Sunday, April 8, 2007

  • AFRIKAANS (bursky tongue), tongue afrikanerov (bores), falls into indoevropejskoj to family of tongues (the German group). One of two official languages of the republic of South Africa. Has arisen during integration and smeshanija the Netherlands dialects with german and English tongues, and also with some aboriginal tongues. Writing on the basis of the latin alphabet.
  • AFRIKAN Petrijsky (African) (mind{wit}. ok. 250), the Christian martyr, the soldier damaged in persecution of emperor Detsija. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on April, 10 (23).
  • AFRIKANERY (bores), people in the republic of South Africa (3 million person). Zimbabwe, Zambia, the Great Britain, the USA live also in Namibia, etc. The Aggregate number over 3 million person (1992). Afrikanery - descendants of the Dutch, French and german colonizers. Tongue afrikaans. On religion basically protesters (reformaty).
  • AFRIKANISTIKA, a complex of the scientific disciplines investigator a history, economy, social-political problems, the right, development of public idea, ethnography, tongues, the literature and art of peoples of Africa.
  • The AFRICAN CONSIGNMENT of INDEPENDENCE of GUINEA AND KABO-VERDE (PAIGK), the political party of Guinea - Bissau. It is based in 1956. Headed liberation extirpation against the Portuguese colonialists. The secretary general of a Central Committee - Z.B.Viejra (with 1981).
  • The AFRICAN RAMP, dokembrijskaja a ramp occupying a large part of Africa (without Atlasskih and Kapskih mountains). The base exudes within the limits of Nubijsko-Arabian, Ahaggarskogo and other boards between which syneclises are located: Taudenni, Chad, Congo, the Resin blase, etc. Eastern and partly austral surburbs of the African ramp have undergone epiplatformennomu to an orogenesis with education of mountain belt Vost. Africa, complicated with system riftov - the grabens occupied in lakes and river valleys.
  • The AFRICAN GAMES, the largest complex{integrated} sporting competitions of countries of Africa. Are carried out{conducted} with 1965 High council of the African sport (KSSA; it is based in 1965 instead of Standing committee of the African sport); in 1989 ok. 50 countries.
  • The AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK (AfBR, African Development Bank), regional interstate bank on crediting programs of economic and social development of the African countries. It is based in 1963, operations with 1967. Board in Abidjan. By the beginning of 1988 members AfBR there were 50 countries of Africa and 26 not African states (including. Yugoslavia and Chinese People's Republic). The authorized capital on kon. 1980th 6,5 billion dol. The USA, 2/3 capitals belong to the African countries. Has two branches (the African development fund and Fund of Nigeria). More than 1/2 credits are directed to an agriculture and an infrastructure.
  • AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS (ANK), the oldest political organization of the African population of the republic of South Africa. It is based in 1912, in 1960-90 clandestine. Has proclaimed the purpose liquidation of a mode of apartheid, extirpation for a democratic reorganization of a society. President ANK - N.Mandela (with 1990).
  • The AFRICAN HORN, the meeting title of part Vost. Africa - p-ova Somalia, a horn pressing by the way in Indian ok. On Horn of Africa Somalia, Djibouti and a part of Ethiopia are located.
  • AFRIKANSKO-ANTARCTIC HOLLOW, submerged hollow in an austral part of the Atlantic and Indian oceans, bliz coasts of Antarctica. It is prolated lengthways 60 °ju. sh. On 6200 kms. Depth up to 6787 m.
  • The AFRICAN MILLET, annotinous herbaceous plant of a set of cereals. Grain and a feed crop in arid regions of Africa, Asia, in JUzh. To Europe and America.
  • AFRIKANTROP (from Africa and grech. anthropos - the person), the fossil person of neanderthal type (see. Neanderthal men). Fragments of skulls afrikantropov and stone instruments are retrieved in 1935 and 1938 for an eskar. Ejasi in Tanzania.
  • AFRICA the INSTITUTE of Russian Academy of Science (IAFRAN), is built in 1959 in Moscow. Studies economic, social-political, international, historical and cultural - ethnographic problems of development of countries of Africa.
  • AFRO (Afro) (an ice-film. Name Bozeldella Afro) (1912-76), the italian artist, the representative of lyrical abstractionism.
  • AFRO-AMERICANS, ethno-racial group in the USA, a part of Americans the USA. Afro-Americans - descendants of the African slaves delivered to the Sowing. America in 17 - 19 centuries 30 million person (1992).
  • The APHRODITE, in the Grecian mythology the goddess of love and the beauty, arisen from a meershaum. To her there corresponds{meets} Roman Venus. Ancient greek statues of the Aphrodite - "Aphrodite Knidskaja" (ok are well-known. 350 up to n. e., Praksitel, it is known in a Roman copy) and "Aphrodite Milosskaja" (2 century up to n. e., a first copy in the Louvre, Paris).
  • APHRODITE KNIDSKAJA, see in an item. The aphrodite.
  • AFROSIMOV Vadim Vasiljevich (r. 1930), the Russian physics - experimenter, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1987). Transactionses in range of an experimental atomic physics and plasma physics. The lenin premium (1972), the State premium of the USSR (1981).
  • APHTHAS - a check point, see. The American federation of transactionses - the Congress of industrial trade unions.
  • AFTALON (Aftalion) Albert (1874-1956), the French economist. Compositions on problems of a capitalist cycle. A principal cause of social crisises saw in psychologic and technological factors.
  • "AFTONBLADET" ("Aftonbladet"), the daily Swedish newspaper, with 1830, Stockholm.
  • APHTHAS (grech. aphthai), painful surface jazvochki on a mucous membrane of a mouth; develop as do-it-yourself disease (primarily for children) or as complication.
  • AFFANDI (Affandi) Kusuma (r. 1910), the Indonesian painter and the schedule{chart}. Products{creations} 40-50-Х differ romantic emotionality, love to simple workers (" Blind father with the boy ").
  • HOT BLOOD (from an armour. affeсtus - mental disturbance, passion), a stormy short-lived emotion (napr., anger, horror), originating, as a rule, in reply to the strong stimulus. About legal aspect of a condition of hot blood see in an item. Mental disturbance.
  • AFFERENT (from an armour. afferens - giving), bearing to an organ or in him{it} (napr., an afferent artery); relaying pulses from actions (glands, muscles) to a nerve centre (afferent, or centripetal, nerve fibres). Compare. Efferentnyj.
  • The AFFIX (from an armour. affixus - attached), a part of the word, contrasted to the radical and expressing grammar or word-formation value. On a rule{situation;position} concerning the radical affixes are sectioned into prefixes, suffixes, infixes and some other.
  • REFINING (frants. affinage, from affiner - to clear), obtaining of high-purity noble metals. A version of a refining of metals.
  • AFFINE GEOMETRY (from an armour. affinis - affine), the section of geometry investigator properties of figures, kept at any affinities.
  • AFFINITY, geometrical transformation{conversion} of a plane or the space which can be received, combining motions, specular reflections and homotheties in directions of coordinate axises.
  • AFFLEK (Affleck) Rajmond (r .1922), the canadian architect. Designs large urban structures which internal spaces are decided as covered streets in style passazhej 19 eyelids (Stefan Likok Bilding, 1961-65; area Bonaventury in Montreal, 1964-67).
  • AFFONY Persian (mind{wit}. 341-345), the Christian martyr, the former executioner damaged in persecution of tsar Shapura II. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on November, 2 (15).
  • AFFRIKATA (from an armour. affrico - I reseat), a consonant consisting from explosive (smychnogo) and fricative (fissured) elements (napr., Russian "h", "ts").
  • AH (dr .-егип. blessed, clarified), in egyptian mythology one of showers - natures of the person, his{its} beyond the grave implementation. For the first time it is mentioned in " Texts of pyramids " as ipostas the died pharaon. It was figured by the way hohlatogo an ibis.
  • AHAGGAR (Hoggar), a mountains in Central Sahara (Algeria). Stepwise mountain hrebty (a mean altitude 800 м), a basalt plateau (a mean altitude 2000 м) and separate volcanic cones (. Tahat, 3003 м). Mountain deserts. Nomadic cattle breeding, in oases agriculture.
