCIENCE (from an armour. veterinarius - attending to the scotomas, treating cattle), range of science and practical activities, directed on the warning and treatment of diseases animal, protection of people from zooantroponozov, extension{issue} of high-quality livestock products in veterinarno-sanitarian attitude{relation} and veterinarno-sanitarian environmental protection. The most ancient cramps on treatment animal fall into 4-ìó one thousand up to n. e.; originating of a professional veterinary science in Russia - to 10-13 centuries. The becoming of a veterinary science is developmental medicine, biology, chemistry, physics, etc. sciences. A major role in development of a veterinary science scientists K.Burzhela, E.Dzhenner, V.I.Vsevolodov, K.I.Skryabin, S.N.Vyshelessky have played, etc. The veterinary science integrates an epizootology, parasitology, a veterinary sanitary, veterinarno-sanitarian examination, clinical diagnosis, therapy, surgery, pharmacology, zoogigienu, and also a veterinary microbiology and a virology, normal both a pathological anatomy and zoophysiology; it is closely related with a zootechny. The main{basic} problems of the modern veterinary science - development of the off-the-shelf methods of animal protection against causal organisms of diseases, first of all from virus and helminthiases, people - from antropozoonozov; study of veterinary geography, problems epizootologicheskogo forecasting, a veterinary service animal in cattle-breeding complexes, etc.
  • The VETERINARY GEOGRAPHY, studies influence natural - geographycal and socio-economic factors of concrete terrains on regularity of originating and distribution{propagation} of diseases animal.
  • The VETERINARY SANITARY, studies and develops measures under the warning and liquidations of diseases animal and guarding{preservation} of people from causal organisms of infections and invasions, general for the person and animal.
  • The VETERINARY STATION, executes treatment animal and veterinarno-prophylaxises.
  • VETERINARY SANITARY the INSTITUTE research (NIIVS), is built in 1955 in Moscow. Probes and developments on disinfection and a disinfection cattle-breeding, warehouse, etc. rooms.
  • VETERINARNO-SANITARIAN EXAMINATION, definition of alimentary suitability of livestock products. Carry out{conduct} at the enterprises of a dairy and meat industry, the markets, killing points.
  • VERSHIGORA Peter Petrovich (1905-63), the general - major (1944), the Hero of Soviet Union (1944). Documentary - fictional product{creation} about exploits Soviet the guerrilla " People with clear conscience " (1946; the State premium of the USSR, 1947).
  • VERSHIGORA Peter Petrovich (1905-63), the general - major (1944), the Hero of Soviet Union (1944). Documentary - fictional product{creation} about exploits Soviet the guerrilla " People with clear conscience " (1946; the State premium of the USSR, 1947).
  • VERSHININ Konstantin Andreevich (1900-73), the Russian commander, Main marshal of aircraft (1959), the Hero of Soviet Union (1944). In Great Domestic war commanding air force of some fronts and air army. In 1946-49 and in 1957-69 commander-in-chief of air force, in 1953-54 air defences of country commanding by Signals Commands.
  • VERSHININ Jury Nikolaevich (r. 1932), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1987). Transactionses on physics of dielectrics, probe conductive and insulants, to building of electrotechnical betons and different high-voltage items and designs on their basis{fundamentals}. The state premium of the USSR (1985).
  • VERSHOK, Russian linear measure, equal 13/4 inches (4,45 sm). Originally equalled to length of a phalanx of an index finger. 4 vershoks = 1 hand.
  • WEIGHT, force, from which the body acts on a horizontal support (or a suspension), handicapping his{its} free fall. Numerically it is peer to product{creation} of mass of a body on acceleration of gravity. Because of nesferichnosti the Earth and its{her} diurnal rotation weight of the given body variates with a latitude a little; on equator he approximately on 0,5 % is less, than on poles.
  • WEIGHT of the BODY of the PERSON, see. Mass of a body of the person.
  • VESELAGO Feodosy Fedorovich (1817-95), the Russian marine historian, the general (1892), the honorary member Petersburg AN (1884). Transactionses on a history of Russian fleet and marine art.
