Tuesday, May 15, 2007

  • BIWA, the lake largest in Japan on about. Honshu. 716 êì2. Depth up to 86 m. A drainage on r. Jodo in a hall. Osaka Quiet ok. It is paired by channels with Osaka and Kyoto. Navigation. Tourism.
  • CAMP (bivouac) (a nem. Biwak, frants. bivouac) (ustar)., parking of a troops outside of occupied points for a lodging for the night or leisure time activities.
  • BIVEN (Bevan) Enjurin (1897-1960), the leader of the left-handed wing of the Labour party of the Great Britain (since 1930th). In 1945-51 Minister of Health, in 1951 minister for transactionses; has quitted for demission in a mark of the protest against a course of a labour government.
  • BIVERBRUK (Beaverbrook) William Maksuell (1879-1964), baron, the English newspaper magnate. In 1918 and 1940-45 in government.
  • TUSKS, non-proprietary name of excessively developed tooths (tusks or cutters of both maxillas) for some mammals (elephants, sea cows, wild boars, etc.). The instrument of an offence and protection. Routinely 1 or 2 pairs; will grow during all life. Are used for manufacturing different hand-made articles.
  • BIVREST (Bilrest) (dr .-èñë. shivering road), in the Scandinavian mythology a rainbow represented as the bridge between ground and the root. Red colour in a rainbow symbolized igneous physical agent which handicapped to mount on the root ineistym to giants.
  • BI-GAN, in the Chinese mythology the godhood of oof, it was figured by the way the noble husband sitting on a throne.
  • BITTER ORANGE, the same, that a wild orange.
  • BIG-BAND (English Big band, characters. A major orchestra), the characteristic version of a jazz orchestra distinguished by fixed structure of instruments. Number of musicians in a big-band - 10-20 person. Development of a big-band began in 1920th, and in nach. 1930 on his basis there was a swing - one of basic styles of an orchestral jazz.
  • BIGGAR (Biggar) Joseph Gillis (1828-1890), the figure of irish national motion. The participant of Land league. The initiator of tactics of parliamentary obstruction; the adherent of compromises with the English liberals.
  • "BIGL" ("Beagle"), the military sailing corvette (Great Britain) known primarily on round-the-world expedition 1831-36 (commander R.Fitsroj) including C.Darvina. Displacement 235 t. In 20-40-Õ of 19 century on "Bigl" were led hydrographic activities on filming coasts JUzh. America, It is new. Zealand, the Sowing. Australia, etc.
  • BIDDEPOTI, see. Vidjapati.
  • BIDDER Genrih (1810-94), the Russian physiologist and the anatomist, corresponding member (1857) and the honorary member (1884) Petersburg AN. Transactionses on physiology and a histology of nervous system, physiology of a feed. Has found (1852) in heart of a frog on border of an auricle and a ventricle twin clumps of ganglionic cells (clusters Biddera). Has put forward (1842) hypothesis about the functional independence of sympathetic nervous system. Has created school of physiologists.
  • BIDERMAN Nahum Lvovich (1917-93), the Russian engineer, the expert in range of mechanics of a distorted body, Dr.Sci.Tech. (1959). Has created the theory of retina, has developed methods of calculation of the rubber-cord elastic elements and pneumatic tires. The lenin premium (1960).
  • BIDERMEJER (a nem. Biedermeier, Biedermaier), a style direction in german and Austrian art ok. 1815-48. In bidermejere submissions of burgher medium were reflected. The architecture and an ornamental art bidermejera processed forms of an empire style spirit of intimacy and a domestic cosiness. For painting bidermejera (G.F.Kersting, L.Richter, K.Shpitsveg in Germany, M.Shvind, F.Valdmjuller in Austria) typically thin, careful plotting of an interior, a nature, household component parts.
  • BIDZHAPUR, the state in India on Deccan in 15-17 centuries led by dynasty Adilshahov.
  • BIDZHARETTI (Bigiaretti) Libero (r. 1906), the italian writer. Themes of Resistance movement (the novel " Karlone, life of one Italian ", 1950; the story " School of thieves ", 1952), criticism of the modern society (novels "Congress", 1963, "Dublersha", 1968), the collection of stories (" the Person who has eaten a lion ", 1974); the book of memories ("Room", 1976).
  • BIDZIN (CHolokashvili) Ksansky (mind. 1660; under other data in 1664), the sacred Georgian prince who has headed Kahetinskoe revolt 1659. Memory in the Orthodox church on September, 18 (on October, 1).
  • BIDL (Beadle) George Uels (1903-89), American genetics. Basic transactionses on biochemical genetics. One of writers of the fundamental concept: " one gene - one ferment " (each gene is responsible for synthesis only one ferment, 1941). The Nobel Prize (1958, together with E.Tejtemom).
  • BILROT (Billroth) Teodor (1829-94), the german surgeon, one of founders of the modern surgery. For the first time has made removal of an esophagus (1872), larynxes (1874), a urinary bladder. Has developed methods of a resection of a stomach (1881-1884).
  • POOL (frants. billard, from bille - a sphere), 1) the game with spheres and kiem (a wooden stick) on a table with sides... 2) the Table for the game in a pool - with billiard pockets (apertures in sides) and without them.
  • BILJUNAS (Biliunas) Jonas (1879-1907), the Lithuanian writer. Stories "Out of work" (1903), " the First strike " (1903) and the story " the Sad fairy tale " (1907) - from life of workers.
  • BILJAR, medieval (10-13 centuries) city, in 12-íà÷. 13 centuries capital Bulgarii Volzhsko-Kamskoj. Residues about a seconds Biljarsk Tatarii.
  • BILJASUVAR (up to 1991 Pushkino), city (with 1966) in Azerbaijan, on plain Muganskoj. 19 thousand inhabitants (1991). A ginnery.
  • BIMA-SUMBANSKIE PEOPLES, group of peoples on the orient Indonesia (bima, sumbantsy, manggarai, havu, etc.), on islands Small Zondskogo arh. 3,1 million person (1992). Tongues of the Indonesian branch. On religion christians, moslems - sunnity and adherents of traditional convictions.
  • BIMBISARA (2-n a floor. 6 century up to n. e.), old indian tsar, the contemporary and the adherent of the Buddha.
  • BIM-BOM, the duet of the Russian musical clowns - is eccentric. Number is built in 1891 I.S.Radunskim (Bim) from F.Kortezi (Bom). Existed up to 1946 (with a rest) with miscellaneous partners Radunskogo.
  • BIMETAL (from bi... And metal), a material from two layers of heterogeneous metals or alloys (napr., steel and aluminium). Produce primarily simultaneous rolling or pressing of two preparations. Apply to a strength improvement and heat resistance of designs, drop of their mass or as a material with special properties (napr., for thermoregulators).
  • BIMETALLIZM, a monetary system at which the gold and silver act as the legalized universal equivalent and compound the basis of monetary circulation of country (16-19 centuries). In kon. 19 century in the majority of countries bimetallizm it is substituted by golden monometallism.
  • BIMIS (Bemis) Semjuel Flegg (1891-1973), the American historian, one of chiefs of the American historical association. Transactionses on a history of foreign policy the USA.
  • BEAM (English beams, plural from beam - a log, a balk), a transverse beam connecting onboard branches of a frame. Stiffens to decks and distributes a deck load on sides, bulkheads, etc. See also the Ship framing.
  • BIN (Bean) Alan (r. 1932), an astronaut the USA, the captain of 1-st rank Naval Forces in demission. Flight on "Apollo - 12" with transplantation to moon (November 1960), flight on "Apollo" and orbital station " Ñêàéëýá " (July - September 1973).
  • BINARY ALLOYS (from an armour. binarius - double), will consist of two components (metals or metal and metalloid).
  • BINAURAL EFFECT (from an armour. bini - two and auris - an ear), ability of the person and the maximum animal to determine a direction of a sound source. Because of that that ears are located on some distance, the note comes to nymas, differing on a phase and intensity that conducts to distinction of the pulses acting at central nervous system from a dextral and left-handed ear, and enables to determine a direction.
  • BINGEM (Bingham), a copper deposit in the west the USA (pieces. Utah). It is developed since 80th of 19 century. Hydrothermal mednoporfirovoe with Mo, to a rim of ore-bearing intrusions skarnovoe and zhilnoe. Reserves ok. 1,5 billion t ore with the mean content of 0,7 % Cu and 0,029 % Mo. Incidentally are extracted Pt, Pd, Se, Ni.
  • BINGEMTON (Binghamton), city on north-east the USA, pieces. New York. 53 thousand inhabitants (1990). A radio electronic industry, manufacture of the photogoods, shoes. University.
  • BINDENSHU (Bindensu, Bindensehu) Ruperts (1645-98), the Latvian architect. The representative of Baroque. With 1671 worked in Riga (a front of church Petera, 1689-94; t. n. Dwelling Rejterna, 1684-88).
  • BULGARIA VOLZHSKO-KAMSKAJA, see Bulgarija Volzhsko-Kamskaja.
  • The BULGARIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, conducts a history with 1869; it is reorganized in 1949. Is in Sofia. In 1991 over 50 academies, over 80 corresponding members, over 90 foreign members; 10 exploratory and training centers (integrate scientific research institute and laboratories AN and the Sofia university and other a scientific institute).
  • BULGARIAN LEGIJA, military connections of the Bulgarian emigrants (1-n Bulgarian legija - ok. 500 person in 1861-62; 2-n - ok. 200 person in 1867-68), it is built in Belgrade with a goal of the struggle for discharging of Bulgaria of an osmanli yoke. Dissolved by the Serbian government.
  • The BULGARIAN BACILLUS, kind of lactic asid bacteria. It is applied to a leavening of milk which fast curdles under action of the Bulgarian bacillus at t 45-50 °C.
  • BULGARIAN AGRICULTURAL NATIONAL UNION (BZNS), is based in 1899. Outstanding figures - A.Stambolijsky, G.Trajkov, etc.
  • The BULGARIAN CRISIS 1885-87, exacerbation and breakage (1886) russko-Bulgarian attitudes in connection with antiRussian policy of government of S.Stambolova after overthrow of prince Alexander Battenberga. Support by Austria, the Great Britain and Germany Ferdinand Koburgskogo on the Bulgarian holy table promoted the Russian-French rendezvous.
  • The BULGARIAN NATIONAL BANK, issuing, credit and a financial settlements centre of Bulgaria. It is based in 1947. Executes also international payments.
  • The BULGARIAN FOLK THEATRE him. Ivan Vazova, drama, it is based in Sofia in 1904.
  • The BULGARIAN REVOLUTIONARY CENTRAL COMMITTEE, in 1869 (1870?)-1876 organization (V.Levsky, L.Karavelov, H.Botev, etc.), supervising national-liberation extirpation of Bulgarian people against a turkish yoke.
  • The BULGARIAN TONGUE, the official language of Bulgaria, falls into to slavonic tongues (juzhnoslavjanskaja group), included in indoevropejskuju family of tongues. The schedule slavonic (on the basis of cyrillics).
  • The BULGARIAN HOME GUARD, volunteer formation from bolgar in Russian army during russko-turkish war 1877-78 (all up to 15 thousand person; Russian general N.G.Stoletov) headed. Participat in breakages near Stara Zagora, on SHipke and at SHejnovo.
  • The BULGARIAN TELEGRAPHIC AGENCY, is based in 1898, Sofia.
  • BOLGARY, people, the main population of Bulgaria (7,85 million person). Live also on Ukraine (234 thousand person), Moldova (88 thousand person), the Russian Federation (32,8 thousand person) and other countries. An aggregate number 8,45 million person (1992). Tongue Bulgarian. Believers - basically orthodox, a part moslems - sunnity.
  • BOLGARY VOLZHSKO-KAMSKIE, see Bulgary Volzhsko-Kamskie.
  • BOLGRAD, city on Ukraine, the Odessa region, bliz zh.-d. An item. Bolgrad. 18,2 thousand inhabitants (1991). The flavoring enterprises, a clothing factory, mechanical-repair factory., etc. The Istoriko-study of local lore museum. It is based in 1821.
  • BOLDZHER (Bolger) James Brendan, (r. 1935), the prime minister of New Zealand with 1990. In 1975-84 and with 1990 on different portfolios. With 1986 leader of the National consignment Is new. Zealand.