  • AHAIK (1 century), apostle from 70-ти, spodvizhnik apostle Paul (1 epistle to the corinthians 16:17-18). Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on January, 4 (17).
  • ACHALASIA of the ESOPHAGUS, see. A cardiospasm.
  • " AHALGORIJSKY KLAD ", residues of affluent burial of 5 century up to n. e. With golden and silver items (vessels, dressings and so forth); it is retrieved in 1908 for a seconds. Ahalgori (JUzh. Ossetia).
  • AHALKALAKI, city in Georgia, on r. Paravani, 15,8 thousand inhabitants (1991). The enterprises metal-working, alimentary, a building materials of an industry. A study of local lore museum. It is known with 1064.
  • AHALTEKINSKAJA BREED of horses, high, is introduced in an antiquity to terrains Turkmenii. Animal large, with a refined constitution and flexible motions, wanton, hardy. Cultivate in Turkmenii, Kazakhstan, the Russian Federation.
  • AHALTEKINSKIE EXPEDITIONS, marchings of Russian troops with the purpose of mastering Ahaltekinskim by oasis (Turkmenija). 1-n Ahaltekinskaja expedition (1879) has ended in vain. In 2-nd Ahaltekinskoj expeditions (1880-1881) Russian troops of general M.D.Skobelev 12.1.1881 storm have taken possession of strengthening tekintsev in Geok-Tepe (45 kms severo-to the west of Ashkhabad).
  • AHALTSIHE, city in Georgia. A depot. 24,6 thousand inhabitants (1991). A food-processing industry. Theatre. Study of local lore and historical museums. A balneal health resort. It is known from 12 century.
  • AHALJA, in vedijskoj mythologies of the marital partner of wise man Gautamy. Enticed Indroj, she turned into a stone.
  • AHANGARAN, city (with 1966) in Uzbekistan, the Tashkent region. A depot. 31,1 thousand inhabitants (1989). Cement plant, manufacture of corrugated asbestos board, moulded plastics.
  • AHAN-SERI (an ice-film. Name Ahan Koramsin) (1843-1913), Kazakh akyn and the composer. Lyrical poems "Syrymbet", "Kulager", etc.
  • AHATINIDY, a set of terraneous Castropoda of mollusks. Ok. 100 kinds{views}, in Africa. Ahatina huge, largest of terraneous mollusks (the altitude of a shell up to 20 sm, weighs up to 0,5 kg), meat is edible; with kon. 18 century it is settled in tropical and subtropical regions; damages agricultural crops, especially a cane.
  • AHVAS, city on a southwest of Iran, adm. ts. ostana Khuzistan. 580 thousand inhabitants (1986.) Center of oil producing area. A textile industry, steel-rolling factory; manufacture of jewels. University.
  • AHVAS, large oil deposit in Iran. It is open{discovered} and is developed with 1958. The deposit sheet{layer} with a gas-cap, occurs at depth 1,5-3,1 kms. Beginning inventories of petroleum 1215 million t, gas 311 billion in m3.
  • AHVAHSKY TONGUE, see in an item. The Dagestan tongues.
  • AHVERDOV Abdurragim Asadbek ogly (1870-1933), the Azerbaijan writer. Dramas " the Destroyed nest " (1896), " the Unfortunate young man " (1900), satirical stories, plays, feuilletons (a cycle " Letters from a hell ", etc.); transactionses on a history of the Azerbaijan theatre.
  • AHVLEDIANI George Saridanovich (1887-1973), Georgian jazykoved, academician AN of Georgia (1941); corresponding member AN the USSR (1939). Transactionses on indoiranistike (including osetinovedeniju, kavkazovedeniju), to general linguistics, the theory and practice of a laliatry.
  • AHVLEDIANI Elena Dmitrievna (1901-75), the Georgian painter, the schedule{chart}, the theatrical artist, the national artist of Georgia (1960). Panoramic kinds{views} of the Georgian cities, case histories to I.Chavchavadze's products{creations}, Vazha Pshavela, registration of performances at Theatre him{it}. Mardzhanishvili in Tbilisi.
  • AHEDZHAKOVA Leah Medzhidovna (r. 1938), the Russian actress, the deserved actress of Russia (1970). With 1960 in Moskovsk TJUZe, with 1977 at theatre " Contemporary ". In Ахеджаковой game, direct, full crafty humour, the block type and acute typicalness often adjoin to notes of pressing dramatic nature. Light and other roles (" the Dwelling unit of the Colombine " L.S.Petrushevskoj, 1986), Margarita Mostovaja ("Wall" A.M.Galina, 1987), Rahel-Leja Gold (" Refractory people " J.Bar-Josefa, 1992), etc. It was taken out in films of producer E.A.Ryazanov (" the Twist of fate, or With a lung the ferry ", " the Service novel ", "Garage", " Heavens promised "), etc. The National actress of Russia (1995).
  • AHEJ, in the Grecian mythology grandson Ellina, son Ksufa, the brother of the Ion; an ancestor of nation ahejtsev.
  • AHEJSKY the UNION, antimacedonian federation of ancient greek cities in Peloponnesus ok. 280-146 up to n. e. It dissolved after seizure of Greece by Rome.
  • AHEJTSY, one of the main{basic} ancient greek nations, lived in Thessaly with nach. 2-nd thousand up to n. e. And on Peloponnesus. The states ahejtsev: Mycenae, Pilos, etc. Participat in Trojan war. In 12 century up to n. e. Are extruded dorijtsami in M.Aziju, to Cyprus and other islands, north-up Peloponnesus (the range has received title Ahajja).
  • AHELOJ, in the Grecian mythology the godhood of the like river, the son of Ocean and Tefidy. Was considered as the father of Alerters. Could accept any appearance; during extirpation with Geraklom for arm{hand} Dejaniry turned into the bull. Gerakl has broken to him a horn which was afterwards transformed{turned into} by pondweeds in a horn of plenty. Plotting of this extirpation quite often meet in Grecian vazopisi chernofigurnogo style; mask Aheloja by the way startsa with the open mouth from which water is casted, - a crowded dressing of an antique spout.
  • AHEMENIDY, a dynasty drevnepersidskih tsars in 558-330 up to n. e. The founder - Mineral tar II. The state Ahemenidov, the plugging majority of countries Short-range and Compare. The orient, has reached{achieved} the greatest bloom at Darii I. The state Ahemenidov has stopped existence as a result of seizure his{its} Alexander the Great. The major representatives Ahemenidov: Mineral tar II, Dary I, Kserks I, Artakserks III.
  • AHEN (Aachen), city in Germany, ground the Sowing. Rhine - Vestfalija. 244 thousand inhabitants (1992.) Center of a coal basin. A machine industry, textile, chemical, glass, a food-processing industry. A balneal health resort. Technical university. It is known from 1 century as a Roman settlement of the Akve-edge for curative sources. In kon. 8 - nach. 9 centuries Charles Velikogo's main residence.
  • AHENSKY the MIR 1668 (in Ahene), has ended Devoljutsionnuju war 1667-68.
  • AHENSKY the MIR 1748 (in Ahene), has ended war for the Austrian patrimony.
  • AHERNAR? Eridanum, an aster of null stellar magnitude.
  • AHERONT (Aheron), in the Grecian mythology the river in a underground kingdom into which run Piriflegeton and Kotsit.
  • AHI BUDHNJA, in vedijskoj mythologies the snake, olitsetvorenie juvenile waters; lays at the bottom of world waters.
  • AHIDZHO (Ahidjo) to Ahmad (1924-89), the president of Cameroon in 1960-82. The founder and the leader of consignment Kamerunsky the union in 1958-66, in 1966-83 chairman of consignment Kamerunsky the national union. In 1958-60 prime minister of independent{autonomous} Cameroon. In 1982 Ahidzho has tendered resignation. With 1984 in emigration.
  • AHILIJA (from and - a negative prefix and grech. chylos - juice), temporary or permanent absence of a pepsin and muriatic acid in a gastric juice at gastritises, an inferior feed, etc.
