Friday, May 18, 2007

  • BARBARITY, in the cultural - historical periodization adopted in science of 18-19 centuries, mean from three epoch of a history of mankind: wildness, barbarity, a civilization. The scheme is justified by L.G.Morgan. Barbarity starts with the invention of earthenware manufacture and is finished by occurrence of writing. In the modern science the new periodization of a virgin history is developed. Figuratively - marginal cruelty, roughness.
  • BARBARIANS (grech. barbaroi), for ancient Greeks and rimljan the title of all strangers speaking on not clear them tongues and alien their crop (germen, etc.). Figuratively - rough, uncivilized, severe people.
  • VARGA Eugeny Samuilovich (1879-1964), the Russian economist, academician AN the USSR (1939). Headed Institute of the world economy and world politics (1927-47). The main transactionses in range of political economy of a capitalism. The lenin premium (1963).
  • VARGAN, samozvuchashchy shchipkovyj a musical instrument by the way horseshoes (or a plate) with a metal uvula attached to her. At âàðãàí game hold down to tooths. Under different titles it is distributed for many peoples.
  • VARGAS (Vargas) ZHetuliu Dornelis (1883-1954), the president of Brazil in 1930-45 and 1951-54. In 1937 has placed a mode of " the new state " on a sample of fascist Italy. In 1945 has based Brazilian trabaljistskuju (working) consignment. Promoted development of public sector in an industry.
  • VARGAS LOSA (Vargas Llosa) Mario (r. 1936), the Peruvian writer. Novels " City and dogs " (1963), " the Green dwelling " (1966), " Captain Pantaleon and a company of good offices " (1974), " Tetushka Hulija and pisaka " (1977), in stories "Cubs" (1967) is realistically figured a household activities of miscellaneous public layers, the protest against the social breach of justice is expressed. Plays (" Keti and a hippopotamus ", 1983). The president of Froth - club (1976-79).
  • VARGAFTIK Natan Borisovich (1904-94), Russian scientists - thermal physics, Dr.Sci.Tech. (1952). Transactionses in range thermodynamic and physical properties of gases and liquids. The state premium of the USSR (1950).
  • VARDA (Varda) Anjes (r. 1928), the French film director. Started as the photographer - reporter. Its creativity is noted by a sharpness of a problematics and experiments in range of film-tongue. At kino debuted shorts " Puent Kurt " (1955) which has been called as " the first film " new wave " later. In 1958 has delivered innovative film " Kleo from 5-òè up to 7-ìè " which art time equalled time of demonstrating. Film removed in a documentary manner " Without krova, outside of the law " has received a prize " the Golden lion " on the Venetian film festival in 1985.
  • VARDAN AJGEKTSI, the Armenian fabulist and the ecclesiast kon. 12 - nach. 13 centuries. Messages and the sermons including fables - parables, have laid foundation t. n. " Vardanovskim to collections ". The part of manuscripts is issued in Amsterdam (1668) under the title " the Fox book ".
  • VARDANJAN Jury Norajrovich (r. 1956), the Armenian sportsman (weightlifting), the deserved master of sport (1977). The champion of Olympic Games (1980), the world (1977-81, 1985), Europe (1977, 1978, 1980, 1981), the USSR (1977, 1979-82) in miscellaneous weight grades.
  • VARDAR (Vardar), the river in Macedonius and Greeces, runs into a hall. Termaikos Egejskogo m. 388 kms, the area of basin of 25,4 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water 151 m3 / with. On Vardare - Skopje (capital of Republic of Macedonius).
  • VARDERESJAN Vartui Karapetovna (r. 1928), the Armenian actress, the national actress of the USSR (1988). In 1948-57 in Leninakanskom theatre, with 1958 at Theatre him. Sundukjana. Acted in film.
  • VARDESAN (Bar - Dajshan) (ok. 154 - ok. 222), the syrian poet, the religious thinker - heretic. Was under influence of the babylonian mythology and astronomy. The writer psalmov and chorals.
  • VARDZIA, a cave monastery (it is constructed in 1156-1205) in a gorge r. The hen, in 70 kms to the south from. Borzhomi. Some hundreds rooms cut in a rock, coherent courses. In main church - paintings with George portraits III and Tamaras.
  • VARDHAMANA MAHAVIRA (6-5 centuries up to n. e.), the old indian ecclesiast, the founder dzhajnizma.
  • VAREZ Edgar (1883-1965), the American composer, the conductor and the musical - public figure. By origin the Frenchman, with 1915 worked in the USA. One of osnovatelej International guild of composers (1921). Experimented in range of electronic and concrete music (the play "Integrals", 1923; "Ionization", 1931; "Equatorial", 1934).
  • VARELA (Varela) Alfredo (1914-84), the Argentina writer, the public figure. Roman about hired labourers " the Dark river " (1943), the book " the Argentina journalist in Soviet Union " (1950), " Cuba revolutionary " (1960), a poem " Inexhaustible fertilizer " (1967). The member of World Advice of World (VSM) with 1950, in 1969-1974 secretary of World Advice of the World. The international Lenin premium (1972).
  • It is COOKED (Varena) (up to 1917 official title Orany), city in Lithuania, on r. Markis. A depot. 12,6 thousand inhabitants (1990). A wood-working, alimentary (canning) industry; manufacture of a building materials. It is known from 15 century.
  • VARENIUS (Varenius) Bernhardus (an ice-film. A name and fam. Bernhard It is cooked, Varen) (1622-1650?), the Netherlands geographer. The writer of " Overall geography " (1650) in which in system of knowledge of the Earth for the first time has secured geography.
  • VARENTSOV Michael Ivanovich (1902-77), the Russian geologist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1953). The main transactionses on petroleum geology.
  • VEJL (Vail) (Weill) Kurt (1900-50), the german composer. Cooperated to playwrights G.Kajzerom, B.Brecht. Scenic products: " Three-cheap opera " (1928), " Elevation and fall of city of the Mahagony " (1930), etc. In 1935 has emigrated in the USA where wrote music for broadway theatres, including musicals. Has created new phylum of a burning satirical drama with music.
  • VEJL (Weil) Simon (1909-43), the French social and religious philosopher, mistik. After german occupation of Paris in 1940 ran to Marseilles, then in the USA and the Great Britain, participat on the move Resistance. Compositions - " Burden and grace ", " Requirement for rooting ", " Expectation of the God ".
  • VEJMARN Boris Vladimirovich (1909-90), the Russian historian of art, the art critic, the full member AH the USSR (1973). Transactionses on art of countries of the Orient.
  • The WEIMAR REPUBLIC, the German state in 1919-33 which according to the constitution of Germany adopted on July, 31 1919 in Weimar by National assembly (it is selected in January 1919), was konstituirovano in the form of democratic parliamentary federative republic: the chief of state - the elective president, rejhstag, izbiravshijsja a universal suffrage, had more large powers, than in kajzerovskoj Germany, the president nominated rejhskantslera (head of government). In 1919-33 the cabinet council was replaced 21 times, 8 times was re-elected rejhstag (including 4 times in 1930-33). In conditions of an exacerbation of the left-handed and dextral political radicalism, and also growth of the separatism and slackening of centralism (Bavaria, etc.) In the Weimar republic in 1919-23 the runaway inflation developed, there was an acute economic crisis. Despite of relative stabilization of economy in 1924-28 with the help of foreign loans and credits (in 1926 Germany has entered League of the nations), in country state and public crisis which was aggravated on a background of a world economic crisis 1929-33 built up. About 1929 economic life in the Weimar republic it has been paralysed, the figure of unemployed has constituted over 6 million person. At elections in rejhstag in July 1932 Natsional-sotsialistskaja the consignment has received 230 deputy places from 601 (at elections in November 1932 - 196 of 584). On January, 30 1933 rejhskantslerom has become the chapter of this consignment of A.Gitler that marked itself an end of the Weimar republic.
  • The WEIMAR SCHOOL (" novonemetskoe a direction "), creative association of german musicians. Has arisen in it is grey. 19 century in Weimar. Representatives of the Weimar school led by F.Listom contrasted themselves to the academic Leipzig school, struggled for romantic musical art, updating of the musical forms on the basis of the musical programmnosti.
  • The WEIMAR CLASSICISM, see. A classicism Weimar.
  • VEJMER (Veimer) Arnold (1903-77), the Estonian economist, academician AN of Estonia (1967), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1973). In 1924-38 in prisons of Estonia. With 1944 chairman SNK, Council of Ministers of Estonia, with 1957 chairman SNH, with 1965 vice-president of SM of Estonia. With 1968 president AN of Estonia.
  • VEJMUTOVA the PINE, a tree from a stem a pine. A trunk direct, high (up to 60 ì), conifer needle glaucous-green. Rhodinum - the Sowing. America. In Europe since 17 century as wood and park crop. Wood is used in construction, in furniture, a papermaking.
  • VAYNE (Vane) John Robert (r. 1927), the English chemist and the pharmacologist. The main probes on secretion of Prostaglandinums and study of their chemistry and biochemistry. The Nobel Prize (1982, together with S.Bergstremom and B.Samuelsonom).
  • VEJNAHSKIE TONGUES, see. Nahskie tongues.
  • VEJNBERG Peter Isaevich (1831-1908), the Russian poet, a translator, the journalist. Transfers from Dante, U.Shakespeare, I.V.Gete, F.Schiller, etc. (all - more than 60 european and American writers). Comic and satirical verses (the collection " Comic poems of Heine from Tambov ", 1863).
  • VEJNGARTNER (Vajngartner) (Weingartner) Feliks a background (1863-1942), the german and Austrian conductor, the composer. Has become famous as the interpretive program of products of L.Beethoven, G.Berlioz, R.Wagner, A.P.Borodina, P.I.Chajkovskogo.
  • VEJNINGER (Weininger) Otto (1880-1903), the Austrian philosopher, the writer of the book " the Floor and character " (1903), using sensational success in Austria and Germany in the first decades of 20 century. Has in a pointed manner committed suicide in the dwelling where Beethoven has deceased.
  • VEJOVIS (Vediovis, Vedius) (an armour. Veiovis), in Roman mythology htonicheskoe the godhood which cult drained with cult Dispatera.
  • VEJOPATIS (Vejpons, Vejdievs), in the Lithuanian mythology the god of a wind.
  • WEISS (Weiss) Vojtseh (1875-1950), the Polish painter and the schedule. Portraits and genre scenes with features of impressionism; the composition "Manifest" (1950) dedicated professing of a new authority in Poland.
  • WEISS Pierre Ernest (1865-1940), French physics. In 1907 has stated a hypothesis about existence in ferromagnetic substance of an internal magnetic field (a molecular field of Weiss) and ferromagnetic domains. One of writers of the law of Curie - Weiss. Has discovered magnetokalorichesky effect.
  • VEJSBAH (Weisbach) JUlius (1806-71), german the mechanics, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1855). Transactionses on applied mechanics and a descriptive geometry. Has developed the theory of a drive, in particular, the theory of toothings.
  • VEJSBERG Vladimir Grigorjevich (1924-85), the Russian artist and the theorist of art, one of master masters of " informal art ". Kept a line of " a metaphysical still-life " (in spirit Dzh. Morandi), leading up the picturesque compositions 1970-80-Õ (in a manner " white on white ") almost up to a full pointlessness of flickering light fields with "ghosts" of things bleeding through in them.
  • The WALKING CRANE, strelovoj a rotary crane on a column which is established on 2-4-êîëåñíûõ the carriages transposed on one rail. The top of a column is retained by rollers in two balks. Carrying capacity up to 10 t, a flying out of a boom of 3-7 m.
  • BICYCLE SPORT, races on a racetrack, highway, a uneven terrain, and also competition in figurate driving and the game in a ball on velocipedes - velobol and velopolo. Has engendered in Europe in 1860th. In the program of Olympic Games with 1896; world championships on a racetrack with 1893, on highway with 1921, in enclosed spaces with 1929, on cross-country with 1950; Europe - only on races in enclosed spaces with 1930. In the International union of bicyclists (UCI; it is based in 1900) 152 countries (1991).
  • VELS (Vielona), in Baltic mythology htonicheskoe the godhood guarding showers died. Was considered also as the god of cattle.
  • VELUND, in the Scandinavian mythology the close smith to gods about which destiny it is told in " to the Song about Velunde " in " the Higher Edda ".
  • The WHALEBOAT (from English whale-boat - the whaling boat), express 4-8-âåñåëüíàÿ the boat with acute educations of naze and a stern. Distinguish razezdnye and rescue. Were applied in a whale - fishery.