  • BOLDINO (Major Boldino), village in the south of the Nizhniy Novgorod region, in 39 kms from zh.-d. An item. Uzhovka. 4,4 thousand inhabitants (1989). Boldino - former Nizhniy Novgorod manor Pushkinyh. A.S.Pushkin has conducted in Boldino three autumns, including well-known Boldinskuju autumn 1830. Museum - reservation Pushkin (with 1949), a museum " Votchinnaja office Pushkinyh ". Annual holidays of poetry.
  • BALDWIN (Baldwin) James Arthur (1924-1987), the Negro writer the USA. Lyrical prose with ekzistentsialistskimi motives about love as escape behavior from conformism and overcoming of loneliness (novels " Go, broadcast from a mountain ", 1953, " Other country ", 1962, " Say, for a long time l the train ", 1968, " Above the head " has left, 1979). Publicistic books (" Tomorrow - a fire ", 1963), an essayistics (" the Price of the ticket ", 1985), plays.
  • BALDWIN Stenli (1867-1947), the prime minister of the Great Britain in 1923-24, 1924-1929, 1935-37; the conservator. Baldwin government has suppressed a general strike 1926, has broken off diplomatic relations from the USSR (1927).
  • BOLDYREV Alexander Nikolaevich (r. 1909), the Russian orientalist, the Doctor of Philology. Transactionses are dedicated the Tadjik folklore, a history of the Tadjik and persian literatures, probes of the persian and Tadjik manuscripts.
  • SOLITARY MEN, poor, sometimes bezdvorovoe, the feodalno-dependent population in Russian state 15 - nach. 18 centuries. Bore the reduced feudal services. With introduction podushnoj podati are equal to peasants. Figuratively - become impoverished, homeless, lone people.
  • BOBYSHEV Dmitry Vasiljevich (r. 1936), the Russian poet. With 1979 in emigration the USA. In the poetry noted by saturated figurativeness and affluent associations, - religious experiences, spiritual finding actions, a theme of love. Collections of verses: " Beasts of St.. Anthony " (1989), etc.
  • BOBYSHOV Michael Pavlovich (1885-1964), the theatrical artist, the national artist of RSFSR (1961). The thin feeling of style and the decorative grafichnost (ballet " the Copper rider " Gliera at the Leningrad theatre of opera and ballet by him. Kirov, 1949).
  • BOVE (Bovet) Daniele (1907-1992), the italian pharmacologist. Probeed interrelation of structure of medicinal preparations with their pharmacological activity. One of first probeed antihistamine drugs. Has discovered synthetic connections with curariform action. The Nobel Prize (1957).
  • BOVE the Russian architect Has got hoarse Ivanovich (1784-1834). The representative of an empire style. The chief architect of the Commission for restoration of Moscow after a fire 1812. With the participation Bove the Red square (1815) is renovated, the Theatrical square with Major theatre (1821-24), Aleksandrovsky a garden (1820-22), the Triumphal arch (1827-34), 1-n Town hospital (1828-32) is built.
  • BOVERI (Boveri) Teodor (1862-1915), the german cytologist and the embryologist, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1906). Probeed changes of intracellular structures during a cell division, ripening of sexual cells, fertilization and a precocious development of a germ. Has put forward (together with K.Rablem) the theory " individualities of chromosomes " (has underlain the chromosome theory of a heredity).
  • BOVIN Alexander Evgenjevich (r. 1930), the Russian journalist - foreign affairs specialist, the diplomat. In 1972-91 political analyst of the newspaper of "Information". In 1991-97 - a salting in Israel. The state premium of the USSR.
  • BOVT Violetta Trofimovna (1927-1995), the actress of ballet, the national actress of the USSR (1970). In 1944-86 at the Musical theatre him. Stanislavsky and Nemirovich - Danchenko.
  • BOVUAR (Beauvoir) Simon de (1908-86), the French writer. Wi Z.P.Sartra. In novel "Gostja" (1943) - ekzistentsialistskie ideas of absurdity of the world. Roman "Mandarins" (1954) about post-war life of France. The book about intellectual emancipation of women " the Second floor " (1949). The story " Charming a picture " (1966). The autobiographical trilogy (1958-63). Plays.
  • The GOD, in religious convictions a supernatural entity; in mythological submissions of polytheism each of gods has a supreme authority above any part of the world whole, in theism the one God posesses an absolute authority above the world ("omnipotence"). Faith in God - the basis of any religion.
  • ALMS-HOUSE, in Russia up to 1917 asylum for aging and invalids. Figuratively, ironical - about any establishment, organization, where many stagnant and unfit people.
  • BOGAEVSKY Afrikan Petrovich (1872/73-1934), the Russian general - lieutenant (1918). In 1918-19 chairman of " the Don government "; since February 1919 ataman Signals Commands Don; with 1920 emigrant.
  • BOGAEVSKY Konstantin Fedorovich (1872-1943), the painter, the honored worker of arts of Russia (1933). 16-17 centuries stylized spirit of a classical "heroic" landscape kinds Vost. Crimea, the decorative industrial landscapes ("Dneprostroj", 1930).
  • BOGAZ (the turki., characters. - a throat), the title of pass, a channel in Compare. Asia, Azerbaijan.
  • BOGAZKEJ (Bogazkoy), city bliz Ankara (Turkey), near which - residues Hattusasa; strengthening, palaces, Bogazkejsky archive.
  • BOGAZKEJSKY the ARCHIVE, is retrieved at-sight hettskoj capitals of. Hattusas (sovr. Bogazkej, Turkey) expedition of german scientist G.Vinklera in 1906. Documents: the imperial annals, chronicles, decrees, religious texts, etc. (over 15 thousand clay cuneiform "tablets") on hettskom, akkadskom and other tongues. Concern primarily to 14-13 centuries up to n. e.
  • RAIN CROP (from the persian. behar - spring), grounds in a zone of an irrigation farming on which agricultural crops cultivate without watering.
  • BOGARNE (Beauharnais) ZHozefina (1763-1814), the first wife (1796-1809) Napoleons I. was earlier married to general A.Bogarne (it is accused of change and in 1794 under the sentence of the Revolutionary tribunal is executed).
  • BLAGOVESHCHENSK, city (with 1858) in the Russian Federation, the centre of the Amurense region, a port on r. Amur, at a lockin r. Zeya. A depot. 241 thousand inhabitants (1992). A machine industry (manufacture of the equipment for ore mining and a gold-mining industry; ship-building and other factories; manufacture of electric appliances, etc.), wood-working, mild, a food-processing industry. 4 high schools. 2 theatres. A study of local lore museum. It is based in 1856 as Ust-Zejsky a military post.
  • BLAGOVESHCHENSK, city (with 1941) in the Russian Federation, Bashkiria, landing stage on r. White. 28,2 thousand inhabitants (1992). Reinforcing, it wire - gvozdilnyj factories, etc. It is based in 1756.
  • The BLAGOVESHCHENSK Vasily Timofeevich (1801-64), the Russian publicist, the critic of a serfdom in Estonia. The main transactionses - " the Estonian and his mister ".
  • BLAGOVO Dmitry Dmitrievich (in monasticism Pimen) (1827-97), archimandrite Tolgskogo of a monastery, the prior of Russian ambassadorial church in Rome. The writer of the book " Stories of the grandmother " (1878-80), tongue of the family legend narrating about a household activities and crop of Russia 18 - 1-st floor. 19 centuries. The collection " Spiritual poems " (1875). Compositions on a history of Russian orthodox church.
  • GRATEFUL, city (with 1971) in the Russian Federation, Stavropol kr. A depot. 29,9 thousand inhabitants (1992). A flavoring industry.
  • GRACE, mountain on Compare. Ural, bliz. Kushva. Production of iron oxide. An altitude (prior to the beginning of development) 364 m. See. Goroblagodatskie iron-ore deposits.
  • BLAGOEV Dimitr (1856-1924), the figure of revolutionary movement in Russia and Bulgaria. In 1883 has based in Saint Petersburg social-democratic Blagoeva group. The organizer (1891) Bulgarian social-democratic parties, in 1903 - consignments tesnjakov, in 1919 - Communist Parties.
  • BLAGOEVA GROUP, the first social-democratic organization in Russia (Saint Petersburg, 1883-87, with 1884 nazanie " the Consignment Russian social-democratic "). Up to 30 person, primarily students. Chiefs - D.Blagoev, A.P.Latyshev, V.G.Haritonov, N.P.Andreev. Communication with group " Discharging of transactionses ". Ok. 15 working circles (up to 150 person), a underground printing house, the newspaper "Worker". It is routed by police.
  • BLAGOEVGRAD (up to 1950 Hearths - Dzhumaja), city on a southwest of Bulgaria. 60 thousand inhabitants (1989). Tobacco, alimentary, wood-working, machine-building, furniture, cotton industry. A balneal health resort.
  • BLAGONRAVOV Anatoly Arkadjevich (1894-1975), the Russian scientist, academician AN the USSR (1943), the general - lieutenant of artillery (1943), doubly the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1964, 1974). Transactionses on mechanics and ammunition arms. The lenin premium (1960), the State premium of the USSR (1941).
  • RARE GASES (noble gases), chemical elements: helium Not, neon Ne, argon Ar, krypton Kr, xenon He, radon Rn; fall into to VIII group of a periodic system. Monoatomic gases without colour and an odor. In small amounts are present at air, are contained in some minerals, natural gases, in a dissolved kind - in water. Are found also in atmospheres of planets - jumboes. Up to 1962 were considered absolutely chemical inert, however a number derivative Ar, Ne, Xe, Kr and Rn (ftoroksidy, fluorides, connections of inclusion) later is received.
  • NOBLE TRUES, the fundamentalses of Buddhist doctrine open by the Buddha at the moment of the Clarification and formulated by him in four statements.
  • NOBLE METALS, gold, silver, platinum and platinum metals (ruthenium, rhodium, a palladium, osmium, iridium). Have reagent resistance, refractoriness (except for Au and Ag), beautiful exterior in items (from here the title).
  • NOBLE CORAL (red coral), marine sedentary colonial animal order gorgonary. Dwells on depth of 10-200 m in Mediterranean m. and Atlantic ok. (in area of the Canary islands). Of a skeleton do dressings.
  • RED DEER, a cloven-hoofed animal of a set of deers. The length of a body up to 2,5 m, weighs up to 340 kg. For samtsa branchy horns. A number of a subspecies (the Altay maral, izjubr, etc.), in the Sowing. To Africa, Europe (excepting north-east), Asia (excepting a north), a moderate belt the Sowing. America. It is acclimatized in Australia, It is new. Zealand, JUzh. To America. Object of a hunt (meat, a leather, horns); in a number of places the hunt is forbidden. 8 subspecies in the Red Data Book of International Soyuz of nature protection. Marals and izjubrej cultivate in reindeer-breeding economies (pullet horns - panty annually cut).
  • BLAGOSVETLOV Grigory Evlampievich (1824-1880), the Russian publicist and the journalist. The member " the Earth and will " 1860th. The publisher - editor of log-books " the Russian word ", "Business".
  • WELFARE, coverage of the population necessary material and spiritual goods, i.e. subjects, services and the conditions satisfying fixed human requirements. Welfare expresses system of the parameters defining a standard of living.
  • CHARITY, rendering of material aid requiring both separate persons, and organizations. Charity can be directed also on encouragement and development of any socially significant forms of activity (napr., environmental protection, a protection of monuments of crop).
  • BLAGOCHINIJA JUSTICE, a police organ in capitals and provincial cities of Russian empire in 1782 - kon. 19 century (were occluded gradually). Carried into execution orders of aboriginal administration and judgements, managed a urban accomplishment (up to 1870) and trade. Had some judicial functions on small-sized criminal and to civil cases (up to 1864).
  • BIDO (Bidault) George (1899-1983), the prime minister of France in 1946 and 1949-50. In 1940-44 participant of movement of Resistance; one of osnovatelej (1944) and chiefs of a consignment National - republican motion. In 1944-54 repeatedly minister. In 1961 has come in OAS, in 1962 ran from France; after amnesty 1968 has returned.
  • BIDSTRUP (Bidstrup) Herluf (1912-88), the danish artist - caricaturist, the honorary member AH the USSR (1973). Acute, indicative drawings on political and household themes often compound the whole graphic story. The international Lenin premium (1964).
  • BIEZBARDIS (Biezbardis) (Bezbard, Bezbard) Kaspars (1806-86), the Latvian publicist, the leader mladolatyshej. Opposed german domination, for do-it-yourself development of the Latvian crop and tongue.
  • BEATS, oscillations with periodically changed voltage, 2 oscillations originating at imposing with closely spaced frequencies f1 and f2. Beats use for set-up of musical instruments, and also for frequency measurement, container, inductance, etc. Beat frequency F = f1 - f2.