  • AHILL (Ahilles), in "Illiada" one of the most brave Grecian heroes, osazhdavshih Troy. Mother Ahilla - goddess Fetida, wishing to make the son immortal, has loaded it{him} in sacred waters Stiksa; only the heel for which Fetida it{him} kept, has not touched some water and has remained vulnerable. Ahill has perished from boom Parisa amazing it{him} in a heel. From here expression " an achilles' footstep " (vulnerable point).
  • AHILLEJ Nikopolsky (Armenian) (mind{wit}. ok. 319), one of a magpie of five Christian martyrs who have perished in Nikopol Armenian in the persecution of emperor Litsinija. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 10 (23).
  • AHILLOV the REFLEX, a pendent inflection of autopodium as a result of reduction by the three-chapter of a muscle of a shin in reply to impact on heel (ahillovu) to a tendon.
  • AHIM (Achim) Andrash (1871-1911), the chief of country motion 1906-11 in Hungary. Demanded nationalization and drive to peasants of grounds of large landowners and church. It is killed by landowners.
  • AHIMSA (sanskr. neprichinenie), a religious principle of the Buddhism and dzhajnizma, failure{refusal} from going and random ubienija alive entities.
  • AHIJAVA, the powerful ancient state mentioned in hettskih texts with 14 up to 2-nd floor. 13 centuries up to n. e. The site{position} is not established{installed}.
  • AHMAD JUGNAKI, the Uzbek poet of 12 century. A didactic poem of " Subarches of trues " (it is published in 1915-16).
  • AHMADABAD, city in the west India, pieces. Gujarat. 2,9 million inhabitants (1991.) Center of cotton industry; metal-working, a chemical industry; handcrafts. University. It is based in 1411. A triumphal arch of Pond scums - Darvaza (15 century), mosque Rani-Sipri with a mausoleum (it is ended in 1514).
  • AL AHMADI (Al Ahmadi), city in Kuwait. 105 thousand inhabitants (1985). Oil refining, vodoopresnitelnye factories. A petroexport port of Al Ahmadi - Minael-Al Ahmadi.
  • AHMADIE (ahmadija, kadiani), the Muslim sect, is based in 1889 in Punjab by Mirzoj Gulamom Ahmad Kadiani whom adherents honor as the prophet and mahdi. Has over 1 million posledovatelej, primarily in Pakistan.
  • AHMADNAGAR, city in a western part of India, pieces. Maharashtra. 181 thousand inhabitants (1981). A cotton, tanning industry. It is based in 1494.
  • AHMADNAGAR, the state in India in 15 - 17 centuries with like capital.
  • AHMADULINA Bell (Isabella) Ahatovna (r. 1937), the Russian poetess. In collections "Catgut" (1962), " Lessons of music " (1970), "Candle" (1977), "Secret" (1983), "Garden" (1987; the State premium of the USSR, 1989) - to present tendency moral maximuses contemporary, to affirm " high build " showers; the slush metaphoricalness refined arhaichnost of a syllable. The book of transfers{translations} and original verses " Dreams about Georgia " (1977). An essay.
  • AHMAD-CHECK DURRANI (ok. 1721 - 73), the founder and a check (with 1747) the independent Afghani state (Durranijskoj the mandatory powers).
  • AHMANOV Alexander Sergeevich (1893-1957), the Russian philosopher, the lawyer, pupil B.P.Vysheslavtsev and I.A.Iljina. In 1922-46 ministered the legal adviser in official bodies, with 1947 - the teacher of the Moscow university and the Moscow regional pedagogical institute. Transactionses on logic.
  • AHMANOV Sergey Aleksandrovich (1929-91), Russian physics, the doctor of physical and mathematical sciences, one of osnovatelej nonlinear opticians. Transactionses on generation of supershort laser pulses, nonlinear laser spectroscopy, statistical radio physics and optician. The lenin premium (1970).
  • AHMAROV CHingiz Gabdurahmanovich (r. 1912), the Uzbek painter - sculptor of monuments, the national artist of Uzbekistan (1964). Rests on traditions of medieval Central Asian painting (paintings of foyer of Theatre with him{it}. Navoi in Tashkent, 1944-47). The state premium of the USSR (1948).
  • AHMAT, Ahmed (? - 1481), khan of the Major Horde (with 1465). Ahmed's unsuccessful marching to Moscow (see " on the Eel 1480) has reduced Stand in final discharging Russia of a mongolo-tatar yoke.
  • AHMATOVA (an ice-film. fam. Gorenko) Anna Andreevna (1889-1966), the Russian poetess. Bordered on to acmeism (collections "Evening", 1912, "are legible", 1914). An accuracy to the moral bases{fundamentals} of life, psychology of women feeling, understanding of nation-wide tragedies of 20 century, the conjugate with personal experiences, gravitation to classical style of poetic tongue in the collection " the Flight of time. Poems. 1909-1965 ". An autobiographical cycle of verses "Requiem mass" (1935-40; it is published 1987) about victims of repression of 1930th. In " to the Poem without the hero " (1940-1965, it is completely published 1976) - reconstruction of epoch of "siver age". Articles about A.S.Pushkin.
  • AHMATOVA Raisa Soltmuradovna (r. 1928), the Chechen poetess, the national poetess Checheno-Ingush ASSR (1977). Writes in the Chechen and Russian tongues; collections of lyrics and poems " I Go to thee " (1960), " the Copper defoliation " (1974), "Saddle-point" (1977), " the Dawn and mountains " (1981), "Confession" (1984).
  • AHMED (1806-55), the governor (bej) Tunis with 1837, from dynasty Husejnidov. Has reorganized on an european sample army and fleet, plotted factories, has discovered first in Tunis society educational institutions. In foreign policy has oriented by France.
  • AHMED JASAVI (ok. 1105-66), the Central Asian poet - sufy and the ecclesiast (see. Sufizm). The collection of mystical spiritual verses "Secret" (it is issued 1878), assignable Ahmed Jasavi, has exerted influence development tjurkojazychnoj poetry.
  • AHMEDOV Abdulla Ramazanovich (r. 1929), the Turkmen architect, the national architect of the USSR (1984), the full member AH (1988). The main{basic} activities (with co-authors): hostel of Intourist " Ashkhabad " (1967), band of a square. Turan, including the building of the library him{it}. Azadi (1969-74; the State premium of the USSR, 1976), - all in Ashkhabad.
  • AHMEDOV Rahim Ahmedovich (1924), the Uzbek painter, the national artist of the USSR (1981), corresponding member AH (1975). Genre portraits (" the Morning. A maternity ", 1962), landscapes, portraits ("Nabi Rakhimov", 1983).
  • AHMEDOV Jakub (r. 1938), the actor, the national actor of the USSR (1991). With 1959 at the Uzbek theatre of a drama him{it}. Hamzy. Acts in film. The state premium of the USSR (1977).
  • AHMEDOVA Frangiz JUsif kyzy (r. 1928), the Azerbaijan singer (soprano), the national actress of the USSR (1967). With 1951 at the Azerbaijan theatre of opera and ballet.
  • AHMET MIDHAT (Ahmet Midhat) (1844-1913), the turkish writer, the educator. Plays, transactionses on a history, philosophy. The founder of genres of the short story and the novel in the turkish literature. Historical and nravoopisatelnye novels "JAnychary" (1871), "Dancer" (1877), " the Girl with the diploma " (1889), "Mladoturok" (1908).
  • AHMET, city (with 1966) in Georgia, in Alazanskoj to a valley. 9 thousand inhabitants (1991). A flavoring industry. Biochemical factory, lesokombinat. A study of local lore museum.
  • AHMETELI Alexander (Sandro) Vasilyevich (1886-1937), the Georgian producer, the national actor of Georgia (1933). One of founders of the Georgian direction. With 1922 at the Georgian theatre him{it}. Rustaveli (in 1926-35 main producer). It is repressed; it is rehabilitated posthumously.
  • AHMETSKY RESERVATION, on B.Kavkaza's austral downslopes, in Georgia, is derivated in 1980 on the basis Batsara-Babaneurskogo reservation (1970). The area 16297 ga. One of the largest in the world of a yew family of groves (in Batsarskom a gorge), a mass of a zelkova.