  • VELVA, in the Scandinavian mythology providitsa; about existence for ancient germen of the women - prophetesses honored as the godhood, Roman historian Tatsit mentions. In " the Higher Edda " a mouth velvy transmits the story about an origin of gods and the future extremity of the world (" Oracle Velvy ").
  • VELVET FABRIC (velveteen) (from English velvet - a velvet), dense cotton or a synthetic fabric having on front face longitudinal scars from weft nap (a velvet fabric - cord - broad, a velvet fabric - scar - fine-bored). From a velvet fabric sew jackets, costumes, etc.
  • VELVETON, an all-over-colored closely woven fabric with the mild heavy-bodied combed nap on a front face. Apply primarily to sewing sport wear.
  • WELWITSCHIA, stem of gymnosperms of a set velvichievyh. 1 kind, in deserts on a southwest of Africa. The trunk a dia up to 1,2 m hardly acts above ground; 2 remnevidnyh coriaceous creeping a leaf (length of 2-3 m, sometimes up to 8 m, width up to 1,8 ì). Lives up to 2000 flying.
  • BEELZEBUB, in the New testament a name of the chapter of demons.
  • VELMO, the river in west Vost. Siberia, the left-handed in-leak of Stony Tunguska. 504 kms, the area of basin of 33,8 thousand êì2. It is navigable from a mouth r. Teja.
  • VELSK, city (with 1780) in the Russian Federation, the Archangelical region, for a lockin r. Vel in r. A crowbar. A depot. 26,8 thousand inhabitants (1992). Lesoobrabatyvajushchaja, a woodchemical industry; machine works; meat and milk combines. A study of local lore museum. It is known with 1137.
  • "VELT" (" Die Welt "), the daily newspaper in Germany, with 1946, Hamburg.
  • VELTMAN Alexander Fomich (1800-70), the Russian writer, corresponding member Petersburg AN (1854). In a cycle of novels " the Adventures obtained from starving everyday " (1846-63) - mixture of fancy and substantial, risky and household plans. Roman "Wanderer" (hours 1-3, 1831-1832).
  • VELFLIN Genrih (1864-1945), the Swiss critic. Has developed an assay techniques of art style, applying her for probes " psychologies of epoch ", and then " methods of vision " - formal grades to which Velflin reduced the characteristics of art of epoch or peoples.
  • VELFY (Welfen), a german princely stem, dukes of Bavaria (with 1070) and Saxony (with 1137). In extirpation with SHtaufenami Velfy (Genrih the Lion) have sufferred a defeat (1180) and have deprived a large part of possessions.
  • VELHAVEN (Welhaven) JUhan Sebastjan (1807-73), the Norwegian poet. Verses (collections 1839, 1860) spirit of patriarchal national romanticism.
  • VELHAUZEN (Wellhausen) JUlius (1844-1918), the german orientalist. Transactionses on an ancient history of Jews, a medieval history of arabs, islamovedeniju.
  • WAELZ PROCESS, extraction of metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, etc.) a distillation at heating in the rotated furnace of polymetallic waste products of leaden, copper and stannic manufactures.
  • VELYAMINOV Vasily Vasiljevich (?-1373), last Moscow tysjatsky, the representative staromoskovskogo a seignioral stem. In the infancy of prince Dmitry Donskogo one of chiefs of the Moscow government.
  • The UPPER MANTLE, environment of the Earth, underlying earth crust from Mohorovichicha surfaces up to depth ok. 900 kms. It is combined, presumably, pirolitom, in part eklogitom, in the upper mantle secrete an astenosphere and Golitsyn a layer. In the upper mantle processes to which are connected tectonic, magmatic and metamorphic the phenomena in earth crust develop.
  • The UPPER PYSHMA, city (with 1946) in the Russian Federation, Ekaterinburg region, in 13 kms from Ekaterinburg. 54,1 thousand inhabitants (1992). Nonferrous machine industry. Factories: himreaktivov, welded machine-building designs, a nursery metal toy, etc. Production of copper ore.
  • UPPER SALDA, city (with 1938) in the Russian Federation, Ekaterinburg region, on r. Salda. A depot. 55.1 thousand inhabitants (1992). Metal-working and an iron and steel industry. It is based in 1760.
  • UPPER TAJMYRA, the river on p-ove Tajmyr. 567 kms., the area of basin of 50,4 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water ok. 430 m3 / with. Runs into an eskar. Tajmyr.
  • UPPER TUNGUSKA, the former title r. Angara in the lower flow.
  • UPPER MOUNTAIN GOAT, city (with 1941) in the Russian Federation, Ekaterinburg region, in verhovjah r. Tours. A depot (Upper). 13,3 thousand inhabitants (1992). Machine works. It is based in 1737.
  • SUPREME ADMINISTRATIVE COMMISSION on ohraneniju the state order and public peace, an extraordinary state organ in Russia in February - August 1880. It is built for extirpation with revolutionary movement. The chairman - M.T.Loris-Melikov.
  • GENERAL HEADQUARTERS (Supreme Command), the supreme body of a strategic guiding of armed forces of the state (a coalition of the states), created routinely in a wartime and headed by Supreme commander in chief (Supreme commanding). Within Great Domestic war the General headquarters of Armed forces of the USSR was referred to as the Rate of General headquarters.
  • SUPREME COMMANDER IN CHIEF (Supreme commanding), the boss of armed forces of the state (as a rule the chief of state).
  • The SUPREME COURT, the maximum court of justice of the state heading the judiciary. Considers actions of proceeding of exclusive importance and is the higher authority for all other courts of the state.
  • The SUPREME PRIVY COUNCIL, the maximum consultative official body of Russia in 1726-30 (7-8 person). It is built by Ekaterina I as the deliberative body, actually decided the major state problems. Attempted to limit autocracy in the favour, but dissolved by the empress Anna Ivanovnoj.
  • SUPREME CROWN PROSECUTION SERVICE, the maximum extraordinary court of justice of Russian empire. There was for realization of political processes of decembrists (1826), D.V.Karakozova (1866), A.K.Solovjeva (1879), etc. About 1906 court of justice, considered large criminal cases as 1-n the degree of jurisdiction.
  • The TOP WATER, the non-ramming underground waters nearest to a surface which are not having solid distribution; periodically collect and then peter at the expense of vaporization or overflow in more steep horizons.
  • VERHOVSKIE PRINCIPALITIES, old russian, in verhovjah Oka: Belevskoe, Vorotynskoe, Mezetskoe, Novosilskoe, Odoevskoe; in 12-13 centuries destinies of the Chernigov principality, with kon. 14 century sluzhilye destinies of the Great principality Lithuanian, with kon. 15 century - Russian state. Are liquidated to the last third of 16 century.
  • VERHOVSKY Alexander Ivanovich (1886-1938), the Russian military historian, kombrig (1936). In September - October of 1917 military minister, the general - major (1917). With 1919 in Red Army, with 1921 on teaching activity. Transactionses on tactics and a military history. It is repressed; it is rehabilitated posthumously.
  • VERHOVTSEVO, city (with 1956) on Ukraine, Dnepropetrovsk region. A railway junction. 11,1 thousand inhabitants (1991). The enterprises of a railway transport.
  • VERHOLENSKAJA the REFERENCE, in Russia a place criminal and political (with 2-nd chetv. 19 century) references to terrains Verholenskogo of district Irkutsk lips. Decembrists, participants of Polish revolts 1830-31 and 1863-64, populists, Social Democrats left.
  • VERHOTURE, city in the Russian Federation, Ekaterinburg region, on r. Tours. A depot. 9 thousand inhabitants (1992). Wood-working, a woodchemical industry; manufacture of skates. It is based in 1518 as gaffs, at-sight mansijskogo settlements.
  • VERHOJANO-CHUKCHI WRINKLED RANGE, range of a Mesozoic ripple mark on north-east of the Russian Federation. Actuates the Verhojano-Kolyma and Anjujsko-Chukchi wrinkled systems, Kolyma and Omolonsky middle masses.
  • PERPETUALLY SNOW, perennial clumps of snow and ice in polar countries and in mountains are higher than a snow limit.
  • PERPETUUM MOBILE (an armour. perpetuum mobile - perpetuum a mobile), 1) a perpetuum mobile of 1-st stem - envisioned, continuously operational machine which, being time started, would commit activity without obtaining power from the outside. The perpetuum mobile of 1-st stem contradicts conservation law and energy conversions and consequently is impracticable. 2) the Perpetuum mobile of 2-nd stem - the envisioned thermal machine, which as a result of committing cycling process (cycle) completely will transform the heat received from any one "inexhaustible" source (ocean, an atmosphere, etc.), to activity. Action of a perpetuum mobile of 2-nd stem does not contradict conservation law and energy conversions, but upsets the second law of thermodynamics and consequently such engine is impracticable.
  • PERPETUALLY JEW (Agasfer) (an armour. Ahasverus), the hero of medieval legends, the Jew - wanderer convicted by the God on perpetually life and for the fact that has not given wandering to the Christ to have a rest (on many versions, has banged it) on ways to Golgotha. To a legend about Agasfere reverted I.V.Gete, german poet - romanticism (K.F.Shubart, N.Lenau), E.Sju, etc.
  • "EVERLASTING PEACE" between Russia and Speech Pospolitoj (Moscow, 6.5.1686). Has confirmed conditions Andrusovskogo of armistice 1667. Has assigned to Russia Left-bank Ukraine and Kiev, has caused sharing Russia in an antiturkish coalition.
  • The PERPETUALLY FIRE, flame permanently bolstered in special torches for monuments, on memorial complexes, cemeteries, tombs; a numeral of memory of the gorged heroes, their exploits, victims of fascism, etc. For the first time Perpetually fire is lighted in 1920 on a tomb of the Unknown soldier in Paris, in the USSR - in 1957 in Leningrad on the Battlefield for a monument to " Fighters of revolution ". Perpetually fire is lighted on a tomb of the Unknown soldier for the Kremlin wall in Moscow (1967), in other occupied points, and also in places of memorable events.
  • VECHORKA, in vostochnoslavjanskoj mythologies the goddess of a vesper dawn.
  • VESHIN JAroslav (1860-1915), the Bulgarian painter. Realistic cloths on themes of the Balkan wars 1912-13, household scenes.
  • VESHSHELENI Miklosh (1796-1850), baron, one of chiefs of nobiliary opposition in the Hungarian state collection in 1830-1840-Õ. Supported independence of country from Gabsburgov, realization of restricted bourgeois reforms.
  • REAL NUMBER, the same, that a real number.
  • SUBSTANCE, kind of a matter which has a rest-mass (fundamental particles, atoms, molecules, etc.). In chemistry of substance it is accepted to section on simple, derivated by atoms of one chemical element, and composite (chemical combinations).
  • PROPRIETARY INTEREST, version of the proprietary interests relating figure of the absolute powers. Object of a proprietary interest is the concrete thing. Kinds of a proprietary interest: the property right, easements, the right of the lien, etc.
  • THING, in a civic right - the legal object of the property and other proprietary interests. The proprietor has the right to possess, use and dispose of a thing in the limits statutory.
  • THING, in philosophy - the subject of a material real having relative independence and resistance of existence.
  • "TRANSCENDENTAL OBJECT" (a nem. Ding an sich), the philosophical concept meaning things, as they exist in themselves (" in themselves "), how they are " for us " in knowledge; one of central concepts of " Criticism of clear reason " I.Kanta.
  • WINNOWING, the machine for secretion of a grain from a heap received after a thrashing of agricultural crops. It is substituted by more perfect grain-cleaning machines.
  • ONE-TO-ONE CORRESPONDENCE, such correspondence between elements of two flocks at which to each element of the first flock there corresponds one fixed element of the second flock, and to each element of the second flock - one fixed element of the first flock.
  • RELATIVELY PRIME FIGURES, the natural numbers which are not having common divisors, distinct from 1; napr., 15 and 16.
  • The RELATIVE EDUCATION (Bell - Lankasterskaja system), system of education in an elementary school at whom the higher and more aware pupils under a guiding of the teacher led occupations with other pupils. It is developed by the English teachers A.Bell (1753-1832) and Dzh. A Lancaster (1778-1838). In Russia it was used with 1818; some schools acted till 1860th.
  • INTERACTION, the philosophical grade reflecting processes of influence of objects against each other, their relative condition and causing by one object other. Interaction - the generalpurpose form of motion, development, determines existence and structural organization of any material system.
  • INTERACTIONS FUNDAMENTAL in physics, are known 4 types: the strong, electromagnetic, weak and gravity. For protons at power ~1 GeV intensity stipulated with these interprocess communications concern accordingly as 1:10-2:10-10:10-38. The consolidated theory of electromagnetic and weak interactions (weak coupling) is developed. There are the models including as well a strong coupling (great association). Attempts are done to describe all 4 interactions on the unified basis.