  • BIESHU (Biesu) Maria Lukjanovna (r. 1935), the Moldavian singer (a lyrico-dramatic soprano), the national actress of the USSR (1970). With 1961 at the Moldavian theatre of opera and ballet. 1-n the premium at International competition of initiators of consignment CHio-CHio-san (Japan, 1967). The professor of the Moldavian conservatory (with 1986). The lenin premium (1982), the State premium of the USSR (1974).
  • BIZHAGOSH (Ilhas dos Bijagos), group of low islands (ok. 60) for a western shore of Africa, in structure of Guinea - Bissau. 1600 êì2. Mangrove forests. A port - Bolama.
  • COSTUME JEWELLERY (from frants. bijouterie - trade in jewels), women dressings (brooches, a glass bead, rings, etc.) from precious stones, metals, etc.
  • MIZZEN MAST, see in an item. A spar tree.
  • BIZERTE, city and port in a north of Tunis, an administrative centre vilajeta Bizerte. 94,5 thousand inhabitants (1984). Petroleum refinery. A cement industry, nonferrous machine industry, handcrafts (a carpet weaving, a lace making). It is based at-sight a Phoenician settlement.
  • BI-ZET (Bz), colourless crystals, tïë 165 °C. A poisonous substance of psychotomimetic action (under foreign data). At concentration in air of 0,1 mg / l and expositions of 1 mines invokes the visual and emotional hallucinations continuing about one day.
  • BUSINESS (English business), enterprise activity; business, the occupation being an earner.
  • " BUSINESS WICK " (" Business Week "), an economic - political weekly journal in the USA, with 1929, New York.
  • BISON, a cloven-hoofed animal of a set polorogih. It is close to a bison. The length of a body up to 3 m, weighs up to 720 kg. The Sowing dwelt in prairies. America. To kon. 19 century almost it is completely exterminated. Due to adopted measures it was saved primarily in national parks and reservations the USA and Canada (predominary in Wood - Baffalo).
  • BIINJAO, in the Chinese mythology of a bird - nerazluchnitsy, a numeral of a matrimony. Were represented with one side panel and one eye.
  • BIISHEVA Zajnab (r. 1908), the Bashkir writer. Historical novels about life the Bashkir in 20 century: the trilogy "Degraded" (1959), "Waking" (" For Major Ika ", 1967), "Emesh" (1977). Stories. Verses, dramas, fairy tales, products for children.
  • BIJO-VARENN (Billaud-Varenne) Jean Nikola (1756-1819), the figure of the French revolution kon. 18 century, jakobinets. With 1792 deputy of the Convent, since September 1793 committee member of public salvage. In 1794 has adjoined to termidoriantsam.
  • BIISK, city (with 1782) in the Russian Federation, Altay kr., landing stage on r. Bija. A depot. 234,5 thousand inhabitants (1992). Beginning CHujskogo of an automobile tract. A machine industry, chemical, mild (lnokombinat), alimentary, a woodworking industry. Pedagogical institute. Theatre. A study of local lore museum. It is based in 1709.
  • BIJ-HEM, the river in Tuva, see Major Yenisei.
  • BIJJA (Biya) Pol (r. 1933), the president of Cameroon with 1982. In 1975-82 prime minister. With 1980 vice-president, with 1983 national chairman of party in power Democratic association kamerunskogo people.
  • " BATTLE CORE ", the association of the Leningrad artists releasing lithographed military, political posters and collections of satirical drawings in 1939-40 and 1941-45; with 1956 - posters and drawings on international and household themes. In-process " the Battle core " artists I.S.Astapov, G.S.Verejsky, V.I.Kurdov, G.N.Petrov, V.A.Serov, N.A.Tyrsa, etc., poets V.M.Sajanov, N.S.Tihonov participat, etc.
  • BATTLE FORMATION, arrangement (tactical construction) subdividings, parts and connections of different service arms (stems of forces) with their means of the intensifying, built for a conduct of combat. Basic elements of a battle formation of connections and parts - flight levels (it is routine 1-2), ammunition groups and reserves.
  • BATTLE AXES of CROP, non-proprietary name of archeologic crops of a serotinal neolith - a bronze age (2-n a floor. 3-rd - 1-n a floor. 2-nd thousand up to n. e.) in a forest belt of Europe (see. Srednedneprovskaja crop, Fatjanovskaja crop, etc.). Glazed battle axes, string ceramics (other title - string ceramics of crop), burials in skorchennom a rule are characteristic stone sverlenye. An economy: cattle breeding, agriculture.
  • LADYBUGS (koktsinellidy), a set of bugs. Length of 2-18 mm. Ok. 4000 kinds, are distributed widely. Exterminate an aphid and other destructive insects (in Transcaucasia were used for a biological control with pests citrous, a tea). The few, napr., bahchevaja korovka, - pests of agricultural crops.
  • BOZE - the EINSTEIN CONDENSATION, phase change in the theoretical Bose gas, consisting in transition of macroscopicly major figure of particles in a condition with a null pulse; descends at low temperature when the wavelength de Brojlja thermal agitation of particles becomes an order of magnitude of mean distance between them.
  • BOZE - the EINSTEIN STATISTICS, quiantum statistics for systems of identical particles with integral spin (bosons). Idiosyncrasy Boze - the Einstein of statistics: in each quantum state there can be the arbitrary figure of particles.
  • BOZE SHatjendranat (1894-1974), indian physics. One of creators of quiantum statistics (statistics Boze - the Einstein).
  • BOSE GAS, quantum gas of particles (or quasi-particles) with integral spin (bosons); is subject Boze - the Einstein to statistics. Monoatomic gases concern to Bose gases with the atoms keeping an even number of nucleones (napr., 4Ne), gas of photons, etc.
  • BOSE LIQUID, quantum liquid from particles with integral spin (bosons). A Bose liquid is fluid 4Ne at temperatures, close to an absolute zero. Quasi-particles (quasi-particles) in a Bose liquid are subject Boze - the Einstein to statistics.
  • BOZNANSKAJA Olga (1865-1940), the Polish painter. Intimal realistic portraits spirit of impressionism plump in a mild, light gamma.
  • BOSON (Bose particle), particle or quasi-particle with integral spin; the system of identical bosons is subject Boze - the Einstein to statistics.
  • BOZORG ALEVI (r. 1904), the Iranian writer and the philologist. Collections of stories " Prison a note " (1941), "Letters" (1951; the Golden medal of the World, 1952), the social novel of " Its eye " (1952); ostrosotsialnye under the content, politically actual sketches "Leaders" (1978), "Anthill" (1989).
  • "BOEING" (Boeing), the company the USA on manufacture of transport jets. It is based in 1916. Sales volume 17 billion dol., a net profit 614 million dol., figure occupied in 147 thousand person (kon. 1980th).
  • "BOEING", non-proprietary name of airplanes of American firm " Boeing ". Among them a passenger aeroplane "Boeing - 747-300" (it is issued with 1983). Transports up to 660 passengers on distance up to 13500 kms with speed up to 940 km/h. A take-off mass ok. 380 t.
  • The BOEING (Boeing) William Edward (1881-1956), the American aircraft designer and the industrialist. In 1916 has based firm " Pasifik aero prodakts " (Pacific Aero Products), replaced the title in some months on " the Boeing erplejn " (Boeng Airplane Co.) and releasing up to 1927 basically military aeroplanes. Has organized mail traffic, in 1926 has created the air carrier. The modern firm " Boeing " has his name.
  • The CROCKED EGGS, the organized armed conflict of subdividings, parts (ships), connections; can be combined-arms, anti-aircraft, air and marine. Kinds of crocked eggs: offensive, defensive and counter.
  • BETA (?), the second character of the Grecian alphabet.
  • BETAKI Vasily Pavlovich (r. 1930), the Russian poet. With 1973 in emigration in France. The unique book published in the USSR - " the Earth flame " (1965). In the poetry noted ekspressivnoj by figurativeness and diversity, - patterns of a nature, urban landscapes, echoes of historical and modern, political events. Collections of verses and poems: " Short circuit of time " (1974), " Europe - an island " (1981), " the Fifth rider " (1985). The collection of an essay " Russian poetry for 30 flying " (1987).
  • BETANKUR (Betancourt) Romulo (1908-81), the president of Venezuela in 1945-48 and 1959-64; in 1941 has based a consignment Democratic action and was one of its leaders.
  • BETA DECAY (b-disintegration), the spontaneous transformation of nucleus attending with emitting (or absorption) an electron and an antineutrino or positron and a neutrino. Phylums of beta decay are known: electronic disintegration (metamorphosis of a neutron into a proton), positron disintegration (a proton in a neutron) and electron capture. At electronic beta decay nuclear charge increases on 1, at positron - decreases on 1; mass number does not vary (see. A radioactivity).
  • The KETRONE, gauge meter of power (energy spectrum) of electrons and positrons, including beta-particles.
  • BETA-SPECTROSCOPY, see. Nuclear spectroscopy.
  • BETA-RAY THERAPY, medical application of beta-particles; a kind of radial therapy.
  • BETATRON, a cyclic accelerator of electrons in whom electrons are gear uped by the vortical electric field induced by a variable magnetic field. Routinely power of electrons in a betatron is not higher 100 MeV.
  • BETA-PARTICLES, electrons and the positrons released at beta decay.
  • BETGER (Bottger) Iogann Fridrih (1682-1719), the german alchemist. The main transactionses are connected to search of components of porcelain mass and their optimal ratio. Has received in 1705-07 its first samples on the basis of which manufacture of Dresden china has been organized. In 1707 has prepared first in Europe solid white porcelain, has developed technology of his manufacture and in 1710 has organized in Mejsene (Saxony) a manufactory releasing world famous mejsensky the porcelain.
  • To BETA (Bethe) Hans Albrecht (r. 1906), the physics - theorist. In 1933 has emigrated from Germany, with 1935 in the USA. Fundamental transactionses on a quantum mechanics, a nuclear physics, a quantum theory of a solid, an astrophysics. Has indicated the most probable cycles of thermonuclear reactions in asters. The participant of building first an atomic bomb. The Nobel Prize (1967). A golden medal him. Lomonosov AN the USSR (1990).
  • The BETEL NUT, a mix of spicy leaves of pepper the betel nut - a bush of a set of a pepper family (diluted in tropical Asia) with a shards of seeds of a palm a betel palm and a small amount of a lime. Use as a cud; excites nervuju system.
  • BETELGEJZE, a Orion, an aster of null stellar magnitude, a red supergiant with radius, to equal 850 radiuses of the Sun.
  • BETEHTIN Anatoly Georgievich (1897-1962), the Russian geologist and mineralog, academician AN the USSR (1953). The main transactionses on rudoobrazovaniju and mineragrafii. Has developed the theory of education of manganese ores. Probeed a problem of hydrothermal solutions. The lenin premium (1958), the State premium of the USSR (1947).
  • BETI (Beti) Mongo (r. 1932), kamerunsky the writer. Writes in French. Anticolonial novels " Severe city " (1955), " the Wonderful recovery of king " (1958), " Remember Rubena " and " Perpetju and a habit to travail " (both 1974).
  • BETIKA (Baetica), a Roman province in the south of Spain, derivated ok. 15-12 up to n. e.; the title from r. Betis (sovr. Guadalquivir). Economically the most developed and romanizovannaja a province in Spain. In nach. 5 century the terrain Betiki is conquered by vandals.
  • BETLEJKA, the same, that batlejka.
  • BETLEN Ishtvan (1874-1946), columns, in 1921-31 chairman of Council of Ministers of Hungary. Has concluded agreement (1927) for friendship with fascist Italy. Within 2-nd world war adviser M.Horti.
  • BETHLEHEM (Bethlehem), city on north-east the USA, pieces. Pennsylvania. 71,4 thousand inhabitants, about Allentown and suburbs of 650 thousand inhabitants (1990.) Center of iron and steel industry (headquarter " Bethlehem Steel "), metal-working, cement, etc. an industry. University.
  • BESHTAU, five-domed mountain - laccolith bliz Pyatigorsk. 1400 m. deciduous forests.
  • BEEKMAN (Beekman) Vladimir (r. 1929), the Estonian writer. Collections of verses. The historical novel " City of mournful stones " (1959), novels "Transient" (1967), " Night pilots " (1975), the documentary novel " And hundred morses " (1978) - about Great Domestic war, novels "Corridor" (1982), " the Narva cataract " (1986).