  • VESELKA, a mushroom from group gasteromitsetov. A fruit body of a pullet{young man} mushroom oval, a diameter up to 6 sm (t. n. chertovo the ovum), mature - looks like shljapochnogo a mushroom. An altitude up to 30 see. Will grow in woods everywhere. It is applied in national medicine at a podagra and rheumatic disease. The pullet{young man} mushroom is edible.
  • VESELOVSKIE, the Russian diplomats 18 century: 1) Abraham Pavlovich (1683-1780), the Russian representative to Netherlands and Austria in 1715-19.2) Isaak Pavlovich (1688-1754), at the empress to Elizabeth Petrovne the member of Board of foreign businesses. 3) Feodor Pavlovich (? - after 1762), the secretary of some the Russian embassies, with 1717 representative to the London, later the curator (trustee) of the Moscow university.
  • VESELOVSKY Alexander Nikolaevich (1838-1906), the Russian literary critic, the academician Petersburg AN (1880). The representative of comparative-historical literary criticism; an ancestor of historical poetics. Probes based on steep knowledge of slavonic, byzantian and Western-European literatures and world folklore.
  • VESELOVSKY Boris Borisovich (1880-1954), the Russian historian, the economist, the doctor of economic sciences, the professor. Transactionses on a history of a zemstvo, economy of municipal economy and regional ethnography.
  • VESELOVSKY Nikolay Ivanovich (1848-1918), the Russian archeologist and the orientalist, the professor, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1917; corresponding member Petersburg AN with 1914). Led pipettings tumuluses in the south of Russia and cities Compare. Asia.
  • VESELOVSKY Stepan Borisovich (1876-1952), the Russian historian, academician AN the USSR (1946). Transactionses on a socio economic history of Russia of 14-17 centuries, a source study, auxiliary historical disciplines.
  • CHEERFUL Artem (an ice-film. fam. And a name Kochkurov Nikolay Ivanovich) (1899-1938), the Russian writer. In the novel " Russia, blood washed " (1924, completely 1932) ekspressivnoe the plotting of physical agent of October revolution and the Civil war. It is repressed; it is rehabilitated posthumously.
  • SPRING-SUMMER ENCEPHALITIS, the same, that a tick encephalitis.
  • VERNAL CATARRH, chronic inflammation of a conjunctive of the eyes, becoming aggravated{intensifying} in the spring and in the summer (an itch and red discoloration of eyelids, a photophobia and a lacrimation).
  • WEIGHS, the official title of. Viesite in Latvia up to 1917.
  • COPEPODA of the BIRD (pelikanoobraznye), order of waterfowls. All 4 pins are paired by a swimming membrane. On littorals of oceans and seas. 6 sets: gannets, phaetons, frigates, cormorants, zmeeshejki, pelicans.
  • COPEPODA CRUSTACEA, subclass of Crustacea. Length of free living 0,1-3 mm, parasitic - up to 30 see. St. 6000 kinds{views}, in fresh and salinous waters. Minister nutrition to whales and many fishes. Freshwater Copepoda Crustacea can be intermediate hosts of parasitic worms, napr. A parasitic worm. Parasitic Copepoda Crustacea can invoke{produce} death of fishes.
  • UPPER MOUNTAIN GOAT, city (with 1941) in the Russian Federation, Ekaterinburg region, in verhovjah r. Tours. A depot (Upper). 13,3 thousand inhabitants (1992). Machine works. It is based in 1737.
  • SUPREME ADMINISTRATIVE COMMISSION on ohraneniju the state order and public peace, an extraordinary state organ in Russia in February - August 1880. It is built for extirpation with revolutionary movement. The chairman - M.T.Loris-Melikov.
  • GENERAL HEADQUARTERS (Supreme Command), the supreme body of a strategic guiding of armed forces of the state (a coalition of the states), created routinely in a wartime and headed by Supreme commander in chief (Supreme commanding). Within Great Domestic war the General headquarters of Armed forces of the USSR was referred to as the Rate of General headquarters.
  • SUPREME COMMANDER IN CHIEF (Supreme commanding), the boss of armed forces of the state (as a rule the chief of state).
  • The SUPREME COURT, the maximum court of justice of the state heading the judiciary. Considers actions of proceeding of exclusive importance and is the higher authority for all other courts of the state.