  • VAKH - KANTONMENT, city on north-east of Pakistan. 122 thousand inhabitants. A machine industry and metal working (small-arms factory), textile, cement, a food-processing industry, a thorough revision of agricultural production. Handicraft industries: embroidery, manufacture of crude - art items from a tree, metals.
  • VAHMISTR (from a nem. Wachtmeister), a grade and the position of a unter-officer personnel in a cavalry and horse artillery in Russian and some foreign armies, and also in a gendarmery.
  • VAHNJA, a marine fish of a set treskovyh. The length up to 50 sm, weighs up to 1,1 kg. In boreal part Quiet ok., including in coastal waters Chukchi and Far East seas. Object of a craft.
  • VAHRAMEEV Vsevolod Andreevich (1912-86), the Russian geologist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1979). Transactionses on a stratigraphy and paleofloristike Mesozoic.
  • SHIFT TEAM (from a nem. Wacht - the sentinel), 1) a principal view of a duty on the ships and the courts, ensuring their float, safety, and in a VTR and fighting readiness. It is divided on obshchekorabelnuju, special, leading and anchor. 2) Period during which one changeover of the order keeps the watch (4-6 hours).
  • SHIFT TEAM (bogbean), stem of perennial grasses of a set camp-type. 1 kind, in Boreal hemisphere. Will grow on bogs. It is used as a means cholagogue and improving appetite.
  • SHIFT TEAM (bogbean), stem of perennial grasses of a set camp-type. 1 kind, in Boreal hemisphere. Will grow on bogs. It is used as a means cholagogue and improving appetite.
  • VAKHTANG I Gorgasal (?-502), tsar of Iberia (Kartli), become famous for extirpation with the Iranian conquerors for independence of Kartli. It is killed in fight.
  • VAKHTANG VI Lawgiver (1675-1737), the viceroy, then tsar of Kartli (1703-24). In 1724 it is decrowned irantsami; has emigrated to Russia.
  • WATCHMEN Vasily Porfirjevich (1853-1924), the Russian teacher, the figure of national education. Transactionses under the theory of pedagogics, a technique of teaching in an elementary school, tutorials.
  • VAHTIN Boris Borisovich (1930-81), the Russian writer. Son V.F.Panovoj. In 1964 has based in Leningrad literary group " Town-dwellers ". Products (stories " One absolutely happy village ", 1965, "Tanned sheepskin coat", 1979) were distributed basically in samizdate. In the prose noted by workshop by activity with the word, the irony and tragic element combines.
  • VAHUSHTI BAGRATIONI (ok. 1696-1784), the Georgian historian, the geographer and leksikograf. Son Vakhtang VI. Grandfather P.I.Bagration. With 1724 in Moscow. Main transactionses " Sakartvelos tshovreba " - the historical and istoriko-geographycal description of Georgia.
  • VAHHABITY, adherents of a religious - political trend in the moslem faith, arisen in Center. Arabia (Nejd); founder Mohammed ibn Abd al-Vahhab (1703-87). Fighting for refinement of moslem faith, vahhabity preached singleness of tempers, struggled for association of Arabia. A vahhabism - official philosophy in Saudi Arabia.
  • VAKHSH, the river in Tadjikistan, dextral component of Amu Darya. 524 kms, the area of basin of 39,1 thousand êì2. It will be derivated by confluence Kyzylsu and Muksu and flows under title Surhob, lockins r are lower. Obihingou receives the title Vakhsh. Average discharge of water 660 m3 / with. In Vahshskoj to a valley it is used for an irrigation. It is navigable in a lower reaches. On Vakhsh - Nurekskaja, the Head river plant, etc.; Nurek, etc.
  • VAHSHSKAJA the VALLEY, an intermountain valley on mean and lower flow r. Vakhsh, in Tadjikistan. Length of 110 kms, width of 7-25 kms, an altitude from 400 up to 1200 m. In Vahshskoj to a valley - irrigation systems. Crops of an Egyptian cotton. A fruit growing.
  • VAHSHSKY the BACKBONE, in the west of Tadjikistan, prolate along the left-handed coast of mean flow r. Vakhsh. Length ok. 80 kms. An altitude up to 3141 m. Semideserts and steppes.
  • VATS, city in Hungary, a port on Danube. 33,8 thousand inhabitants (1991). Electrotechnical, cement, textile, a chemical industry, shipbuilding.
  • "VARPAS" ("Varpas") ("Alloying basket"), the Lithuanian political and literary newspaper of a liberal direction, it was emitted in 1889-1905 in Germany. The first editor - V.Kudirka. Promoted development of the Lithuanian realistic literature and public idea.
  • VARRAU (uarao, guarao), American Indian people in Venezuela (17 thousand person). Live also in Surinam and Guyana. An aggregate number of 20 thousand person (1992). Tongue isolated. On religion roman catholics.
  • VARRON (Varro) (116-27 up to n. e.), the Roman writer and the scientist - entsiklopedist. The writer ok. 74 activities (the majority has not reached us) on a history of the literature, philosophy, a history, mathematics, etc. "Agriculture" Was saved bodily. Has organized in Rome the public library.
  • VARSAVA (Joseph, Iust) (1 century), apostle from 70-òè, son Joseph Obruchnika, one of two candidates for apostleship instead of the Iscariot who has disappeared Judah (Particular acts of apostles 1:23); diocesan Elevferopolsky (Judea), the martyr. Memory in the Orthodox church on January, 4 (17) and on October, 30 (on November, 12).
  • VARSKY (Warski) Adolf (1868-1937), one of organizers in 1893 social democracies of the Kingdom Polish and Lithuania, in 1918 - KP Poland (check point). In 1929 has emigrated, cable cores in the USSR. It is repressed; it is rehabilitated posthumously.
  • VARSONOFY Uglichsky (mind. 1609), the hieromonk, the martyr who has perished at ruin of Uglich by Poles in Vague time. Memory in the Orthodox church on May, 24 (on June, 6).
  • VARTA (Warta), the river in Poland, dextral in-leak of Odra. 808 kms, the area of basin of 54,5 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water 220 m3 / with. It is paired to Vistula in-leak Notets and Bydgoshchskim the channel. On Varta - cities Chenstohova, Poznan (the beginning of navigation).
  • VARTBURGSKOE FESTIVAL, collection of representatives of german universities in clasp Vartburg 18.10.1817 in connection with 300-anniversary Reformatsii and anniversary of the Leipzig battle 1813. Has supported idea of national unity of Germany.
  • VARUNA, in vedicheskoj religions the omniscient and punishing terrible god - judge, the god of the root and water physical agent. Alongside with Indroj - the chapter of a pantheon.
  • VARUH the Prophet (6 century up to n. e.), the pupil and spodvizhnik the prophet of the Jeremiah, writing his prophesies. The writer of the Book of prophet Varuha which falls into deuterocanonical. Memory in the Orthodox church on September, 28 (on October, 11).
  • VARFOLOMEEVSKAJA NIGHT, a mass slaughter of huguenots roman catholics on the night of 24.8.1572 (day of sacred Varfolomey) in Paris, organized by Ekaterina Medichi and Giza.
  • The WARSAW Vladimir Sergeevich (1906-78), the Russian writer. With 1920 in emigration (Prague, Paris, etc.; in 1950-68 cable cores in the USA). Autobiographical products (the book " the Unnoticed generation ", 1956, - about pullet generation of the first wave of Russian emigration; the collection "Expectation", 1972). Publicistic probe " Parentage the Bolshevism " (it is published in 1982). An essay, reviews.
  • WARSAW AGREEMENT 1768, between Russia and Speech Pospolitoj. It is encased on February, 24. Provided legal equality of dissidents (not roman catholics) with roman catholics in Speech Pospolitoj, fixing political influence of Russian tsarism in Poland.
  • WARSAW AGREEMENT 1955 (about friendship, cooperation and mutual aid), is signed on May, 14 in Warsaw by Albania (with 1962 did not participate the Organization in-process built on the basis of the Warsaw agreement, and in September 1968 has quitted from Organization), Bulgaria, Hungary, GDR (after apposition to Germany in 1990 has quitted from Organization), Poland, Romania, the USSR, Czechoslovakia. The purposes of the Warsaw agreement professed safety control of exhibiting countries of the Warsaw agreement and maintenance of the world in Europe. The states of the Warsaw agreement have created the Consolidated command armed forces managing together with the Military council and headquarters by activity of Consolidated armed forces (a residence of headquarters - Moscow). The supreme body of the Warsaw Treaty Organization - Political advisory committee (PKK). On April, 26 1985 Warsaw agreement is prolonged to 20 flying. In February 1990 military organs of Organization are abolished. On July, 1 1991 in Prague Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania, the USSR and is signed by Czechoslovakia the minutes on cancellation of Warsaw agreement 1955.
  • The WARSAW UNIVERSITY, Poland, is based in 1816 (the status of university with 1818). In 1990 ok. 25 thousand students.
  • The WARSAW REVOLT 1944, armed performance (on August, 1 - on October, 2) in occupied a fascist troops to Warsaw. Initiatedly a guiding of Army of Craiova (AK) within the framework of designed a Polish government in exile of the plan of capture of an authority. Has accepted mass character, it backed by members of the Polish working consignment and parts of Army Ljudovoj. It has been routed. On October, 2 guiding AK has signed terms of capitulation. During the Warsaw revolt has perished ok. 200 thousand person.
  • The WARSAW PRINCIPALITY (the Warsaw duchy), the state, is derivated on Tilzitskomu to the world 1807 of Polish grounds, select by Napoleon I for Prussia (1807) to which grounds have been adjoined, select for Austria (1809). In 1812 base of the French army at encroachment into Russia. 1814-15 terrain of the Warsaw principality separates by the austrian congress between Russia, Austria and Prussia.
  • VARSHAVSKO-IVANGORODSKAJA the OPERATION, 15.9-26.10.1914, during 1-st world war. Signals Commands of Russian Southwest and Northwest fronts have stopped approach of 9-th German and 1-st austro-hungarian armies to Ivangorod (Demblin), and then to Warsaw and have discarded them on homes.
  • VARSHAVCHIK (Warchavchik) Greg (1896-1972), the Brazilian architect, Russian by origin. Trained in Rome where has taken a great interest in ideas of futurists. The first representative of the architecture of a cubism to Brazil.
  • VARSHALOVICH Dmitry Aleksandrovich (r .1934), Russian astrophysicses, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1994). The main transactionses on a theoretical astrospectroscopy.
  • VARYNSKY Ljudvik (1856-89), the founder (1882) Polish consignments "Proletariat" of 1-st. In revolutionary movement with 1875. In 1883 it arrested, has died in SHlisselburgskoj strengths.
  • VAREGANSKOE the DEPOSIT, gazoneftjanoe, in the Russian Federation, in a north of the Tyumen region (the Western - Siberian oil-and-gas-bearing province). It is open in 1968. Deposits on depth of 800-2500 m. Flush production of petroleum in chinks up to 290 t/sut, gas ok. 630 thousand in m3 / sut. Firmness of petroleum of 0,77-0,86 g / sm3. Center of production - Nizhnevartovsk.
  • VARIETY SHOW, theatre of variety programs. First - in Paris in kon. 18 century.
  • "VARIAG", Russian cruiser (in formation with 1901). In the beginning of russko-Japanese war 27.1.1904" Variag " (the captain of 1-st rank V.F.Rudnev) together with battle-boat "Koreets" heroically combated for Chemulpo (Korea) to a Japanese squadron. In view of threat of capture by the opponent has been overflowed with a command, and "Koreets" it is blasted. Some songs are dedicated this exploit.
  • VARIAGS (from dr .-ñêàíä. vaeringjar), in Russian sources - Scandinavians, polulegendarnye knjazja (Rjurik, Sineus, Truvor, etc.), hired combatants of Russian princes of 9-11 centuries and the merchants trading on ways " from the variag in Greeks ".
  • VARJAZHSKOE the PEST, the old russian title of Baltic m.
  • YOU (Wace) (ok. 1100 - after 1174), the norman poet at a yard of the English king Genriha II. The writer of poetic novels of " Particular act of normans " (" Roman about Ru ") and " Particular acts brittov " ("Brut") where "Compass table" of king Arthur (see for the first time is mentioned. Arturovskie legends).
  • VASA (Vaasa), city and a port in Finland, on coast Botnicheskogo a hall., an administrative centre ljani Vasa. 54 thousand inhabitants (1986). A machine industry, a textile industry.
