Monday, May 21, 2007

  • VISHERA, the river on the Sowing. Ural and in Preduralje, the left-handed in-leak of Kama (runs in Kamskoe vdhr.). 415 kms, the area of basin of 31,2 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water 473 m3 / with. It is navigable up to landing stage Vels (312 kms). Driveable. The passenger report about one . Krasnovishersk.
  • VISHERSKY RESERVATION, in the Russian Federation, the Perm region. It is based in 1991. The area of 241,2 thousand ga. Epines cedar (from Swiss stone pine Siberian) woods. Unique geologic educations. A reindeer, a sable, an european mink; sapsan, a see eagle - belohvost; a grayling, a salmon trout.
  • VICHY (Vichy), city in Center. France. 64 thousand inhabitants (1982). A machine industry, a pharmaceutical, glass industry. A balneal health resort.
  • CHERRY FRUIT FLY, a hexapod of a set pestrokrylok, the pest of a cherry and a mazzard cherry in Europe. Dark-brown, almost black, length 3-3,5 mm. Eats (larvas) a pulp of fruits.
  • VISHNEVETSKIE, a princely stem of Speech Pospolitoj of 16-17 centuries, magnates of Left-bank Ukraine, possessed grounds with the population over 300 thousand person, had the strengths and a troops. Took the maximum positions in the state and army.
  • VISHNEVETSKY Dmitry Ivanovich (?-1563), prince, the Ukrainian magnate. In 1550th Cherkassk and kanevsky the head; for the defence from the turetsko-tatar incursions has constructed on about. M.Hortitsa the deputy. In 1558 participat in a marching of Russian troops on Crimean hanstvo. In 1563 has interfered with extirpation for the Moldavian throne, it is captivated by Turks, it is executed.
  • VISHNEVETSKY Jeremiah Mihajlovich (1612-51), prince, the Ukrainian and Polish magnate. Having accepted a catholicism (1631), suppressed kazatsko-country revolts. Participat in war 1632-34 against Russia.
  • CHERRY, city (with 1971) on Ukraine, the Kiev region. Depot (ZHuljany). 30,8 thousand inhabitants (1991). Factory of art ceramics, etc. The Food-processing industry. Ukrainian of scientific research institute of porcelain and a glass (with a development plant).
  • VISHNEVSKAJA Galina Pavlovna (r. 1926), the Russian singer (soprano), the national actress of the USSR (1966). Wi M.L.Rostropovich. In 1952 - 74 solistka Major theatre. With 1974 lives in the USA, acted in opera performances, with chamber repertoir; acted in film. In 1978 for pravozashchitnuju activity Vishnevskaja and its husband have been denaturalized by the USSR (in 1990 - it recovered).
  • VISHNEVSKAJA Inna Ljutsianovna (r. 1925), the Russian literary critic, the doctor of art criticism (1975). The main orb of interests - the Russian literature of 19 century, dramatic art and theatre of 19 and 20 centuries. Books: "Boris Lavrenev" (1962), "Konstantin Simonov" (1966), "Alexey Arbuzov" (1971), " the Goldeneye and his comedies " (1976), " the Dramatic art is correct time " (1983), "Theatre Turgeneva" (1989), etc.
  • VISHNEVSKY Alexander Aleksandrovich (1906-75), the Russian surgeon, academician AMN (1957), the general - colonel of a medical service (1963), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1966). The main surgeon of the Soviet Army (with 1956). Son A.V.Vishnevskogo. Transactionses on a local anaesthesia; to an anaesthetization, a hypothermia and an artificial circulation at operations on heart and lungs, to application of polymers in surgery. The lenin premium (1960), the State premium of the USSR (1970).
  • VISHNEVSKY Alexander Vasiljevich (1874-1948), the Russian surgeon, academician AMN (1946). Has developed methods of a local anaesthesia, treatment of inflammatory and purulent diseases by novocainic blockage and oily-balsamic (ointment Vishnevskogo) a bandage. The state premium of the USSR (1942).
  • VISHNEVSKY Vsevolod Vitaljevich (1900-51), the Russian writer. In plays " First Horse " (1929), " Optimistic tragedy " (1933), in a movie script of film " we from Kronstadt " (1933) - a theme of the Civil war spirit of official philosophy. The state premium of the USSR (1950).
  • VISHNU, in vedicheskoj religions the godhood; in brahmanizme and induizme Vishnu - the great God - ohranitel. In Middle Ages Vishnu it was honored basically in modes of Krishna and the Frame - his avatars.
  • VISHNUIZM, one of 2 main (alongside with shivaizmom) flows in induizme, is distributed primarily in the Sowing. India. Vishnuity honor Vishnu as the supreme almighty God.
  • CHERRY, stem of trees and bushes of a set pink, a fruit crop. Ok. 150 kinds, in Europe, Center. Asia, the USA; in the Russian Federation, on Ukraine, in Moldova, etc. ok. 25 kinds, including a mazzard cherry. Cultivate egriot, sandy, steppe, etc. Groups of grades - amoreli and griottes. In fruits of Saccharum, organic acids, tannins, vitamins. Wood use on small-sized hand-made articles. A honey plant.
  • CHERRY Ostap (an ice-film. A name and fam. Paul Mihajlovich Gubenko) (1889-1956), the Ukrainian writer. Collections of feuilletons and comic stories "Anti-aircraft gun" (1947), " Cherry smiles " (1950).
  • VISHNJAKOV Ivan Jakovlevich (1699-1761), the Russian painter. In portraits Vishnjakova inherited from Russian parsuny conditionality of postures and flatness combine with the alive characteristics of a model and attenuatous colour spirit of a rococo ("F.N.Golitsyn", 1760).
  • VKK, see. A medical - consulting commission.
  • WAR of AUSTRAL AND BOREAL DYNASTIES (1336-1392) in Japan. In 1333 segunat Minamoto was will overthrow, and on a short time the imperial authority was placed. Emperor Godajgo aspired to steer privately-owned, but not a smog to liquidate contraventions between aristocrats and soldiers, derogating from of interests last. One of the largest feudal lords Ashikaga Takaudzi two years later has raised rebelion which has reduced in education of the second segunata - Ashikaga (or Muromati, under the title of quarter in Kyoto where the military government placed). With a passage of power in arms Ashikaga the internecine wars proceeding almost up to the extremity of century have begun. Emperor Godajgo ran in mountains, having based in place Esino the Austral yard, and Ashikaga has landed in Kyoto on a throne of emperor to the Coma which has headed Boreal yard. Dvoetsarstvie it was prolonged up to 1392 when both dynasties were aggregated, and capital has again become Kyoto.
  • VOJNAROVSKY Andrey (? - ok. 1740), the Ukrainian cossack foreman, nephew Mazepa, the participant of his plot. Ran to Germany. In 1718 it is given to the Russian government and it is banished to Yakutsk.
  • VOJNICH (Voynich) Etel Lilian (1864-1960), the English writer. Daughter Dzh. Boulle. In 1887-89 vein in Russia, has been connected to Polish and Russian revolutionary movement. With 1920 in the USA. In the novel "Gadfly" (1897), " the Gadfly in expulsion " (1910; other transfers - " Interrupted friendship ") the heroic mode of the italian revolutionary is built. Roman " Remove thy shoe " (1945) - about ancestors of the protagonist of the previous novels. Transferred products of the Russian literature. A theme of its musical oratorio "Babylon" (1948) - an overthrow of the autocracy in Russia.
  • VOINOVICH Vladimir Nikolaevich (r. 1932), the Russian writer. In 1980-92 in emigration in Germany. In the novel " Life and unusual adventures of the soldier of Ivan Chonkina " (1969-75) and his prolongation " the Claimant for a holy table " (1979) - satirical derision of a totalitarianism; a mode "ivanushki-durachka" - the carrier of national morals and common sense. Documentary - satirical story "Ivankiada" (1976; all three products in Russia up to 1988 were not typed) - on a "room" theme, uncovers the mechanism of bureaucracy. Satirical story - anti-Utopia " Moscow 2042 " (1987). The play " the Cat domestic mean pushistosti " (1990, together with G.I.Gorinym). Verses (including " the Song of astronauts "), the story (" Two comrades ", 1967), publicism.
  • VOJNORALSKY Porphyrias Ivanovich (1844-98), the revolutionary populist. One of organizers " boatings in people ". In 1878 it is sentenced to 10 years of penal servitude.
  • VOJSI (Voysey) CHarlz Frensis Eksli (1857-1941), the English architect. Designed small country houses for middle class. Developed a theme of a traditional English cottage (unified rectangular volume with a deckhouse and a high gable roof). In furnish of the building and registration of interiors a major role retracted to different kinds of an ornamental art.
  • TROOPS of air defence, intended for reflectance of impacts of the opponent from air. Will consist of service arms: a zenith rocket-propelled troops, an air defense aviation and a radio troops, and also a special troops of different destination.
  • ARMY CIRCLE, combined-arms collection for Don, Volga, jaitskih, grebenskih and terskih cossacks in 16-18 centuries. Was the supreme body of an authority and selected officials.
  • The ARMY FOREMAN, officer grade in the Cossack troops of Russian army; with 1775 corresponded a peavine of the sec - major, with 1798 - the major, with 1884 - the lieutenant colonel.
  • VOJSLAV Sigizmund Grigorjevich (1850-1904), the Russian mining geologist. Has invented a jumper for investigation of deposits. One of osnovatelej Russian Society of mining geologists.
  • VOJTES (Voites) Margarita (r. 1936), the Estonian singer (a coloratura soprano), the national actress of the USSR (1979). With 1964 solistka Estonian theatre " Âàíåìóéíå ", with 1969 at theatre of opera and ballet "Estonia".
  • VOITSEKHOVSKY Bogdan Vjacheslavovich (r. 1922), the Russian scientist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991). The main transactionses on theoretical and applied hydrodynamics, a knocking in gases. The lenin premium (1965).
  • VOCALESE (frants. vocalise, from an armour. vocalis - a vowel sound), a piece of music for singing without words on a vowel sound; the exercise for development of vocal technique is routine. Vocaleses for concert performance (S.V.Rakhmaninov, M.Ravel, etc.) are known also.
  • VOCALISM, structure of vocal phonemes of this or that tongue, dialect or family, group of tongues. Sometimes speak also about vocalism of the radical, the word, etc.
  • VOCAL MUSIC, products for one, several or many voices (with tool tracking or without him), behind few eliminations the bound with the word, the poetic text.
  • VOCAL ART, see. Singing.
  • VOKANSON (Vaucanson) Jacque de (1709-1782), French the mechanics. Has constructed a mechanic silk loom, has created a number of automatic control units with clock mechanisms (including known toys - flitting a filling and the playing flutist).
  • PASSENGER DEPOT (from English Vauxhall), 1) pleasure establishment bliz the London (17 century); in Russia originally - a place of public amusements. 2) the Building (group of buildings), structures and devices for a catering, mission controls of the transport and disposition of service staff. Distinguish road service stations, air terminals, railway, marine, river, and also consolidated, or complex (napr., railway - bus).
  • VOKLEN (Vauquelin) Lui Nikola (1763-1829), the French chemist. Has discovered (1797) and has secured (1798) in a free state a chromium; has discovered (1798) beryllium.
  • WITTENBERG (Wittenberge), city in Germany, ground Meklenburg-forward Pomerania. A port on r. Elba. 29 thousand inhabitants (1991). Chemical, machine-building, a tailoring industry.
  • VITTI (Vitti) Monika (an ice-film. A name and fam. Maria Louise Checharelli, Cecirelli) (r. 1931), an italian actress of theatre and kino. Popularity has received, being taken out in films of producer M.Antonioni: "Adventure", "Night", "Eclipse", " Red desert ".
  • VITTIG (Wittig) George (1897-1987), german chemists - organics. The main transactionses on chemistry fosfororganicheskih connections. Has discovered (1954) method of obtaining of olefines from carbonyl compounds and alkilidenfosforanov (" reaction Vittinga "). The Nobel Prize (1979, together with G.Brown).