  • The SUPREME PRIVY COUNCIL, the maximum consultative official body of Russia in 1726-30 (7-8 person). It is built by Ekaterina I as the deliberative body, actually decided the major state problems. Attempted to limit autocracy in the favour, but dissolved by the empress Anna Ivanovnoj.
  • SUPREME CROWN PROSECUTION SERVICE, the maximum extraordinary court of justice of Russian empire. There was for realization of political processes of decembrists (1826), D.V.Karakozova (1866), A.K.Solovjeva (1879), etc. About 1906 court of justice, considered large criminal cases as 1-n the degree of jurisdiction.
  • The TOP WATER, the non-ramming underground waters nearest to a surface which are not having solid distribution{propagation}; periodically{batchly} collect and then peter at the expense of vaporization or overflow in more steep horizons.
  • VERHOVSKIE PRINCIPALITIES, old russian, in verhovjah Oka: Belevskoe, Vorotynskoe, Mezetskoe, Novosilskoe, Odoevskoe; in 12-13 centuries destinies of the Chernigov principality, with kon. 14 century sluzhilye destinies of the Great principality Lithuanian, with kon. 15 century - Russian state. Are liquidated to the last third of 16 century.
  • VERHOVSKY Alexander Ivanovich (1886-1938), the Russian military historian, kombrig (1936). In September - October of 1917 military minister, the general - major (1917). With 1919 in Red Army, with 1921 on teaching activity. Transactionses on tactics and a military history. It is repressed; it is rehabilitated posthumously.
  • VERHOVTSEVO, city (with 1956) on Ukraine, Dnepropetrovsk region. A railway junction. 11,1 thousand inhabitants (1991). The enterprises of a railway transport.
  • VERHOLENSKAJA the REFERENCE, in Russia a place criminal and political (with 2-nd chetv. 19 century) references to terrains Verholenskogo of district Irkutsk lips. Decembrists, participants of Polish revolts 1830-31 and 1863-64, populists, Social Democrats left.
  • VERHOTURE, city in the Russian Federation, Ekaterinburg region, on r. Tours. A depot. 9 thousand inhabitants (1992). Wood-working, a woodchemical industry; manufacture of skates. It is based in 1518 as gaffs, at-sight mansijskogo settlements.
  • VERHOJANO-CHUKCHI WRINKLED RANGE, range of a Mesozoic ripple mark on north-east of the Russian Federation. Actuates the Verhojano-Kolyma and Anjujsko-Chukchi wrinkled systems, Kolyma and Omolonsky middle masses.
  • VERKHOYANSK, city in the Russian Federation, Yakutia, landing stage on r. Yana. 1,9 thousand inhabitants (1992). In area of Verkhoyansk - one of "cold poles" of Boreal hemisphere (the absolute minimum ok.-71 °S). It is based in 1638.
  • The VERKHOYANSK BACKBONE, range on north-east of Siberia, in Yakutia. Ministers a watershed of basins of Lena and Aldan, Omoloja, Yana and Indigirka. Length ok. 1200 kms (from delta of Lena up to r. Tompo - in-leak{influx} of Aldan); width from 100 up to 250 kms. Will consist of lines hrebtov with the alpine and flattened relief (an altitude up to 2389 ì) and hollows dividing them. A larch thin forest, a dwarf siberian pine and mountain tundra. Gold fields, tin.
  • VERHUVEN (Verhoeven) Paul (r. 1938), the Netherlands film director. Started to pit as dokumentalist, in 1971 debuted in game kino. It is successful there was his{its} creative union with actor Rutgerom Hauerom. Popularity the erotiko-satirical comedy has brought to him " Turkish enjoying " (1973), international confession - the scale pseudo-historical insurgent " Flesh + Blood " (1985), unblocking to him a road to Hollywood where have been removed{have been taken off} "Robokop" (1987), " To recollect all " (1990), an erotic thriller " the Main{Basic} instinct " (1992).
  • CREEL, the piscatory instrument such as a trap; a basket peg-shaped with inserted prutjanoj a funnel. In sport fishery it is forbidden.
  • The SWIVEL, shear member for connection of two parts of the mechanism, permitting to execute their relative turning movements.