  • VASADZE Acacius Alekseevich (1899-1978), the Georgian actor, the producer, the national actor of the USSR (1936). With 1920 at the Georgian theatre him. Rustaveli (Tbilisi). The professor of the Tbilisi theatrical institute (with 1949). The state premium of the USSR (1942, 1946, 1951).
  • VASENKO Andrey Bogdanovich (1899-1934), the Russian engineer - aerologist, the designer of stratosphere balloons, the crew member "Îñîàâèàõèì-1". Has perished at aerocatastrophe.
  • VASILAKE Vasil Ivanovich (r. 1926), the Moldavian writer. In the prose noted by a diversification of an art means (skaz, the parable, a parody, a block type), reverts to a rural theme. Roman "Cock and bull story" (1966-72). Collections of stories and stories: " the Vacation are full unexpectedness " (1961), "Stories" (1968), " Elegija for Anny-mary " (1981), etc.
  • VASILEV (nowadays. Centaureas), old russian city - strength of 10-13 centuries on r. Stugna. It is based by Vladimir I. About 1157 centre of the specific principality. It eroded by mongolo-tartars.
  • VASILEV Orlin (1904-77), the Bulgarian writer. Roman " the White trail " (1929), dedicated September anti-fascist revolt 1923, the historical novel " Gajduk mother does not feed " (1937), stories about tragical destiny " the small person ", social - psychologic dramas ("Alert", 1948).
  • VASILEVICHI, city (with 1971) in Belarus, Gomel region. A depot. 5,8 thousand inhabitants (1991). A butter factory, furniture factory.
  • VASILEVS, see. Basilej.
  • VASILEVSKAJA (Wasilewska) Vanda Lvovna (1905-64), the Polish and Russian writer, the public figure. With 1939 in the USSR. In the trilogy " the Ode above waters " (1940-51) patterns of life of pre-war and post-war Poland; the story "Rainbow" (1942) about bravery of Soviet people within Great Domestic war. The state premium of the USSR (1943, 1946, 1952).
  • VASILEVSKY Alexander Mihajlovich (1895-1977), the Russian military figure, Marshal of Soviet Union (1943), doubly the Hero of Soviet Union (1944, 1945). In Great Domestic war the deputy chief, since June 1942 chief of the General Staff. In 1942-44 coordinated actions of some fronts in large operations. In 1945 commanding 3-rd Byelorussian front, then the commander-in-chief the Soviet troops on the Far East at rout Japanese Kvantunskoj armies. With 1946 chief of the General Staff. In 1949-53 minister for Armed forces (military minister) the USSR, in 1953-57 1-st deputy and the deputy minister of the defence of the USSR.
  • VASILEVSKY Boris Aleksandrovich (r. 1939), the Russian writer. In prose reverts to problems of a becoming of the personality, moral - psychologic conflicts of duties. Collections of stories and stories " Where a north? " (1974), "Report" (1983), etc.
  • The VATICAN CATHEDRALS, the ecumenical councils of a latin church which was taking place in Vatican. 1-st Vatican cathedral (1869-70) has proclaimed a tenet about papal infallibility in problems of belief and moral; has confirmed his supremance of law in church. 2-nd Vatican cathedral (1962-65) aspired to find ways to overcoming crisis of the church called by social alterations after 2-nd world war. Measures of remodelling of a cult, organization and policy of church have been intended.
  • BATTING, knitted or nonwoven cloth (depth of 3-12 mm) from cotton, woollen or a bi-fibre yarn with a pile. It is used as an encasing for warmth-keeping layer pad for an outerwear.
  • WHATMAN PAPER, paper for drawing by indian ink and drawing (a rough surface, major abrasion resistance) a manual drip mould from a rag pulp. It is called named the English industrialist of 18 century. Dzh. Whatman paper (Uotmen; J. Whatman).
  • VATNAJEKJUDL, a volcanic plateau in Iceland, on which largest liner icehouse of country. 8390 êì2, an ice depth up to 1000 m. A cavicorn dome an altitude from 600 up to 2000 m. Eruptions of burning mountains (including subglacial) invoke disastrous floods.
  • VATOLIN Nikolay Anatoljevich (r. 1926), the Russian metallurgist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1981). The main transactionses on the physico-chemical bases of metallurgical processes. The state premium of the USSR (1982, 1991).
  • The WATT, power unit of a SI, is meant W. It is called in honour Dzh. Uatta. 1 Âò=107 erg / s=0,102 of kgf. ì/ñ=1,36. 10-3 l. Seconds. In technique widely apply aliquot units: kilowatt (1 êÂò=103 W) and a megawatt (1 ÌÂò=106 W).
  • WATTMETER (from watt and... Meter), an electrical gauge meter of active power (in watts) in circuits permanent or alternating-current. Activity of a wattmeter is based on interaction of 2 windings - current and the pressure, powered up in succession with a load and in bridge her.
  • VATTO (Watteau) Antoine (1684-1721), the French painter and risovalshchik. In household and theatrical scenes, t. n. The gallant festivals noted by refined tenderness of inking nuances, trepetnostju drawing, has reconstructed the world of the most thin spiritual conditions (" Pilgrimage on an island to Kiefer ", 1719-18).
  • The WATT-HOUR, off-system unit of activity and power, is meant Vt.ch (1 þ=VT 3600 Dzh, 1 þ=kw 3,6. 106 Dzh).
  • WATTS (a nem. Watten, from niderl. wadden - coastal beaches), the flat lowlands of a marine shore deluged during inflows.
  • VAU, city on a southwest of Sudan. Ok. 100 thousand inhabitants. A unit of motorways. Shopping center of a farming area (a cotton, a peanut, a grain, cattle). Factory on manufacture of a dried meat, the sawing enterprises, and also vegetable-canning factories.
  • VAUPSHASOV Stanislav Alekseevich (1899-1976), the scout, the Hero of Soviet Union (1944), the colonel. In 1942-44 commander of guerilla order in the Minsk region.
  • The VOUCHER (English voucher), 1) the document certifying payment of the goods and services (napr., the paid invoice, the extinguished account), a granting of credit, raising money (receipt), etc. 2) the Same, that the privatization check
  • VAUERMAN (Wouwerman) Filips (1619-1668), the Netherlands painter. Conversations, landscapes, battle scenes distinguish entertaining, efficacyy, picturesqueness, thinness of drive of sveto-air medium.
  • "VAFD", the bourgeois political party in Egypt. It is based in November 1918 S.Zaglulom. Supervised over national-liberation motion in 20th of 20 century. Its representatives in 20-50-Ñ repeatedly headed government. After July revolution in Egypt 1952 it dissolved (in 1953). In 1978 it has been based (in 1984 the consignment " New Vafd " is legalized).
  • Current-voltage diagrams, the river in Zap. Siberia, dextral in-leak of Ob. 964 kms, the area of basin of 76,7 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water 665 m3 / with. Driveable. It is navigable on 453 kms from a seconds. Larjak.
  • VAHANSKY the BACKBONE, in the south of Pamir, in Tadjikistan and Afghanistan. Length of 160 kms, an altitude up to 6281 m. The area of a glaciation (terrain of Tadjikistan) ok. 96,2 êì2.
  • VAHANTSY, one of pripamirskih peoples.
  • VAHIDIN SUDIROHUSODO (Wahidin Sudirohusodo) (ok. 1857-1917), one of the first organizers of national motion in Indonesia, the doctor.
  • VAHIDOV Erkin (r. 1936), the Uzbek poet, the national poet of Uzbekistan (1985). Collections of lyrical verses on a modernity " Respiration of a dawn " (1962), " the Sofa of a youth " (1969), " Revolt immortal " (1983), " In one minute songs be not torn, a catgut " (1986), etc.
  • VASU, group vedijskih godhoods, olitsetvorjavshih natural phenomena. To nymas were ranked Agni, Indra, the Silurus, etc.
  • VASUBANDHU, the indian philosopher (5 century). Bordered on all over again to the Buddhism hinajany, then - the representative jogacharov, schools of the Buddhism of a Mahajana. In composition "Abhidharmakosha" doctrines of early schools of the Buddhism, in particular vajbhashiki are stated.
  • VASUDEVA.. 1) in "Mahabharata" - father of Krishna... 2) In mythology induizma one of names Vishnu and Krishna.
  • VASHNIL, see. An academy of agricultural sciences.
  • VASKOV Semen Timofeevich (r. 1934), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1990). Transactionses on development of the scientific bases of building of high-precision inputoutput systems of the graphic information in a computer.
  • VASJUGAN, the river in the south Zap. Siberia, the left-handed in-leak of Ob. 1082 kms, the area of basin of 61,8 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water 345 m3 / with. Driveable. It is navigable on 886 kms from a mouth.
  • PLAIN VASJUGANSKAJA (Vasjuganje), in the south Zap. Siberia, cut by valleys of the rivers of B.Jugan, Vasjugan, etc. The Altitude up to 166 m. Oil fields, gas and peat.
  • VASJUTIN Vladimir Vladimirovich (r. 1952), the Russian astronaut, a pilot - astronaut of the USSR (1985), the lieutenant colonel, the Hero of Soviet Union (1985). Flight on "Soyuz T-14" and orbital station " Salute - 7 " (September - November 1985).
  • COTTON WOOL (from a nem. Watte), weakly dense mass of clogged filaments, acceptable from impurity. Distinguish cotton wool: natural - woollen, silk, down, cottony, asbestos, etc., and synthetic - glass, cinder, etc. Natural cotton wool as required is disjointed on clothing, furniture, technical, flimsy, sheet bonded and medical. Synthetic cotton wool is applied basically to the technical purposes (warmly and sound isolation, etc.). A special kind of cotton wool - t. n. vatilin, i.e. the cotton wool glued from one or two parties by a glue emulsion. Vatilin - a replacer of cotton wool at sewing clothes, a jointing, etc.
  • COTTON WOOL, vedijsky the god of a wind.
  • VATAGIN Vasily Alekseevich (1883/84-1969), the Russian sculptor and the schedule, the national artist of Russia (1964), the full member AH the USSR (1957). The animal painter, has exhibited steep knowledge of a nature and customs animal ("Tiger", 1925-26). Case histories to "Maugli" Kiplinga (1926), the State premium of the USSR (1952).
  • VATAGIN Glebas Vasilyevich (1899-1986), the Russian physics - theorist. With 1920 - in emigration, cable cores in Italy. Transactionses on a relativity theory, a quantum theory of a field, physics of ultrarays, an astrophysics. Has offered the statistical theory of multiple generation of particles of ultrarays. Has created scientific school.
  • VATAMANU the Ion (r. 1937), the Moldavian poet. Collections of verses: " the First snowflakes " (1962), "Monologue" (1964), " Among grasses " (1967), " Colour of an apricot " (1971), " Tops of love " (1981), etc.
  • VATATSUMI-BUT KAMI, in Japanese mythology marine tsar, a host of marine physical agent.
  • VATATSUMI-BUT KUNI, in Japanese mythology a marine kingdom where there are palaces of the lord of seas Vatatsumi-but kami.
  • VATVAT Rashid (1087-1182 or 1177), the persian and Tadjik poet. The writer of one of first on farsi allowances on rhetoric and poetics - " the Garden of ordinances about thinnesses of poetry ".
  • WATER-LINE (from niderl. water - water and lijn - a line), a line of a contact of a hangover water plane with a body of a swimming vessel. The deepwater line marked by a loadline, coincides a water plane at full loading a vessel and corresponds to upsetting as much as possible allowable on stream. The form of a water-line and value delineated her of the area influence performances of popularity and an intact platform stability of a vessel.
  • BLOCK LEVEL (niderl. waterpas), the elementary device for check of a horizontality and measurement of small discharge angles - a vertical strut with the grounding (bar) to which the plumb is attached.
  • VATICAN (Vaticano), state - city within the limits of capital of Italy - Rome, on hill Monte-Vatikano. 0,44 êì2. The population ok. 1 thousand person. Center of a latin church, a residence of its chapter - dads Roman. Official languages - latin and italian. Vatican - large kapitalovladelets and the share holder of some the companies and banks, possesses the large real estate in Italy, Spain, Germany and the Latin American countries. Other important sources of incomes - instalments of national roman catholic churches, manufacture and sale of postage stamps, coins, specialties. Monetary unit - the Vatican lira (is in use alongside with italian lira). In Vatican the most valuable treasures of crop and art are concentrated. A cathedral of the saint Peter (the Dignity - Pjetro, 15-18 centuries); the baroque area of the saint Peter (17 century, L.Bernini); a palace complex: Rock Redzha (17 century, L.Bernini), Hall Redzha (16 century, À. yes Sangallo Junior); chapels: Paolina (16 century), Sikstinskaja (15 century, Dzh. Dolchi, frescos Mikelandzhelo, etc.), Nikolay V (15 century); apartments Bordzha with Stantsami Rafaelja; yards: the Dignity - Damazo with Recessed balconies Rafaelja, the Belvedere (16 century, D.Bramante); gardens from Casino Pija IV (16 century, P.Ligorio). The library, art museums. Vatican on like palaces - residences of a dad Roman is called, setting up to 1870 Papal regions the State Vatican is derivated in 1929 under Lateran agreements.