  • BEEKMAN Eme (r. 1933), the Estonian writer. Roman " Dead bubentsy " (1968) about fascist occupation, " Flight of outsiders " (1967), " Hour of equinox " (1971), "CHertotsvet" (1974), "Defoliation" (1975), " the Capability of selection " (1978), " the Capability of abdication " (1989) on moral - ethical themes, anti-Utopia "Race" (1982).
  • BEER-SHEVA, city in Palestine on western coast r. Jordan. 114 thousand inhabitants (1990). The trading - transport centre in desert Negev. Chemical, glass, woodworking enterprises. It is known from 4 century up to n. e.
  • BZHEZINSKY (Brzezinski) Zbignev (r. 1928), the American sociologist, the statesman; in 1977-81 mate of president Dzh. Carter on national security. In 1970th has put forward the theory of the introduction of the American society in t. n. tehnotronnuju era - one of versions of " a postindustrial society ". Bzhezinsky acted with sharp criticism of communism. The main developer of policy in range of the human right.
  • BZNS, see. The Bulgarian agricultural national union.
  • BZYB, the river on Zap. Caucasus. 110 kms, the area of basin 1510 êì2. The m runs in Black. On a valley r. Bzyb - a motorway on an eskar. Ritsa.
  • BI... [an armour. bi - dvu (õ)-, from bis - doubly], the part of the composite words meaning: consisting of 2 parts, having 2 attributes, etc.
  • " BI DZHIZ " (Bee Gees), the australian pop group, is derivated in 1958. Structure: Robin Dzhibb (vocal), Barry Dzhibb (a vocal, the gear quadrant), Moris Dzhibb (a vocal, the gear quadrant), Vince Miluni (gear quadrant), Kolin Piterson (impact). There is popular more than thirty flying. The musical style of group is distinguished melodizm, with a characteristic vocal, harmonic combination of voices. Left in 1971 songs " Lonely Days " è " How Can You Mend A Broken Heart " have been sold in the USA in million circulations. The most popular songs " Too Much Heaven ", "Tragedy", " Love You Inside Out ". The group has with its full complement acted in a film " Club of lone hearts of sergeant Peppera ".
  • BI SHEN, the Chinese inventor of the mobile font (11 century). In 1041-48 conducted experiences of printing from the form constituted of the mobile font, made of the burnt clay.
  • BIA (Bija), in the Grecian mythology the goddess - olitsetvorenie of a manual power and power, daughter Pallanta and Stiks, sister Niki. In time gigantomahii combated on the party of gods of Olympus. In tragedy Eshila " Prometej chained " - the performer of will Zevsa in punishment Prometeja.
  • BIANKA, the guide of Uranus, is open from a side of a space vehicle "Voyager - 2" (the USA, 1986). Distance from Uranus ok. 60 thousand in km, a diameter ok. 50 kms.
  • BIANKI Vitaly Valentinovich (1894-1959), the Russian writer. Books for children about life of a nature: " the Wood newspaper on each year " (1928), " Wood were also fables " (1957).
  • BIARMIJA, in the Scandinavian sagas of 9-13 centuries country on marginal north-east of terrain Vost. Europe, affluent furs, silver, morzhovoj a bone.
  • BIARRITZ (Biarritz), city in France, on coast Biskajskogo a hall. 64 thousand inhabitants (1985). A climatic and balneal health resort.
  • BIARRITSKIE APPOINTMENTS, diplomatic meetings of Napoleon III and Bismarck in 1864 and 1865 in Biarritz as a result of which Bismarck had the grounding to count on neutrality of France in war planned by him with Austria.
  • BIASUTTI (Biasutti) Renato (1878-1965), the italian anthropologist. Transactionses in range rasovedenija and ethnic anthropology of Europe.
  • BIATHLON (from bi... And grech. athlon - a contest, extirpation), a winter kind of sport, ski race with shooting from a rifle on fixed boundaries. In the International union of the modern pjatiborja and biathlon (UIPMB; it is based in 1948) over 70 countries (1991). In the program of winter Olympic Games with 1960, world championships with 1958.
  • BIAFO, an icehouse dendritovogo type on austral downslope Karakoruma. Ok. 68 kms, the area 620 êì2.
  • SHADE SVETOZASHCHITNAJA, the adaptation routinely by the way the cylinder or a cone, mounted on forefront of a lens carriage for an avoidance of hit in him of marginal rays.
  • BLENNOREJA (from grech. blennos - mucilage and rheo - I stream), the acute purulent conjunctivitis called gonokokkom. Arises more often for neonatal which catch during stems from an ill gonorrhea of mother. Can reduce in blindness.
  • BLERIO (Bleriot) Lui (1872-1936), the French aircraft designer and the pilot, one of pioneers of aircraft. With 1906 plotted airplanes. First has flown through a channel over La Manche (1909).
  • LUSTER of a heavenly body, the illuminating intensity created by a heavenly body in a place of supervision on a perpendicular plane to rays; it is measured in stellar magnitudes.
  • LUSTER, a qualitative behavior of properties of the surface which are reflecting light. Stringent scientific definition of concept of lusters misses.
  • SPOON - BAIT, synthetic bait for catching a predatory fish. A metal plate with one or several pegs and an aperture for lesy. Apply primarily in sporting fishery.
  • BLEST GHANA (Blest Gana) Alberto (1830-1920), the Chilean writer. A cycle of realistic novels " Arithmetic in love " (1860), " Martin Rivas " (1862), the historical novel " In epoch Rekonkisty " (1897), satirical novels.
  • NITIDULIDAE, 1) a superfamily of solitary wasps. Length of 5-15 mm. St. 2000 kinds, are distributed widely. Many - parasites of bees, sawflies and other Hymenoptera... 2) the Set of bugs. Length of 1-6 mm, a body convex, shining. St. 2000 kinds, are distributed widely. Some - rastitelnojadnye pests, napr. A rapeoil curculio; trupoedy.
  • " SHINING ISOLATION ", notation of foreign-policy course of the Great Britain in 2-nd floor. 19 century: failure of sharing in the long-lived international unions, allowed to save liberty of action.
  • BLEPHARITIS (from grech. blepharon - eyelid), an inflammation of edges of eyelids: red discoloration, education of scales, jazvochek, an itch, fatigability of eyes. The causes: activity in a dusty room, a conjunctivitis and other diseases.
  • NICTITATING SPASM, spasm of a circular muscle of eyelids (showing in their clamping) predominary at defeats of a conjunctive and a cornea of an eye.
  • BLEHEN (Blechen) Charles (1798-1840), the german painter, a graver, the theatrical artist. Into romantic landscapes introduced unpretentious household motives (" ZHelezoprokatnyj factory bliz Nejshtadt-Ebersvalde ", 1834).
  • BLIDA, city in a north of Algeria, an administrative centre vilaji Blida. 171 thousand inhabitants (1987). An alimentary, textile industry.
  • BLIE (Blier) Bertrand (r. 1939), the French producer. Started as dokumentalist spirit of a direction t. n. Sinema-believe (" Gitler? I do not know ", 1963). In 1973 has delivered a fiction film "Waltzing" in which actors Miu-Miu have become famous, to P.Devaer and Z.Depardje, built a collective portrait of pullet generation. For Blie it is characteristic stsetsificheskaja a mix of naturalism, the thin lyricism and mysticism ("Cold dishes", 1979; " too beautiful for thee ", 1989; " the Man of my life ", 1996, etc.).
  • The SHORT-RANGE ORIENT, terrain in the west Asia and north-east of Africa on which are located Egypt, Sudan, Israel, Jordan, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Consolidated Arab Emirates, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrein, Cyprus, Turkey.
  • The SHORT-RANGE ORDER, coherence in an arrangement of adjacent particles in substance, i.e. the order respected (as against the long-distance order) on the small distances comparable dimensioned of particles. Only the short-range order is characteristic for liquids and solid amorphous bodies, the long-distance order is inherent in chrystals both short-range, and.
  • SHORT-RANGE DUMA, advice of few close confidants of tsar (grand duke) in Russia 15 - nach. 18 centuries; in it is grey. 16 century actual government (Selected rad). In 2-nd floor. 17 century it is called as the Room duma or the Secret duma.
  • SHORT-RANGE INTERACTION, submission, according to which interaction between bodies removed from each other implements with the help of intermediate joints (or mediums), relaying interaction from a point to a point with terminal velocity.
  • BLIZNAKOV George Manuilov (r. 1920), the Bulgarian chemist, the academician (1979) and the vice-president (1976-1977) Bulgarian AN, the foreign member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; foreign member AN the USSR with 1982). Probes on an oriented crystallization, steep clearing of substances, technologies of ceramic materials and to methods of deposition of covers from them.
  • The TWINS, two or more descendants, born penecontemporaneous, for the person and those mammals which routinely bear to one baby. Didymuses are unioval (from one oosperm) and raznojajtsevye (from two and more eggs simultaneously embryonate). For the person the twin falls at 80-85 monocarpous stems, trojnja on 6-8 thousand, chetverni and pjaterni are very rare. Supervision above twins are used in genetics for the analysis of interaction of a heredity and an environment (a pair method).
  • BIOCATALYSTS, the same, that ferments.
  • BIOKO (Bioko) (up to 1973 Fernando Pos, up to 1979 Masias-Ngema-Bijogo), an island in Guinean a hall. Terrain of Equatorial Guinea. 2017 êì2. The population over 100 thousand person. An altitude up to 3008 m. Plantations of cocoa, an oil palm. To Bioko - capital of Equatorial Guinea of Malabo.
  • BIOLYTES (from a biot... And... Lit), organogenic rocks.
  • BIOLOGY of INLAND WATERS INSTITUTE (IBVV) the Russian Academy of Science, is based in 1962 (conducts a history from biological station "Borok", founded in 1938) in Nekouzskom r-not by Yaroslavl region. Biological investigations in internal water reservoirs.
  • BIOLOGY STARVING INSTITUTE (IBM) of Far East branch of the Russian Academy of Science, it is built in 1970 in Vladivostok. Probe of a biota of Far East seas, development of theoretical and practical problems of reproduction of marine organisms.
  • DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY INSTITUTE (IBR) him. N.K.Koltsov of the Russian Academy of Science, it is based in 1967 in Moscow on the basis Institute of structural botany by him. Severtsova AN the USSR. Study of an ontogeny animal and problems of steering of processes of an ontogenesis.
  • BIOLOGY of AUSTRAL SEAS INSTITUTE him. A.O.Kovalevskogo AN Ukraine, is organized in 1963 in Sevastopol on the basis Sevastopol (founded in 1871-72) and Karadagskoj (founded in 1907) biological stations; in 1964 the structure of institute included the Odessa biological station (founded in 1954). The main probes on problems of a biological effeciency, organization of guarding of biological resources starving.
  • The BIOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE, system of scientific titles in latin tongue in botany, zoology, a mycology and a microbiology for groups of organisms, the bound this or that degree of kindred, - taksonov. Botanical, zoological and other the nomenclature develop the conforming international committees, then them assert on international congresses and emit the international codes valid for legislative documents. Exist also anatomic, biochemical and other the nomenclature. See also the Binominal nomenclature.
  • The BIOLOGICAL CLEANING of waste waters, founded on ability of microorganisms to collapse (to mineralize) organic substances (contaminations) keeping in waste waters. Implements on irrigated fields, in aerotanks, bacteria beds, etc.
  • BIOLOGICAL EFFECIENCY, reproduction of a biomass of plants, microorganisms and animal, included in this or that ecosystem; routinely expresses in mass of production for year per unit area or a unit volume (waters, a ground); in more fine-bored sense - reproduction of wildings and the plants used by the person. The highest biological effeciency in tropical forests (up to 7 kg / m2. year). Production of plants of ecumene estimates in 170 · 109 t, production animal - ok. 400 · 107 t. Study of a biological effeciency - one of primal problems of the International biological program.
  • BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES, proteinaceous - lipide structures of molecular dimensions (no more than 10 nm depth), located on a surface of cells (plasma membrane) and intracellular particles - nucleus, mitochondrions, etc. Having selective permeability, adjust in cells salt content, Saccharums, amino asids and other metabolic product.
  • BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS (biorhythms), cycle variations of intensity and character of biological processes and the phenomena. One biological rhythms are rather independent (napr., frequency of reductions of heart, respiration), other are connected to the adaptation of organisms to geophysical cycles - diurnal (napr., oscillations of fission rate of cells, a metabolism, a motor performance animal), pitch tidal (napr., biological processes for organisms, the bound with a level of marine inflows), annual (change of number and activity animal, growth and development of plants, etc.). Science about biological rhythms - a chronobiology.