  • AHO JUhani (an ice-film. Name Brufeldt) (1861-1921), the Finnish writer. The realistic story from national life " On postojalom a yard " (1884), the social - psychologic novel " the Daughter of the pastor " (1885), "Conscience" (1914), prosaic miniatures under the title "Shavings" (sb. 1-8, 1891-1921).
  • ACHOLIA (from and - a negative prefix and grech. chole - a gall), the arrest of receipt{entry} of a gall in an intestines, mostly at a corking of a general gall duct; results in yellows.
  • ACHONDROPLASIA (from and - a negative prefix and grech. chondros - a cartilage, plasis - formation) (chondrodystrophia), an inborn stagnation of bones of extremities at normal growth of a trunk, a neck and a head.
  • AHPAT, the Armenian medieval monastery (10-13 centuries) in a like torrent of area Tumanjanskogo. Main church Nshana (10 century) with sculptural plotting ktitorov (faces on which means the temple is constructed) outside and paintings of 13-14 centuries inside; Grigory's church (11 century, it rearranged{reconstructed} in 13 century) and church Astvatsatsin (12-13 centuries), gavity, a refectory, book depository, a belltower.
  • "AHRAM" ("Al-Ahram"), the daily egyptian newspaper, with 1875, Cairo.
  • AHREMCHIK Ivan Osipovich (1903-71), the Byelorussian painter, the national artist of Belarus (1949). Portraits, landscapes, theme patterns (" the Face of an enemy ", 1941, " Defence attorneys of the Brest strength ", 1957-58), monumental paintings.
  • ACHROMAT (from grech. achromatos - colourless), a lens in which the chromatic aberration is removed; it is applied in peed sights, binocularses, optical sights, etc.
  • AHROMEEV Sergey Fedorovich (1923-91), Marshal of Soviet Union (1983), the Hero of Soviet Union (1982). The participant of Great Domestic war. With 1974 deputy, with 1979 1-st deputy, in 1984-88 chief of the General Staff of Armed forces of the USSR - 1-st deputy minister of the defence of the USSR. With 1988 adviser of the chairman of Presidium VS of the USSR, since May 1989 adviser of chairman VS the USSR, since March 1990 adviser of the president of the USSR. The lenin premium (1980). After a fall of attempt of the coup d'etat attempted by State committee on state of emergency (GKCHP), has committed suicide.
  • AHRR (Association of artists of revolutionary Russia) (1922-32; with 1928 Association of artists of revolution, AHR), art association. For artists AHRR (I.I.Brodsky, A.M.Gerasimov, M.B.Grekov, B.V.Ioganson, E.A.Katsman, G.G.Rjazhsky) are characteristic development of traditions peredvizhnikov in new conditions, a historico-revolutionary theme.
  • AHSU, city (with 1967) in Azerbaijan, in 34 kms from zh.-d. An item. Kjurdamir. 15 thousand inhabitants (1991). A food-processing industry, etc.
  • AHTALA, a urban settlement in Armenia. A depot. 3,5 thousand inhabitants (1990). Production copper and complex ores. Bliz Ahtaly - medieval monastery Ahtala.
  • AHTAL, al-Ahtal (an ice-film. Name Gijas ibn Gaus at-Taglibi) (ok. 640 - ok. 710), the Arabian poet. Political poetry, panegyrics.
  • AHTAMAR, an island on an eskar. Van (nowadays in terrain of Turkey), a residence of Armenian tsars Artsrunidov (10-11 centuries). A unique monument of the Armenian medieval art of building - church over. The Cross (915-921, architect Manuel), decorated with frescos and stone carving; ruins of a port (10 century).
  • AHTANIZOVSKY the FIRTH, lake in delta of Kuban. 110 км2. In Ahtanizovsky the firth runs r. Cossack Erek - a water hose of Kuban. It is paired to the Azov m.
  • AHTANOV Tahavi (r. 1923), the Kazakh writer. Roman " Terrible days " (1956) about Great Domestic war, the story "Buran" (1963), the novel " Light of the locus " (1980). Stories, plays.
  • AFT PEAK (niderl. achterpiek), a marginal stern room of a vessel for a storage of a deposit of moisture, a water ballast.
  • STERN FRAME (niderl. achtersteven), a stern of a vessel (prolongation of a fin) by the way frames. A support for a control surface, and on a single screw ship - and for the feed extremity of a propeller shaft.
  • AHTISAARI (Ahtisaari) Maarti (r. 1937), the president of Finland with 1994.
  • AKHTUBA, the left-handed water hose of the lower Volga, departs from it{her} above Volgograd, runs into its{her} water hose Buzan. 537 kms. Average discharge of water 143 m3 / with. Between Volga and Akhtuba - Volgo-Ahtubinskaja a bottom land, area of a vegetable raising and a melon production.
  • AHTUBINSK, city (with 1959) in the Russian Federation. The Astrakhan region, landing stage on Akhtuba. Depot (Vladimirovka). 50,8 thousand inhabitants (1992). Sudostroitelno-repair, a food-processing industry.
  • AHTYRKA, city on Ukraine, the Sumy region. A depot. 52,0 thousand inhabitants (1991). Factories: an agricultural machine industry, a hospital furniture, etc.; mild, a flavoring industry. It is based in 1641. In area Ahtyrki a crude production and gas.
  • AHULGO, a village in the Sowing. Dagestan, being reinforced residence SHamilja during the Caucasian war 1817 - 64. Since June, 13 1839 gortsy led by SHamilem stojko maintained in Ahulgo osadu Russian troops under a command of general P.H.Grabbe. Only on August, 22 Russian troops as a result of bloody storm have taken possession Ahulgo, but separate crocked eggs in a village went even a week. SHamil with mjuridami has broken to the Chechen Republic.
  • AHUN, a mountain on Caucasus, bliz Sochi. 663 m. a 30-meter sight tower.
  • AHUNBABAEV (up to 1975 settlements. Sufikishlak), city in Uzbekistan, the Andizhan region. Depot (Grunchmazar). 11,7 thousand inhabitants (1991). A ginnery, manufacture of a building materials. It is called named Uzbek political figure J.Ahunbabaeva.
  • AHUNDOV Mirza Fatali (1812-78), the Azerbaijan writer - educator, the philosopher. In comedies " Molla Ibragim Halil, the alchemist " (1850), " Musje Jordan, botanik " (1851), " Hadzhi the Kar " (1852), in stories " Flamed asters " (1857) realistically figured the modern to him the Azerbaijan real; in philosophical compositions - problems of knowledge and criticism of religion. Has exerted influence development of public idea of peoples of the Near East.
  • AHUNDOV Sulejman Sledge (1875-1939), the Azerbaijan writer, the playwright. Satirical stories; plays " the Falcon nest " (1921), "Devil" (1922) about revolutionary rise of peasantry; fairy tales.
  • AHUNOV Garif (Garifzjan) Ahunzjanovich (r. 1925), the tatar writer. Novels "Klad" (1963), "Hosts" (1968), " the Daughter of Volga " (1978), the plays dedicated workers Tatarii.
  • AHURAMAZDA, the supreme god in zoroastrizme. Olitsetvorenie the kind beginning.
  • AHTSU, a backbone in austral part Zap. Caucasus. An altitude up to 1124 m. It is cut by a gorge r. Mzymta. Broad-leaved, a beech family and firry woods.
  • AHSHARUMOV Dmitry Dmitrievich (1823-1910), petrashevets. Son D.I.Ahsharumova. The adherent of propagation of national revolution. It is sentenced to 4 years arestantskih companies, with 1851 private soldier on Caucasus. Since 1860th the health officer. Memories " Records petrashevtsa ".
  • AHSHARUMOV Dmitry Ivanovich (1785-1837), the Russian military historian, the general - major (1820). The participant of wars with France and Turkey in 1806-14. The writer (1819) first extending activities on Domestic war 1812.