  • VITTOVA DANCING, the same, that a chorey.
  • VITTORINI (Vittorini) Elio (1908-66), the italian writer. Products about life of village and urban poor (novels " the Sicilian conversations ", 1941, " Messinskie women ", 1949). Roman " People and bad people " (1945) is dedicated Resistance movement. Publicism.
  • VITUSHKIN Anatoly Georgievich (r. 1931), the Russian mathematician, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991). Transactionses on a function theory. The state premium of the USSR (1967).
  • WOOD PIGEON, the same, that a wood pigeon.
  • The HERO, in Ancient Russia the brave, valorous soldier, a bogatyr.
  • "HERO" the GUTTER (East - Melanezijsky the gutter), the abyssal gutter in Quiet ok., along boreal submerged downslopes of Santa Cruz islands, Anuda, etc. Depth up to 6150 m, length of 870 kms, width of 11 kms. It is open in 1958 Soviet expedition on a vessel "Hero".
  • VIUELA (vihuela), the spanish arcaded name of some string, predominary shchipkovyh, musical instruments; some are close to the gear quadrant.
  • BETHLEHEM (church slavonic; hebrew Bethlehem, the modern Bejt-Lahm), city in Palestine, to the south from Jerusalem. According to the Bible, Rhodinum of king David and the birthplace of Jesus of the Christ.
  • VIHARA (sanskr)., in the indian architecture a conventual hostel.
  • VIHERT (Wiechert) Emil (1861-1928), german physics and a geophysics, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1912). The main transactionses on an electrodynamics, study x-ray and cathode rays, seismology. Has developed (1899) method of definition of speed of particles of cathode rays. Irrespective of Dzh. Dzh. Thomson was discovered with an electron and has defined his charge (experience Viherta). In 1897 has placed existence of a nucleus of the Earth.
  • REEL (dzhek), a bird of a set drof. Length ok. 60 see. On a head a crest, on a neck a collar from the lengthy feathers. The Sowing dwells in deserts and semideserts. Africa and Asia, including from deserts Zakaspijskih up to Tuva. It is small, it is guarded.
  • VIHOREVKA, city (with 1966) in the Russian Federation, Irkutsk region. A depot. 25,5 thousand inhabitants (1992). Lesokombinat; the enterprises of a railway transport.
  • The SWIRLING-TYPE FURNACE, the chamber furnace with vortex motion of gases in the combustion chamber, an achievable special arrangement of torches.
  • ALGAE, group of the lowest water plants routinely keeping chlorophyll and producing organic substances during a photosynthesis. A body algae - a thallome which is not having true roots, stalks and leaves, from lobes of micron up to 60 m. Noncellular, single-celled, multicellular, colonial organisms. Reproduction asexual, vegetative and sexual. Departments (or phylums) algae: green, brown, red, yellow-green, yellow-green, diatomic, etc. Ok. 30 thousand kinds. Blue-green algae consider as blue-green algae more often and fall into drobjankam. Algae - the main producers of an organic substance in fresh water reservoirs and seas. Are part of a plankton and a benthos. Some are edible (napr., a sea staff, a porphyry), other - raw material for obtaining feed mass, an agar, a carragheen, an iodine, etc. (many of them - object of aquiculture). A number of algae test as components of the biocomplexes, spacecrafts logging in life support. Some single-celled and algae in symbiosis with mushrooms will derivate lichens.
  • DRAINAGE BASIN (orlik, an aquilegia), a stem of perennial grasses of a set of a crowfoot family. Ok. 100 kinds, in a moderate belt of Eurasia and America; including 27 kinds - in Vost. Siberia, Compare. Asia, on Caucasus. Some - the decorative.
  • CATCHMENT AREA (a drainage basin, a storage basin), terrain from which surface and underground waters flow off in a fixed water reservoir.
  • WATER ESCAPE (sluice-way structure), the hydrotechnical construction intended for reset of redundant (freshet) water from water reservoir, and also skips of water in a downstream pool. The water escape with the surface skip of water calls as a weir, with depth - a water outlet.
  • WATER-YOUNG PIGS (kapibary), a stem of rodents. Length of a body up to 1,3 m, mass up to 60 kg and more (largest of the modern rodents). 2 kinds, in central part JUzh. America, on coasts of water reservoirs and on forest bogs. Well float. Object hunts (meat).
  • BLESSING OF WATER, Christian church dedication service of water (in a temple, dwellings, the rivers, wells, etc.). The orthodox church distinguishes t. n. Great Blessing of water (before a holiday of Theophany, or epiphany, and in the holiday) and small Blessing of water (it is routine twice a year: per day a temple holiday and at any time domiciliary at will believers).
  • WEIR, barrier (threshold) through which water deluge flows over. In a hydraulic engineering the water escape with a loose flood of water through his crest calls as a weir.
  • WATER SUPPLY, set of measures on maintenance by water of different consumers - the populations, industrial enterprises, etc. The Complex of engineering structures and the devices executing water supply (including a drawing water from natural sources, its clearing, transportation and feed to consumers), calls as water handling or the water-pipe.
  • WATER OUTLET, water escape with the depth skip of the water, plump routinely by the way the tubular channel in a body of a dam. Ministers for descent of water from water reservoir, promyva ground pompes of a hydraulic project, the skip of water in a downstream pool in the operational and building seasons.
  • CHANNEL, water-course with motion of water on a direction of a slope in a deepening of a surface (the river, the brook, the channel).
  • WATER TUBE BOILER, steam boiler for which water and a steam-water mixture move on the steel pipes which are washed against outside by light-end products of combustion of fuel. Drum water tube boilers with a vertical run of pipes and straight-flow are most distributed.
  • WATERPROOF LAYER (water confining), the layer of water-proof rocks limiting from below or from above a water-bearing horizon.
  • The WATER BUDGET, ratio between arrival (a rainfall, return fluids from sewerage systems, from dewed fields, etc.) and the charge (vaporization, an irrigation, water supply, etc.) waters on any part of a surface (basins of the rivers, inland seas) for fixed time with allowance for economic activities of the person. Testifies to water availability of basin; at the negative water budget - about necessity of measures on cover of a water deficit.
  • WATER RESERVOIR, the artificial watertank of the considerable capacity derivated routinely in a glen by water retaining structures for regulation of its drainage and the further use in a national economy. Water reservoirs can exclude lakes which mode of levels variates artificially and adjusted by hydrotechnical constructions. The most negative consequences of building of water reservoirs: an inundation, a swamping, a underflooding of grounds, etc.
  • WATER EMULSION, the same, that emulsion paints.
  • VODSKAJA PJATINA, an administrative and territorial unit of the Novgorod ground (in the Novgorod republic and up to nach. 18 century), between the rivers Volkhov and Luga. In 16 century it was divided on Karelian and Poluzhskuju halves. In nach. 18 century has come in Petersburg lips.
  • VODSKY TONGUE, tongue drive, falls into the pribaltijsko-Finnish branch of Finno-Ugric tongues.
  • WATERS of the DRY MATTER, water of the rivers, lakes, water reservoirs, bogs, icehouses, and also underground waters (total amount ok. 35,8 million êì3). Waters of a dry matter basically fresh.
  • VOD (the self-title - vadjalajn), people in the Russian Federation. Number - less than hundred person (1992). Tongue vodsky. Believers - orthodox.
  • WATER CURTAIN mountain, a zone from water a dropping in shafts for a dust recovery on a path of motion of a dusty mine air. Forms by spray jets, fog generators, etc.
  • VILAJET, see. Il.
  • VILAJJA, an administrative and territorial unit in Algeria (with 1976).
  • TWIST - LOBOS (Villa-Lobos) Ejtor (1887-1959), the Brazilian composer, the specialist in folklore, the conductor. The chapter national kompozitorskoj schools. The initiator of building of the Brazilian academy of music (1945, its president). Has developed system of the musical education of children. Operas, ballets, 12 concordances; 14 "SHoros" (1920-29), " Brazilian bahiany " (1944) for tool bands, etc.
  • VILAND (Wieland) Genrih (1877-1957), german chemists - organics and the biochemist, foreign corresponding member AN the USSR (1929). The main activities on chemistry of hormones, steroids, alkaloids, bilious acids and so forth. Has put forward the theory of dehydrogenation explaining the mechanism of oxidizing reactions, including processes of a biological oxidation. The Nobel Prize (1927).
  • VILAND Kristof Martin (1733-1813), the german writer of Enlightenment. The educational novel of education "Agaton" (1766), the satirical novel " the History abderitov " (1774), a fancy poem "Oberon" (1780).
  • VILED, the river in the European part of the Russian Federation, the left-handed in-leak of Vychegda. 321 kms, the area of basin 5610 êì2. Irregular navigation on 106 kms from a mouth.
  • VILEJKA, city (with 1795) in Belarus, the Minsk region, on r. Vilija. A depot. 29,5 thousand inhabitants (1991). Factories: constructional members, auto-repair; a food-processing industry. It is based in it is grey. 16 century.
  • VILENSKY Zinovy (Zalman) Moiseevich (1899-1984), the Russian sculptor, the national artist of the USSR (1980), corresponding member AH the USSR (1954). In portraits convincingly transmitted personal features ("P.I.Chajkovsky", 1947). The state premium of the USSR (1948).
  • VILIMAA (Vilimaa) JUlo (r. 1941), the Estonian ballet dancer and the ballet master, the national actor of Estonia (1985). With 1973 main ballet master of theatre " Âàíåìóéíå " (Tartu).
  • VILIJA (Âiëiÿ) (lits. - Njaris, Neris), the river in Belarus and Lithuania, dextral in-leak Njamunasa (Neman). 510 kms, the area of basin 25,1 êì2. For. Vilejka - water reservoir. Average discharge 182 m3 / with. On Vilii over 1.5 thousand lakes. It is navigable on stray patches. On Vilii - cities Vilnius, Kaunas (in a mouth).
  • VILKAVISHKIS (up to 1917 official title Vilkovishki), city in Lithuania. A depot. 14,2 thousand inhabitants (1990). Factories: canning, hardware; a clothing factory. It is known from 16 century.
  • VILKOVO, city on Ukraine, the Odessa region, a port in delta of Danube (Kilijskoe girlo), in 18 kms from Black m. of 11,1 thousand inhabitants (1991). Fish treatment, ship repair facilities; factory of press clusters. It is known with 1762.
  • VILKS (Vilks) (an ice-film. fam. Latsis) Evalds (1923-1976), the Latvian writer. The collection of stories " People of one truth " (1949) about war, " In days autumnal " (1955) about life of collective-farm village, " Kind familiar " (1973).
  • COUNTRY HOUSE (an armour. villa - farm, a manor), a country house with a garden or park.
  • VILLANELLA (ital. villanella - a rural song), a genre italian household satirical, game, ljubovno-lyrical mnogogolosnoj songs of 15-16 centuries. Music villanelly light character, it is frequent with features tantsevalnosti.
  • VILLANOVA CROP (in archeology), the early Iron Age (ok. 900-500 up to n. e.), in the Sowing. Italy. It is called on a seconds. Villanova (Villanova) about Bologna. Burials with truposozhzhenijami. An economy: agriculture.
  • VILLANY (from an armour. villa - a manor), in France, Italy, Germany peasants, personally loose, but dependent on the feudal lord as holder of ground; in England (till 15-16 centuries) serfs.
  • VILLAR (Villars) Klod Lui Ektor (1653-1734), duke (1705), the French marshal - general (1733). Has gained a number of victories in war for the Spanish patrimony, including at Denene. In war for the Polish patrimony has committed a successful marching in the Sowing. Italy (1733).
  • VILLARI (Villari) Emilio (1836-1904), italian physics. Activities in ranges of an electricity, magnetism and opticians. Has discovered (1865) magnetoelastic effect (Villari effect).