  • "BIOLOGICAL CLOCK", ability animal and the person to orient in time; it is based on stringent periodicity of physico-chemical and physiological processes in cells - biological rhythms.
  • BIOLOGICAL AGE, in gerontology - a true degree of ageing of an organism. It is determined by special devices on physical condition (cardiovascular, respiratory, nervous, muscle systems, etc.). The flying not always coincides chronological age figure lived the person.
  • BIOASSAY TECHNIQUE of protection of plants, reduction of number or externination of pests, weeds and causal organisms of diseases of agricultural crops with the help of other organisms (entomophages, antagonists, pathogens) or active agents produced by them biologically (antibiotics, hormones, attractants).
  • The BACTERIA BED, structure for a bioscrubbling of waste waters. Represents the reservoir with a false bottom, gap-filling a coarse filter medium (slag, gravel, an expanded clay, etc.). Waste water, passing through a filter medium, will derivate on his surface a biological film from clumps of the microorganisms blasting organic substances of waste waters.
  • BIOLOGICAL EFFECT of RADIANCES, the biochemical, physiological, genetic and other changes originating in living cells and organisms as a result of action of ionizing radiations and ultraviolet rays. In the basis of biological effect of radiance processes of ionization and exaltation of molecules, radiation chemical reaction, varying functions of biopolymers, primarily DNK lay. At large doses of irradiation genetic action of radiances and different unfavorable consequences, down to death of cells and organisms strengthen. See also Critical organs.
  • BIOLOGICAL DIRECTION, the sociological doctrine and school 2-nd floor. 19 century tolerating concepts and laws of biology on a society that result ined to abbreviated interpretation of the public phenomena (see Spenser Ã., Rasovo-anthropological school, Organic school, the Social darvinism).
  • BIOLOGICAL OXIDATION, set of the enzymatic redox reactions weeping in living cells. During a biological oxidation there is a scission of nutrients, and power released at it is stocked in convenient for use by cells to the form t. n. High-energy connections - adenozintrifosfatov, etc. These connections then are spent for maintenance of all processes of vital activity; the part of power dissipates by the way heat. The considerable proportion of reactions of a biological oxidation implements in mitochondrions.
  • BIOLOGICAL PHYSICS INSTITUTE (IBF) the Russian Academy of Science, is based in 1952 in Moscow (laboratory AN of the USSR with 1950), with 1967 in Pushchinskom a centre of science of the Russian Academy of Science (the Moscow region). In 1990 it separate into the Institute of biophysics of a cell of the Russian Academy of Science and Institute of general biophysics of the Russian Academy of Science.
  • BEST (persian)., in Iran the founded right of asylum on arcaded custom in terrain of some sacred and emergency places (mosques, tombs, since 19 century - rooms of foreign embassies and other establishments using exterritoriality).
  • BESTEMJANOVA Natalia Filimonovna (r. 1960), Russian sportsmenka (figure skating), the deserved master of sport (1984). CHempionka Olympic Games (1988), the world (1985-88), Europe (1983, 1985-88), the USSR (1982, 1983, 1987).
  • BESTER, a fish received by artificial hybridization of a beluga and a sterlet in the USSR in 1952. Length of 50-80 sm (up to 1,8 ì), mass of 3-5 kg (up to 30 kg). Object sadkovogo cultivations.
  • BESTIARIES (from an armour. bestia - a beast), 1) in Other. Rome fighters with feral beasts on a circus ring.. 2) Medieval collections of points about substantial and fancy animal; are accompanied by allegorical interpretations.
  • The BEST SELLER (English best seller), the bought most up book issued in major circulations.
  • BESTUZHEV Alexander Feodosjevich (1761-1810), the Russian educator - democrat, the ammunition officer. Father of decembrists Bestuzhevyh. In 1798 together with I.P.Pninym emitted " the St.-Petersburg log-book ". The writer of the tract about education.
  • BESTUZHEV - RJUMIN Alexey Petrovich (1693-1766), columns, the Russian statesman and the diplomat, general - field marshal (1762). In 1740-41 cabinet - minister, in 1744-58 chancellor. With 1762 pervoprisutstvujushchy in the Senate.
  • BESTUZHEV - RJUMIN Konstantin Nikolaevich (1829-1897), the Russian historian, the academician Petersburg AN (1890). In 1878-82 headed the Petersburg Maximum women courses (called as his name). Transactionses on Russian history, historiography.
  • BESTUZHEV - RJUMIN Mihail Pavlovich (1801-1826), the decembrist, the second lieutenant. The member of the Austral society, the republican. One of chiefs Vasilkovskoj of justice and revolt Chernigov a shelf. It is hung up.
  • BESTUZHEV - RJUMIN Mihail Petrovich (1688-1760), columns, the Russian diplomat. With 1720 minister - resident, a salting in a number of european countries.
  • BESTUZHEVSKIE COURSES, see in an item. The maximum women courses.
  • BESTUZHEVY, decembrists, members of Boreal society, participants of revolt on December, 14 1825, brothers: 1) Alexander Aleksandrovich (Marlinsky) (1797-1837), the shtabs-captain, the writer. A copublisher of the almanac "North star". It is sentenced to 20 years of penal servitude, with 1829 private soldier in army on Caucasus. It is killed in fight. Romantic verses and stories ("Frigate" Hope "", Ammalat-bek "). See a portrait... 2) Michael Aleksandrovich (1800-71), the shtabs-captain. It is sentenced to 20 years of penal servitude, with 1826 in SHlisselburgskoj strengths, Nerchinskih mines, in 1839-56 on a settlement in Selenginske. The writer of "Notes"... 3) Nikolay Aleksandrovich (1791-1855), the captain - lieutenant. The member of the Supreme duma of Boreal society, the republican. It is sentenced to transportation for life, with 1826 in SHlisselburgskoj strengths, Nerchinskih mines, with 1839 on a settlement in Selenginske. The aquarellist - portraitist. The historian of the Russian fleet, the economist, the writer... 4) Peter Aleksandrovich (1808-40), the warrant officer. Razzhalovan in soldiers. In 1826-29 in army on Caucasus.
  • ANURANS, order amphibian. A body short, broad; the tail during a metamorphosis peters. Both pairs of extremities are well developed, rear is longer forward and minister for pryganja. 256 stems, ok. 3500 kinds, are distributed widely. The majority is multiplied in water; a larva - a tadpole. Toads concern to anurans, toads, frogs true, etc. 22 kinds in the Red Data Book of International Soyuz of nature protection (MSOP) pipy, chesnochnitsy.
  • BESHOZJAJNOE PROPERTY, in a civic right - property which proprietor is unknown.
  • THRIFTLESS - CONTENTS PROPERTY, in a civic right - property inhereing to the citizen of which the proprietor does not care owing to what it is collapseed. As a rule, the law provides withdrawal judicially some kinds of thriftless - contents of property (a residential building, cultural values).
  • The SHUTTLELESS RIG, loom in which the filling is introduced between filaments of a fundamentals not the shuttle, and rapiers, a metal tape, an air or the drip water jet. Due to increase of speed of charting of a filling will essentially increase productivity of shuttleless rigs as contrasted to shuttle rigs.
  • BESCHELJUSTNYE, superclass of primitive water vertebrates. Maxillas and twin extremities miss. Actuates many minerals of the form and the modern class of Cyclostoma.
  • ACRANIA, class chord. Length up to 7,5 see. The head department is not isolated, the skull misses. The body and some internals are segmented. 13 kinds, including lancelets, in seas Atlantic and Quiet ok.
  • EVIL SPIRITS, in old slavic mythology evil spirits; in Christian submissions the same that draw.
  • BETAS (Beth) Evert Willem (1908-64), the Netherlands philosopher and logik. Has put forward idea about necessity of synthesis of logic, the groundings of mathematics, a history of exact sciences and psychologies of intellection. In logic has developed a method of semantic (analytical) tables, semantics intuitsionistskoj logic, etc.
  • EXCHANGE COMMITTEES in Russia, about 1816 stationary values elected bodies at exchanges, one of forms of " representative organizations " bourgeoisies. To 1917 - 101 exchange committee. After February revolution have come in the All-Russia commercial and industrial union.
  • EXCHANGE TRANSACTIONS, cash at which transfer of stock, the goods and payment of money are committed at once or in the nearest 2-3 days, and urgent at which these operations are committed through fixed time (routinely within the limits of a month). See. Deport, the Carryover.
  • BIRZE (Birze) (an ice-film. fam. Berzinsh) Miervaldis (r. 1921), the Latvian writer. In 1941-45 prisoner of german concentration camp. The anti-fascist story " And podo ice the river flows " (1957), the satirical story " the Pink elephant " (1976), the collection of stories " On coasts of two seas " (1978), memoirs " Memories, memories... " (1968), " With crane birds a wedge " (1984), plays.
  • BIRZULA, the title Kotovsk up to 1935.
  • BIRINGUCHCHO (Biringuccio) Vannochcho (1480-1539), the italian engineer and the scientist. Main transactionses " About ordnance " (1540) - the peculiar technical encyclopedia of that time.
  • BIRICH (birjuch), in Other. Russia the mouthpiece declaring on the areas will of prince, the mate of prince on judicial and diplomatic affairs.
  • The TAG (Birka), the trading - craft centre of epoch of vikings (ok. 800-975) on about. Bjerke (an eskar. Melaren, Sweden). Residues of a settlement, the burial with truposozhzhenijami and affluent trupopolozhenijami under tumuluses.
  • BIRKHOFF (Birkhof) (Birkhoff) George Dejvid (1884-1944), the American mathematician. Transactionses under the theory of dynamic systems, topologies.
  • BIRKEBEJNERY (characters. - berezovonogie, lapotniki), participants of civil wars in Norway in 2-nd floor. 12 - nach. 13 centuries, primarily the impoverished bonds (but in part and large proprietors). In 1184 Sverrir, headed motion, has divided military forces of opponents birkebejnerov - large landowners, the maximum clergy and their protege - king Magnusa Erlingsona and has become king. Many birkebejnery turned into royal sluzhilyh people.
  • "BIRLA" (Birla), indian financial and industrial group. Has arisen in it is grey. 19 century as the credit and financial company. The basis of its activity - a light industry, and also nonferrous machine industry, automotive industry, electrical industry, trade, etc. (all over 50 branches). General assets of the main company 4,1 billion dol., sales 3,8 billion dol., the gross profit 111 million dol. (kon. 1980th).
  • BURMA, the title of the state Myanma up to 1989.
  • BIRMAN (Biermann) Ludwig Frants Benedikt (r. 1907), the german astronomer. First has constructed theoretical models of a convection in asters (1930th), has predicted existence of a permanent corpuscular torrent from the Sun (solar wind) and an extended hydrogenous environment around of a head of comets (1964).
  • BIRMAN Seraphim Germanovna (1890-1976), an actress and the producer, the national actress of Russia (1946). With 1911 in Moskovsk Art theatre, then in Moskovsk Art Academic theatre of 2-nd, in 1938-58 in Moskovsk theatre him. Lenin Komsomol, with 1959 at Theatre him. Mossoveta. It was taken out in films " Ivan Terrible ", etc. The State premium of the USSR (1946).
  • BURMA TONGUE, the official language of Myanma (. Burma). Falls into to the sino-Tibetan family of tongues. In the basis of the Burma alphabet one of kinds of the southern - indian letter.
  • BIRMINGHAM (Birmingham), city in the Great Britain, an administrative centre metropolitenskogo counties West Midlandss. 2,3 million inhabitants (1992). A machine industry and metal working, metallurgy, chemical and rubber industry. Universities. Has arisen in first eyelid. n. e.
  • BIRMINGHAM, city in a southeast the USA, pieces. Alabama. 266 thousand inhabitants (1990). A port on a shipping canal, coherent with r. Blek-Uorrior. Iron and steel industry, a machine industry, chemical, flavoring, polygraphic, furniture, etc. an industry. 2 universities. It is based in 1871.
  • BIRMINGHAM, the oldest iron-producing area in the USA (pieces. Alabama). Sedimentary deposits (oolitic and residual hematite ores). Common stocks over 2 billion t ore; keeping Fe 23-45 % (primary ore), 38-56 % (efflorescent ores). Center of production - Birmingham.
  • BIRNBAUM Ernest Karlovich (1894-1965), the Russian aeronaut. In 1929-30 chief of Aeronautic school Osoaviahima in Moscow. During Great Domestic war the division commander of barrage balloons in Moscow.