  • ATSETABULJARIJA, a stem of green algae. Ok. 20 kinds{views}, in tropical and subtropical seas. Due to a huge resistant nucleus atsetabuljarija - classical object of cytologic probes (interaction of a nucleus and a cytoplasm, replanting of a nucleus).
  • ACETIC ALDEHYDE (acetaldehyde), СН3СНО, a colourless liquid with a sharp aroma, tкип = 20,2 °S. Raw material in an acetification, acetic anhydride, pentaerythritol.
  • ACETANILIDE, С6Н5NНСОСН3, colourless crystals, tпл = 114,3 °S. Intermediate in synthesis of dyes and medicinal preparations (streptocides).
  • ACETATE CELLULOSE (cellulose acetate), [C6H7O2 (OH) 3-x (OCOCH3) h] n, a product of interaction of cellulose with acetic anhydride, an acetyl chloride or ketene; a solid matter of a white. It is thermoplastic, non-combustible. It is applied in manufacture of an acetate cellulose fiber, plastics materials (see. Etroly), cine films, etc.
  • ACETATE CELLULOSE FIBERS, the synthetic fibers moulded from solutions of triacetate (cellulose triacetate fibre) and a product of his{its} partial saponification (naturally acetate cellulose fibers). Mild, elastic, crinkle a little, drop ultraviolet rays; a limitation: low-level toughness, low termo-and wear-resistance, the considerable static characteristic. Are applied primarily in production of national consumption, napr. A constant wear garment. World production ok. 610 thousand t.
  • ACETATES (from an armour. acetum - vinegar), esters of acetic acid or her{it} salt; ethers - colourless liquids, many of which have an odor of colours or fruits; salt - crystalline matters. Ethers apply as odorous substances and to synthesis of polymers (napr., vinyl acetate), salt - as mordant at a staining of tissues, etc.
  • ACETYLENE, NS - SN, colourless gas, tкип = 84,1 °S. Receive from natural gases or a calcium - carbide. Raw material for synthesis of vinyl chloride, acrylonitrile, acetic aldehyde, vinyl acetate, etc.; combustible at a weldment and metal cutting.
  • ACETYL CHLORIDE, СН3СОСl, a colourless liquid with a sharp aroma, tкип = 51,8 °S. Apply to introduction in organic compounds of group SN3SO (acetylation), napr., in manufacture of medicinal preparations.
  • ACETYLCHOLIN, СН3СООСН2СН2N (СН3) 3, a mediator (transmitter) of nervous exaltation for many Invertebrata and for vertebrates. At receipt{entry} in blood depresses a blood pressure, retards palpitation, enhances{strengthens} a peristaltics of a stomach and guts, etc.
  • CELLULOSE ACETATE, the same, that acetate cellulose.
  • ACETONE, СН3СОСН3, a colourless liquid, tкип = 56,1 °S. Raw material for synthesis of many important chemical products; the solvent, napr., in manufacture of varnishes, explosive and medicinal substances.
  • ACETONITRILE, СН3CN, a colourless liquid, tкип = 81,6 °S. The good solvent, napr., for many salts of inorganic acids; extragent.
  • ETHYL-ACETOACETATE, СН3СОСН2 - СООС2Н5, a colourless liquid with an odor of fruits, tкип = 181 °S (is in part decomposed). Raw material in manufacture of pharmaceuticals (napr., pyramidon, a quinacrine, vitamin В1), azo dyes, acids and ketones.
  • ACIDIMETRY, see. Alkalimeter and an acidimetry.
  • ACIDOSIS (from an armour. acidus - sour), alteration of acid-base equilibrium in an organism aside relative increase of quantity of anions of acids.
  • ACIDOPHILIN, the sour-milk beverage received by fermentation of milk by acidophilous organisms (bacteria).
  • ACIDOPHILOUS ORGANISMS (from an armour. acidus - sour and grech. phileo - I like), are capable to exist{breathe} in conditions of the considerable acidity of medium. Napr., acetic and lactic asid bacteria, from higher plants - a sphagnum, a heather, a lupin, etc.
  • ACIDOFUGES (from an armour. acidus - sour and grech. phobos - pavor), do not tolerate the considerable acidity and develop only in neutral{inert} or an alkaline condition. Napr., urobakterii, from higher plants - beet, lucerne, a bean.
  • ACYCLIC CONNECTIONS, the same, that aliphatic compounds.
  • ACYLATION, introduction in molecules organic and inorganic compounds of acyl group (acela) - the rest{remainder} of a carboxylic acid, napr. Acetyl СН3С (О) (acetylation), benzoyl С6Н5С (О) (benzoylation). It is used for obtaining, napr., an acetate cellulose fiber, dyes.
  • ACINUS (from an armour. acinus - a berry, a cluster), 1) a tip secretory department of an acinous gland (napr., salivary, milk), call also as an adenomere. 2) the Primary base unit of a lung consisting of a terminal bronchiole, alveolar courses emanating from it{her} with alveolas relating nymas.
  • AZTECS (asteki, naua), American Indian people in Mexico. 1,2 million person (1992). Tongue atsteksky. Believers - roman catholics. Till 16 century in terrain of the modern Mexico there was a state of aztecs with capital in Tenochtitlane. Aztecs have created a civilization deleted by spanish conquerors in 16 century.
  • ATSTEKSKY TONGUE (nauatl), falls into tano-atstekskoj to family of American Indian tongues. In 14-16 centuries the iconic letter, since 16 century - on the basis of latin schedules{charts}.
  • ACHARJAN Rachija Akopovich (1876-1953), the Armenian philologist, academician AN of Armenia (1943). Probes on the Armenian tongue (to dialectology, leksikologii, lexicographies, histories of tongue), to comparative-historical grammar and general linguistics.
  • ACHEBE (Achebe) CHinua (r. 1930), the nigerian writer. In the creativity noted by features of realism, - most acute problems of political and cultural life of the modern Africa. Novels " Also there has come destruction " (1958), " Dormancy no " (1960), " the Boom of the god " (1964), " the Person from people " (1966) more. The collection of stories " Girls on war " (1973). Verses. Publicism.
  • ACHEM (the self-title - achim, akim), people in Ghana. Number of 650 thousand person (1992). Tongue chvi (tvi). Hold on to traditional convictions, a part - protesters, roman catholics.
  • ACHEH (ache, achiny), people in Indonesia, in a north about. Sumatra. Ok. 3 million person (1992). Live also in Malaysia. Tongue achehsky. Believers - moslems - sunnity.
  • ACHINSK, city (with 1782) in the Russian Federation, Krasnoyarsk kr., landing stage on r. Chulym. A railway junction. 122 thousand inhabitants (1992). Petroleum refinery, aluminous combine; alimentary, a light industry. A study of local lore museum. Theatre. It is based in 1682.



  • fast relevant articles, work control

AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES, are stipulated by reactions of immunity, directed against natural tissues and organs (napr., kollagenozy, a nephritis).
ENDOINTOXICATION (from auto... And an intoxication), a poisoning of an organism with toxic agents of an endogenic nature (napr., at a uremia, a diabetic coma).
AUTOINFECTION (from auto... And an infection), the disease stipulated by an autoinfection by microbes, were in the given organism; activation of a dozing infection under influence of overwork, overcooling.
AUTOPSY (from auto... And grech. opsis-vision), necropsy with the diagnostic or scientific purpose.
AUTOSOMES, all chromosomes in cells diclinous animal and plants, except for gonosomes.
AUTRIMPS, in Prussian mythology the god starving.
The OUTSIDER (English outsider - ectogenic{stranger}).. 1) the layman, the fan{amateur}; lagging... 2) the Enterprise or the company, not included in monopolist unions, but enforced to be subject to conditions of managing, diktuemym large combinations in restraint of trade... 3) the Sportsman who is not having odds of success in a contest{race}; race or a race horse which is not being a favorite.
AUTECOLOGY (auto-ecology) (from auto... And ecology), the section of ecology investigator actions of different environmental factors on separate organisms and populations. Compare. A synecology.
AUFI Sadid-ad-din (kon. 12 century - 1-n a floor. 13 century), the persian and Tadjik scientist - philologist. Has constituted " the Pith of cores " (1220) - the first known anthology of verses on farsi; " Collection of stories and svetochi legends " (1228).