  • VELEBIT (Velebit), a backbone in Croatia, on Dinarskom a mountains, coast-wise the Adriatic m. Length ok. 150 kms, an altitude up to 1758 m. It is combined primarily by limestones; karst is developed. Western downslopes otvesny, eastern are coated broad-leaved, coniferous forests.
  • VELEMBOVSKAJA Irina Aleksandrovna (an ice-film. fam. SHuhgalter) (r. 1922), the Russian writer. In collections of stories and stories " the Wood history " (1967), " the Third semester " (1973), " the Kind from a balcony " (1981), etc. - women destinies, moral - psychologic conflicts of duties. The greatest popularity was received with the story " Sweet woman " (1973, it is picturized in 1977).
  • VELEPOLSKY (Wielopolski) Alexander (1803-77), marquis, in 1861-63 in administration of the Kingdom Polish. Rekrutsky the panel on the nominal lists, declared Velepolskim in January 1863 with the purpose of liquidation of revolutionary insurgent organization, has accelerated the beginning of Polish revolt 1863-64.
  • VELER Fridrih (1800-82), the german chemist, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1853). For the first time synthesized from inorganic matters organic compound (1824) and has placed his sameness with a urea (1828). Probes Velera have called into question rightness of a vitalism.
  • VELES (Hair), " skoty the god " in Slavic-and-Russian mythology, the promoter of domestic animals and the god of oof.
  • VELES DE GUEVARA (Velez de Guevara) Luis (1578-1645), the spanish writer. Plays on biblical scenes, from a national and foreign history. The swindling novel " the Lame evil spirit " (1641).
  • VELIZH, city in the Russian Federation, Smolensk region, in 93 kms from zh.-d. An item. Rudnja, landing stage on r. Zap. Dvina. 9,2 thousand inhabitants (1992). Furniture factory, a flax primary treating plant, the alimentary enterprises. It is based in 1536.
  • VELIZHSKOE BUSINESS, large process (1823-35) on false charge of group of Jews of. Velizh in assassination with the ceremonial purpose. Despite of pressure of reactivity circles accused have been justified.
  • GIANTS Dmitry Petrovich (1908-86), the Russian scientist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1968). The main transactionses on probe of service performance of the automobile, problems of motor movements in unified transport system.
  • GIANTS Michael Andreevich (1879-1964), the Russian hydrobroad gully, corresponding member AN the USSR (1939). Has put in pawn fundamental theory of a stream dynamics.
  • VELIKANOVA Gelena Martselievna (r. 1922), the Russian variety singer, the national actress of Russia (1992). With 1950 solistka Moskontserta. In the basis of repertoir songs of the Soviet composers.
  • GREAT, the river in the Pskov region of 430 kms, the area of basin of 25,2 thousand êì2. Rises on Bezhanitskoj vozv., the eskar runs in CHudsko-Pskov., derivating delta. Main inflow: Issa, Blue, Utroja (at the left); Sorot, CHereha, Pskov (on the right). It is navigable on 40 kms from a mouth. Driveable. On Great - cities Opochka, the Island, Pskov.
  • GREAT (Major, Onemen), the river on north-east of the Russian Federation. 451 kms, the area of basin of 31 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water 290 m3 / with. It will be derivated by confluence Kujimveem and Kolvygejvaam, originating on the Koryak mountains. On Anadyrskoj nizm. Branches on numerous water hoses and ducts. Runs into a hall. Onemen Beringova m.
  • " GREAT WAR " 1409-11, between Teutonic order, on the one hand, the Polish kingdom and the Great principality Lithuanian - with other. The order has sufferred a defeat in Grjunvaldskoj to battle 1410. On Torunskomu to the world the Teutonic order was refused from claims on ZHemajtiju and ground Dobzhinskuju, paid to Poland and Lithuania the contribution.
  • GREAT DAJKA, an intrusive mass of basic rocks in Zimbabwe. Length of 560 kms, width up to 12 kms. Actuates the largest on reserves (1 billion ò) deposits of chromium ores; incidentally are extracted Pt, Ni. It is maintained with 1919. An annual output of 580 thousand t ore (1985). The main centres of production - SHurugvi, Lomagundi.
  • " GREAT DEPRESSION ", the most continuous economic crisis in a history of untrimmed developed countries. It began from " black Friday " - crash of stock quotations on the New York exchange on October, 25 1929. The stock value has falled on 90 %, mass ruin of small-sized investors in the USA at once has had an effect on trade and an industry. Crisis was fast distributed to other countries, first of all the Great Britain and Germany, the bound by the relative fiscal obligations with the USA. Overcoming of crisis connect to " the New course " F.Roosevelt.
  • GREAT CHINESE PLAIN, on the orient of China. It is extended more than on 1000 kms along coasts of Yellow and East - Chinese seas. The area ok. 325 thousand êì2. A surface flat, an altitude up to 100 m. On the orient - island SHandunskie mountains. Huai He is combined by a potent strata of alluvial deposits of the rivers of Huang He, etc. The Climate subtropical monsoon with the wet summer and in the dry cool winter. Crowded floods (were accompanied by repeated considerable conveyances of beds of the rivers of Huang He and Huai He). The large part ploughed up (wheat, a cotton, rice, a peanut). One of the populated areas of the world. Large cities - Peking, Tianjin, etc.
  • GREAT CHINESE WALL, fortification in the Sowing. China; a grandiose monument of art of building Other. China. From TSzjajujguanja (prov. Gansu) up to Ljaodunskogo a hall. Length, under one suppositions, ok. 4 thousand in km, on other - over 6 thousand in km, an altitude of 6,6 m, on stray patches up to 10 m. It is constructed basically in 3 century up to n. e. Completely restavrirovan a plot of the Great Chinese wall bliz Peking.
  • GREAT COLUMBIUM, federative republic in 1819-30; it is built in a course of war for independence of spanish colonys in America 1810-1826. Actuated It is new. Granada (the modern Columbia and Panama), Venezuela and Quito (the modern Ecuador).
  • GREAT DOMESTIC WAR 1941-45, liberation war of Soviet people against fascist Germany and its allies (Hungary, Italy, Romania, Finland); the major part of 2-nd world war. To the USSR Germany started direct preparation from an offence in 1940 (the plan "Barbarossa"). Together with european allies Germany has centred for an offence on the USSR 191,5 divisions; enemy forces totalled 5,5 million person, ok. 4,3 thousand tanks and assault guns, 47,2 thousand instruments and mortars, ok. 5 thousand combat aircrafts, 192 ships. Germany planned against the USSR "lightning war" ("blitzkrieg"). Gains of the USSR in 30 years on building system of collective security were not crowned with success. The non-aggression pact with Germany (August 1939) has allowed to delay a beginning of war. However signed thus, and also at the conclusion in September of 1939 friendship treaties and border with Germany secret minutes incompatibled to norms of international law, undermined prestige of country. Defensive capability of country has been undermined by the socio economic policy carried out by a totalitarian mode, the mass reprisals which have covered and military staff, and also large miscalculations in military construction, in definition of probable times of a beginning of war, main wines in what lozhitsja on I.V.Stalin and his nearest surrounding. By June 1941 Red Army had 187 divisions; in its structure was ok. 3 million person, more than 38 thousand instruments and mortars, 13,1 thousand tanks, 8,7 thousand combat aircrafts; in Boreal, Baltic and Black Sea fleets 182 ship and was totalled by 1,4 thousand combat aircrafts. The Soviet troops have not been completely completed by staff, tanks, airplanes, a zenith means, automobiles, engineering technique; Troops and officers of arms had a low level of preparation. On June, 22 1941 fascist Germany has perfidiously attacked the USSR. Having created on a direction of impacts the suppressing superiority, an aggressor has broken through the defence of the Soviet troops, has trapped the strategic initiative and an air supremacy. Frontier battles and an incipient period of war (up to midpoint of July) have as a whole reduced in a defeat of Red Army. She has lost killed and injured in 850 thousand person, 9,5 thousand instruments, over 6 thousand tanks, ok. 3,5 thousand airplanes; in a film has hitted ok. 1 million person. The enemy occupied a considerable proportion of country, was advanced deep into up to 300-600 kms, having lost thus by 100 thousand person killed, almost 40 % of tanks and 950 airplanes. On June, 23 it has been built the Pond of the Main Command (since August, 8 - the Pond of General headquarters). All completeness of an authority has been concentrated in the State Committee of Defence (GKO) built on June, 30. Since August, 8 I.V.Stalin has become Supreme commander in chief. The main military events of aestivo-autumnal campaign 1941 were Smolensk battle, the defence of Leningrad and the beginning of his blockage, military catastrophe of the Soviet troops on Ukraine, the defence of Odessa, the beginning of the defence of Sevastopol, loss of Donbass, the defensive season of the Moscow battle. The red Army has receded on 850-1200 kms, however the enemy has been stalled on main routes near Leningrad, Moscow and Rostov and has transfered to the defence. Winter campaign 1941-42 began a counteroffensive of the Soviet troops on a western strategic direction. During her are carried out a counteroffensive near Moscow, Ljubanskaja, Rzhevsko-Vjazemskaja, Barvenkovsko-Lozovskaja and aerial delivery Kerchensko-Feodosijskaja operations. The Soviet troops have removed threat to Moscow and the Sowing. To Caucasus, have facilitated a rule of Leningrad, have in full or in part released terrain of 10 ranges, and also over 60 cities. The strategy of "blitzkrieg" has failed. It has been routed ok. 50 hostile divisions. In aestivo-autumnal campaign 1942 Soviet troops had a unreal problem: completely to rout the opponent and to release all terrain of country. The main military events have deployed on a southwest direction: a defeat of the Crimean front, military catastrophe of the Soviet troops in the Kharkov operation, Voronezhsko-Voroshilovgradskaja, Donbass, Stalingradskaja defensive operations, battle on the Sowing. Caucasus. On a northwest direction the Red Army has conducted Demjanskuju and Rzhevsko-Sychevskuju offensive operations. The opponent was advanced on 500-650 kms, has quitted to Volga, has trapped a part of saddle-points of the Main Caucasian crops. The terrain where before war 42 % of the population lived has been occupied, 1/3 gross products were effected, was more than 45 % of areas under crops. The economy was transferred to military rails. In eastern areas of country the plenty of the enterprises (only in 2-nd half-year 1941 - 2593 has been redeployed, including 1523 large), is exported 2,3 million. Heads of cattle. In 1-st half-year 1942 it has been exhausted by 10 thousand airplanes, 11 thousand tanks, ok. 54 thousand instruments. In 2-nd half-year their extension was increased more than in 1,5 times. The Sovetsko-English agreement from July, 12 1941, the Moscow conference of representatives of the USSR, the USA and the Great Britain (on September, 29 - on October, 1 1941), the Declaration of 26 states from January, 1 1942 about the military union of the countries battling against fascism, the sovetsko-American agreement from June, 11 1942 have issued a nucleus of an antihitlerite coalition. In winter campaign by 1942-43 main military events were Stalingradskaja and North Caucasian offensive operations, breach of blockage of Leningrad. The red Army was advanced to the west on 600-700 kms, having released terrain over 480 êì2, has routed 100 divisions (40 % of forces of an enemy on the sovetsko-German front). A favorable conditions for completion of approach of allies in the Sowing have been built. To Africa, Sicily and JUzh. Italy. In aestivo-autumnal campaign by 1943 decisive event there was a Kursk battle. The important role guerrillas (the operation " Rail war ") have played. During battle for Dnepr it has been free by 38 thousand occupied points, including 160 cities; with capture of strategic bridgeheads on Dnepr conditions for approach in Belarus are built. In battle for Dnepr guerrillas have conducted the operation "Concert" on destruction of communications of an enemy. On other directions Smolensk and Bryansk offensive operations are carried out. The red Army has passed with breakages up to 500-1300 kms, has routed 218 divisions. The important stage in development of international and interallied attitudes the Teheran conference (on November, 28 - on December, 1 1943) has become. In winter campaign 1943-44 Red Army has conducted approach to Ukraine (10 simultaneous and serial front operations, consolidated general premeditation), has finished rout of an army group "South", has quitted on border with Romania and has transferred operations on its terrain. Penecontemporaneous the Leningradsko-Novgorod offensive operation has deployed; Leningrad has been finally deblocked. As a result of the Crimean operation Crimea is free. The Soviet troops were advanced to the west on 250-450 kms, have released ok. 300 thousand êì2 terrains, have quitted on frontier with Czechoslovakia. In June 1944 allies have discovered 2-nd front in France that has worsened a political-military rule of Germany. In aestivo-autumnal campaign 1944 Soviet troops have conducted Byelorussian, Lvovsko-Sandomirskuju, East - Karpatskuju, JAssko-Kishinev, Baltic, Debretsenskuju, East - Karpatskuju, Belgrad, in part Budapest and Petsamo-Kirkenesskuju offensive operations. Discharging Belarus, Ukraine and Baltic has been completed (except for some areas of Latvia), in part Czechoslovakia, are forced to surrender and Romania and Hungary have entered war against Germany, are free of occupiers Soviet Zapoljarje and boreal ranges of Norway. On February, 4-11 1945 in Yalta the Crimean conference of chiefs of the USSR, the Great Britain and the USA was comprised. Campania 1945 in Europe actuated East - Prussian, Vislo-Oderskuju, completion Budapest, East - Pomeranskuju, Nizhnesilezskuju, Verhnesilezskuju, Western - Karpatskuju, the Austrian and Berlin operations which were finished by unconditional surrender of fascist Germany. After the Berlin operation the Soviet troops together with 2-nd army Signals Commands Polish, 1-st both 4-th Romanian armies and 1-st Czechoslovak body have conducted the Prague operation. On June, 24 in Moscow Parade of Victory was comprised. On having place in July - August of the Berlin conference of chiefs of three great powers the arrangement has been reached on the post-war device of the world in Europe. On August, 9 1945 USSR, carrying out of allied obligations, began act of war against Japan. During the Manchurian operation the Soviet troops have routed Kvantunskuju army, have released JUzh. Sakhalin and Kuril islands. On September, 2 1945 Japan has signed Act of unconditional surrender. On the sovetsko-German front 607 divisions of the opponent have been routed and captivated, 75 % of his military technique are deleted. Under different data, loss vermahta have constituted from 6 million up to 13,7 million person. The USSR has lost ok. 27 million person, including 11,3 million person at the front, 4-5 million guerrilla, many people have perished on an occupied territory and in back of country. In a fascist film has appeared ok. 6 million person. The material loss has constituted 679 billion rbl. In heavy bloody war the Soviet people has introduced decisive investment in discharging of peoples of Europe of a fascist yoke. Day of Victory (on May, 9) is marked annually as a national holiday and day of memory on perished.