  • VERTOV Dziga (an ice-film. A name and fam. Denis Arkadjevich Kaufman) (1895/96-1954), the Russian film director. One of initiators and theorists of documentary kino. Films: " Anniversary of revolution " (1918), "Film-truth" (1922-1925, a film magazine), "Film-eye" (1924), " the Sixth part of the world " (1926), etc. Film " Three songs about Lenine " (1934) - in a genre of figurative film-publicism.
  • The HELICOPTER, flight vehicle is heavier than air with a vertical launching and planting. Jacking and propulsive forces form by rotors. Distinguish helicopters the single-rotor with the control (caudal) screw; two or multi-rotor. A flying speed of the helicopter up to 350 km/h, carrying capacity up to 40 t (1984). Are applied for passenger and freight traffic and the special purposes (health services, a pest control of agricultural crops, fire control, etc.), and also in armed forces to a transportation of air landings, a troops and freights and fulfilment of other operational tasks. The helicopter of a single-rotor configuration for the first time is constructed by B.N.Jurjevym in 1910-12. The first domestic helicopter of a TsAGI 1-ÝÀ is built in nach. 30th. The first domestic production helicopter - Ìè-1 OKB M.L.Milja (1948). Abroad the helicopter call gelikopterom.
  • HELICOPTER CARRIER, military surface ship - the carrier of helicopters. It intended for transplantation of marine landings and antisubmarine warfare. The antisubmarine helicopter carrier bears up to 26 helicopters, aerial delivery - transports up to 2 thousand marine infantrymen.
  • VERTUMN (Vortumn) (an armour. Vertumnus), in Roman mythology the godhood, apparently, etrusskogo an origin which name Romans erected to a verb vertere (to pivot) and considered{counted} as his{its} god of revolution of the season. The husband of the goddess of Pomona.
  • VERTHAJMER (Wertheiòer) Maks (1880 - 1943), the german psychologist, one of osnovatelej and the main theorist geshtaltpsihologii. With 1933 in the USA. Transactionses on experimental researches of perception of motion, about productive intellection.
  • GYRINIDS, a set of the bugs dwelling{living} in fresh water reservoirs. Length up to 8 mm. St. 800 kinds{views}, primarily in tropics. The majority from over 20 kinds{views} of the gyrinids dwelling{living} in our country, fall into to a stem of true gyrinids. Are turned on a water plane. Predators; are beneficial, t. To. Eat larvas of an anopheles mosquito.
  • VERFEL (Werfel) Frants (1890-1945), the Austrian writer. Ekspressionistskie motives (in lyrics) are replaced by social - critical tendencies: the novel of " Magpies of days Musa Daga " (1934.) Roman " the Ode about Bernadette " (1941), etc. - roman catholic orientation.
  • SHIPYARD (from niderl. werf), 1) the enterprise for construction of courts. 2) the Room for construction of airships.
  • VERHARN (Verhaeren) Emil (1855-1916), the Belgian poet - symbolist (the French tongue). In the lyrical trilogy (collections of "Evening", 1888, "Downfalls", 1888, " Black plumes ", 1891) - ecumenical pessimism, despair, impotence of reason. In collections " Mad villages " (1893), "Cities - octopuses" (1895) - realization of banefulness for the modern civilization of social contrasts (including city - village); simultaneously arises both major urbanism and socialist hope (play - Utopia "Zori", 1898). (independent of political favours) collections " Violent forces ", (1902) and " Majestic rhythms " (1910) in which the modern life is shown in modes{images} of passion, thirst of updating, the invention, the protest, pride of consciousness of force are dedicated social heroism and valour of creation. Philosophical (" Choirs of life ", 1899) and intimal ("Hours", 1898-1902), lyrics.
  • VERHNEANGARSKAJA the HOLLOW, between Verhneangarskim and Severo-Mujskim hr., in Buryatiya. Length over 100 kms. Width 40 Km. An altitude up to 800 m. It is drained r. The upper Angara. Meadow vegetation, larch, piny and birch forests.
  • VERHNEANGARSKY the BACKBONE, to north-east from an eskar. Baikal. Length ok. 200 kms. An altitude up to 2608 m.