AUHADI MARAGAI (differently Isfahani) Rukn-ad-din (? - mind{wit}. 1337), the Azerbaijan poet. The poem " Bowl Dzhemshida " states cosmogonic and ethical views sufiev.
AUTSE, (Auce), city (with 1925) in Latvia. A depot. 3,3 thousand inhabitants (1991). Factory of knitted and notions items, etc.
AUSHAUTS, in Prussian mythology the god of practice of medicine.
AUSHEV Ruslan Sultanovich (r. 1954), the Russian statesman, the president of the Ingush Republic (1993), the general - major, the Hero of Soviet Union. In 1985-87 ministered in Afghanistan. In 1989-91 People's Deputy of the USSR. In 1993-95 deputy of Council of Federation of Federal assembly of the Russian Federation. With 1995 councilor of Federation of Federal assembly.
"AUSHRA" ("Dawn"), first Lithuanian political and a literary magazine. It was emitted in 1883-86 in Ragajne and Tilsit. It was clandestinely distributed in Lithuania. Supported development of national crop.
AUE (Aue), city in a southeast of Germany, ground Saxony. 26 thousand inhabitants (1989). A machine industry, a textile industry. Bliz Aue - production uranic, nickel ores.
AUEZOV Muhtar Omarhanovich (1897-1961), the Kazakh writer, academician AN of Kazakhstan (1946). Stories, stories, plays. A novel - epopee " Path{Route} Abaja " (hours 1-4, 1942-56). Transactionses on a history of the Kazakh literature and folklore. The lenin premium (1959), the State premium of the USSR (1949).
AUENBRUGGER (Auenbrugger) Leopold (1722-1809), the Austrian doctor. Has offered (1761) new research technique ill - a percussion.
AUER Leopold Semenovich (1845-1930), the violinist, the conductor. In 1868-1917 cable cores in Russia. The professor of the St.-Petersburg conservatory (with 1868). Pupils: M.B.Poljakin, J.Heifetz, E.Tsimbalist, etc. From 1918 cable cores in the USA.
AUER BACKGROUND VELSBAH (Auer von Welsbach) Charles (1858-1929), the Austrian chemist. The main{basic} transactionses on study of rare-earth elements. Has discovered (1885) praseodymium and neodymium. Has invented (1885) incandescent grid called as his{its} name.
AUERBAH Alexander Andreevich (1844-1916), the Russian mining geologist, the businessman, the professor (1868). First in Russia has applied a method of microscopic examination of minerals. Has reconnoitered Rutchenkovskoe and Kurahovskoe coal deposits in Донбасcе. Has based first in Russia mercurial factory in province Ekaterinoslavskoj, in 1896 has organized and has headed joint-stock company " A.Auerbaha's Mercurial business and To ".
AUERBAH (Auerbach) Bertold (1812-82), the german writer. Idealizing patriarchal village " SHvartsvaldskie rural stories " (1843-54) with bright patterns of a national household activities and the novel " the Rate on Rhein " (1869). The historical novel "Spinosa" (1837).
AUERBAH (Auerbach) Erih (1892-1957), the german historian of literature, the philologist - novelist. The writer basic transactionses " Mimesis: the Plotting of a real in the Western-European literature " (1946).
AUERSHTEDT (Auerstedt), city in Saxony (Germany). See. Yen - Auershtedtskoe battle.
APHASIA (from a - a negative prefix and grech. phasis - the expression), an alalia at safety of organs of speech and the ear, stipulated by a defeat of a bark of major hemispheres of a brain. Ground forms: motor (loss of ability to speak at safety of comprehension of speech) and touchsensitive (the comprehension of speech is upset; ability to utter words and phrases often it is saved). It is routinely accompanied by an alexia and agraphia.
APHAKIA (from a - a negative prefix and grech. phakos - lentil; a lens), absence in an eye of a crystalline lens owing to removal of a cataract or a heavy wound, sometimes - inborn (in combination to other malformations of an eye); sight is worsened.
AFALINA, an aquatic mammal of a set delfinovyh. The length up to 3,9 m, weighs up to 280 kg. It is distributed widely in moderate and warm waters, including in Black, Baltic and Far East seas; the craft afaliny is forbidden (with 1966). Often it is contained in oceanariums (it is unpretentious, is multiplied in a captivity, yields to a temper rolling).
AFANASY (? - mind{wit}. After 1568), Russian metropolitan in 1564-66. The father confessor of Ivan Terrible and protopop the cathedral of the annunciation. Nominal the chapter of Russian government at introduction oprichniny.
AFANASY (in the world Kondoidi Anastasy) (mind{wit}. 1737), diocesan Suzdal, by origin the Greek; spravshchik slavonic transfer{translation} of the Bible.
AFANASY (in the world Ljubimov Alexey Artemjevich) (1641-1702), the first archbishop Holmogorsky (1682), the writer of compositions against old believers " Colour spiritual " и " the Board of belief ", and also explanations on the first chapter of the book of Life "SHestodnev".
AFANASY ALEXANDRIA (ok. 295-373), the church figure and the seminary student, the representative patristiki, diocesan Alexandria. In extirpation with arianism has developed the mystical doctrine about "consubstantiality" of the god - father and the god - son, becoming a tenet on 1-st (325) and 2-nd (381) Ecumenical councils; shadowed independence of church of an imperial authority.
AFANASY Brest (Filippovich) (1597-1648), the martyr, the abbot Brest Simeonovskogo a monastery (with 1638). Opposed introductions of the union, it is executed by Poles. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 20 (on August, 2) and on September, 5 (18).
AFANASY Vysotsky, Serpukhov, Junior (mind{wit}. 1395), second abbot Vysotsky Serpuhovskogo of a monastery (1387), pupil Sergija Radonezhskogo and Afanasija Vysotsky Starshego. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 6 (19) (cathedral Radonezhskih sacred) and on September, 12 (25).
AFANASY (in the world Andrey) Vysotsky, Serpukhov, the Higher (mind{wit}. After 1401), the pupil Saint Sergija Radonezhskogo, basing (1374) together with nymas a monastery of the Conception of the Holy Virgin Theotokos for Serpukhov on high to riverbank Nara (from here his{its} title Vysotsky) and becoming his{its} first abbot; in 1387 year has expelled to Constantinople where has conducted the rest{remainder} of life, transferring{translating} with the Grecian tongue and rewriting the church books sent then in Vysotsky a monastery (such way the Jerusalem charter widely distributed then under the title " Oko church " has hitted to Russia). Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 6 (19) (cathedral Radonezhskih sacred) and on September, 12 (25).
AFANASY Melitinsky (mind{wit}. 298), one of thirty three Christian martyrs - soldiers damaged in the Melitin in persecution of emperor Diokletiana. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on November, 7 (20).
AFANASY Sevastijsky (mind{wit}. ok. 320), one of a magpie sevastijskih martyrs.
AFANASY Uglichsky (mind{wit}. 1609), prepodobnomuchenik, perished at ruin of Uglich by Poles in Vague time. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on May, 23 (on June, 5) (a cathedral Rostovo-Yaroslavl sacred).
AFANASEV Alexander Mihajlovich (r. 1938), Russian physics, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1984). Transactionses on messbauerovskoj spectroscopies, physics of X-rays, a solid-state physics, a nuclear physics. The state premium of the USSR (1976).
AFANASEV Alexander Nikolaevich (1826-71), the Russian literary critic, the representative of " mythological school " in folkloristike. Articles about the Russian literature of 18 century. Transactionses " Poetic views of slavs on a nature " (t. 1-3, 1866-69), the collection " National Russian fairy tales " (1855-64).
AFANASEV Victor Grigorjevich (1922-94), the Russian philosopher, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1981). In 1976-89 managing editor of the newspaper "Truth". In 1989-90 on activity in AN the USSR. The main{basic} transactionses on problems of social development, steering, philosophical problems of biology. The state premium of the USSR (1983).