  • VITKOVSKY Vasily Vasiljevich (1856-1924), the Russian geodesist, the general - lieutenant. The professor of geodesic branch of Academy of the General Staff (with 1897). The writer of manuals on topography, geodesies and cartography.
  • VITOVT (Vitautas) (Vytautas) (1350-1430), grand duke of Lithuania (with 1392), son Kejstuta. Triply invaded in the Moscow principality (1406-08), has trapped Smolensk. One of organizers of rout of german knights in Grjunvaldskoj to battle 1410.
  • VITOL (Vitols) (Vitols) JAzeps (1863-1948), the Latvian composer and the musical critic, one of founders of the Latvian professional music. A cantata "Northern lights" (1913); " the Drama overture ", " Latvian village serenada " for an orchestra (1895, 1934), etc. The Professor of the St.-Petersburg conservatory (1901-18), among pupils - S.S.Prokofjev, N.J.Mjaskovsky. One of osnovatelej, the rector (1919-44, with a rest), the professor of the Latvian conservatory (nowadays his name).
  • VITORGAN Emmanuel Gedeonovich (r. 1939), the Russian actor, the honored artist of the Russian Federation. In 1971-82 in Moskovsk drama theatre him. K.S.Stanislavsky. With 1984 in Moskovsk the academic theatre him. Vl. Majakovskogo. With 1968 acts in film. It was taken out in films: "Larets Maria Medichi" (1981), " the Conflict situation " (1981), " On Deribasovskoj good weather, on the Brighton - whip again there are rains " (1992), " the Code of dishonor " (1993), etc.
  • VITORIA (Vitoria), city in a north of Spain, an administrative centre and. About. Basque Provinces and prov. Alava. 205 thousand inhabitants (1991). Metallurgy, a machine industry, chemical, a food-processing industry. A cathedral (14 century, a gantry of 15 century), palaces in style "plateresko" (16 century). It is based in 6 century.
  • VITORIA, city and port in a southeast of Brazil, an administrative centre pieces. Espiritu-Santu. 254 thousand inhabitants (1985). An international airport. Textile, alimentary, a leather and foot-wear industry. University. A museum of art and a history.
  • VITOS (Witos) Vintsenty (1874-1945), the prime minister of Poland in 1920-21, 1923, 1926. One of chiefs (1913-31) consignments "Pjast". With 1926 in opposition to t. n. "sanatsionnomu" to a mode. In 1945 vice-president Craiova Rads Narodovoj.
  • VITOSHA, a hills in Bulgaria, bliz Sofia. An altitude up to 2290 m. Broad-leaved and coniferous forests, meadows. Mineral sources. National park (actuates 2 wildlife reserves).
  • The STAINED GLASS (frants. vitrage, from an armour. vitrum - glass), an ortamental or subject decorative composition (in a window, a door, by the way a do-it-yourself panel) from a glass or other material leaking light. Colour stained glasses in windows (napr., in Gothic cathedrals) create the game of colored light in an interior.
  • VITRAIN (from an armour. vitrum - glass), shining black brittle component of fossil coal, characteristic for gumolitov. Will derivate in layers of a lens and layers; a majority carrier of sintering properties of fossil coal.
  • VITRUVY (Vitruvius), the Roman architect and the engineer 2-nd floor. 1 century up to n. e. The writer of the tract " Ten books about the architecture " where town-planning, technical-engineer and art problems are considered, is generalized experience of the Grecian and Roman art of building.
  • VITRUK Nikolay Vasiljevich (r. 1937), the Russian statesman, the lawyer. With 1981 in Academy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR. With 1991 member of the Constitutional court of the Russian Federation.
  • WITT Alexander Adolfovich (1902-38), Russian physics, the doctor of physical and mathematical sciences. The main transactionses under the theory of non-linear oscillations. One of writers of the classical book "Vibration theory" (2 izd., 1959). It is repressed; it is rehabilitated posthumously.
  • WITT (Witt) JAn de (1625-72), the actual governor of republic of Coherent provinces in 1650-1672 (with 1653 great pensionary), the protege of the Dutch merchant oligarchy. Has achieved discharge of princes Oranskih from steering of country and abolition of the position stathaudera. During popular uprising was rasterzan crowd.
  • VITTE Sergey Juljevich (1849-1915), columns (1905), the Russian statesman, the honorary member Petersburg AN (1893). Minister for ways of reports in 1892, the finance with 1892, the chairman of the Cabinet council with 1903, Council of Ministers in 1905-06. The initiator of introduction of winy monopoly (1894), realization of currency reform (1897), construction Siberian. d. Has signed the Portsmouth world (1905). The writer of the Manifest on October, 17 1905. Has developed original positions stolypinskoj an agrarian reform. Aspired to involve businessmen in cooperation to government. The writer of "Memories" (t. 1-3, 1960).
  • VITTE (Witte) Emmanjuel de (ok. 1617-92), the Netherlands painter. Conversations, interiors, the fish markets (" the Market in a port ", 1668-69) differ democracy of modes, freedom of a regional composition.
  • VITTEL (Vittel), a balneal health resort in France, to a southwest from Nancy.
  • VITTELSBAHI (Wittelsbacher), the southern - German stem setting in 1180-1918 in Bavaria. To stem Vittelsbahov emperor Lui IV Bavarian belonged.
  • WITTEN (Witten), city in Germany, ground the Sowing. Rhine - Vestfalija. 105 thousand inhabitants (1992). A machine industry, metallurgy, a chemical industry.
  • WITTENBERG (Ljutershtadt) (Wittenberg, Lutherstadt), city in Germany, ground Saxony - Anhalt, on r. Elba. 49,2 thousand inhabitants (1991). Chemical, rubber, electrical industry. University. For the first time it is mentioned in 1180. Since 13 century a residence of dukes Saksen-Wittenberg, then saxony kurfjurstov. In 16 century one of main centres Reformatsii (here in 1517 M.Luther has acted with the theses). A tomb and Luther museum.
  • PANEL GAMES (Victorinus) Maries (4 century), drevnerimsky the writer, the teacher of rhetoric in Rome. Has translated into on latin tongue of composition Aristotelja and Grecian neoplatonikov. Having addressed to christianity, commented on messages of apostle Paul and has written the tract " Against Arius ".
  • VICTORIA, the English title of city Siangan.
  • VICTORIA, in Roman mythology the goddess of victory. Corresponds Grecian Nike.
  • VICTORIA, Ouen-Fols (Victoria; Owen Falls), water reservoir in terrain of Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya. The area of 76 thousand êì2 (including an eskar. Victoria 68 thousand êì2), volume 204,8 êì3, length of 320 kms. It is built by a structure dams Ouen-Fols (Uganda) on r. Victoria - Nil in 1954, that has reduced an eskar in a backwater of a level. Victoria on 3 m.
  • VICTORIA, city in Canada, a port on Quiet ok., an administrative centre prov. British Columbia. 71,2 thousand inhabitants (1991). A woodworking, shipbuilding. University.
  • VICTORIA, Victoria - Njanza (Victoria, Victoria Nyanza), Ukreve, lake in Vost. To Africa, in terrain of Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. 1134 m. 2 on value fresh lake of the world are located in tectonic a sag of the East - African ramp, at the altitude. 68 thousand êì2, length of 320 kms, an extreme breadth of 275 kms, depth of 80 m. Is a part vdhr. Victoria. Flock of islands. Runs abounding in water r. Kagera, escapes r. Victoria - Nil. Fishery. Navigation. Main ports: Entebbe (Uganda), Mwanza, Bukoba (Tanzania), Kisumu (Kenya), bliz boreal shore - Kampala, capital of Uganda. On about. Rubondo (Tanzania) - national park
  • VICTORIA (Victoria), an island in the south of Canadian Arctic arh. 213,8 thousand êì2. An altitude up to 914 m. Tundra vegetation. It is a lot of lakes. An occupied point - Cambridge - Bej.
  • VICTORIA, stem of perennial water plants of a set of a water - lily family. Circular swimming leaves with declinate edges a dia up to 2 m, maintain freight up to 50 kg, flowers a dia 25-35 see 2 kinds, in JUzh. To America; both are cultivated in botanical gardens.
  • VICTORIA, capital of the state Seychelles. 24 thousand inhabitants (1987). A port on Indian ok. A supply base fuel of courts on ways Africa - India. An international airport. Tobacco, fish treatment, furniture and other enterprises. Tourism.
  • VICTORIA - NIL (Victoria Nile), the title of a plot r. White Nile in Uganda, from an exit point from an eskar. Victoria up to a lockin in an eskar. Mobutu-Sese-Seko (Albert). Length ok. 420 kms, the area of basin of 262 thousand êì2. Porozhista; cataracts - Ouen, Kabarega (Murchison). Average discharge of water ok. 700 from a river plant for Owen falls. It is navigable on stray patches.
  • VIKTOROV Alexey Egorovich (1827-83), Russian arheograf, the bibliographer, corresponding member Petersburg AN (1879). Has based the Department of manuscripts and slavonic staropechatnyh books Rumjantsevskogo of a museum (nowadays in structure of the Russian state library). Has proved the Moscow origin t. n. The desperate issuings typed up to I.Fedorova.
  • VIKTOROV George Aleksandrovich (1925-74), the Russian biologist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1972). The main transactionses on dynamics of number of populations of hexapods and a taxonomist of hexapods - entomophages.
  • VIKULOV Vladimir Ivanovich (r. 1946), the Russian sportsman (ice hockey), the deserved master of sport (1967). The champion of Olympic Games (1968, 1972), the repeated world champion, Europe and the USSR (in 1966-79).
  • VIKULOV Sergey Vasiljevich (r. 1922), the Russian poet. Collections of lyrical verses, including " the European birdcherry the window " (1966), " still Had afield track " (1979), "Shoots" (1982), poems "Willow - mountain" (1970), " the Duma about Rhodinum " (1977). The managing editor of the log-book " our contemporary " (1968-89).
  • VIKUNJA (vigon), a cloven-hoofed animal of a stem of llamas. Length ok. 1,5 m. Dwelt in high mountains of Andes; as a result of predatory liquidation (a valuable wool) the area was hardly reduced. In the Red Data Book of the International union of nature protection and natural resources. Activities on a domestication are carried out. Vikunja, crossed to a guanaco, (alpaca) tames.
  • TWISTED Syrian (mind. ok. 250), the Christian martyr damaged in persecution of emperor Detsija, the son of martyrs Terentija and Neonilly Syrian. Memory in the Orthodox church on October, 28 (on November, 10).
  • (Port Vila), capital of the state Vanuatu, on TWISTED (Vila) about. Efate (It is new. Hebrides), a port on Quiet ok. 19,4 thousand inhabitants (1989). The international financial centre.
  • VIZIR, see. Vezir.
  • VISIT (frants. visite), visitation, predominary official.
  • MORNING COAT, single-breasted frock coat with radiused floors missing in front.
  • The CARD, card with a name, a patronymic, a surname, the indicating of the official position, the address, the earphone and other cramps on a face handing or abandoning her at official acquaintance, visitation somebody, etc.
  • VIZNER (Visner) (Wiesner) JUlius (1861-1928), Austrian botanik, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1912). Transactionses on physiology and a plant anatomy. Probeed an ontogenesis of plants, a transpiration, education of chlorophyll and the phenomena of a heliotropism. Has found a tropism in plants under influence red and an invisible heat, has explained it the phenomena reaction to a thermal irritation. Studied a structure of cell walls.
  • VISUALIZATION, (from an armour. visualis - visual), methods of transformation of a radiation field invisible to a human eye (ultrared, ultra-violet, x-ray, ultrasonic, etc.) and visible (black-and-white or colour) the plotting of raying object. There are some methods of visualization: photographic (see. The electrooptical transducer), methods of a thermovision, transformation of an invisible radiation of the laser in visible, etc. Visualization is widely used in medicine, a non-destructive testing, technique (see. Introscopy, the Tomography).