  • " BETHLEHEM STEEL " (Bethlehem Steel), the metallurgical company the USA. It is based in 1904. Issues the industrial equipment and military technique, gets iron and a manganese ore. Sales volume 5,5 billion dol., a net profit 403 million dol., smelting become 11,7 million t, figure occupied 32,9 thousand person (kon. 1980th).
  • BETLINGK (Bohtlingk) Otton Nikolaevich (1815-1904), the german and Russian philologist - indolog, the academician (1855), the honorary member (1894) Petersburg AN. The main transactionses - " the Sanskrit dictionary " (a known baking plate the title " the Major Petersburg dictionary ", t. 1-7, 1855-75; together with R.Rotom). Has emited old indian grammar Panini (1839-40). For the first time has applied a comparative-historical method to study of Turkic tongues.
  • BETMAN-GOLVEG (Bethmann Hollweg) Teobald (1856-1921), German rejhskantsler and the Prussian minister - president in 1909-17; in 1905-07 Minister of Internal Affairs of Prussia, in 1907-09 imperial Minister of Internal Affairs and the deputy rejhskantslera.
  • CONCRETE (frants. beton), one of the major building timbers, received as a result of induration of a dense mix of a binder, water, fillers and in some events of additives. On a volume weight betons are sectioned on special heavy, heavy, light and special light. By the form a binder betons are: cement, silicate, gypseous, asphalt concretes, polimerbetony, etc. As required distinguish betons routine (for industrial and civil buildings), hydrotechnical, road, heat-insulating, the decorative, special destination (chemical-resistant, heat resisting, for a nuclear shielding, etc.). The main quality index of concrete - a compressive strength on which the quality class is established.
  • BETONOPOLIMER, receive impregnation of a hardened concrete by monomers or sirups with their consequent polymerization. Has heightened toughness, morozo-and wear-resistance. It is applied to an encasing of engineering structures in hydroconstruction, a road construction, etc.
  • CONCRETE MIXER, the machine for a preparation of concrete from cement, sand, gravel, a broken stone and water their agitating in a rotated drum capacity up to 1,6 m3. Productivity of 5-120 m3 / ch.
  • BETPAK-GIVE (Bedpak-give, Boreal Hungry steppe), desert in Kazakhstan, from r. Sarysu in the west up to an eskar. Balkhash on the orient. Ok. 75 thousand êì2. A flat undulating plain. An altitude of 300-350 m (the greatest - Dzhambul, 974 ì). Pastures; the locuses of agriculture.
  • BETSON (Bateson) William, see Betson For.
  • BETTELHAJM (Bettelheim) Bruno (1903-91), the Austrian psychoanalyst. In 1938-39 encased in Dachau and Buhenvalde, with 1940 in emigration in the USA. Transactionses about psychologic consequences of a totalitarianism, emotional distresses for children (autism), etc.: " Symbolical wounds " (1954), " the Educated heart " (1960), "Survival" (1979).
  • BEETHOVEN (Beethoven) Ludwig van (1770-1827), the german composer, the pianist and the conductor. Cable cores in Vienna with 1792. In his creativity have found reflectance of idea of Great French revolution. The representative of the austrian classical school. Has created geroiko-drama phylum simfonizma (3-n "Heroic", 1804, 5-n, 1808, 9-n, 1823, concordances; opera " Ôèäåëèî ", final edition 1814; overtures "Koriolan", 1807, "Egmont", 1810; a number of tool bands, sonatas, concerts). Full the deafness, comprehended Beethoven in midpoint a creative development, has not broken his will. Serotinal compositions differ philosophical character. 9 concordances, 5 concerts for a piano with an orchestra; 16 string quartets and other bands; tool sonatas, including 32 for a piano, (among them t. n. "Pathetic", 1798, "Lunar", 1801, "Appassionata", 1805), 10 for a violin from a piano; "High mass" (1823).
  • BEHAIZM, a religious - political trend. Has arisen in Iraq in it is grey. 19 century after depressing babidskih revolts, then were distributed in the Near East, in Zap. To Europe and the USA, partly in Russia. Founder Mirza Husejn Ali Behaulla preached conciliation with shahskoj an authority. In the off-the-shelf time behaizm preaches ideas of denial of national states, connections of science and religion. The main centres - in the USA and Germany.
  • BEHAJM (Bem) (Boheim) Hans (?-1476), the german shepherd, the national ecclesiast in d. Niklashauzen (Franconia), the inspirer of country motion 1476 in Central Germany. It incinerated as the heretic.
  • BEHAJM (Behaim) Martin (1459-1507), the german geographer. In 1492 has created the first geographycal terrestrial globe which has mirrored geographycal submissions about a surface of the Earth before discovering It is new. Light.
  • BEHANZIN (Gbehanzin) (ok. 1851-1906), the governor of Dahomey (sovr. Benin) in 1890-94. Led persistent extirpation against the French colonialists.
  • BEHAR Mohammed Tagi (1886-1951), the Iranian poet, the scientist - philologist. The opponent of reaction and religionism. The collection " Prison compositions ", a poem " the Owl of war "; 3-languid "Stylistics".
  • BEHER (Becher) Iogann Ioahim (1635-82), the german chemist and the doctor. Has created the first chemical theory - the theory flogistona. Supervised (1669) at action of sulfuric acid on spirit of wine secretion of a combustible gas (ethylene).
  • BEHER (Becher) Iogannes Robert (1891-1958), the german writer and the statesman, Minister for crop of the German Democratic Republic (with 1954), the founder and president Kulturbunda (with 1945), the president of Academy of arts of the German Democratic Republic (1953-56). One of organizers of german anti-fascist literary motion. In 1933-45 in emigration. The anti-war novel "Lewisite" (1926). Poetic collections " the Researcher of happiness and seven sins " (1938), " the Walk of midpoint of eyelid " (1958), etc.; the novel "Farewell" (1940) on the autobiographical basis. The tetralogy "Experiences" (1951-57) about problems of crop. The international Lenin premium (1952).
  • BEHZAD Kemaleddin (ok. 1455-1535/36), miniatjurist, the largest representative geratskoj schools of a miniature. The master of the dynamic multifigurate compositions, the refined colour constructions, indicative drawings.
  • BEHISTUNSKAJA the INSCRIPTION, trilingual (drevnepersidsky, elamsky and babylonian) the cuneiform text on rock Behistun (Bisutun), bliz Hamadan in Iran, cut under the order of tsar Darija I. Contains an exposition of events in the state Ahemenidov predominary in 522-519 up to n. e. It is read in 30-40-Õ by of 19 century (basically) English scientist G.K.Roulinsonom that has laid foundation to decoding of the cuneiform letter of many peoples Other. The orient.
  • BOLCH (Balch) Emili Green (1867-1961) American economist, the professor (1913). One of organizers of motion for social reforms in the USA. Aktivistka Women international league for the world and freedom, built in 1919. Transactionses on problems of emigration and racism. In the book " our fellow citizens - slavs " (1910), has refuted views about racial inferiority of slavs on which requests about limitation of immigration in the USA representatives of slavonic peoples rested. The Nobel Prize of the world (1946, together with D.Mottom).
  • PAIN, the psychophysiological organism response originating at the strong irritation of sensing nerve terminations, incorporated in organs and tissues. One of the most early symptoms of some diseases.
  • HOSPITAL, establishment for hospitalization, permanent supervision, and also isolation (in an event of zymotic and some other diseases) ill.
  • BOLZANO (Bolzano), city in the Sowing. Italy, in eastern Alpes, an administrative centre prov. Bolzano. 100,4 thousand inhabitants (1991). A traffic centre on ways to Brenner pass. The electrometallurgy treating, a light industry.
  • BOLZANO (Bolzano) Bernard (1781-1848), the Czech mathematician and the philosopher. Opposed psychologism in logic; to trues of logic attributed theoretical objective existence. Has exerted influence E.Gusserlja. Has entered a number of the important concepts of a calculus, was precursor G.Kantora in probe of infinite set.
  • BOLTSMAN (Boltzmann) Ludwig (1844-1906), Austrian physics, one of osnovatelej a statistical physics and a physical kinetics, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1899). Has introduced the distribution function called as his name, and the main rate equation of gases. Has given (1872) statistical validity of the second law of thermodynamics. Has introduced one of laws of a heat radiation (the law of the Stefan - Boltzmann).
  • BOLTSMANA the STATIONARY VALUE, a physical constant k, equal to attitude of generalpurpose gas constant R to Avogadro number NA: k = R/NA = 1,3807.10-23 Dzh/K. It is called named L.Boltsmana.
  • BOLTSMANA STATISTICS, a statistical method of the description of ideal gas in a condition of a thermodynamic equilibrium for the particles driving under laws of classical mechanics.
  • BOLSHAKOV Vladimir Nikolaevich (r. 1934), the Russian ecologist, teriolog, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1987). Probes in range population and evolutionary ecology of mammals.
  • BOLSHAKOV Gennady Fedorovich (1932-89), the Russian chemist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1981). The main transactionses are dedicated development of high-energy liquid fuels, fuel dopes, quick tests of an automatic check of quality of petroleum.
  • BOLSHAKOV Cyril Andreevich (r. 1906), the Russian chemist - neorganik, one of osnovatelej the Soviet industry of infrequent elements, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1958). The main transactionses on the physico-chemical bases of extraction and clearing rare earth and trace elements. State premiums of the USSR (1941, 1953).
  • The MAJOR GUILD, the privileged class association of large merchants and landholders (preim. Germans) in it is grey. 14-19 centuries in cities of Baltic (Thalline, Riga, Tartu, etc.).
  • MAJOR VALLEY (Great Valley), system of longitudinal valleys, disjointed short hrebtami (an altitude up to 1500 ì) in JUzh. Appalachian mountains (USA). Length of 950 kms. Width of 40-60 kms. An affluent farming area (wheat, corn; a large horned stock).
  • MAJOR ZASECHNAJA FEATURE, a defensive line on austral surburb of Russian state in 16 century from Ryazan up to Tula. In 17 century it is substituted by the Belgorod feature.
  • MAJOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT (LARGE-SCALE INTEGRATED CIRCUIT), integrated circuit with a large-scale of integration (the figure of elements in her reaches 104), used in electronic package as functionly concluded unit of devices of computer facilities, automatics, a measurement technology, etc.
  • " The MAJOR CHINESE ENCYCLOPEDIA "; publishing house, Peking. It is based in 1978. Issues the like generalpurpose encyclopedia constructed by a theme principle (with 1979; to nach. 90th have quitted ok. 40 volumes from scheduled 80), other reference and popular scientific literature. Has emited in transfer on the Chinese tongue " the Soviet encyclopaedic dictionary " (1987). Branch in shanghai.
  • MAJOR LIAHVI, the river in Georgia, the left-handed in-leak of the Hen. 115 kms, the area of basin 2311 êì2. Average discharge of water 26 m3 / with. Driveable.
  • MAJOR SHE-BEAR (an armour. Ursa Major), mia maid of Boreal hemisphere in which secrete group of 7 asters - the Major ladle; the mean aster of the handle of a ladle calls Mitsar, near to her weak aster Alkor is located.
  • HEMLOCK (omegas), stem of biennial grasses of a set umbrella. 4 kinds, in Eurasia and Africa. On wood skirts as weedy about housing accommodation and in crops the hemlock spotty is usual; all plant, especially fruits, is toxicant for the person and animal.
  • BOLID, major and extremely bright meteor.
  • BALL (Ball) John (?-1381), the English national ecclesiast, the ideologist of heresy lollardov, one of leaders of revolt of Uota Tyler 1381. It is executed.
  • BOLLAND (Bolland) Gerardus (1854-1922), the Netherlands philosopher, the chapter Dutch neogegeljanstva (" Society Bolland " with 1922). Interpreted philosophy Gegelja in religious spirit and considered her as logic completion kantianstva.
  • BOLLAND (Bolland) Jean (1596-1665), the scientist the jesuit, laid foundation to the monumental critical issuing zhity sacred - Acta sanctorum (1-n hours has quitted in Antwerp in 1643), continuing till now. By name Bollanda his publishers call bollandistami.
  • BOLNISI (up to 1921 seconds. Ekaterinofeld, in 1921-43 seconds. Luxembourg), city (with 1967) in Georgia. A depot. 11,6 thousand inhabitants (1991). The alimentary enterprises, a clothing factory. Theatre. A study of local lore museum.
  • BOLNISSKY ZION, a temple (478-493) bliz. Bolnisi. Majestic 3-íåôíàÿ a basil, 2 lines of piles are paired by arcs, on small caps carved geometrical patterns.