  • The VETERINARY GEOGRAPHY, studies influence natural - geographycal and socio-economic factors of concrete terrains on regularity of originating and distribution of diseases animal.
  • The VETERINARY SANITARY, studies and develops measures under the warning and liquidations of diseases animal and guarding of people from causal organisms of infections and invasions, general for the person and animal.
  • The VETERINARY STATION, executes treatment animal and veterinarno-prophylaxises.
  • VETERINARY SANITARY the INSTITUTE research (NIIVS), is built in 1955 in Moscow. Probes and developments on disinfection and a disinfection cattle-breeding, warehouse, etc. rooms.
  • VETERINARNO-SANITARIAN EXAMINATION, definition of alimentary suitability of livestock products. Carry out at the enterprises of a dairy and meat industry, the markets, killing points.
  • VETERINARNO-SANITARIAN FACTORY (salvage factory), the enterprise, decontaminating corpses animal, industrial waste products of meat-packing factories both the kozhevenno-raw enterprises and processing them on a meat-and-bone meal in a forage animal.
  • VETERINARNO-SANITARIAN, system of measures under the supervisory control of a veterinarno-sanitary condition of animal husbandry and quality received, and also imported and exported cattle-breeding products and raw material. Implements experts of veterinary establishments. The VETERINARY DISPENSARY, veterinary establishment in an occupied point, renders medical and a disease-prevention service animal, carries out a veterinarno-forest hygiene in maintained terrain.
  • BRANCH, city (with 1925) in Belarus, Gomel region, landing stage on r. Sozh. 9,6 thousand inhabitants (1991). Mild, a food-processing industry. It is based in 17 century.
  • VETKOVSKOE the CONSENT (vetkovtsy), group of old believers beglopopovskogo the sense, moved in kon. 17 century from Russian state on about. A branch on r. Sozh (then terrain of Speech Pospolitoj, nowadays Gomel region. Belarus). Has lost value in kon. 18 century.
  • WHITE WILLOW (basket willow), tree of a stem a willow.
  • VETLUGA, the river at the centre of the European part of the Russian Federation, the left-handed in-leak of Volga. 889 kms, the area of basin of 39,4 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water in a lower reaches 255 m3 / with. Driveable. It is navigable on 700 kms from a mouth.
  • The VETO (from an armour. veto - I provide against), 1) in state law the interdiction imposed by one public authority (chief of state) on the solutions of other state organ. The institute of the veto has arisen in Other. Rome. It is most known t later. n. Loose (liberum) the veto: in Poland 17-18 centuries the solution of parliament was deemed accepted, if for him all deputies voted. In some modern states the veto power is routinely granted the chief of state concerning the laws adopted by parliament. 2) the Veto power call also foreseen as the UN Charter the principle of unanimity of permanent members of Security Council of the United Nations at a decision making under substantive questions.
  • CLOTH, rarefied inclement cotton of a calico weave (such as a tobacco cloth). Apply to cover of a layer of cotton wool or batting at sewing a winter outerwear. As cloth also call waste products of textile manufacture, aged things.
  • WEATHER SHAKE (anemone), stem of rhizomatous grasses (occasionally subshrubs) sets of a crowfoot family. Ok. 150 kinds, on all terrestrial globe. Many of them - prevernal plants, some are decorative. 2 kinds are guarded.
  • WINDY BELT, block in a north of Vost.-european plain, to the south from Onega bay. An altitude up to 336 m.
  • VETROAGREGAT, system from the windmill and presented by him in motion of machines (pompes, electricity generators, etc.).
  • VETROVA Maria Fedoseevna (1870-97), revolutionary narodnitsa, the member " Groups narodovoltsev ". In 1896 it is encased in the Peter and Paul Fortress. In a mark of the protest against a prison mode sozhgla itself.
  • The WINDFALL, separate trees and standling timbers, fallen a wind.
  • VETROVSKAJA DEMONSTRATING, on the area of the Kazan cathedral in Saint Petersburg (4.3.1897) in the form of a funeral service for M.F.Vetrovoj. It is dispersed by police.
  • VEGENER (Wegener) Alfred Lotar (1880-1930), german a geophysics. The participant (1906-08, 1912-13) and the chief (1929-30) expeditions to Greenland. The writer (1912) theories of drift of mainlands - the first hypothesis mobilizma.
  • VEGENER Paul (1874-1948), the german actor of theatre and kino. Worked at German theatre with producer M.Rejnhardtom. One of creators of german kino. It was taken out in films: "Golem", " Alive Buddhas ", " the Prague student ", etc.
  • VEGETARIANISM (from sr .-eyelid.s of an armour. vegetabilis - vegetative), a feed system extremely vegetative or a dairy - plant food. The vegetarian mode can be nominated temporarily with the medical or prophylactic purpose.
  • VEGETATIVE NERVOUS SYSTEM (from an armour. vegeto - I provoke, I resuscitate), a part of nervous system of vertebrates and the person, regulating activity of an internals and systems - a blood circulation, respiration, digestion, secretion, reproduction, etc., a metabolism and the functional condition (an excitability, functionability, etc.) tissues of an organism. It is divided on sympathetic and parasimpaticheskuju nervous system.
  • VEGETATIVE REPRODUCTION, education of a new metazoon from a part parent by a budding, division (for the lowest animal and plants), and also through rootstocks, it is proliferous, bulbs, klubnej, etc. (for higher plants). It is used in a fruit growing, a vegetable raising, etc. branches of an agriculture. Sometimes a vegetative reproduction fall into to an asexual reproduction.
  • VEGETATIVE ORGANS, the parts of a plant serving for maintenance of his life. For lower plant - forms it is a thallome, for the maximum - a leaf, a stalk, a root. Compare. Generative organs.
  • VEGETATIVE PERIOD, 1) the season of year in which growth and development (vegetation) of plants are possible; duration depends primarily on a geographic latitude, a climate (in a north he is shorter, in the south is longer). 2) Time (in day) from germination of seeds before ripening (in a plant growing from crop before cleaning). Napr., the vegetative season of a winter wheat of 200-350 day, summer - 62-189 day.
  • VEGETATION (from an armour. vegetatio - exaltation, revival), a growth, active (as against a dormant state) vital activity of vegetative organisms.
  • VEGETSY (Vegetius) Flavy Rhenate (kon. 4 - nach. 5 centuries), the Roman military theorist and the historian. The writer of the tract about military science (combat training, organization of a troops, arms, battle formations, tactics, etc.).
  • VEGIN Peter Viktorovich (r. 1939), the Russian poet. With 1989 in the USA. The first collection of verses - "Spiral staircase" (1968). In the poetry noted affluent metaforikoj and irony, reverts to themes of a nature, daily life, art. Collections of verses: " Cross to Summer " (1973), " Winter mail " (1978), " Above roofs " (1979), " Mia maid of the Father and Mother " (1981), "Silver" (1984), "Workshop" (1989), etc.
  • VEDANGA (sanskr. A part ved), vedijskie the texts dedicated sacramental, ethymology, grammar, phonetics, the register and astronomy.
  • VEDANTA (sanskr., characters. - an end ved), the most widespread indian religious - philosophical flow; to vedante naturally vedanta, purva-mimansa, some doctrines vishnuizma and shivaizma, and also neoinduizma in a broad sense concern. Naturally vedanta - one of six orthodox (admitting authority ved) philosophical systems; compositions "Vedanta-sutra" (or "Brahma-sutra") - it is attributed to wise man Badarajane (4-3 centuries up to n. e.). It is based to treatment of expressions shruti (" sacred texts " induizma) about atmane (the personal spiritual beginning) and brahmane (the maximum reality). As the purpose of life vedanta considers "discharging", achievement of initial sameness atmana and brahmana. The latest versions naturally vedanty: advajtavedanta SHankary, doctrine Ramanudzhi. Representatives vedanty in new time: Ramakrishna, Vivekananda, Radhakrishnan, etc.
  • VEDDOIDNAJA the STRAIN, enters in major equatorial (negro-avstraloidnuju) strain. A corrugated hair, poor growth of a hair on a face and a body (as contrasted to avstraloidnoj strain) are characteristic. It is distributed in Center. And Vost. India (veddy, some groups bihartsev, bhilov, etc.), countries of Indochina (senoi, etc.) and in Indonesia (toala, etc.).
  • VEDDY, people, an aboriginal population of Sri Lanka (primarily Eastern prov.). Ok. 1 thousand person (1987). Belong to veddoidnoj to strain. Tongue indoiranskoj groups. Buddhists believing main and induisty.
  • VEDEKIND (Wedekind) Franc (1864-1918), the german writer. The precursor ekspressionizma; dramas " Waking of spring " (1891), " Marquis background Kejt " (1901); satirical verses in "Simplitsissimuse" (90th). A cult of "strong personality" in dilogii " Spirit of ground " (1895), " Box Pandory " (1904).
  • VEDENEYEV Boris Evgenjevich (1884/85-1946), Russian hydropowers, academician AN the USSR (1932). One of chiefs of construction Volkhov and Dneprovskoj a river plant participat in scheduling GOELRO. The main transactionses under the theory of economic evaluation of construction of a river plant. The state premium of the USSR (1943).
  • VEDENIN Vyacheslav Petrovich (r. 1941), the Russian sportsman, the deserved master of sport (1970). The champion of Olympic Games (1972), the world (1970), the repeated champion of the USSR (in 1966-73) in different kinds of cross-countr.
  • VEDENISOV Boris Nikolaevich (1869-1952), the Russian scientist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1943). The chief of construction of some railway lines and structures. The state premium of the USSR (1943).
  • VEDERNIKOV Alexander Filippovich (r. 1927), the Russian singer (bass), the national actor of the USSR (1976). In 1955-58 at the Leningrad theatre of opera and ballet, with 1958 at Major theatre. 1-n the premium at International competition by him. R.Schuman (Berlin, 1956). The state premium of the USSR (1969).
  • VEDZHVUD Dzh., see Uedzhvud Dzh.
  • WHETHER VAN (r. 1916), the chairman of Standing committee Vsekitajskogo of collection of national representatives in 1988-93. Member KP of China (handheld computer) with 1936. With 1980 in a guiding of a handheld computer.