  • VISUAL STELLAR MAGNITUDE (mn), the stellar magnitude defined by a straight vision and adequate spectral response of a human eye (a maximum of sensitivity falls at a wavelength 0,55 microns).
  • The VISUAL POETRY, the kind of art uniting verbal and visual creativity - poems, whose lines will derivate the decorative or vested emblematicheskim sense of a figure and marks. Among characteristic examples - art of a poetic calligraphy (in particular in Muslim, and also) where it is indiscernible the pattern and sense are connected Far East crops; visual poetry of epoch manjerizma and Baroque. Such, quite often expressly "abstruse" verbal - visual experiences, representatives of futurism and dadaizma, renovating the modern polygraphic design had a fancy also; the visual poetry compounds the special tendency and in a postmodernism.
  • VISUAL (from an armour. visualis - visual), visible. Manual observations - made to the naked eye or with the help of an optical device (napr., a telescope).
  • VIIPURI, the Finnish title of city Vyborg in 1918-1940.
  • VY, in vostochnoslavjanskoj mythologies the spirit bearing mors. Having huge eyes with heavy eyelids, Vy slays the view.
  • VIJDUMJAE, reservation on about. Saaremaa in Estonia. It is based in 1957. The area over 1 thousand ga. Pine forests with an impurity of an oak. Endemic and infrequent plants: ezelsky a rattlepot, a mountain ash an aria, etc.
  • VIJERBAN (Villeurbanne), city, suburb of Lyons in France. 115 thousand inhabitants (1990). An autostructure, silk, a chemical industry. " Theatre de ac the Screen ".
  • VILLON (Villon) Francois (1431 or 1432 - after 1463), the French poet. In poems " the Small will " (1456), " the Major will " (1462), saturated autobiographical hints, have found reflectance of the scene from life of the Parisian bottoms; motives of mors combine with impudent glorifying earth radostej, ironical denial of asceticism and hypocrisy.
  • VIJRA (Viira) August (1853-1919), the Estonian producer. In 1878-1903 headed theatre " Âàíåìóéíå " (Tartu).
  • VIJRALT (Viiralt) Edward (1898-1954), the Estonian schedule. In tense - drama grotesque leafs uncovered the ugly parties of life of city ("Cabaret", 1931). In modes of women and children national character (" the Estonian girl ", 1942) is strongly pronounced.
  • VETCHES (Vick), the german and Swedish title drevneestonskoj grounds Ljaanemaa.
  • VETCH, stem of perennial and annotinous herbaceous plants of a set of pod-bearing plants; a feed crop. Ok. 150 kinds, in moderate belts of Boreal and Austral hemisphere. In crop of 10 kinds - a fodder grasses. Cultivate a vetch sowing campaign and a vetch shaggy (it is routine in a mix with ovsom and barley) - 200-250 ts with 1 ga a green material, 20 and more ts with 1 ga grains more often.
  • VIKALLOJ, the magnetically hard alloy keeping 52-54 % Co, up to 14 % V, remaining Fe. It is used primarily for manufacturing the permanent magnets used in probing devices, electrical micromotors, etc.
  • VIKARIAT (from an armour. vicarius - alternating), the phenomena at which close kinds of plants or animal (call as a representative species) take different ranges of distribution (geographycal vikariat) or dwell in one terrain, but in miscellaneous ecological conditions (ecological vikariat). Napr., in sand deserts dwells mohnonogy a jerboa, and in the same places, but in argillaceous deserts - small (ecological vikariat).
  • VIESITE (up to 1917 official title Weighs), city (with 1928) in Latvia, on coast an eskar. Viesites, in 30 kms from zh.-d. An item. Krustpils. 2,6 thousand inhabitants (1991). A tailoring industry.
  • VIETA (Twists) Francois (1540-1603), the French mathematician. Has developed almost all elementary algebra. " Formulas of Vieta ", producing relation between roots and quotients of an algebraic equation (see are known. Vieta the theorem). Has entered alphabetic designations for quotients in equations.
  • VIETA the THEOREM, content F.Vietom the theorem: the sum of roots of a reduced quadratic equation is peer to quotient at x, taken with an opposite sign, and product - to a constant term.
  • VIZHE (Vigee) Klod (r. 1921), the French poet, the prose writer, the thinker - essayist. With 1943 in emigration in the USA, with 1960 lives in Israel. Verses of 1939-72 gathered in the book " the Sun from starving " (1972). The writer of collections of an essay " Artists neutolennosti " (1960), " the Winter moon " (1970), etc.
  • VIZHE-LEBREN Elizabeth (1755-1842), the French artist. The society idealized portraits (Maria Antuanetty, etc.).
  • VIZHNITSA, city (with 1940) on Ukraine, Chernovtsy region. A depot. 5,7 thousand inhabitants (1989). Wood-working combine, etc. Art crafts (machining of a tree, metal, a carpet weaving). It is known with kon. 15 century.
  • The VISA (from an armour. visus - seen, browsed through), 1) an inscription on any document or the certificate, authenticity certifying it or attaching to him force. 2) the Official mark in the passport about the entry permit in the given state, passage or exit road from him.
  • VIZANTY, ancient city on european coast of prol. Bosporus. In 324-330 on his place it is based Constantinople (about 1453 Istanbul).
  • The BYZANTIAN RIGHT, legal system of Byzantium (6-15 centuries) which basis was codification JUstiniana. It was defined by dualism of the church and society right (norms of them were contained in special collections - "Nomocanons"). The byzantian right has been borrowed by the feudal law of Armenia, Georgia, some countries of Europe and Asia.
  • BYZANTIUM (Eastern Roman empire, the Byzantian empire), the state of 4-15 centuries derivated at disintegration of Roman empire in its eastern part (Balkan p-ov, M.Azija, the southeast Mediterranean). Capital - Constantinople. The population - Greeks, sirijtsy, copts, Armenians, etc. Prevailing tongue - Grecian. In 4 - nach. 7 centuries in Byzantium has become to develop feudalism (at conservation till 7 century rabovladenija). Features of the byzantian feudalism: cities kept in an early Middle Ages as the centres of handcraft and trade; centralized state machinery and tax system; absence of a class closure of the ruling class developed vassalno-lennoj of system; fragility of trading - craft corporations, a rural community, urban communes. Byzantium has reached the greatest territorial expansion in 6 century at JUstiniane I, having turned into Mediterranean powerful the mandatory power. Seizures 7 - it is grey. 9 centuries. Arabs, slavs, langobardov have reduced its terrain basically to a part Balkan p-ova and M.Azii. Capture in 1204 participants of 4-th crusade of Constantinople has reduced in fall of the Byzantian empire, the grounding of Latin empire, and in the terrain not conquered by crusaders - the Grecian states (Nicaean, empires Trapezundskoj, the state Epirskogo). The byzantian empire recovered by Michael VIII in 1261. Taking to 1453 Constantinoples a turkish troops has put an end to Byzantium.
  • " VIZVOLENNJA ÂIÒ×ÈÇÍÈ " (" Discharging of Fatherland "), underground anti-fascist organization in Great Domestic war on Ukraine, the Lvov region (1942-44). Acted together with " National guards ".
  • To the VISA Vladimir Juljevich (1886-1954), the Russian scientist, the explorer of Arctic regions, corresponding member AN the USSR (1933). The participant of expedition G.J.Sedova (1912-1914), expeditions on "Tajmyre" (1921-22), "Malygin" (1924, 1928, 1931); the supervisor of studies of expedition on "Georgii Sedove" (1930), "Sibirjakove" (1932), "Feodor Litke" (1943), etc. The Writer of transactionses on oceanology, meteorologies, ledovitosti arctic seas and to ice forecasts, a history of probe of Arctic regions. The state premium of the USSR (1946).
  • To the VISA the ISLAND, a low island in Karskom m., in structure of the Russian Federation. 288 êì2. Tundra vegetation. It is open in 1930 expedition on "Georgii Sedove" and J.Vize, in 1924 these islands which have theoretically predicted existence is called by name Â. . Polar station (with 1945).
  • VIZEL (Visel) (Wiesel) Torsten Nils (r. 1924), the American doctor, nejrofiziolog. Was born in Sweden, with 1955 in the USA. Together with D.H.Hjubelom has uncovered principles of a thorough revision of the information in the neuronic structures of a brain accepting external signals. The Nobel Prize (1981, together with Hjubelom).
  • VIZEL (Wiesel) Ales (r. 1928), the American writer, the public figure. Writes in French. Was born in Romania; with 1956 lives in the USA. In novels (" And the world was silent ", 1956, on a yiddish, autobiographical; " the Beggar from Jerusalem ", 1968; " gospels rasterzannogo the jewish poet ", 1980; "Twilights", 1987), Chassidic traditions noted by influence and folklore, existentialism, one of essentials - genocide of Jews in 2-nd world war ("Holocaust"), understanding of spiritual nature of the person, his ability to assassination and moral opposition of mors. The Nobel Prize of the world (1986).
  • VIZER (Wieser) Fridrih (1851-1926), the Austrian economist, the representative of the Austrian school. One of writers of limiting utility of the theory and imputation of the theory.
  • VIZIGA, foodstuff of acceptable back structure (chord) of large (predominary sturgeon) fishes (sevrjugi, sterlets, etc.). Viziga it is dryed up on air and it is interweaved in a bunch. Contains kleevidnye substances, it is used in a boiled kind for preparation of a stuffing of cakes, rasstegaev, kulebjak and so forth.
  • VIZIGOTY, see. Vestgoty.
  • SIGHT (a nem. Visier, from an armour. viso - I look), 1) in a photo - an optical system in the cine camera, the employee for selection of borders of the removed space (layout of staff). The analogous optical system in the camera routinely calls as the range finder. 2) In a geodesy, astronomy, military science - the adaptation, the device for a visual guidance of the goniometric, ranging or observation device on a fixed point in the space.
  • CONTRIBUTIONS (deposits), money resources of the enterprises, organizations and the populations stored in banks on certain conditions. Kinds of contributions: poste restante, urgent, conditional. Under contributions receive incomes by the way percents.
  • The LINER, change part (the barrel, etc.) the plain bearers, directly interacting to a wrist pin of the bank or a rotated shaft. It is produced from an antifrictional material.
  • VKRAPLENNIKI, large crystals or the grains of minerals secreted in rocks (primarily eruptive) the value and the form. Are characteristic for breeds with porphyritic structure.
  • TASTE, the sensation originating at influence of different solvends on gustative receptors, located for vertebrates primarily in tongue. The main gustatory senses: bitter, sweet, sour, salinous. Taste influences appetite and digestion, depends on a physiological state. At some diseases can be misinterpreted. For the majority of Invertebrata organs of general chemical feeling (taste and sense of smell) minister sensillas and other chemoceptors.
  • TASTE aesthetic, ability of the person to discrimination, comprehension and an assessment of the aesthetic phenomena in all orbs of life and art. Formation and development of taste - a problem of aesthetic education.
  • SHEATH, in biology - 1) a facing, a surrounding of some organs for animal and plants, napr., a sheath of a tendon, a leaf. 2) the Coceptacle of integuments for their derivative, napr., a sheath of a hair, to a feather. 3) the Final department of sexual ducts for samok mammals (ascigerous, placental); for Invertebrata (plathelminths) trubkovidnyj the channel. 4) the Muscle tube located in small basin of woman; a final department of sexual conduction paths.
  • MOISTURE METER, moisture apparatus of gases, liquids and solid (including loose) ph. Distinguish moisture meters: hygroscopic, electrochemical (for gases and liquids), hygrometric and psychrometric (for gases), capacitive and conductometric (for liquids and solids), and also moisture meters, founded on the phenomena of nuclear magnetic resonance.
  • MOISTURE CIRCULATION, permanent process of conveyance of water in a geographical envelope of the Earth, primarily between an atmosphere and a surface. Will consist of vaporization, transmission of a steam and his condensation to an atmosphere (with cloud formation), a rainfall, their infiltration and a drainage from a dry matter in water reservoirs.