  • BOLOGOE, city (with 1926) in the Russian Federation, the Tver region. A railway junction. 35,9 thousand inhabitants (1992). Factories: "Strommashina", reinforcing, etc.; furniture factory.
  • The BOLOMETER (from grech. bole - a ray and... Meter), the device for measurements of power of electromagnetic radiation (primarily ultrared), founded on change of electrical resistance of a temperature sensor as a result of absorption of power of gauged radiance by him.
  • The BOLOMETRIC STELLAR MAGNITUDE adopted in astronomy the characteristics of a torrent of electromagnetic radiation from space object in all a range of lengths of waves; the bolometric correction is peer to visual stellar magnitude a plus. The correction (always nonpositive) is calculated theoretically with engaging data of extra-terrestrial astronomy.
  • LAP DOG, breed of small-sized long-wool lap - dogs. The title from Bologna in Italy.
  • BOLOGNA SCHOOL of italian painting of the season of Baroque with the centre in Bologna. Artists of Bologna school (br. Karrachchi, Domenikino, Gverchino) created altarnye patterns, frescos on the religious and mythological themes noted by high crop of a composition and drawing, idealization of modes, eclectic drawing of formal achievements of great masters of 16 century.
  • The BOLOGNA UNIVERSITY, Italy, the oldest in Europe, is based in 11 century. In 1991 - ok. 60 thousand students.
  • BOLON, lake in Khabarovsk kr., in a bottom land of Amur to which it is bridged protokoj (ok. 9 kms). 338 êì2. Depth up to 4 m.
  • BOLOGNA (Bologna), city in the Sowing. Italy, an administrative centre prov. Bologna and region. Emilija-Romagna, on r. Reno. 412 thousand inhabitants (1991). The major traffic centre; it is paired by a shipping canal with r. On. A machine industry, iron and steel industry, alimentary, chemical, textile, mild, a printing industry. The national centre of nuclear probes. University. (since 11 century, the oldest in Europe). National pinakoteka, museums the Dignity - Stefano, the Dignity - Dominiko, etc. With kon. 6 century up to n. e. Bologna (Felsina) - the centre etruskov. The title from bojev, seized her in it is grey. 4 century up to n. e. In Middle Ages it was glorified by school of the right. A complex of Romanesque churches the Dignity - Stefano (11-13 centuries), slope houses - towers (11-12 centuries), Gothic palaces (13-15 centuries), church the Dignity - Petronio (14-17 centuries, the Renaissance sculptural gantry, 1425-38, JAkopo della Kvercha). Palaces in style of the Renaissance (Bevilakva, 15 century) and Baroque.
  • WATER STARWORTS Peter Grigorjevich (r. 1930), the Russian sportsman (track and field), the deserved master of sport (1959). The champion of Olympic Games (1960), Europe (1962) in trot race on 10000 m, the repeated champion of the USSR (in 1957-64) in trot race on 5000 and 10000 m.
  • PALUDOUS, city (with 1943) in the Russian Federation, Novosibirsk region. A depot. 20,2 thousand inhabitants (1992). The sewing, alimentary enterprises.
  • BOG SOILS, are formed in conditions of the long-lived or permanent overmoistening under moisture-loving vegetation basically in a forest zone of moderate belts. Peat and peaty gley (after drying cultivate agricultural crops, extract peat). The USA, and also in Brazil, Argentina, Indonesia are distributed in the Russian Federation, Belarus, on Ukraine, in Canada, etc.
  • COYPU, the same, that a nutria.
  • The MARSH GAS, is secreted from a bottom of lentic water reservoirs. A main component - methane; contains minor quantities of a carbonic gas and nitrogen.
  • BALT CYPRESS, the same, that taksodium.
  • The BOG, exuberantly humidified plot of a surface, overgrown moisture-loving plants. In a bog routinely there is an accumulation of not decomposed plant residues and a peat formation. Basically in Boreal hemisphere; a gross area ok. 350 million ga.
  • "BOG", the nickname given by contemporaries to group of deputies, making the majority in the Convent in the season of the Great French revolution which are not having the program, in extirpation of political groups of the strongest rising on the party. Representatives: E.Z.Sjejes, P.Barras.
  • BOLOHOVO, city (with 1943) in the Russian Federation, the Tula region, bliz zh.-d. An item. Prisady. 12 thousand inhabitants (1992). Machine works; a food-processing industry.
  • GROUND BOLOHOVSKAJA, old russian historical range (12-13 centuries) in verhovjah r. JUzh. Bug and a bass. rr. Goryn, Sluch, the Red grouse (nowadays terrain of Khmelnitskiy region). In 13 century it was separated from the Kiev principality, has recognized an authority the mongolo-tartar, then it is adjoined to the Galitsko-Volynsk principality.
  • BOLSTAD (Bulstad) (Bolstad) Ejvin (1905-79), the Norwegian writer. The anti-fascist play "Patriots" (1939), social novels "Speculator" (1947), " the Red begonia " (1947), " the Tango of mors " (1967), " the Black mass " (1970), stories.
  • BOLT (from nizhnenem. bolt), a fastener, routinely a rod with the 6-faced or square head and a thread for screwing on of a nut.
  • BOLT (Bolt) Robert (r. 1924), the English playwright. Historical dramas " the Person for any pore " (1960), " Long live queen, vivat! " (1971) in spirit of " a new wave ". In a philosophical drama " Tender Jack " (1965) - B.Brecht influence.
  • BOLTVUD (Boltwood) Bertram Borden (1870-1927), American fizikohimik. The main transactionses in range of a radiochemistry. Has proved (1903), that radium is a decay product of uranium. Has placed (1905), that uranic minerals always contain lead and has correctly assumed, that he can be an end - product of a radioactive decay of uranium. Has offered (1907) by quantity of lead in ore and on a known disintegration rate of uranium to determine age of geologic breeds. Has discovered (1907) ionium - a natural radioisotope of thorium.
  • BOLTIN Ivan Nikitich (1735-92), the Russian historian, the statesman, the member of military board. The first publisher of Vast edition of " the Russian truth ". Transactionses on historical geography, a source study, an old russian history.
  • BOLTINSKY Vasily Nikolaevich (1903/04-77), engineers - mechanics, academician VASHNIL (1956), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1974). Transactionses under the theory of tractor engines, mashinno-tractor units. State premiums of the USSR (1952, 1976).
  • BOLTON (Bolton) Elmer the Kaiser (1886-1968), American chemists - organics. In 1915-51 the Du Pont de Nemur " worked in concern ". Transactionses on chemistry of dyes and high-molecular compounds. One of organizers of an industry of synthetic dyes in the USA. Has secured pigments of a geranium, a pink sage and a red common chrysanthemum and has defined their structure. Participat in development of industrial methods of obtaining of duprene rubber and polyamides.
  • BOLHOV, city in the Russian Federation, the Oryol region on r. Nugr, in 50 kms from zh.-d. An item. Mtsensk. 13,1 thousand inhabitants (1992). Furniture combine, the alimentary enterprises. A study of local lore museum. It is known from 13 century.
  • BOLHOVITINOV Victor Fedorovich (1899-1970), the Russian aircraft designer, the general - major-inzhener (1943). The designer of a heavy bomber DB - AND, a fighter with coaxial screws, etc.
  • BOLHOVITINOV Evfimy Alekseevich (in monasticism - Eugeny) (1767-1837), the Russian historian, arheograf, the bibliographer. With 1822 metropolitan Kiev. Historical, istoriko-study of local lore and biobibliographic transactionses.
  • BOLHOVITINOV Nikolay Nikolaevich (r. 1930), the historian, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1992). The main transactionses on a history the USA, to international attitudes and foreign policy of Russia of 18-19 centuries, historiography.
  • BOLDYREV Vasily Nikolaevich (1873-1946), the Russian physiologist, the professor (1912). With 1918 in emigration in Japan, with 1922 in the USA. Transactionses on physiology of digestion and the maximum nervous activity. Has described an automatism of activity of a digestive tract (on an example of a dog). Has placed the fact and conditions zabrasyvanija in a stomach of contents of a duodenum.
  • BOLDYREV Vladimir Vjacheslavovich (r. 1927), the chemist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991). Transactionses on study of influence of physico-chemical factors on chemical changes in a solid phase.
  • BOLEJN (Boleyn) Anna (ok. 1507-36), the second wife of the English king Genriha VIII. Divorce Genriha with Ekaterina Aragonskoj and a marriage on Bolejn (1533), not adjudicated by a papal yard, have served as a halter for a breakage with a dad and realization Reformatsii in England. It is executed under the charge in matrimonial incorrectness.
  • BOLERO (isp. bolero), spanish twin dance. The musical dimension 3/4. Rate moderate. It is accompanied by the gear quadrant, a drum and castanets, singing dancing. The genre of a bolero has found reflectance in creativity of many composers (M.Ravel, etc.).
  • BOLESLAV I (Boleslaw) Valiant (967-1025), prince Polish with 992, king with 1025. From dynasty Pjastov. Has aggregated Polish grounds, has founded in Gniezno an archepiscopacy, in 1018 has temporarily trapped chervenskie cities.
  • BOLESLAV III Krivoustyj (1085-1138), prince Polish with 1102. From dynasty Pjastov. Has reunited with Poland Vost. (1116) and Zap. (1123) Pomorze, etc. In 1138 has divided country into destinies between synovjami.
  • BOLESLAVETS (Boleslawiec), city on a southwest of Poland. 44 thousand inhabitants (1990). Chemical, glass, a food-processing industry. A museum and a monument to M.I.Kutuzov died in Boleslavtse.
  • BOLEHOV, city (with 1940) on Ukraine, Ivano-Frankovsk region. A depot. 11,1 thousand inhabitants (1991). Lesokombinat, a tannery, etc. The Study of local lore museum. It is known from 14 century.
  • PAINS (Bolig) (Baulig) Anri (1877-1962), the French geographer. Transactionses on physical geography, geomorphology, regional geography.
  • BOLIBRUH Andrey Andreevich (r. 1950), mathematician, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1994). Transactionses on differential equations.
  • BOLIVAR (Bolivar), group of oil deposits in Venezuela (an oil-and-gas-bearing bass. Maracaibo). Actuates deposits Laguniljas, Tia-Huana, Bochakero, etc. Are open in 1917. Deposits on depth of 160-4500 m. Total beginning inventories 4,3 billion t. Firmness of petroleum of 0,82-1,0 g / sm3.
  • BOLIVAR, staff in a southeast of Venezuela. 238 thousand êì2. The population of 969 thousand person (1990). Adm. ts. - Ciudad Bolivar.