  • LAKES VERHNEVOLZHSKIE, on Valdai vozv., in headwaters of Volga. A gross area 183 êì2. With construction in 1843 dams (Verhnevolzhsky bejshlot) in structure Verhnevolzhskogo vdhr. In a backwater there are lakes: Sterzh, Vselug, Peno, Volgo (the greatest - 61 êì2). One of the first major water reservoirs in Russia.
  • The UPPER LAKE IRON-ORE AREA, in the USA (pieces. Minnesota, Michigan and Wisconsin). Major deposits - in environs Mesabi. Deposits metamorfizovannye. Ore magnetite - gematitovye (takonity). Common stocks ok. 8 billion t ore; content Fe in takonitah 25-30 %; in efflorescent ores over 50 %. The main{basic} centre of production - Duluth. In terrain pieces. Michigan is located cooper-bearing area (with reserves ok. 9 million t copper); regular production with 1854.
  • VERHNEDVINSK (up to 1962 Drissa), city (with 1777) in Belarus, Vitebsk region, on r. Drissa. A depot. 7,7 thousand inhabitants (1991). A flax primary treating plant, the alimentary enterprises, factory of art items. It is known from 14 century.
  • VERHNEDZHULATSKOE GORODISHCHE, residues alanskogo medieval (10-15 centuries) cities for a seconds. Elhotovo in the Sowing. Ossetias. Christian temples, mosques, public and inhabited construction, burials. It is identified with annalistic. Dedjakov.
  • VERHNEDNEPROVSK, city (with 1956) on Ukraine, Dnepropetrovsk region, in 13 kms from zh.-d. An item. Verhnedneprovsk. 20,1 thousand inhabitants (1991). Machine works, etc. It is based in 1780.
  • The UPPER LAKE (Lake Superior), in the USA and Canada, in system of Great Lakes. The most major fresh lake of the world. 82,4 thousand êì2, depth up to 393 m. A drainage in an eskar. Guron on r. Sent-Meris. National parks Ajl-Rojjal (USA), Pukaskua (Canada). Main ports: Duluth, Thunder Bay.
  • PLAIN VERHNEZEJSKAJA, in the Sowing. Priamurje, between hrebtami Tukuringra and Dzhagdy in the south and Stop hr. In a north. Length ok. 300 kms. An altitude up to 500 m. A larch taiga and the goosefoot.
  • VERHNEKAMSKOE the DEPOSIT of potassium salts, in the Russian Federation, the Perm region. It is developed with 1933. The area of 6,5 thousand êì2. Commercial reserves 3,8 billion t (sylvinite, a carnallite, etc. salt). Content KCl in ore of 18-34 %. A underground mining. Centers of production - Solikamsk, Berezniki.
  • VERSIFICATION (from an armour. versus - a verse and facio - I put aside money), the same, that stihoslozhenie.
  • The VERSION (from sr .-eyelid.s of an armour. versio - turning movement), one of arguments of any circumstance, the fact. In inquest on criminal case one of suppositions concerning originating, character and interrelations content on the facts.
  • VERST, Russian linear measure, to equal 500 sazhens (1,0668 kms). Till 20 century there was surveying a verst (1000 sazhens; 2,1336 kms), used for a surveying and definition of distances between occupied points.
  • IMPOSITION, in Russian state of 16-17 centuries transfer of noblemen, children seignioral and policemen of cossacks on a military service with simultaneous destination of a plot of land (manor) and the money salaries.
  • SETTING STICK, in polygraphy - 1) the adaptation for hand setting lines by the way a metal plate with beads. Into a setting stick interpose letters and probelnyj a material. 2) the Unit of the line casting machine in which the matrix - wedge line will be derivated.
  • IMPOSITION, in polygraphy - 1) drawing up of pages (strips) of the newspaper, the log-book, the book of the fixed dimension of the collected lines, titles, case histories, etc. according to sectoring or a breadboard model. 2) the Reprint (proof) with imposed a panel, intended for proofreading.
  • VERSTOVSKY Alexey Nikolaevich (1799-1862), the Russian composer and the theatrical figure. The representative of romanticism to Russian music. Operas, including " Askoldova a tomb " (1835); romances, a ballad " the Black wimple " (1823), etc. One of founders Russian an opera - vaudeville (" who the brother, who the sister ", 1834, etc.). 35 flying worked at the Moscow theatres, including control office of Management of the Moscow imperial theatres.