  • VLADAJSKOE REVOLT 1918 (in September - October) the soldier of the Bulgarian army. On September, 27 rebels have proclaimed republic (see. Republic Radomirskaja). On September, 29 they have taken seconds. Vladaja (15 kms jugo-to the west of Sofia; from here the title of revolt). It is suppressed by the Bulgarian government with the help of the German troops.
  • POSSESSION, in a civic right factual possession by a thing, one of proprietary rights.
  • The VLADIVOSTOK DRAMA THEATRE see. Bayshore drama theatre.
  • VLADIGEROV Pancho (1899-1978), the Bulgarian composer, the pianist, the conductor. Opera " Tsar Kalojan " (1936), ballet " the Legend of lake " (production 1962), orchestral compositions. The professor of State musical academy in Sofia (with 1944).
  • VLADIKAVKAZ, ossetic Dzaudzhikau (in 1931-44 and 1954-90 Ordzhonikidze, in 1944-54 Dzaudzhikau), city (with 1860) in the Russian Federation, capital of Boreal Ossetia, on r. Terek. A depot. 325 thousand inhabitants (1992). A machine industry (electrical industry, instrumentation technologies, etc.), nonferrous machine industry, chemical, glass, wood-working, mild, a food-processing industry. 4 high schools (including. The North-Osetiya university). 4 theatres. Museums: North-Osetiya art, the North-Osetiya literature him. K.L.Hetagurova, the North-Osetiya consolidated museum including Dwelling - museum Hetagurova, etc. Tourism. It is based in 1784 as Russian strength for guarding the Military - Georgian road.
  • VLADILENA, a planetoid (¹ 852) a diameter ok. 10 kms, it is open S.I.Beljavskim (Simeiz, 1916), is called in 1924 named V.I.Lenina. Distance Vladileny from the Sun variates from 1,3 up to 3,5 and. e.
  • VLADIMIR, city in the Russian Federation, the centre of the Vladimirskiy region, on r. Klyazma. A railway junction. 356 thousand inhabitants (1992). A machine industry (a software: " the Vladimirskiy tractor plant ", "Autodevice", etc.; factories: "Electric appliance", electric driven, etc.), chemical, mild, alimentary, a building materials an industry. 2 high schools. 3 theatres. It is based in 1108 Vladimir by II Monomove, with 1157 capital of the Vladimiro-Suzdal principality, up to it is grey. 14 century administrative, cultural and religious centre Severo-Vost. Russia. A monument of the vladimiro-Suzdal school of art of building: "Golden Gate" (1158-64), Uspensky (1158-60, it rearranged in 1185-89) and Dmitrievsky (1194-97) cathedrals. The Vladimiro-Suzdal istoriko-architectonic and art museum - reservation.
  • VLADIMIR I SVJATOSLAVICH (?-1015), prince Novgorod (with 969), grand duke Kiev (with 980). Junior son Svjatoslava. Has subdued vjatichej, radimichej and jatvjagov; wared with pechenegami, the Volga Bulgaria, Byzantium and Poland. At a nem sooruzheny defensive boundaries on the rivers Desna, the Sturgeon, Trubezh, Sula, etc., Kiev is anew reinforced and built up by stone buildings. In 988-989 has entered in the capacity of state religion christianity. At Vladimir I the Old russian state has entered the season of the bloom, the international authority of Russia has amplified. In Russian bylinas called the Red Sun. It is sainted by Russian orthodox church.
  • VLADIMIR II MONOMIALS (1053-1125), prince Smolensk (with 1067), Chernigov (with 1078), perejaslavsky (with 1093), grand duke Kiev (with 1113). Son Vsevoloda I and daughters of the byzantian emperor Konstantin Monomaha. It is invoked by the Kiev boyars during revolt. Struggled against princely mezhdousoby. Has developed the charter limiting arbitrariness of usurers. In "Lecture" invoked sons to strengthen unity of Russia.
  • VLADIMIR ALEKSANDROVICH (1847 - 1909), grand duke, 3-rd son of emperor Alexander II, the general from infanterii (1880), general - aide-de-camp (1872). With 1881 commanding, in 1884 - 1905 commander-in-chief a troops of guards and Petersburg IN. January, ninth 1905 has given an order on a use of weapons.
  • VLADIMIR ANDREEVICH (1533-69), specific prince staritsky. The cousin of Ivan IV, the participant of his marchings; acted in opposition to Ivan IV; it is executed.
  • VLADIMIR ANDREEVICH VALIANT (1353-1410), prince serpuhovsko-Bohr. The grandson of Ivan I Kality. In Kulikovskoj to battle 1380 commanded zasadnym a regiment; in 1408 supervised over the defence of Moscow from the tatar troops.
  • WATER-COOLED AND WATER-MODERATED REACTOR, nuclear reactor, in which moderator of neutrons - the routine water serving simultaneously and the heat - carrier. Enters into power and exploratory installations.
  • WATER CARRIERS Vasily Vasiljevich (1864-1933), the Russian publicist, the lawyer and the economist. Articles on a socio economic and political history. In 1926 has emigrated.
  • WATER CARRIERS Vasily Ivanovich (1825-86), the Russian teacher, the methodist on Russian literature and elementary education. Transactionses on theories of pedagogics, tutorials, books for national reading.
  • VODOVOZOVA Maria Ivanovna (1869-1954), knigoizdatelnitsa (Saint Petersburg, 1895-1900). Has emited books about working class in the West, professional motion, transactionses on political economy, histories of a national economy, to the right, etc.
  • WHIRLPOOL, zone in a torrent, defined by circular selfcontained motion of water.
  • WATER RESERVOIR, permanent or temporary clump drainless or with a delayed drainage of waters in natural or synthetic hollows (lakes, water reservoirs, ponds, kopani, etc.). In a broad sense - notation of seas and oceans.
  • ABSTRACTION INTAKE (water intake), hydrotechnical construction for water diversion from the power source (the river, lake, a underground source) with the purpose of its use for needs of water-power engineering, water supply, an irrigation.
  • DISPLACEMENT, quantity of the water extruded by the swimming vessel; the characteristics of the dimensions of a vessel. Distinguish displacement mass, equal to light mass, i.e. mass of the water seating in volume of a underbody of a vessel, and volume of displacement (volume of a vessel under water).
  • DIVING BUSINESS, the branch of a production activity enveloping rescue, assembly both other activities underwater and their material, technological and medical support.
  • WATER-LEU (an armour. Aquarius), zodiacal mia maid.
  • WATER-LEU, ancient vessel for washing in the form of a beast, a bird, the rider, from clay or metal. It is distributed in Middle Ages in many countries, including in Russia.
  • WATER TREATMENT (hydrotherapy), outside application of water with the purpose of treatment or quenching. It is carried out in the form of perfusion, rubdown, a wrapping, a shower, baths, etc. With the medical purpose use also baths with an impurity of oxygen, a carbonic gas, etc.
  • WATER-MEASURE, some sets of bugs. Length of 1-34 mm. Ok. 700 kinds; dwell on a surface fresh and ocean waters (sometimes in midocean), less often on coasts of water reservoirs. Go or fast slide on a water plane (from here the title). Predators, trupoedy.
  • WATERJET (water jet propulsive device), ship propulsor for which the force, driving the vessel, forms by a water jet pushed out from him. Are established on the courts swimming on a shallow water, or are applied in the capacity of an auxiliary thrust device.
  • WATER HEATER, the same, that a water heater.
  • VODONOSNOST the RIVERS, the same, as a mean perennial discharge of water or mean perennial volume of an annual flow.
  • WATER-BEARING HORIZON, layer or some layers of water-permeable rocks, cracks, pores and which other vacuum are filled in with underground waters.
  • DRAINAGE, removal surface and underground waters from shafts, pits, mining outputs, trenches, trenches, etc.
  • BANK-PROTECTION FORESTS, grade of the woods secreted in a water preserving zone (along coasts of the large rivers and water reservoirs) for improvement of a water balance, a hydrological regime, reduction of erosion of soils.
  • WATER PURIFICATION, complex of the production processes, targetting to finish quality of the water acting at a water system from a source of water supply, up to content norms of parameters.
  • VILKIJA, city (with 1950) in Lithuania, on r. Njamunas, in 28 kms from zh.-d. An item. Kaunas. 2,7 thousand inhabitants (1990). Population Vilkii works at the enterprises of Kaunas.
  • VILKOMIR, the official title of city Ukmerge in Lithuania up to 1917.
  • VILKS Dzh., see Uilks Dzh.
  • VILM Feodor Vasiljevich (1845-93), the Russian chemist - neorganik. Transactionses on chemistry of platinum metals. Has received (1883) rodiehloristyj an ammonium (salt Vilma). Has developed a way of obtaining of a clear palladium.
  • VILMONT (William - Vilmont) Nikolay Nikolaevich (1901-86), the Russian literary critic, a translator, the historian of crop. Transactionses under the german classical literature and philosophy (I.V.Gete, F.Schiller, I.Kant). Articles about the Soviet poets (including memories on B.L.Pasternake, are published in 1987).
  • VILMOREN Levek de (Vilmorin), family of the French selectors: 1) Phillip Viktuar (1746-1804), one of osnovatelej selektsionno-seed-growing firm " Vilmoren - Andrie " (1774.2) Lui (1816-60), grandson Phillip, the founder of scientific selection of sugar-beet, the writer of some appreciable varieties. 3) Anri (1843-99), son Lui; for the first time has applied a method of artificial crossing (primarily wheat) for practical purposes. 4) the Erysipelas (1905-80), botanik, foreign member VASHNIL (1957); the director of firm " Âèëüìîðåí-Àíäðèå " (1925-62) which has entered into crop in France over 450 kinds and versions of agricultural plants. The main transactionses on acclimatization of agricultural plants, nature protection.
  • VILNO, the official title of city Vilnius up to 1939.
  • VILNIUS (Vilnius), capital of Lithuania, on r. Njaris. 590 thousand inhabitants (1993). A railway junction. A machine industry (rigs, instruments, fuel instrumentation, electromotors, the electrowelding and trade equipment, probing devices, farm machines, etc.) and metal working; the food-processing industry is developed chemical, mild. AN Lithuania, 5 high schools (including university, a conservatory), 5 theatres (including. The Lithuanian opera and ballet theatre). 12 museums (including picture passageway, a folk art, istoriko-ethnographic). It is mentioned in 1323. Capital of the Great principality Lithuanian. With 1795 in structure of Russia. In 1920-39 in structure of Poland. With 1940 capital of Lithuania. Residues of the Upper clasp (14-15 centuries), Aged city with dwellings of 15-18 centuries, churches of Anna (16 century), Peter and Paul (17 century), a cathedral church and a town hall (18 century). Among new residential districts - Lazdinaj (it is ended in 1973).
  • The VILNIUS UNIVERSITY, is based in 1579. In 1832 it is closed. It is recreated in 1919. Plots experts on mathematics, physics, biology, chemistry, economy, etc.; preparation and retraining medical and the teaching personnel. In nach. 90th ok 17 thousand students.
  • VILOM (Vijom) (Vuillaume) Jean Batist (1798-1875), the French tool master. It was glorified by imitations of violins Gvarneri and the Stradivari. His bowes are appreciated.
  • WILSON (Wilson) (Wilson) Harold (1916-1995), the prime minister of the Great Britain in 1964-70 and in 1974-76. The leader of the Labour party in 1963-76.
  • WILSON (Wilson) Kenneth (r. 1936), the American physics - theorist. The main transactionses under the quantitative theory of phase changes. Has introduced the investment in study of critical phenomenas. The Nobel Prize (1982).
  • WILSON (Wilson) Robert Vudrou (r. 1936), the American radar astronomer. The Nobel Prize (1978, together with A.Penziasom) for discovering in 1965 microwave background radiations (relict radiance).