  • VANSJAN, city in China, prov. Sichuan, on r. Yangtze. 157 thousand inhabitants (1990). Impregnated-paper, textile, chemical, an oil-mill industry.
  • VAPTSAROV Nikola (1909-42), the Bulgarian poet. In verses - fervor of revolutionary extirpation of the Bulgarian worker, the communist, accusation of fascism (the collection " Songs of a motor ", 1940). Rasstreljan monarho-fascist authorities. The international premium of the World (1952, posthumously).
  • PITCH (volt-ampere reactive), unit of a reactive power alternating-current; pitch is meant. Differs from a watt a multiplier sin?, where? - phase shift between pressure and a circuital current.
  • PITCH (Varus) (ok. 53 up to n. e. - 9 n. e.), the Roman commander. The viceroy of a province Germany with 5 n. e. Having sufferred a crushing defeat in Tevtoburgskom to a wood from the German nations led by Arminius, has committed suicide.
  • VARADERO (Varadero), city on Cuba, prov. Matanzas. A climatic health resort, the tourist centre on Atlantic a shore. 16 thousand inhabitants (1990). Annual festivals of arts.
  • VARAZHDIN, city in Croatia. St. 40 thousand inhabitants. Sewing, textile, a food-processing industry. The clasp 15-16 centuries (museum). A town hall of 16-18 centuries Bliz Varadzhina - balneogrjazevoj and climatic health resort Varazhdinske-Toplitse.
  • The VARACTOR [from English var (iable) - variable and act - action], crystal rectifier, on a mode of functioning analogous to a varicap. It is used predominary as the nonlinear component in frequency multipliers, and also for intensifying oscillation in parametric amplifiers of a microwave range.
  • VARANASI (Benares), city in the Sowing. India, on r. Ganges, pieces. Uttar Pradesh. 926 thousand inhabitants (1991). The cultural, historical centre and a place of religious pilgrimage induistov and Buddhists (up to 1 million person annually). The cotton, polygraphic, alimentary, glass, chemical enterprises, a machine industry. Center of book printing in tongue of a Hindi. Art handcrafts (a brocade, carpets, jewels). University. Has arisen ok. 7 century up to n. e. " Golden temple SHivy " (ok. 1750), majestic palaces of 16-19 centuries (including. Man Mandir, 1600).
  • VARANGER-FIORD (Varanger fjord), Varjazhsky bay Barentseva in m., for boreal coasts of Europe, between p-ovami Fishing (Russian Federation) and Varanger (Norway). Length of 120 kms, width for an orifice of 50 kms, depth up to 420 m. Ports: Varde, Vadse (Norway).
  • MONITOR LIZARDS, a set of lizards. Length of 0,8-3 m. 1 stem (30 kinds), in Eastern hemisphere. Predators, eat lizards, snakes, small mammals, etc. The Largest representative - komodsky the goanna. The largest lizard of a fauna Compare. Asia - the grey goanna, length up to 1,6 m; in the Red Data Book of the International union of nature protection and natural resources.
  • VARAHY Melitinsky (mind. 298), one of thirty three Christian martyrs - soldiers damaged in the Melitin in persecution of emperor Diokletiana. Memory in the Orthodox church on November, 7 (20).
  • VARAHISY Persian (mind. ok. 330), the Christian martyr damaged in Persia in persecution SHapura II; the brother of the martyr Ions Persian. Memory in the Orthodox church on March, 28 (on April, 10), in Roman catholic - on March, 29.
  • VARAHSHA, gorodishche 5-8 centuries, in 40 kms to the west from Bukhara, a monument of art Sogda - ruins of a citadel and a palace with the ceremonial halls decorated with monumental painting and a sculpture (a thread on knocking).
  • VARBOLA, residues medieval (12-14 centuries) cities in 60 kms to the south from Thalline, a base estov in extirpation with german and danish aggressors.
  • VARBURG (Warburg) Otto Genrih (1883-1970), the german biochemist. Probeed redox processes in a living cell, a nature and functions of ferments. First has explained the mechanism of cellular respiration by enzymosis. Transactionses on a photosynthesis and oncologies. The Nobel Prize (1931).
  • VARVARIZMY (from grech. barbaros - foreign), foreign words and the expressions not completely run in by tongue and accepted as stranger.
  • VARVARINA the MOUNTAIN, parking of epoch of a serotinal paleolith in Zaigraevskom r-not Buryatiya. Residues of home units, economic holes, instruments, bones animal.
  • BARBAROUS TRUTHS (an armour. Leges barbarorum - laws of barbarians), records of the customary law of the German nations, the constituted between 5 and 9 centuries Are known Vestgotskaja, Burgundian, Salic, etc.
  • VASILISSA Melitinskaja (mind. ok. 312), ispovednitsa, damaged in persecution of emperor Maksimiana Galerija, the marital partner of martyr Evdoksija Melitinskogo. Memory in the Orthodox church on September, 6 (19).
  • VASILISSA Nikomidijskaja (mind. 309), the Christian martyress, otrokovitsa, damaged in persecution of emperor Diokletiana. Memory in the Orthodox church on September, 3 (16).
  • MEADOWRUE, stem of perennial grasses of a set of a crowfoot family. St. 120 kinds, in Eurasia, America and Africa; including ok. 40 views on Caucasus, in Compare. Asia, Zap. And Vost. Siberia. Some vasilistniki - medicinal and ornamental plants.
  • VASILIU Georgios (r. 1931), the president of Republic Cyprus in 1988-93.
  • BASIL BLESSED the TEMPLE (Pokrovsky a cathedral that on I tear) in Moscow, on the Red square, a monument of the Russian architecture, nowadays branch of the Historical museum. It is constructed in 1555-61 architects Barmoj and Postnikom (under some suppositions, the same face) in commemoration of conquest Kazan hanstva. A structure from 8 stolpoobraznyh the temples assorted around of the centre - 9-th (pent-roof) column, consolidated the general grounding and internal transitions.
  • VASILEV Alexander Aleksandrovich (1867-1953), the Russian historian, arabist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1925; corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science with 1923). With 1932 in emigration. Transactionses on a medieval history and a history of Byzantium.
  • VASILEV Alexander Alekseevich (1882-1918), one of the first Russian pilots. On a trade the attorney. Studied in flying school Blerio (France). The winner of flight Peterburg-Moscow in July 1911. Has placed a little air Record-type. In the beginning of 1-st world war has entered army the volunteer. In August 1914 because of damage of a motor was taken prisoner to the Austrians in area of Lvov. After an abortive attempt of shoot has been encased in camp of a stringent mode and has died in a film.
  • VASILEV Boris Lvovich (r. 1924), the Russian writer. In stories " And zori here quiet... " (1969), " In lists did not appear " (1974) tragic element and heroic of Great Domestic war. In stories " do not shoot in white swans " (1973), " Tomorrow there was a war " (1984) social - moral problems. The historical novel " Were and nebyli " (kn. 1-2, 1977-80). Roman " to you greetings from skull cracker Lery... " (1988) about tragical destinies of victims of Stalin reprisals. Plays, scripts. Publicism. The state premium of the USSR (1975).
  • VASILEV Valery Vitaljevich (r. 1938), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1984). Transactionses on a shell theory and structural design from composites.
  • VASILEV Valery Ivanovich (r. 1949), the Russian sportsman, the deserved master of sport (1973). The champion of Olympic Games (1972, 1976), the world and Europe (1970, 1973-75, 1978-82) on ice hockey.
  • VASILEV Vasily Pavlovich (1818-1900), the Russian scientist - orientalist, the professor of the Kazan university, the academician (with 1886). The writer two-volume capital transactionses about the Buddhism, laid foundation buddologicheskoj to school in Russia (I.P.Minaev, O.Rosenberg, F.I.ShCherbatskoj).
  • VASILEV Vladimir Viktorovich (r. 1940), the Russian ballet dancer, the ballet master, the national actor of the USSR (1973). With 1958-88 at Major theatre. One of master Russian dancers. The first initiator of consignment Spartaka ("Spartak" A.I.Hachaturjana). Has delivered ballets: "Makbet" K.V.Molchanov (1980), "Anyuta" of V.A.Gavrilin (1986), "Cinderella" S.S.Prokofjeva (1991), etc. The Lenin premium (1970), the State premium of the USSR (1977). The state premium of the Russian Federation (1991). Since March 1995 artistic administrator - the director of Major theatre.
  • VASILEV Ivan Afanasjevich (r. 1924), the Russian writer. Books of publicistic sketches and stories, including the life of village dedicated acute problems: " In an edge of headstreams " (1981), " the Tolerance on the initiative " (1983), " Recurring to ground " (1984), "Fellow countrymen", " Incorporeal requirement " (both 1985), "Refinement" (1988). The lenin premium (1986).
  • VASILEV Konstantin Alekseevich (1942-76), the Russian artist. Cable cores also worked near Kazan, in settlement Vasiljevo. Has received popularity pathetic, continuing tradition of symbolism and a modernist style cloths on themes of folklore, an ancient and modern Russian history.
  • VASILEV Nikolay Illarionovich (1875-1930), the Russian scientist in range of agronomy and an agronomical chemistry, the professor (1914). In 1920 has emigrated to Yugoslavia where taught at the Belgrad university. Transactionses on a general farming, an agrochemistry, biology of agricultural plants. Studied an azotfixation.
  • VASILEV Nikolay Nikolaevich (1929-85), the Russian chemist and biophysics, corresponding member AN the USSR (1984). Probes in range of cell-like physiology and simulation of processes of microbialogic synthesis. The state premium of the USSR (1982).
  • VASILEV Oleg Fedorovich (r. 1925), the Russian scientist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1994). The main transactionses on applied hydrodynamics and hydraulics.
  • VASILEV Paul Nikolaevich (1909/10-37), the Russian poet. Ostrokonfliktnye, racy products about events of the Civil war, collectivization: " the Song about death Cossack a troops " (1928-32), " Salt clamp " (1933). It is repressed; it is rehabilitated posthumously.
  • VASILEV Peter Vasiljevich (1899-1975), the Russian schedule and the painter, the national artist of Russia (1970). The series of drawings dedicated life and activity by V.I.Lenina. The state premium of the USSR (1947).
  • VASILEV Feodor Aleksandrovich (1850-73), the Russian painter. It is close to peredvizhnikam. Emotional - lyrical, quite often dramatic landscapes ("Thawing weather", 1871, "Wet meadow", 1872).
  • INTERCHANGEABILITY, in technique - property of equal component parts, clusters or integrated machines, mechanisms, apparatuses and other designs, permitting to assemble or change them without preliminary adjustment.
  • INTERCHANGEABILITY of RESOURCES, possibility of using of miscellaneous kinds of resources for achievement of an economic optimum. Distinguish interchangeability of resources technical and economic. Economic-mathematical models of calculations of efficacyy of the relative changing of resources are developed.
  • INTERCHANGEABILITIES the LAW, the same, that the Bunsen - Rosko the law.
  • INTERRELATION, in philosophy - the relative condition of objects the friend the friend; see. Communication.
  • UPLIFT, in geology - a steeply dipping fault on which breeds of a trailing wing are biased up concerning breeds of a lying wing.
  • SUSPENSIONS, suspensions in which particles settle or float very slowly because of a small difference in densenesses of a dispersed phase and a disperse medium.
  • WEIGHING, definition of mass of bodies through weights. At weighing on the beam balance, not requiring of a split-hair accuracy, the mass of a body strikes root to an equal algebraic sum of masses of weights, the balance a body, and indications of a reading device of weights.
  • ARMING, the military subdividing consisting of several (2-4) branches, calculations or crews. Is part of a company (battery) or directly in connection, a part, etc.
  • VZDORNOV Herald Ivanovich (r. 1936), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1994). Transactionses on a history of old russian art and crop. The state premium of the USSR (1982).
  • BEACH, 1) a part of a surface starving, accumbent to coast. 2) the Bayshore strip dry (napr., the Riga beach). 3) A beach wellhead - avandelta the rivers and the conforming part of a surface starving.
  • EXPLOSION, discharging of a plenty of power in restricted volume for short period. Explosion results in education of hardly heated gas with very high pressure, which at expansion renders mechanic influence (pressure, destruction) on ambient bodies. In a solid medium it is accompanied by its destruction and cleavage. Explosions descend at the expense of discharging chemical power (primarily blasting explosives), a nuclear energy (atomic explosion), an electromagnetic energy (iskrovyj category, a laser-induced spark, etc.), a mechanical energy (at fall of meteorites on a surface of the Earth, eruption of burning mountains, etc.). Designed explosions implement basically industrial blasting explosives and base many production processes. See also the Directed blast.