  • VERT (Werth) Alexander (1901-69), the English journalist and the publicist. Within 2-nd world war the correspondent of some the English newspapers and Bi-Bi-Si in the USSR. The main{basic} compositions: " Russia in war. 1941-1945 ", " France. 1940-1955 ".
  • VERTEXUM (an armour. vertex), a point of celestial sphere to which residual (peculiar) proper motions of some set{combination} of asters are predominary directed.
  • CAVERN, 1) a cave; potaennoe a place (ustar.). 2) the Place where are going with criminal or other unseemly purposes, the den. 3) the National Ukrainian puppet theater which was become popular in 17-19 centuries. Dolls, reinforced on a strand{wire} inside a 2-multistage box - a cavern, were actuated vertepshchikom. Scenes on biblical scenes, satirical interludes were accompanied by music, founded on national motives. The cavern is close Byelorussian batlejke, to Russian theatre of the Parsley.
  • "VERTEPNIKI", a circle raznochintsev in Moscow in 1855-59 (P.N.Rybnikov, M.J.Sviridenko, A.A.Kozlov, etc.), democrats and Utopian socialists. Has broken up in connection with dispatch Rybnikova and establishment of police surveillance for remaining.
  • VERTESHSELESH, parking of an initial paleolith ok. Budapest (Hungary). Residues of brome grasses, bones animal, primitive stone beards and pebbly instruments. Wreckages of a skull of the person, close sinantropu are retrieved.
  • VERTICAL FLUE (from an armour. verticalis - vertical), the great circle of celestial sphere passing through zenith and a nadir. A vertical flue keeping points of the west and the orient, call as the first vertical flue.
  • "VERTICAL", a series of geophysical one-stage missiles on liquid fuel. Have been built in the USSR and are applied with 1970 on a research program and uses of space in the nonpredatory purposes, including in cooperation to a number{series} of other countries. "Verticals" have recoverable the container with instrumentation. Probes of an ionosphere, meteoric particles, radiances of the Sun are carried out{conducted}.
  • VERTICAL CONCENTRATION, concentration in one firm (association) of a complex of serial stages of manufacture: from production of raw material before realization of made production. One of preparatory stages{steps} of combination of manufacture.
  • VERTICAL ANGLES, see. An angle.
  • VERTINSKAJA Anastasy Aleksandrovna (r. 1944), the Russian actress, the national actress of Russia (1988). Daughter A.N.Vertinsky. With 1966 in Moskovsk theatre " Contemporary ". In 1980-88 in MHATe. To the game psychologic thinness, refinement of plastic drawing, ottochennost forms are peculiar. Roles: Nina Zarechnaja ("Seagull") and Elena Andreevna ("Uncle Vanja") of A.P.Chehova, Prospero and an Ariel (U.Shakespeare "Storm"), Elmira ("Tartjuf" Moliere), etc. " The anonymous aster " Was taken out in films " Scarlet flags ", "War and peace", "Anna Karenina", "Hamlet", a TV movie, etc. With 1991 president founded her{it} of Welfare fund of Russian Actors. Periodically{batchly} works abroad as the teacher and the producer.
  • WRYNECK, bird of a set of woodpeckers. Length ok. 20 see. Dwells{lives} in woods of Eurasia and Severo-Zap. Africa. Alarmed in a nest, the wryneck draws out a neck, spins by her{it} and hisses.
  • "VERKBUND" (a nem. Werkbund - the industrial union), association of architects, masters of an ornamental art and industrialists. German "Verkbund" it is based in 1907 in Munich, in 1933 it is abolished by fascists, in 1947 it is recreated in Dusseldorf. Austrian "Verkbund" it is based in 1912 in Vienna. "Verkbundy" promoted a becoming of design of reorganization of the architecture and art handcrafts on the modern industrial basis{fundamentals}.
  • VERKOR (Vercors) (an ice-film. A name and fam. Jean Brjuller, Bruller) (1902-91), the French writer. The story " Silence starving " (1942) and the book of memoirs " Battle of silence " (1967) about Resistance movement; morally - philosophical problems in the novel " People or animal? " (1952). A social parable " As the brother " (1973), the novel " Tender downfall " (1974), sketches.