  • WILSON (Wilson) CHarlz Thomson Rice (1869-1959), English physics. Has invented the device for supervision of racetracks of microparticles (expansion chamber). The Nobel Prize (1927).
  • WILSON E. Á. - see Wilson E.B.
  • WILSON the CHAMBER, the first track detector of charged particles. C.Vilsonom in 1912 is invented. Action of a Wilson of the chamber is based on condensation of a supersaturated steam (education of small-sized droplets of a liquid) on the ions originating along a track (racetrack) of a charged particle. It is hereinafter extruded by other track detectors.
  • GROUND VILCHEKA, island in arh. Franz Josef land, in structure of the Russian Federation. 2 thousand êì2. An altitude up to 606 m; almost it is entirely occupied in liner ice.
  • VILSHTETTER Rihard Martin (1872-1942), the german chemist and the biochemist, foreign corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1923), foreign honorary member AN the USSR (1929). With 1939 in Switzerland. The pioneer of probes of vegetative pigments (including chlorophyll and anthocyans). Transactionses on alkaloids, ferments, a photosynthesis. The Nobel Prize (1915).
  • VILJA (Villa) Fransisko (an ice-film. Name Doroteo Arango, Arango; the chief of country motion in a north of Mexico in the season of Mexican revolution 1910-17 is known also under name Pancho Vilja) (1877-1923). In 1916-17 participant of extirpation with foreign intervention. It is killed.
  • VIRGO (an armour. A Virgo), in Other. Rome a name of Grecian goddess Astrei. Also - one of nicknames Diany.
  • VIREN Lasse (r. 1949), the Finnish sportsman. The champion of Olympic Games (1972,1976) in trot race on 5000 and 10000 m.
  • VIRIAL EQUATION OF STATE, equation of state of real gas in which the gas pressure is submitted by the way a polynomial - decompositions on degrees of density of gas. Decomposition values are functions of temperature and call as virial coefficients. The virial equation of state allows to explain numerous experimental outcomes on the basis of prime models of intermolecular interaction in gases.
  • VIRIAT (Viriathus) (?-139 up to n. e.), the shepherd from nation luzitan, the leader in 147-139 antiRoman revolts 154-133 in Spain; it is killed approximated, bribed by Rome.
  • VIRILAD Nikopolsky (Armenian) (mind. ok. 319), the prison warden, has suffered together with a magpie five Christian martyrs in Nikopol Armenian in persecution of emperor Litsinija. Memory in the Orthodox church on July, 10 (23).
  • The VIRION, completely generated virus particle consisting of nucleic acid and a proteinaceous environment (capsid). Keeps and tolerates a genetic material of a virus from one cell to other.
  • TONING, the same, that staining of photographic plotting.
  • BATH-SHEBA, in the Bible one of wives of king David, mother of Solomon.
  • VIRSALADZE Eliso Konstantinovna (r. 1942), the Russian and Georgian pianist, the national actress of the USSR (1989). With 1959 solistka Tbilisi, from 1977 Moscow philarmonic societies. With 1967 teaches in the Moscow conservatory. 1-n the premium at International competition by him. R.Schuman (Zwickau, Germany, 1966), 3-n the premium at International competition by him. P.I.Chajkovskogo (Moscow, 1962).
  • VIRSKY Paul Pavlovich (1905-75), the Ukrainian ballet master, the national actor of the USSR (1960). The organizer of Band of national dance of Ukraine (1937; with 1955 chief). The state premium of the USSR (1950, 1970).
  • VIRT (Wirth) Charles Joseph (1879-1956), in 1921-22 German rejhskantsler. In 1922 has signed (together with V.Ratenau) sovetsko-German Rapallsky the agreement. In 1930-31 Minister of Internal Affairs. After 2-nd world war supported establishment of friendship from the USSR. The international Lenin premium (1955).
  • VIRTA Nikolay Evgenjevich (1906-76), the Russian writer. Novels: the "Loneliness" (1935), semi-officially treating hopelessness antonovshchiny, "Bell vesper" (1951). Plays. The state premium of the USSR (1941, 1948, 1949, 1950).
  • VIRTANEN (Virtanen) Artturi Ilmari (1895-1973), the Finnish biochemist. Has created (1928-1929) method of preservation of green foods ("AIV-METHOD"). Developed methods of preservation of milk and milk food, improved the "know-how" of cheeses. The Nobel Prize (1945).
  • VIRTANEN JAlmari Erikovich (1889-1939), the Karelian poet. Verses on transactionses and a northen country (collections "At a leisure", 1930, " Red kantele ", 1937). It is repressed; it is rehabilitated posthumously.
  • The VIRTUAL STORAGE (apparent computer storage), system of the memory devices organized in such a manner that the programmer can consider them as one major RAM, that essentially simplifies a procedure of drawing up of programs for multiprogram computers.
  • VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS, the same, that possible conveyances.
  • VIRTUAL PARTICLES in a quantum theory of field (KTP), particles in the transient states, existing short time? t which is connected to their power E an indeterminacy relation? t ~ž/E, where ž - the Planck a stationary value. It agrees KTP, interaction of particles implements due to their exchange of different virtual particles (napr., virtual quantums at an electromagnetic interaction of charged particles, virtual intermediate vectorial bosons at weak coupling).
  • The VIRTUOSO (ital. virtuoso, from an armour. virtus - valour, talent), the initiator (the musician is more often), it is masterful possessing technique of art. The person who has reached in-process the maximum degree of skill.
  • INTERNAL JAPANESE PEST (Seto-Najkaj), the pest inside channels between islands of Honshu, Kyushu and Shikoku (Japan). It is bridged with Quiet ok. Kii channels and Bungo, with Japanese m. - prol. Shimonoseki. The area of 18 thousand êì2. The greatest depth of 74 m. Fishery. Main ports - Kobe, Osaka, Modzi, Shimonoseki.
  • INTERNAL DISEASES, diseases of organs of a blood circulation, respiration, digestion, kidneys, metabolism, system of a connective tissue and blood, which treatment are executed by doctors - therapists. The main clinical science investigator these diseases (see has the same title. Therapy).
  • INLAND WATERS (in the international law), all waters, laying within the limits terrains of the given state (except for his territorial waters): the rivers, lakes, channels, channels, water reservoirs t. d. Inland seas, restricted from different directions as a land, component terrain only one state are considered as inland waters also. Ocean waters concern to inland waters (waters of ports, bays, bays) from a reference line of territorial waters of the state aside coasts.
  • INTERNAL TROOPS of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, execute guarding state objects special importances, particular-type loads, correctional labour institutions, etc. In the statutory order participate in guarding the public order (at mass measures, natural disasters, fires, etc.).
  • INLAND SEAS, starving, penetrating pressing in land and reported with ocean or with an accumbent sea channels. Depending on a hydrological regime are divided on inland and intercontinental (napr., Mediterranean, Red) starving.
  • INTERNAL PLAINS, system of meridional hollows between Andes, plateau of Brazil and Patagonia in JUzh. To America, from 10 up to 39 °ju. sh. An altitude from 50 m on the orient up to 600 m in the west. In a north - subequatorial savanna woods and savannahs, at the centre - tropical a thin forest, in the south - subtropical savannahs, prairies and steppes.
  • HOME MARKET, orb of the circulation of the goods within the framework of national economy. See also the Market.
  • " INTERNAL FRONT ", one of large underground anti-fascist organizations in terrain of fascist Germany. It is built in 1941 german communists, the foreign workers stolen to Germany, Soviet voennoplennymi. Led anti-fascist propagation, organized sabotage on industrial enterprises, shoots. The main nucleus is routed by fascists in 1942, separate groups acted till May 1945.
  • INTERNAL GEOMETRY of a surface, set of those its geometrical properties which can be received only through measurements on a surface without the circulation to the amplectant space. Napr., a plane geometry - internal geometry of a plane.
  • INTERNAL MONGOLIA, Independent area of China, see Mongolia Internal.
  • INTERNAL SPEECH, 1) speech, versed to itself, and t. n. The internal program the expressions which are not sold in sounding speech. 2) Artikuljatornye the motions which are not followed with a note (" internal progovarivanie "). Study of internal speech promotes comprehension of regularities of intellection and his relations with speech.
  • DOMESTIC TRADE, the branch of an economy realizing a commodity output on a home market of country.
  • INTERNAL FLEXION, expression of grammar values with the help of alternations radically, napr.: Russian "to collect" (a verb of a perfective aspect) and "to collect" (a verb of an imperfect kind), german trinken - "to drink" and trank - "saws".
  • The INTERNAL FORM of the WORD, the form of the word reflecting it motivation by other tongue elements and consequently explaining his semantic structure. The internal form of the word "seventy" is clear, t. To. Rests on words "seven" and "ten", the internal form of the word "spoilage" (matrimony) in the modern Russian is forgot, t. To. Does not match up already with the word "to take".
  • The INTERNAL ENERGY of a body, develops of a motive energy of molecules of a body and their base units (atoms, electrons, nucleus), interaction energy of atoms in molecules, etc. The internal energy does not include power of motion of a body as the whole and potential energy which the body in any force field (gravity, magnetic, etc.) can have.
  • CHELATES, the same, that inner-complex compounds.
  • CRYSTALLINE FIELD, inhomogeneous electrical (less often magnetic) a field existing inside a crystal both influencing electrons and atomic kernels. Intensity of an electrical crystalline field can exceed 108 V/see.
  • INTRAWELL SLOWDOWN, the method of blasting consisting in non-simultaneous (with an interval in thousand fractions of a second) initiation of separate parts of a deck charge of a blasting explosive in a chink. Improves the quality cleavages of rocks by explosion.
  • INTERTROPICAL CONVERGENCE ZONE, in an atmosphere of tropics bliz equator, between trade winds of Boreal and Austral hemispheres. Width some hundreds in km. From trade winds differs slackening of wind speeds and a snowballing of convection clouds of which a heavy rainfall fall out.
  • SUGGESTION (suggestion), 1) in psychology - influence on the personality, presenting or to occurrence for the person besides his will and consciousness of a fixed condition, feeling, attitude, or to committing by the person of the act which is directly not following from norms received by him and principles of activity. Object of suggestion can be both the separate person, and groups, collectives, social layers (mass suggestion). 2) In medicine - a method of a psychotherapy - targeted verbal influence on psychics ill with the medical purpose. It is carried out in a condition of a wakefulness and in hypnosis.
  • VOCODER (from English voice - a voice and code - a code), a communications system in which the transmitted voice information will be transformed by a sound analyzer to code signals on frequency or on time. Restoration of speech on a receiving end executes the synthesizer of a note. Allows essentially (approximately in 10 times) to compact the communication line at minor deterioration of quality of drive.
  • VOKULER (Vaucouleurs) Gerard Anri de (r. 1918), the American astronomer. Probeed Mars, has developed new grading galaxies, has discovered rotation of a galaxy Major Magellanovo the Cloud, has described an aboriginal superclump of galaxies. The writer of books " Physics of a planet Mars " (1951, Russian transfer 1956), " the Astronomical photo " (1961, Russian transfer 1975), etc.
  • The BULLOCK castrated samets of a large horned stock. It is used as meat and a work animal.
  • VOLAN (frants. volant), 1) a ball finned for the game in badminton. 2) Finish for a coat frock, a blouse, skirts, a stem of a frill.