  • BOLIVAR (Bolivar) Simon (1783-1830), the chief of extirpation for independence of spanish colonys in JUzh. To America. Has released of spanish domination Venezuela, It is new. Granada (sovr. Columbia and Panama), prov. Quito (sovr. Ecuador), in 1819-30 president of Great Columbia built in terrain of these countries. In 1824 has released Peru and the BOLIVAR, the Bolivar - i-Palasjos (Bolivar y Palacios) Simon (a full name Simon Hose Antonio) (on July, 24 1783, Caracas - on December, 17 1830, Santa Marta, Columbia), one of chiefs of War for independence of spanish colonys in America, military and the statesman of South America, where is known as the Deliverer (with 1813 it has leaded derivated on terrain of the Upper Peru of the Republic Bolivia (1825) called on his name. A national congress of Venezuela it is professed (1813) Deliverer.). Early godyRodilsja in notable creole family of a basque origin. Has early deprived parents. On education and formation of world outlook of the Bolivar major influence was rendered by his teacher and the higher friend, outstanding educator S.Rodriges. A youth has conducted in Europe (1799-1806, Spain, France, Italy) where early married, but soon ovdovel. On August, 15 1805 on hill Monte-Sakro in Rome, at the presence of Rodriguez, has sworn to struggle for discharging of South America of a colonial yoke. Venezuelan respublikaPrinjal active sharing in overthrow of spanish domination in Venezuela (April 1810) and professing by its independent republic (1811). After rout last a spanish troops, in 1812 it was justified in New Granada (nowadays Columbia), and in the beginning 1813 has returned home. In August 1813 his troops have taken Caracas; the Venezuelan republic has been built 2-n led by the Bolivar. However, not having decided to conduct reforms in interests of national bottoms, he has failed to get their support and in 1814 has sufferred a defeat. Enforced to search for a shelter on Jamaica, in September 1815 has published there the post card where expressed confidence in fast discharging spanish America. Education of Columbia Having realized at last necessity of discharging of slaves and solutions of other social problems, the Bolivar has convinced the president of Haiti A.Petiona to render rebels the military help and in December 1816 has landed on a shore of Venezuela. Cancellation of servitude (1816) and issued in 1817 decree about vesting soldiers of a liberation army by ground have allowed him to expand a social base. After successful actions in Venezuela his troops in 1819 have released New Granada. In December 1819 he has been selected the president professed by the National congress in Angosture (nowadays Ciudad Bolivar) republics of Columbia where Venezuela and New Granada have come. In 1822 kolumbijtsy have expelled spanish forces from a province of Quito (nowadays Ecuador) which has joined Columbia. Discharging of South America In July 1822 Bolivar has met in Guayaquil with X. de the Dignity - Martinom, which army has already released a part of Peru, but has failed to agree from nymas upon combined actions. After demission the Dignity - Martina (on September, 20 1822) he in 1823 has directed the Colombian parts to Peru, and in 1824 (on August, 6 at Junin and on December, 9 on plain Ajakucho) the last spanish forces on the American continent have been routed. The bolivar, in February of 1824 Perus becoming by the dictator, has headed and built in 1825 in terrain of the Upper Peru the republic Bolivia called so in his honour. Disintegration Colombian federatsiiStremjas to association of the ispano-American states, the Bolivar has called a congress of their representatives (1826) in Panama, but has not achieved success. After the terminal of liberation war in his balance weight tsentralistskoj to policy in locale centrifugal tendencies have amplified. As a result of separative performances the Bolivar has deprived an authority in Peru and Bolivia (1827-30). In the beginning 1830 he has retired and has soon died. Bolivariana In Latin America a name of the Bolivar very popularly. It is perpetuated in titles of the state, provinces, cities, streets, monetary units, with the help of numerous monuments. Biographic sketches, pieces of art, historical transactionses are dedicated him. With 1822 valid girlfriend and sputnitsej life of the Bolivar, despite of all falsities of his destiny, the native of Quito kreolka Manuela Saens was unseparable. Ñî÷èíåíèÿ:Èçáðàííûå products. Ì., 1983. Ñartas del Libertador. Caracas, 1929-1959. V. 1-12. Obras completas. La Habana, 1950. V. 1-3. Decretos del Libertador. Caracas, 1961. V. 1-3. Escritos del Libertador. Caracas, 1964-1983. T. 1-16. Literatura:Lavretskij I. R. A bolivar. 3 izd. Ì., 1981. Simon the Bolivar: a history and a modernity. Ì., 1985. Masur G. Simon Bolivar. Albuquerque, 1948. Madariaqa S. de. Bolivar. Mexico; Buenos Aires, 1953. V. 1-2. Mijares A. El Libertador. Caracas, 1969. Bolivar y Europa en las cronicas, el pensamiento politico y la historioqrafia. Caracas, 1986-1995. V. 1-3. M.S.Alperovich
  • The BOLIVIAN MOUNTAINS, major, eastern part TSentralnoandijskogo of a mountains within the limits of Bolivia.
  • BOLIVIJTSY, people, the main population of Bolivia (2,53 million person). Live also in Argentina (150 thousand person), Brazil, the USA, Peru and Chile. An aggregate number 3,2 million person (1992). Basically ispano-American Indian mongrels. Speak in Spanish and guarani. On religion roman catholics.
  • SIDES Victor Fedorovich (r. 1914), the Russian poet. Develops folklore traditions: collections " Spring Viktorovna " (1961), " Three grasses " (1975), " In three walks from the nightingale " (1977). The book of prosaic miniatures " Above river Istermoj. A note of the poet " (1960). A cycle " Poetry hundred first verst " (1987).
  • SIDES Peter Ivanovich (1835-1915), the Russian political figure, the doctor. Friend N.G.Chernyshevskogo, I.M.Setchenov. It was involved on business "Velikorussa"; the member " the Earth and will " in 1860th.
  • LATERAL LINE, the sense bodys located on sides of a body and a head for Cyclostoma, fishes, larvas and some adult amphibian. Accept a direction and a speed of motion on the water, minister for orientation.
  • LATERAL BACKBONE, on B.Kavkaze. It is located in bridge Main, or Water-partite, hr. From boreal party. An altitude up to 5642 m (Elbrus). Alms, in a central part - a glaciation.
  • LATERAL the PLATE (splanchnotomes), twin diploblastica of a part of a lateral mesoderm for germs chord animal. From side plates serous coats, the smooth muscles, a mesenchyma, blood vessels, heart, a mesentery will be derivated.
  • BOKONBAEV Dzhoomart (1910-44), the Kirghiz poet. Collections of lyrical verses and poems, texts the musical of dramas "Toktogul" and " the Golden girl " (both 1939), opera librettoes.
  • SIDE-VEINED, a subtype of the most primitive seashells. For the majority - it is mobile the jointed shell. Nervous system from 2 fallow of longitudinal trunks (two - lateral). 3 modern of a class: dinoflagellata, solenogastry, kaudofoveaty. In all marginal seas from a litoral up to an abyss.
  • FRESH-WATER SHRIMPS (raznonogie Crustacea), order of Invertebrata of subclass of the maximum Crustacea. Length 0,5-28 see. Float edgewise. Ok. 4,5 thousand kinds. Are distributed widely, in seas and fresh water reservoirs. Minister nutrition to many food fishes, seals, whales and some birds. Are part krilja.
  • BOX (from English box - a box, a box), in medicine - a room for isolation of seriously ill patients, ill contagions, etc.
  • BOX (English box, characters. - impact), combat sport, kulachnyj crocked eggs on special regulations, in special mild gloves. Rhodinum of the modern box - England (16-17 centuries). In International association of amateur box (AIBA; it is based in 1946) 156 countries (1991). In the program of Olympic Games with 1904, world championships with 1974, Europe with 1924.
  • BOKSBURG (Boksburg), city in the republic of South Africa. 111 thousand inhabitants (1985). One of the centres zolotouransoderzhashchego a bass. Witwatersrand.
  • BOKSBURG (Boksburg), city in the republic of South Africa. 111 thousand inhabitants (1985). One of the centres zolotouransoderzhashchego a bass. Witwatersrand.
  • BOXING REVOLT, see. Ihetuanskoe revolt.
  • BOKSITOGORSK, city (with 1950) in the Russian Federation, the Leningrad region. A depot. 21,7 thousand inhabitants (1991). Aluminous, biochemical factories. Bliz Boksitogorska - production of bauxites.
  • BAUXITES, aluminium the ore, consisting basically from oxyhydroxides of aluminium (28-80 %) and gland (gibbsita, a boehmite and a diaspore, a hydrogoethite, etc.). Primarily sedimental. Harmful impurity - SiO2. Firmness of 1800-3100 kg / m3. Raw material for obtaining aluminium, and also paints, abradants, refractories. Main getting foreign countries - Australia, Jamaica, Surinam, Guyana.
  • BOKSHAJ Joseph Iosifovich (1891-1975), the Ukrainian painter, the national artist of the USSR (1963), corresponding member AH the USSR (1958). One of osnovatelej the first art school in Zakarpatje (1927). Soft landscapes on colour, conversations, portraits, still-lifes: " the Market in Uzhgorod " (1927), " Nevichansky the clasp " (1970).
  • BOLA (from isp. bola - a sphere), propellant weapons of Indians of steppes Juzh. America, used in a horse hunt, - one or several spheres (from a stone, later - from metal), attached to belts; at a dush belts entangle legs or a neck animal.
  • BOLANSKY PASS, in Pakistan, on the joint of mountains Mekran and Sulejmanovyh. An altitude of 1792 m. The railway and the highways master from Pakistan to border with Afghanistan.
  • BOLGAR (Bulgar), medieval (10-15 centuries) city, in 10-12 centuries capital Bulgarii Volzhsko-Kamskoj. Residues ok. Seconds Bolgary Tatarii. Inhabited, craft and commercial quarters, mosques, baths, mausoleums and so forth.
  • BULGARIA, Republic Bulgaria, (Republic Blgarija), the state in the south of Europe, on Balkan p-ove, is washed against by Black m. of 110,9 thousand êì2. The population 8,47 million person (1993), basically bolgary; Turks, the gipsy live also, etc. The Urban population of 67 % (1993). The official language - Bulgarian. The majority of believers - orthodox, is moslems - sunnity. Administrative territorial division: 9 ranges (up to 1987 - 28 districts). Capital - Sofia. The chief of state - the president. The body of legislation - unicameral public assembly. A large part of country - mountain hrebty Stara Planina, the Sredna-mountain, Rila Planina with Musala (a peak level Balkan p-ova, 2925 ì), Pirin, Rhodope. In a north - plain Nizhnedunajskaja, at the centre - Kazanlykskaja a hollow, to the south - extensive Verhnefrakijskaja nizm. A climate moderate, in the south transient to Mediterranean. On plains mean temperatures of January from? 2 up to 2 °C, July up to 25 °C. Rainfall annually from 450 mm on plains up to 1300 mm in mountains. The large rivers - Danube, Maritsa. Woods (ok. 1/3 terrains) predominary deciduous. National parks: Vitasha, Golden sands, Ropotamo, Steneto, etc. The Most ancient population - frakijtsy. By 1 century n. e. The terrain of Bulgaria is conquered by Rome, in 395 was part Vost. Roman (Byzantian) empire. In nach. 7 century here settle slavonic nations. In 681 has developed t. n. The first Bulgarian kingdom (in 1018-1187 under an authority of Byzantium), in 1187-1396 existed the Second Bulgarian kingdom. In kon. 14 century. Bulgaria is conquered by Ottoman empire. Bulgarian people struggled against a turkish yoke (motion gajdukov, April revolt 1876, etc.) . Bulgaria after a defeat of Turkey in war with Russia 1877-78 is free. With 1879 Bulgaria - the principality (the vassal of Turkey), with 1908 an independent kingdom. In 1891 the Bulgarian social-democratic party is based. Bulgaria participat in the Balkan wars 1912-13. In 1-st world war has acted (with 1915) on the party of Germany. On Nejiskomu to the peace treaty 1919 has lost the considerable terrains, an output to Egejskomu m. September revolt 1923 has been severely suppressed by the government which has come to an authority after tumble (June 1923). In March 1941 Bulgaria has been involved in the Berlin pact 1940, a troops of Germany are entered on the Bulgarian terrain. The organizer of armed anti-fascist extirpation was the Communist Party. In 1942 the Domestic front is built led by the communists, organizational consolidated association of patriotic forces. After the introduction of the Soviet Army on terrain of Bulgaria, a monarchic mode was will overthrow. On September, 9 1944 the first government of Domestic front is built. On September, 15 1946 Bulgaria is professed by national republic. In June 1990 at elections to the Public assembly, taking place on the multi-party basis, has conquered the Bulgarian socialist party (about 1990 new title of Communist Party), in December the coalition government generated. In October 1991 on parliamentary elections victory the coalition of motions and organizations has gained Soyuz of democratic forces (it is based in December 1989) .Bolgarija - industrial - agrarian country. A lobe in a gross internal product, 1992, %: an industry and construction 46,6, village and a forestry 10,4. Production of brown coal 30,3 million t (1992). Manufacture of the electric power 35,6 billion kVt·ch (1992). Are most developed a machine industry (manufacture of electric wire rope hoists and electrocars, tractors, farm machines, a computer, rigs) and a flavoring industry (tobacco, plodokonservnaja). Black and nonferrous machine industry. Chemical and petrochemical, a woodworking industry. In an agriculture the plant growing prevails. Manufacture of a grain and pulse crops (6,7 million t in 1992, primarily wheat, corn), tobacco, vegetables, fruits, a grape, efirnomaslichnyh crops (1 place in the world on manufacture and export of a rose oil). Meat - sherstnoe animal husbandry (a large horned stock, sheeps, pigs). Fishery. Length (1992, one thousand in km) railways 6,6, motorways 36,9. Navigation across Danube. The tonnage of a marine merchant marine fleet ok. 2 million register gross tons (1992). Primary ports: Varna, Burgas. Marine ferry communication Varna - Ilyichevsk (Ukraine). Health resorts of international value Golden Sands, Albena, the Solar Shore. Export: machine-building, electrotechnical, chemical production, plastics materials, vegetables, fruits, wine, tobacco items. Ok. 1/2 foreign trade turnovers fall at countries Zap. Europe. Foreign tourism (over 1 million. The person annually). Monetary unit - a lion.