  • VERLEN (Verlaine) Pol (1844-96), the French poet - symbolist. Has entered into lyrical poetry the composite world of feelings and experiences, has given a verse the thin musicality (collections " Gallant festivals ", 1869; " Romances without words ", 1874; "Wisdom", 1881). The book of literary - critiques " the Damned poets " (1884). Autobiographical "Confession" (1895).
  • FREE VERSE, see. A loose verse.
  • VERLGOFA DISEASE, the same, that purpura trombotsitopenicheskaja.
  • VERMAHT (a nem. Wehrmacht), the title of armed forces of fascist Germany in 1935-45.
  • VERMER DELFTSKY (Vermeer van Delft) JAn (1632-75), the Dutch painter, worked in Delft. Small intimal patterns from life of town-dwellers (" the Girl with the letter ", " the Wine glass of wine "), landscapes (" the Kind{View} of Delft ", "Ulichka") differ poetic perception of daily life, classical clearness of a composition, oof and thinness of colour, alive vibration of light and air.
  • VERMEHO, see. Bermeho.
  • VERMICULITE, mineral of group of hydromicas of subclass of layered silikates with the approximate formula (Mg, Fe2 +, Fe3 +) 3 (OH) 2 [(Si, Al) 4O10] 4H2O. Impurity{additives} Ca, Ni. Golden yellow or brown scutal units, less often crystals. Hardness 1-1,5; firmness of 2,4-2,7 g / sm3. At calefaction up to 900-1000 °S swells up, expanding at 20-30 time. Hydrothermal and hypergenic. Heat-insulating, a sound-absorbing material, filler of light betons, etc.
  • VERMIPSILLEZY, invazionnye diseases animal, called by fleas - vermipsillami. Symptoms: a dermal itch, education of woolless epines of a leather, an emaciation.
  • VERMONT (Vermont), staff on north-east the USA. 24,9 thousand êì2. The population of 576 thousand person (1993). Adm. ts. - Montpiljer.
  • VERN (Verne) ZHjul (1828-1905), the French writer, one of creators of a genre of science fiction. The writer mnogochislenyh (ok. 70) sci-fi, prikljuchenchesko-geographycal and social - Utopian products{creations}, including novels " From the Earth to moon " (1865), " Children of the captain of the Underback " (1867-68), " 20000 lje underwater " (1869-70), " the Mysterious island " (1875). Some scientific ideas It is correct have appeared afterwards embodied in a real. The writer - humanist, in many products{creations} (the novel " the Lord of the world ", 1904, etc.) opposed uses of science in criminal purposes.
  • VERNADSKY Ivan Vasiljevich (1821-84), the Russian economist, the professor of the Kiev and Moscow universities (1846-56). The main{basic} transactionses on political economy, histories of economic idea, statistics and customs - tariff policy.
  • VERNADSKY of the MOUNTAIN, subglacial mountains in Vost. To Antarctica, in eastern part of Queen Maud land. Length ok. 400 Km, an altitude over 1600 m above sea level. A glacial cover above mountains power up to 1000 m. Are open{discovered} in 1964 Soviet expedition and are called named V.I.Vernadsky.
  • VERNE (Vernet), family of the French painters 18-19 centuries: 1) Klod ZHozef (1714-89), the writer of marine landscapes. 2) Charles (1758-1836), the caricaturist and batalist. 3) Oras (1789-1863), the ceremonial historical painter.
  • The WERNER (Werner) Abraam Gotlob (1749-1817), the german geologist and mineralog, the founder of scientific school. Has developed grading rocks and minerals. The founder neptunizma.
  • The WERNER (Werner) Alfred (1866-1919), the Swiss chemist - neorganik, one of creators of chemistry of complexes. The writer of the coordination theory of complexes (1891-93). The Nobel Prize (1913).
  • VERNIGERODE (Wernigerode), city in Germany, ground Saxony - Anhalt. 35 thousand inhabitants (1991). Electrotechnical, instrument-making, a chemical industry. Fahverkovye houses of 16-17 centuries. A climatic health resort in piedmonts of Harz.