  • VOLGA (ancient - Ra, in Middle Ages - Itil), the river in the European part of the Russian Federation, the largest in Europe. 3530 kms, the area of basin of 1360 thousand êì2. The beginning on Valdai vozv., the m. runs in Caspian, derivating delta (the area of 19 thousand êì2). Average discharge of water for Volgograd 724 m3 / with, in a mouth - 7710 m3 / with. Volga accepts ok. 200 inflow, the largest - Kama and Oka. In connection with a structure of a coordinated hydroelectric system with water reservoirs a drainage of Volga hardly zaregulirovan. The largest river plants - Volga (Kujbyshevskaja), Volga (Volgograd), CHeboksarskaja. Regular navigation from Rzhev (3256 kms). Volga is bridged to Baltic m. A Volga-Baltic waterway, with White m. - Severodvinsk water system and the Belomorsko-Baltic channel, with Azov and Black seas - the Volga-Don shipping canal, with Moscow - the channel him. Moscow. On Volga - large cities Tver, Yaroslavl, N.Novgorod, Kazan, Ulyanovsk, Samara, Saratov, Volgograd, Astrakhan. In a bass. Volga reservations: Volzhsko-Kamsky, ZHigulevsky, Astrakhan; natural national park Samara the Onions. As a result of man impacts the environmental setting has sharply worsened; search of scientifically reasonable ways of restoration of natural complexes of Volga is conducted.
  • VOLGIN Vyacheslav Petrovich (1879-1962), the Russian historian, academician AN the USSR (1930). Transactionses on a history of socialist and communist ideas domarksova the season. The lenin premium (1961).
  • VOLGO, the lake largest in system Verhnevolzhskih of lakes on Valdai vozv. 61 êì2.
  • VOLGA-BALTIC WATERWAY (. Mariinsky water system), in the Russian Federation. Bridges Volga to Baltic m., and through the Belomorsko-Baltic channel with White m. Passes through Rybinsk vdhr. Up to Cherepovets, r. Sheksna, Belozersky the channel, r. Kovzha, the Mariinsky channel, r. Vytegra, the Onega channel, r. Svir, Ladoga an eskar. And r. Neva. Mariinsky water system sooruzhena in nach. 19 century; with 1964, after native born renovation, - the Volga-Baltic waterway. Length ok. 1100 kms, depth not less than 4 m. Court up to 5000 t.
  • VOLGOGRAD (up to 1925 Tsaritsyn, up to 1961 Stalingrad), the city - hero in the Russian Federation, the centre of the Volgograd region. A port on Volga. Initial point of the Volga-Don shipping canal. A railway junction. 1005 thousand inhabitants (1992). A machine industry (a software: " the Volgograd tractor plant ", "Barricades", etc.) and metal working, black (factory " Red October ", etc.) and nonferrous machine industry, chemical and petrochemical, wood-working, a building materials, mild, a food-processing industry. Bliz Volgograd - the Volga (Volgograd) river plant. 7 high schools (including 3 universities), 5 theatres. Museums (monument - band to " Heroes Stalingradskoj of battle " on Mamayev a tumulus, the Museum of the defence, study of local lore, fine arts, etc.). It is based in 1589, with 1615 on the modern place. Within Great Domestic war almost it completely eroded, recovered under the general plan (1945).
  • The VOLGOGRAD RANGE, in the Russian Federation, 113,9 thousand êì2. The population of 2643 thousand person (1992), urban 76 %. 19 cities, 32 urban settlements (1989.) Center - Volgograd. The river Volga divides range on a raised Right bank (an altitude up to 358 ì) and low Zavolzhje. Mean temperatures of January from-8 up to-12 °S, July 23 °S. A rainfall ok. 350 mm annually. The main rivers - Volga and Don. Production of gas and petroleum; oil refining, chemical and a petrochemical industry, a machine industry (tractors, court, bearings, the industrial equipment, etc.), black and nonferrous machine industry; a building materials, wood-working, mild, a food-processing industry. The Volga (Volgograd) river plant. Crops of wheat and other grain, sunflower, mustard. A melon production (watermelons), a vegetable raising. A fruit growing. An irrigation farming. Meat-and-milk cattle breeding, a sheep raising. Navigation across Volga, Don, the Volga-Don channel.
  • The VOLGOGRAD THEATRE him. M.Gorkogo, drama, is based in 1918.
  • The VOLGOGRAD UNIVERSITY, is based in 1980. Plots experts on physical and mathematical sciences, philologies, histories. In 1991 over 3 thousand students.
  • The VOLGOGRAD WATER RESERVOIR, on r. Volga. It is derivated by a dam of the Volga (Volgograd) river plant. It is filled in in 1958-1961. The area 3117 êì2, volume 31,5 êì3, length of 540 kms, an extreme breadth of 17 kms. Navigation. It is used for water supply and an irrigation. Fishery. Ports: Saratov, Kamyshin.
  • VOLGODONSK, city (with 1956) in the Russian Federation, the Rostov region, a port on TSimljanskom vdhr. A depot. 182 thousand inhabitants (1992.) softwares of a nuclear power machine industry "Atommash"; chemical, a food-processing industry. A study of local lore museum.
  • The VOLGO-URAL OIL-AND-GAS-BEARING PROVINCE, on the orient is limited to Ural, in the south - Prikaspijskoj a hollow, in a north - Timanskim a block, in the west - Sysolskim, Kotelnicheskim, Tokmovskim vaults and the Voronezh mass. A gross area of 700 thousand êì2. It is open over 900 petroleum and 50 gas fields. Industrial deposits are dated for adjournments of Devonian, Carbon and permi. Major deposits: Romashkinskoe, Orenburg, Tujmazinskoe, SHkapovskoe, Arlanskoe, etc.
  • VOLZHANSKIE (an ice-film. fam. Volzhankiny), family of circus performers, tightrope dancers. The chief of number - Vladimir Aleksandrovich (1917-83), the national actor of the USSR (1979). Has developed the instrumentation changing a discharge angle of chain cables, has given the composite ekvilibristicheskomu to amusement romantic character. Partners - members of family Volzhanskih. The state premium of the USSR (1978).
  • VOLZHSK (up to 1940 settlements. Lopatino), city in the Russian Federation, Republic of Maries El, landing stage on Kujbyshevskom vdhr. A depot. 62,5 thousand inhabitants (1992). A machine industry and metal working; pulp and paper and a woodworking industry.
  • The VOLGA MILITARY FLOTILLA, in June 1918 - July 1919 participat in breakages with White Guards on Volga and Kama, then part of the Volzhsko-Caspian military flotilla. During Great Domestic war existed in October 1941 - June 1944, participat in Stalingradskoj to battle.
  • VOZNITSYN Procopies Bogdanovich, the Russian diplomat kon. 17-íà÷. 18 centuries the Participant of Great embassy 1697-98 and Karlovitskogo a congress 1698-99. In 1699 Voznitsyn has concluded advantageous Russia armistice with Ottoman empire. The chief of the Apothecaries order (with 1699).
  • VOZNICHY (an armour. Auriga), mia maid of Boreal hemisphere with a bright aster the Chapel.
  • ITERATED ENERGY SOURCES, sources continuously iterated in ecumene of the Earth of kinds of power - solar, wind, oceanic, hydraulic power of the rivers. Iterated energy sources are non-polluting; they also do not result in a makeup heat of a planet (therefore call not adding).
  • VOZOK, an arcaded covered winter carriage on sabots.
  • INCREASE AND DECREASING of FUNCTION, concept of a calculus. Function f (x) calls increasing on a cutting [a, b], if for any pair of points x1 and x2, a? x1
  • AGE STRUCTURE of the POPULATION, ratio of number of miscellaneous age groups of the population. Depends on levels of birth rate and mortality, lifetime of people. In 1990 population in the age of up to 15 flying compounded (in the world) 32 %, 15-64 flying - 62 %, 65 flying and is more higher - than 6 %.
  • "REVITALIZATION", 1) Russian periodical, the London: the weekly newspaper (1926-35), a weekly journal (1936-40). Editor P.B.Struve, the master literary critic - V.F.Khodasevich (with 1927). 2) Russian literary - political magazine, " an organ of Russian national idea ", 1949-74, Paris. Among editors - I.I.Thorzhevsky, S.P.Melgunov, S.S.Obolensky.
  • REVITALIZATION (Renaissance), the season in cultural and ideological development of countries Zap. And Cent. Europe (in Italy 14-16 centuries, in other countries kon. 15-16 centuries), transient from medieval crop to crop of new time. Distinctive features of crop of Revitalization: society, anticlerical character, humanistic world outlook (see. Humanism), the circulation to a cultural heritage of antiquity, as though his "revitalization" (from here the title). Revitalization has arisen and was most brightly exhibited in Italy, where already on a boundary of 13-14 centuries (see. Protorenessans) it provozvestnikami poet Dante, artist Dzhotto have acted, etc. Creativity of revivalists proniknuto belief in boundless capabilities of the person, his will and reason, denial of scholasticism and asceticism (humanistic ethics of Italians Lorentso Vally, Piko della Mirandoly, etc.) . The fervor of the statement of an ideal of the harmonic, liberated creative person, beauty and harmony of a real, the circulation to the person as to the divine principle of life, sensation of integrity and orderly regularity of universe give art of Revitalization major ideological significance, a majestic heroic scale. In the architecture the leading part society structures - become to play public buildings, palaces, urban houses. Using order partitioning of a wall, arch passageways, collonnades, vaults, domes, architects (Brunelleski, Alberti, Bramante, Palladio in Italy, Lescaut, Delorm in France) have given the block constructions majestic clearness, a harmonicity and a proportionality to the person. Artists (Donatello, Mazachcho, the Pierrot della Francheska, Mantenja, Leonardo yes Vinci, Rafael, Mikelandzhelo, Titsian, Veronese, Tintoretto in Italy; JAn van Ejk, Rogir van der Vejden, Brejgel in Netherlands; Djurer, Nithardt, Holbejn in Germany; Fuke, the Screw rivet, Klue in France) in succession took possession of art reflectance of all oof of a real - drive of volume, the space, light, the plotting of a human figure (century t. Hours exposed) and substantial medium - an interior, a landscape. The literature of Revitalization has created such monuments of lasting value, as " Gargantjua and Pantagrjuel " (1533-52) Rabelaises, Shakespeare dramas, the novel " Don Kihot " (1605-15) Servantesa, etc., organo united interest to antiquity with the circulation to national crop, fervor of comic life with tragic element. Petrarca sonnets, short stories Bokkachcho, heroic poem Ariosto, a philosophical block type (tract Erazma Rotterdamskogo " the Praise of Nonsense ", 1511), Montaigne essay in miscellaneous genres, personal forms and national versions have embodied ideas of Revitalization. In the music inpouring humanistic attitude, vocal and tool polyphony develops, there are new genres society vocal (frottola and villanella in Italy, viljansiko in Spain, a ballad in England, a madrigal) and tool music; epoch is finished by occurrence of such musical genres, as a solo song, a cantata, an oratorio and the opera, contributing the statement of a homophony. In Renaissance philosophical ideas neoplatonizma (Fichino) and panteizma (Patritsi, were distributed by Bruno, etc.), given away discoveries in range of geography (Great geographycal discoverings), astronomies (development of heliocentric world system by Kopernik), anatomy (Vezaly) have been made.
  • SOLDIERS Konstantin Naumovich (r. 1918), the Russian film director, the national actor of the USSR (1989). Productions of films: " to Troy have quitted from a wood " (1958), "is young - is green" (1962), " Marriage Balzaminova " (1965), " Djadjushkin dream " (1967), "Rudin" (1977), a documentary " the Holiday of sport and the world " (1985).
  • The COMPULSORY SERVICE, the statutory responsibility of the population (it is routine about 18 flying) to bear a military service in armed forces of the country. For the first time compulsory service is entered in 1798 in France (konskriptsija).
  • MILITARY UNIT, organizational do-it-yourself battle and an administrative unit in all kinds of armed forces (shelves, the ship of 1-st, 2-nd and 3-rd rank, a separate batallion, a division, a squadron, a company). Military unit are appropriated the true name (napr., 3-rd tank shelves) and a code name (napr., an army part 55555).
  • MILITARY HONOURS, development of respect (respect) on the part of servicemen or military units. Military honours can be returned at meeting and wires of representatives of foreign states. For rendering military honour the guard of honour and an orchestra are nominated.