AFANASEV Victor Mihajlovich (r. 1948), the Russian astronaut, a pilot - astronaut of the USSR (1991). The hero of Soviet Union (1991). Flight on " Soyuz TM-11 " and an orbital complex "World" (December 1990 - May 1991), " Soyuz TM-18 " and an orbital complex "World" (January - July 1994).
AFANASEV George Dmitrievich (1906-75), the Russian geologist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1953). The main{basic} transactionses on petrology and a geochemistry of ancient stratas, radiological age of geologic formations.
AFANASEV E. А., see Klimanov E.A.
AFANASEV Peter Onisimovich (1874-1944), the Russian teacher. The writer of abc-books, tutorials and methodical allowances on Russian for initial and high school.
AFANASEV Sergey Aleksandrovich (r. 1918), the statesman, doubly the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1975, 1978). With 1965 minister for a general machine industry of the USSR. In 1983-87 minister for a heavy and transport machine industry of the USSR. The lenin premium (1973), the State premium of the USSR (1952).
AFANASEV Jury Nikolaevich (r. 1934), the Russian political figure; the historian, the doctor of historical sciences, the professor (the main{basic} transactionses on history Zap. Europe). Since December 1986 rector of the Moscow istoriko-archive institute (since March 1991 Russian state humanitarian universities). With 1990-92 cochairman of motion " Democratic Russia ".
AFANASEVSKAJA CROP, archeologic crop of epoch eneolita (3 - nach. 2-nd thousand up to n. e.) in JUzh. Siberia, it is called on the burial for mountain Afanasjevskaja in Khakassia. Residues of settlements and burials. An economy: cattle breeding, a hunt, agriculture.
AFAR (the self-title - danakil, adalo), people in Ethiopia (670 thousand person, 1992), Eritrea (180 thousand person), Djibouti (150 thousand person). Tongue afar-saho. Believers - moslems - sunnity.
AFAR (Danakil), tectonic a hollow and desert to the orient from Ethiopian highlands, in Africa. In a central part for an eskar. Assal an altitude of 153 m are lower than a sea level. One of the most hot places on the Earth (a mean temperature of air in July 35 °S). Glinisto-saline and sand deserts.
AFAR-SAHO TONGUES (danakilskie), tongues of nationalities{national characters} afar (north-east of Ethiopia and Djibouti) and saho (North-east Ethiopia). Fall into kushitskoj branches afrazijskih tongues.
The AFGHAN, an aboriginal southwest wind in verhovjah Amu Darya. It is marked 30-70 sut in year (in area of Termez). Bears a lot of dust.
AFGHANISTAN, the Islamic State Afghanistan, the state in JUgo-Zap. Asia. 652,2 thousand км2. The population 20,3 million person (1993), over 1/2 populations - Afghans (pushtuny), lives over 20 nationalities{national characters}. A urban population of 18 % (1990). Official languages - pushtu also give. Prevailing religion - moslem faith. Administrative territorial division: 29 provinces (vilajatov) and 2 districts of central subordination. Capital - Kabul. The chief of state - the president. Afghanistan - highland. From north-east on a southwest Hindu Kush (an altitude in Afghanistan up to 6729 м), in a north and the south - plains and a tableland is extended. A climate continental, dry. Mean temperatures of January on plains from 0 up to 8 °S, in high mountains places are lower - 20 °S, July accordingly from 24 up to 32 °S and from 0 up to 10 °S. A rainfall of 200-400 mm annually, in mountains up to 800 mm. The main{basic} rivers - Amu Darya, Murghab, Hari Rud, Helmand, Kabul. The arid and semidesert vegetation prevails{dominates}. The first Afghani state educations have arisen in 16 century. In 1747 - 1818 existed{breathed} Durranijskaja the mandatory power. Attempts of the Great Britain to subordinate Afghanistan (the anglo-Afghani wars of 19 century) Have ended in a fall, but Englishmen have achieved establishment of the supervisory control above foreign policy of Afghanistan. In 1919 government of Amanully-khan has proclaimed independence of Afghanistan. War of the Great Britain against Afghanistan (May - June 1919) has ended in victory of Afghanistan. Government Amanully executed reforms, directed on liquidation of archaic feudal institutes, on development of capitalist attitudes{relations}. In January 1929 feodalno-clerical reaction backed{promoted;supported} by the Great Britain, has seized power. In October 1929 to an authority there has come a dynasty of the Nadir - check (a rule till July 1973). The strengthening of independence of Afghanistan was promoted by the sovetsko-Afghani contracts 1921, 1926, 1931. In July 1973 Afghanistan is professed by republic. After a coup d'etat 1978, perfect the People's democratic consignment of Afghanistan (it is based in 1965; the ideological basis{fundamentals} of a consignment had been professed scientific socialism), in Afghanistan the civil war has deployed. In 1979 the Soviet troops participating in war have been entered into Afghanistan (up to 1989) on the party of the government which have come to an authority (has gorged in 1992). In April 1992 country has become to call the Islamic state Afghanistan, the authority has been transferred{handed} to Managing advice{council} of jihad (to transient advice{council} modzhahedov). In December 1992 president of country selects B.Rabbani who has headed Managing advice{council}. Afghanistan - agrarian country. A lobe in the internal gross product (1990, %): an agriculture 52,6, an industry 28,5. In an agriculture over 1/3 cultivated lands - raflux. Grain (primarily wheat, and also corn, barley, rice), technical (a cotton, oil-brearing plants, sugar-beet, a cane) crops. A vegetable raising, a melon production, a fruit growing and wine growing. A livestock (1990, one million): ovets 13,5, including karakulskih 4,5 (one of the first places in the world on an output of astrakhan), a large horned stock 1,6, she-goats 2,1, camels, etc.; a poultry breeding. Production of a natural gas, petroleum, etc. Textile, chemical, flavoring, etc. an industry. Kovrodelie. Manufacture of the electric power 1128 million kVt·ch (1990). Length of motorways (198819,2 t. Km, railways of 10 kms. Export: a natural gas, a dried fruit, carpets, astrakhan, etc. The Main{Basic} foreign trade partners: countries CIS, Japan, Pakistan, Czechia, Slovakia, India, etc. Monetary unit - afghani.
The AFGHANI TONGUE, the same, that pushtu.
AFGHANS (the self-title - pushtun, patanas), people, the main{basic} population of Afghanistan (over 10 million person, 1992). St. 19 million person (basically nomads and polukochevniki) live in northwest of Pakistan. Breeding associations (afridii, vaziry, gilzai, durrani, etc.) are saved. Tongue pushtu. Moslems - sunnity believing main{basic}.
APHELION (from apo... And grech. helios - the Sun), the point of an orbit of a heavenly body reverting around of him{it} most remote from the Sun. Distance of the Earth in an aphelion from the Sun equally 152 million in km.
SWINDLE (from frants. affaire - business), fraud, a queer transaction.
AFILLOFOROVYE, the order of basidiomycetes with the open hymenophore. Ok. 4 thousand kinds{views}; predominary saprotrophs. Causal organisms of rots of wood (some trutovikovye), wood funguses. The few afilloforovye are edible (chanterelles, some ezhoviki and rogatiki).
AFINA (Afina a Pallada), in the Grecian mythology the goddess of war and victory, and also wisdom, knowledge, arts and handcrafts. Daughter Zevsa who has been born in full arms (in a top section and an armour) from his{its} head. The patroness of Athenes. To her there corresponds{meets} the Roman Minerva. Among the most known plotting Athenes - sculptural group " Afina and Marsy " (Myron sphinx), titanic statues " Afina Promahos " и " Afina Parfenos " on the Athenian Acropolis (Fidy; were not saved) - all 5 century up to n. e.
AFINA PARFENOS (grech. A Virgo), Grecian hrisoelefantinskaja a statue of activity of the ancient greek sculptor Fidija, facing in Parthenon (it is consecrated in 438 up to n. e.).
AFINAGOR (2 century), the Christian apologist, the writer of "Application" in protection of christianity, versed to emperor to Mark Avreliju, and books " About vokresenii dead ".