  • FUZES, the devices reporting an explosive pulse to an explosive charge of ammunition gear, the mine, missile, charge, torpedo, etc. Fuzes can work at meeting with the purpose, in fixed interval of time, on the given depth underwater, etc.
  • BLAST WAVE, the shockwave originating at explosion. The front of blast wave goes from a shot point with the speed, exceeding the speed limit a note, thus the surface of front of blast wave monotonically increases, and speed of its motion and intensity diminish.
  • SHOT EXPLODER (the blasting machine), transportable a source of a current flow for blasting electrical detonators. Are applied to industrial blasting and in military science.
  • EXPLOSIVE MACHINING, way of machining of metals (a weldment, an extrusion, hardening), it is based on use of power of explosion. At an explosion welding there is an impact of component parts and the cumulative jet of metal welding component parts will be derivated. The extrusion consists in instantaneous (ms, a mcs) the appendix to sheet preparation of mechanic pressure, is significant superior limit of elasticity of a material.
  • EXPLOSIVE TECHNOLOGY, controlled fracture, conveyance, structural change and forms natural (rocks, ice, wood) or synthetic materials (metals, plastics materials, concrete, etc.) which implements at the expense of the power secreted at explosion of industrial blasting explosives. It is applied in mining, construction, metal working, etc.
  • BLASTING EXPLOSIVES (explosive), personal chemical combinations or the mixes which are capable under influence of an external pulse (impact, heat, etc.) to self-propagating with a high speed (km/s) of a chemical change with education of light-end products and a calorification.
  • PENALTY ADMINISTRATIVE, the punitive measure for administrative misconduct (offence). Kinds of penalties administrative: the warning, the fine, administrative arrest, compensated taking or confiscation of the subject which has shown the instrument of committing or object of an offence, correctional labor, forfeiting of special rights.
  • PENALTIES INDISPUTABLE, penalty of the indebtedness under orders of the authorized organs and the executive inscriptions of notaries without trial in court, arbitration court and other organs.
  • HONEY FLOW, the same, that a honey harvest.
  • VETROGONNYE the MEANS, the medicinal substances reducing education of gases in a gastrointestinal tract and promoting them othozhdeniju at a meteorism (napr. Fennel water).
  • The WINDMILL, uses a wind power for a yield of a mechanical energy. Propeller-type windmills for which the fulcrum pin of the windwheel coincides a direction of an air flow are distributed predominary.
  • WIND ENERGETICS, branch of energetics, the bound with development of methods and a means for transformation of a wind power to mechanic, thermal or electrical power. A wind - an iterated energy source. Wind energy can be utilised practically everywhere; application of wind driver generators in an agriculture is most long-range.
  • WINDS ABORIGINAL, with restricted regional distribution. Are secreted with speed, repeatability, a direction or other features (napr., breezes, a foehn, a milletgrass, a dry wind, a Mediterranean wind, hamsin, it mountain - dolinnye, glacial, etc. winds).
  • CHICKEN POX, acute virus infection predominary children with a fever and a crop by the way it is bubble, drying up in crusts. Infection from ill through air.
  • VETTERN, lake in the south of Sweden. The area over 1,9 thousand êì2, length of 129 kms, depth up to 119 m. It is located in a hollow lednikovo-tectonic an origin. Navigation (logins the Geta-channel). To Vetternu national park Tiveden borders on. A primary port - Jencheping.
  • VETTSHTEJN (Wettstein) Rihard a background (1863-1931), Austrian botanik, foreign corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1924) and foreign honorary member AN the USSR (1927). The writer of the concept of an origin of a flower pokrytosemennyh plants from a strobile gymnosperm. Has discovered a seasonal dimorphism for seed plants.
  • The OLD TESTAMENT, see in an item. The Bible.
  • HAM, the smoked, baked or boiled meat product prepared from a salinous pork ham.
  • VETCHINKIN Vladimir Petrovich (1888-1950), the Russian scientist, the honored worker of science and technique of Russia (1946). One of organizers of a TsAGI. Transactionses on propellers, a flight dynamics of an airplane and a missile, wind energetics, etc. The State premium of the USSR (1943).
  • WATERHEMLOCK (water hemlock), stem of perennial water and paludous grasses of a set umbrella. Ok. 10 kinds, primarily in the Sowing. To America. In Eurasia the waterhemlock toxicant is distributed, which all parts contain a toxin triggering poisonings (often fatal) for the person and domestic animals.
  • WATERHEMLOCK buoyant, a navigation mark by the way reinforced on zajakorennom a float of a pole with any figure (a cone, a sphere, etc.), colored in fixed colour, or check box. Stakes minister for protection of navigational hazards, areas of parking of courts, manufacture of activities, etc.
  • "STAKES", " the Collection of points about Russian intelligency " (Moscow, 1909), is exhausted by group of the Russian religious philosophers and publicists (N.A.Berdjaev, S.N.Bulgakov, P.B.Struve, S.L.Frank, M.O.Gershenzon, A.S.Izgoev, B.A.Kistjakovsky), appearing with criticism of philosophy and practical installations revolutionary, sotsialisticheski tuned intelligency - atheistic materialism, political radicalism, idealization of people (in marxism - proletariat), etc. "Stakes" professed a primate of spiritual life above public: " internal life of the personality is a unique creative power of human life ".
  • VECHE, public assembly in ancient and medieval Russia in 10-14 centuries. The greatest development - in Russian cities 2-nd floor. 11-12 centuries. Decided problems of war and peace, invoked and proscribed princes, passed laws, concluded contracts with other grounds, etc. In Novgorod, Pskov and ground Vjatskoj it was saved up to kon. 15 - nach. 16 centuries.
  • VESPER EDUCATION, form of organization of educational process for the faces combining study with professional labour activity. Provides realization by the teacher of regular occupations with educational groups of permanent structure in convenient for pupils an off-duty time, often in the evening (from here the term).
  • ROCKETS, a stem of mammals of a section of bats. Length of a body 1-5 see 7 kinds, in deciduous and mixed forests of Europe, Forward, Vost. And JUgo-Vost. Asia. In deciduous forests and parks of Caucasus a routine yellow rocket. In the European part and on Caucasus dwell a small and huge rocket; last - it is guarded.
  • VECHERNJA, the church service committed in the evening; in holidays it is bridged together with morning in structure of all-night vigil (all-night).
  • VECHINY (from an armour. vicinus - the neighbour), dependent peasants in Moldova (with nach. 16 century), bearing duties for the benefit of landowners and the states.
  • PERMAFROST (permafrost), the multivalued term conforming to concepts: permfrost rocks, perennial kriolitozona.
  • PERPETUALLY MODES, literary characters to which limiting art obobshchennost and spiritual depth inform common to all mankind, vsevremennoe value (Prometej, Don Kihot, Don ZHuan, Hamlet, Faust, Medzhnun).
  • " The BULLETIN of EUROPE ", 1) the log-book, 1802-30, Moscow, 2 times a month. N.M.Karamzinym is based. Took up problems of the literature, external and internal policy, public life of foreign countries. 2) the Monthly literary - political magazine of a liberal direction, 1866-1918, Saint Petersburg (in 1866-67 on 4 volumes annually). The editor - publisher - M.M.Stasjulevich (on 1908).
  • " The BULLETIN of NATIONAL WILL ", the log-book narodovoltsev, 1883-86, Geneva, 5 numbers. Editors - L.A.Tikhomirov, M.N.Oshanina, P.L.Lavrov.
  • " The BULLETIN of the CONSIGNMENT of NATIONAL FREEDOM ", the weekly of a consignment of cadets, 1906-18 (with rests), Saint Petersburg. It is closed under the solution of the Soviet guiding.
  • " The BULLETIN of RUSSIAN REVOLUTION ", the clandestine log-book, organ of a consignment eserov, 1901-05, Paris - Geneva, 4 numbers.
  • SIGNAL, in Russian army (on fleet) the soldier (mariner) assigned for fulfilment of service assignments of the officer, maintenance for his horse, etc.
  • VESTRIS (Vestris) Gaetano Apollino Balthasar (1729-1808), the italian ballet dancer, the ballet master. Worked in " the Parisian opera ". Successfully combined high dancing skill with a pantomime.
  • WESTPHALIA (Westfalen), historical range between the rivers Rhein and Weser in Germany (in an early Middle Ages - terrain of moving vestfalov, a western branch of saxophones). In 1815-1945 Prussian province (the centre - Munster), about 1946 part of ground the Sowing. Rhine - Vestfalija.
  • VESTFALSKY the MIR 1648, two peace treaties preformed in Munster and Osnabrjuke (Westphalia). Has finished Thirty-year war 1618-48. Sweden has received a mouth almost all navigable rivers the Sowing. Germany, France - a part of Alsace, for German knjazjami rights of sovereign sovereigns have been actually adjudicated. Has consolidated and has strengthened political dissociation of Germany.
  • WEST WIND - FIORD (Vest Fjord), a channel between a coast Scandinavian p-ova and islands Lofotenskimi. Length of 203 kms, width from 11 kms in a north up to 74 kms in the south. A catching rattles and a herring.
  • "BALANCE", literary and critical monthly, 1904-09, Moscow, publishing house " Scorpius ". An organ of symbolism. In a nem cooperated A.Belyj, V.J.Bryusov, A.A.Blok, M.A.Voloshin, Vjach. I.Ivanov, V.V.Rozanov, etc.
  • BALANCE (an armour. Libra), zodiacal mia maid.
  • BALANCE, the device for definition of mass of bodies on the gravity operational on them. Distinguish balance: exemplary (for check of weights), laboratory (analytical, microanalytical, testing, etc.) and general purpose; on a mode of functioning - lever, spring, electrostrain-gauge (see. A tensometer), hydraulic and hydrostatic.
  • EVERYTHING, 1) the pribaltijsko-Finnish nation in Priladozhje and Belozerje. An agriculture, crafts. Since 9 century in structure of the Kiev Russia. Descendants vesej - vepsy. 2) the Title of a small village settlement for slavs.
  • VESEGONSK, city (with 1776) in the Russian Federation, the Tver region, landing stage on Rybinsk vdhr. A depot. 9,7 thousand inhabitants (1993). Wood-working combine, a flax-spinning mill, etc.
  • VETALY, in induistskoj mythologies the spirits living on cemeteries. Accompany SHivu.
  • VETEMAA (Vetemaa) Ann (r. 1936), the Estonian writer. A cycle of " small novels ", including "Monument" (1965), " Eggs on - kitajski " (1972); the stylized transposition of the Estonian epos - the novel of " Memory Kalevipoega " (1971), novels " the Silvery tape " (1977), "Moebius band" (1985), etc., plays put the modern social - ethical and philosophical problems.
  • WIND, air motion concerning a surface, called by a nonuniform distribution of an atmospheric pressure and directed from high-pressure to low. The wind is defined by speed and a direction. Speed expresses in ms, km/h, in clusters or approximately in balls on the Beaufort to a scale.
  • The VETERAN (an armour. veteranus, from vetus - aged), 1) in Other. Rome the soldier who have served time in army. Veterans were allotted with ground (in Italy and provinces) or received the pecuniary reward, and also rights of Roman citizenship, were released of duties. 2) the Aged soldier; the participant of a war in past. 3) the Person long studying on any field.
  • VETERINARY SCIENCE (from an armour. veterinarius - attending to the scotomas, treating cattle), range of science and practical activities, directed on the warning and treatment of diseases animal, protection of people from zooantroponozov, extension of high-quality livestock products in veterinarno-sanitarian attitude and veterinarno-sanitarian environmental protection. The most ancient cramps on treatment animal fall into 4-ìó one thousand up to n. e.; originating of a professional veterinary science in Russia - to 10-13 centuries. The becoming of a veterinary science is developmental medicine, biology, chemistry, physics, etc. sciences. A major role in development of a veterinary science scientists K.Burzhela, E.Dzhenner, V.I.Vsevolodov, K.I.Skryabin, S.N.Vyshelessky have played, etc. The veterinary science integrates an epizootology, parasitology, a veterinary sanitary, veterinarno-sanitarian examination, clinical diagnosis, therapy, surgery, pharmacology, zoogigienu, and also a veterinary microbiology and a virology, normal both a pathological anatomy and zoophysiology; it is closely related with a zootechny. The main problems of the modern veterinary science - development of the off-the-shelf methods of animal protection against causal organisms of diseases, first of all from virus and helminthiases, people - from antropozoonozov; study of veterinary geography, problems epizootologicheskogo forecasting, a veterinary service animal in cattle-breeding complexes, etc.