  • MILITARY HONORARY NAMES, one of kinds of awards of military connections, parts, the ships, establishments, military schools. To military honorary names concern: names in commemoration of historical events, in honour of state and public organizations, state, military figures, under titles of cities, the rivers, etc. where data of connection, parts were distinguished in breakages.
  • MILITARY PRESENCE, at Russia at 1874-1917 provincial (regional), district (circumferential) and urban establishments, vedavshie affairs of compulsory service.
  • The MILITARY CHIEF, in Russia about 1874 face heading an organ of aboriginal military steering in province (up to 1881) and district (up to 1918); knew an aboriginal troops, military - mobilization and registration - draft activity.
  • VOIN, old russian city of 10-13 centuries on Dnepr. Residues detintsa with wooden walls, the bank and a pit, housing economic constructions (site Voini is overflowed with waters Kremenchug vdhr.).
  • FELTED CLOTH (turki)., a textile, receive a felting woollen (less often mineral and chemical) filaments, and also from a mineral wool (on a bituminous sheaf). Use primarily as flimsy, it is warm also a sound-insulating material.
  • The WAR, the organized armed extirpation between the states, the nations (peoples), social groups. In war armed forces as a main and decisive means, and also economic, political, ideological and other means of strife are used. War between social groups inside country for the government calls as a civil war. For last in 5,5 thousand flying was ok. 14,5 thousand major and small wars (including two world) during which has perished, has died of epidemies and famine over 3,6 billion person. In the modern conditions in connection with the terminal of " cool war " danger of world nuclear war has decreased. However are prolonged t. n. Local wars - military conflicts, the bound with religious, territorial and national spores, breeding roznju, etc. The International community, the United Nations aspire to building a system of relations between the states, eliminating a threat of force and its application.
  • WAR IN VIETNAM the Widespread title of the second indokitajskoj wars (1965-75) including Democratic Republic Vietnam (DRV) and the United States of America. First indokitajskaja war (1945-54) has concluded a defeat of France, a time division of Vietnam under Geneva agreements 1954 on Indochina on two parts in which terrain independent states with a different political formation - Democratic Republic Vietnam with capital in Hanoi in a north afterwards have been professed and Republic Vietnam with capital in Saigon - on juge.------the Beginning of war------the Prologue of war become events in gulf of Tongking bliz coasts of Vietnam in August 1964 when, under the statement of official Washington, motor torpedo-boats DRV attacked the ships of a VTR the USA, and a congress the USA has adopted a resolution, giving to the president of L. The right to use the American armed forces in Southeast Azii.------In March 1965 administration of a Johnson has directed a Johnson military quota on terrain of Austral Vietnam for his protection against measures received by Boreal Vietnam on association of Vietnam by force of arms. In bridge 1965 USA have begun massive bombings terrain DRV with February to force communist leaders to refuse in Hanoi support of forces, consolidated in December 1960 in National front of discharging of Austral Vietnam (NFOJUV), acting against a pro-Western mode in Saigon. Afterwards act of war have covered terrain not only naturally Vietnam, but also adjacent from nymas of Laos and Cambodia (from here and its second title).------From party DRV act of war have taken the form of large-scale guerilla operations in terrain of Austral Vietnam with the participation active armed forces DRV against armed forces of Austral Vietnam and his ally the USA. Besides massive bombings Boreal Vietnam the USA lent support to Saigon in realization of military operations against the guerrilla, granted economic pomoshch.------the Parisian peace talks------To the beginning 1968 war has reached the deadlock: any of the parties did not manage to decide tasks in view. In May 1968 in Paris, originally only between the USA and DRV, and then, peace talks have begun from January 1969, including representatives sajgonskogo a mode and NFOJUV. However act of war in terrain of Vietnam kept and during the Parisian peace talks on Vjetnamu.------After more than four flying of negotiations, on January, 27 1973 administration the USA headed by R.Nixon, loosened internal political crisis (" Uotergejtskoe business "), has gone on a signing of an agreement with DRV about conditions of a breeding of the troops from Vietnam. In February - March 1973 in Paris the international conference across Indochina, consolidated the Parisian nonpredatory agreements on the arrest of war and maintenance of the world in Vietnam, the signed USA and by Republic (Austral) Vietnam, on the one hand, both DRV and NFOJUV, with other was comprised. The unsuccessful and long-lived act of war accompanied with major loss, have generated in the American society t. n. " The Vietnamese set of symptoms ", i.e. sharp neprijatie sharing of the American soldiers in foreign military conflicts, what purposes this sharing not obosnovyvalos.------War in Vietnam would keep, however, during two flying, already between Boreal Vietnam in the union with NFOJUV and sajgonskim a mode headed by general Nguen Van Thieu. She was finished in April 1975 years as a result of vernal approach of armed forces DRV both battle parts NFOJUV and fall of capital of the South - Saigon. The authority in terrain of Austral Vietnam has passed to temporary revolutionary government of Republic Austral Vietnam.------the Role of the USSR------During all ten flying of the conflict of the USSR rendered DRV the diversiform help, aspiring to intensifying the influence in Indochina and to slackening the USA, the main rival in " cool war ". If up to the introduction the USA in war the Soviet support DRV limited basically economic complementation since the spring 1965 in the aggregate volume of an eaid has become to build up specific weight of military deliveries to Hanoi. Already to 1968 USSR has taken a leading rule among the countries supporting DRV, having pushed aside the Chinese National Republic on the second place. Simultaneously the USSR made efforts for the resolution of conflict in Vietnam a diplomatic way, being afraid of possible global crisis and being is interested (in conditions of an exacerbation of dissents with the Chinese communists) in "discharge" international naprjazhennosti.------Ëèòåðàòóðà:------Cats of L. Â., Egors R.S.Boevaja solidarity, the brotherly help. Ì., 1970.------Mhitarjan Ñ., Mhitarjan T.Vjetnamskaja revolution: Problems of the theory and practice. Ì., 1986.------Cooper Ch. The Lost Crusade: America in Vietnam. New York, 1970.------Kolko G. Anatomy of a War: Vietnam, the United States, and the Modern Historical Experience. New York, 1985.------Smith R. B. An International History of the Vietnam War. London, 1985.------Kahin G. M. Intervention: How America Became Involved in Vietnam. New York, 1986.------Pike D. Vietnam and the Soviet Union: Anatomy of an Alliance. Boulder, 1987.------Gibbons W. C. The U. S. Government and the Vietnam War: Executive and Legislative Roles and Relationships. Washington, 1988. P. 3.------I.V.Gajduk
  • AIRWAY (airline), the space overland by the way a corridor within the limits of which flights are executed, procured airfield and terraneous radio aids.
  • AIRBORNE TROOPS (VDV), the arm of the ground forces, intended for paradrop (transplantation) from air in back of the opponent and management of operations. VDV will consist of air-borne, tank, ammunition, samohodno-ammunition and other parts and subdividings.
  • AIR HEATING, heating of rooms feed in them of heated air. Distinguish warm-air heating systems: recirculation (in which exhaust air returns in a Cowper blast air heater for reheating) and combined with ventilation.
  • AIR LAW, the body of laws, (national and international), regulating the order of use of an airspace, air removals and reports. In an orb of an air law the considerable figure of international double-end and multilateral agreements acts. The Chicago convention 1955, directed on a strengthening of security of international air reports is most known. To an air law concern the convention on extirpation with stealing civil aircrafts, etc.
  • AIR-BREATHING ENGINE (VRD), the jet engine using for squeeze combustible oxygen of free air. On a way of squeeze of air distinguish turbokompressornyj (TRD), pulsing (PuVRD) and straight-flow (PVRD) engines.
  • AIR BATHS, kind of an air-cure: dosed influence of air on an exposed body, protecting from a direct sunlight.
  • AIR MASSES, large uniform (in a horizontal direction) parts of a troposphere. Are disjointed by atmospheric fronts. In system of general atmosphere circulation air masses move as a unit, determining largely a mode of weather. Distinguish masses arctic (or antarctic), polar, tropical and an equatorial air.
  • AIRSHED, airspace within the limits of terrain of an occupied point or industrial enterprise. Conditionally it is considered to be high bound of an airshed passing above the highest building or a structure.
  • AIR TRANSPORT, see. The transport.
  • The AIR FILTER, ministers for dust element of air given to rooms ventilating systems and conditioning or used in fabrication systems and machines. Air filters with a fibrous, lubricated or spongy filter medium are distributed.
  • CAPABILITY AND REAL, the philosophical grades expressing basic shells of development of subjects and the phenomena; a capability - the tendency of development of a subject; a real - is objective existing subject as outcome of realization of some capability. Distinguish the abstract, or formal (for which implementation there are no all necessary conditions), and substantial (having for the realization by all necessary conditions) capabilities.
  • POSSIBLE CONVEYANCES (virtual displacements), infinitesimal conveyances which can commit points of a mechanical system from time of a rule taken by them at present, not upsetting the communications imposed on system (see. Communications mechanic).
  • POSSIBLE CONVEYANCES the PRINCIPLE, for a mechanical equilibrium it is necessary and enough that the sum of activities of all forces operational on system at any possible conveyance of system was peer to zero. Possible conveyances the principle is applied at study of equilibrium conditions of the composite mechanical systems (mechanisms, machines).
  • DISTURBANCES MAGNETIC, jumps of a magnetic field of the Earth, distinguished from magnetic variations the sudden beginning and stormy passing. An example - magnetic storms.
  • ASCENSION, one of religious dvunadesjatyh holidays, it is established in honour of ascension of the Christ on the root. It is celebrated by believers for 40-th day after Passover.
  • VOZNESENSK, city (with 1938) on Ukraine, the Nikolaev region. Landing stage on r. JUzh. Bug. A depot. 44,4 thousand inhabitants (1991). A flavoring industry. Tanning association, factory of press clusters, etc. It is based in 1795.
  • VOZNESENSKAJA Julia (an ice-film. A name Julia Nikolaevna Okulova) (r. 1940), the Russian writer. With 1980 in emigration in Germany. Started as the poetess. In 1976 it has been sentenced to 5 years of the reference. In sketches " the Note from a water hose " (1979), " Women camp in the USSR " (1980), " the Camomile white " (1982), the book " the Women Decameron " (1987), founded on a documentary material, tells about a humiliating rule of women in the Soviet camps. The story " the Aster Chernobyl " (1987). Autobiographical lyrics.
  • VOZNESENSKY Andrey Andreevich (r. 1933), the Russian poet, the academician of the Russian Open Society (1993). In lyrics - tendency "to measure" the modern person grades and modes of a world civilization; extravagance of comparisons and metaphors, complicatedness of rhythmic system, acoustical effects. Collections: " the Triangular pear " (1962), "Antiworlds" (1964), " Vitrazhnyh businesses the master " (1976; the State premium of the USSR, 1978), " the Postulate of the self-claim " (1990). Poems of "Master" (1959), "Lonzhjumo" (1963), "Eskar" (1964), "Perhaps" (1972; a rock opera " JUnona and Perhaps ", production 1981), "Pit" (1986). Memuarnaja prose, publicism; the book " Head foremen of spirit " (1984).
  • VOZNESENSKY Ivan Nikolaevich (1887-1946), the Russian scientist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1939). The main transactionses on a hydromachine industry (supervised over designing and construction of potent turbines and pompes) and to automatic regulation (vapor prime movers and boilers). The state premium of the USSR (1947, posthumously).
  • VOZNESENSKY Nikolay Alekseevich (1903-50), the Russian political figure, academician AN the USSR (1943). In 1938-41, 1942-49 chairman of the State plan of the USSR. In 1946-49 vice-president Council of Ministers of the USSR. The member of a Central Committee of the CPSU in 1939-49. The member of the Political bureau in 1947-49 (the candidate with 1941). The book " Military economy of the USSR in the season of Domestic war " (1947). The state premium of the USSR (1948). It is repressed (see " the Leningrad business "); it is rehabilitated posthumously.