AFINAGOR (1886-1972), patriarch Konstantinopolsky (with 1948), encouraging conciliation of Christian churches of the Orient and the West. Under initiative Afinagora in 1964 his{its} meeting with a dad Roman Pavlom VI in Jerusalem (the first meeting of chapters of Greko-orthodox and Catholic churches with 1439) then the relative{mutual} have been cancelled anafematstvovanija, existing with 1054) was comprised.
AFINOGENOV Alexander Nikolaevich (1904-41), the Russian playwright. In plays "Odd fellow" (1929), "Pavor" (1931), "Mashenka" (1941) - social - philosophical and moral problems. Has perished at a bloom nemetsko-fashistskioj aircraft to Moscow.
AFINODOR RODOSSKY (1 century up to n. e.), the ancient greek sculptor. See. Agesandr from Rhodes.
The ATHENIAN EDUCATION, educational system of boys and young men (except for slaves), usual in Other. Athenes in 7-5 centuries up to n. e. With 7 up to 16 flying - education{learning} at grammar school, school kifarista and palestre. Children from the most solvent families kept up to 18 flying of occupation in gimnasii. Education of young men 18-20 flying was finished in efebii. Musicheskoe education combined{blended} with gym. Physical work was excluded.
The ATHENIAN NEWS AGENCY, state information service of Greece. It is based in 1896, Athenes.
ATHENES, capital of Greece, adm. ts. A noma Attica. 748 thousand inhabitants (1991). Together with a port Piraeus and suburbs Athenes will be derivated by Major Athenes with the population over 3 million person. The important traffic centre. International airport Elinikon. Major Athenes give over 2/3 obshchegrecheskoj to an industrial output. Textile, sewing, kozhevenno-boot, alimentary, chemical, oil refining, metallurgical, machine-building (including shipbuilding) an industry. Underground railway. Center of international tourism. A complex of the Acropolis, temple Zevsa Olympic (175-132 up to n. e.), Medieval churches of the byzantian epoch. The first settlements at-sight the modern Athenes in 16-13 centuries up to n. e. In Other Greece Athenes - the large centre, the city - state in Attica (see Athenes Ancient). In 146 up to n. e. - 395 n. e. Athenes under an authority of Rome, in 395-1204 - Byzantium. In 1204-1458 capital of the Athenian duchy. In 1458 are seized by Turkey. With 1834 capital of independent Greece. In Athenes - university, AN, the National archeologic museum, a museum of the Acropolis, museum Agory, the Byzantian museum, National passageway, etc.; the National library. I games of the Olympic (1896).
ATHENES Ancient, the city - state (policy) in Attica, played the leading part in economic, political and cultural life Other. Greeces; a classical sample of the slaveholding democracy which have reached{achieved} bloom at Perikle (2-n a floor. 5 century up to n. e.).
AFIROVAJA STRUCTURE, fine-crystalline structure of effusive rocks, free of vkraplennikov.
AFLATOXINS, toxic agents (derivative coumarins), produced by musty mushrooms, primarily aspergillami. Render toxic effect on a liver of mammals, birds, fishes; potential carcinogenic agents.
ATHOS (Ajon-Oros, a sacred mountain), peninsula, eastern tip of peninsula Halkidiki on north-east of Greece, the centre of orthodox monasticism. 20 monasteries, including Grecian Karejsky (a residence of monastic steering Athos - Protaton), the Laurel St. Afanasija (10 century), Serbian - Hilandar (12 century), Bulgarian - Zograf (11-13 centuries), Georgian - Iversky (10 century), Russian monastery over. Pantelejmona (1169). The largest collection of manuscripts and monuments of church art. Athos is under jurisdiction Konstantinopolskoj of a patriarchy with the right of self-management.
AFONIN Vasily Egorovich (r. 1939), the Russian writer. In stories and stories reverts to a rural theme. Books: " In a volume to an edge{a boundarouse} " (1975), " the Last autumn " (1979), " the Small cranberry a berry " (1979), " the Game in laptu " (1981), "Evenings" (1984), " Clear reaches " (1986), etc. The Autobiographical story "Biography" (1990).
APHONIA (from and - a negative prefix and grech. phone - a note, a voice), absence of a voice at safety shepotnoj speeches; it is supervised at diseases of a larynx, at a hysteria, etc.
AFONSKOE BATTLE, 19.6.1807, during russko-turkish war 1806-12, for peninsula Athos (Ajon-Oros) in Egejskom m. Russian squadron of vice-admiral D.N.Senjavina has defeated a turkish squadron.
APHORISM (grech. aphorismos), the saying expressing in the laconic form generalized, a finished thought (" To minister the rad to cringe sickeningly ", A.S.Griboedov).
AFRAZIJSKIE TONGUES (semito-Hamitic, afro-Asian), macrofamily of the tongues distributed in the Sowing. To Africa, Zap. Asia and on about. Malta. Are divided on 5 (or 6) the main{basic} branches: Semitic, egyptian, berbero-Libyan, chadskuju, kushitskuju and omotskuju (sometimes considered as a branch kushitskoj).
AFRASIAB, gorodishche - debris of Samarkand of 6 century up to n. e. - 13 century n. e. (Uzbekistan). Strengthening, mosques, residues of frescos, etc.
AFRIGIDSKAJA CROP, in archeology - the crop rannefeodalnogo Khoresm (4-8 centuries), is called on dynasty Afrigidov; residues of the feudal farms - deputies

AFRICA, mainland, second-largest after Eurasia. 29,2 million км2 (with islands 30,3 million км2). From the west it is washed against Atlantic ok., from a north - Mediterranean m., from north-east - Red m., from the orient - Indian ok. Coasts are bluffy weakly; the largest bay - Guinean, p-ov Somalia. In geologic attitude{relation} predominary a ramp with dokembrijskim the crystalline grounding overlapped{blocked} by more pullet{more young man} sedimentary rocks. Wrinkled mountains place only in northwest (Atlas) and in the south (Kapskie mountains). A mean height above sea level of 750 m. In a relief high stepwise plains, a plateau and a tableland prevail{dominate}; in hinterlands - extensive tectonic hollows (Kalahari in JUzh. To Africa, Congo in Central Africa, etc.). From Red m. and up to r. Zambezi Africa is milled by the greatest in the world system of fault hollows (see. The east - African rift system), in part occupied in lakes (Tanganyika, Njasa, etc.) . On edges{boundarice} of hollows burning mountains Kilimandzharo (5895 m, a peak level of Africa), Kenya, etc. Mineral wealths of world value: diamonds (JUzh. And Zap. Africa), gold, uranium (JUzh. Africa), ore gland, aluminium (Zap. Africa), copper, a cobalt, beryllium, lithium (basically in JUzh. To Africa), phosphorites, petroleum, a natural gas (the Sowing. And Zap. Africa). In Africa northward and to the south from a zone of an equatorial climate zones subequatorial, tropical and a subtropical climate follow. Monthly mean temperatures of summer{years} ok. 25-30 °S. In the winter also prevail{dominate} high positive temperature (10-25 °S), but in mountains of temperature be lower 0 °S; in mountains of the Atlas snow annually falls out. The greatest amount of precipitation in an equatorial zone (on the average 1500-2000 mm annually), on a shore Guinean a hall. (up to 3000-4000 mm). Northward and to the south from equator a rainfall diminish (100 mm and less in deserts). The main{basic} drainage is directed in Atlantic ok.: rr. Nile (the most lengthy in Africa), Congo (Zaire), Niger, Senegal, Gambia, Orange, etc.; the large river of basin Indian ok. - Zambezi. Ok. 1/3 Africa - range vnutrennogo a drainage basically of temporary channels. The largest lakes - Victoria, Tanganyika, Njasa (Malawi). Haupttypuses of vegetation - savannahs and deserts (the largest - Sahara), occupying ok. 80 % of the area of Africa. The wet equatorial ever-green forests are characteristic for an equatorial zone and offshore areas of subequatorial zones. Northward or to the south from them - the rarefied tropical forests passing in savannahs, and then in desertificated savannas. In tropical Africa (primarily in reservations) - elephants, rhinoceroses, river horses, zebras, antelopes, etc.; lions, cheetahs, leopards and other large predators. Monkeys, small predators, rodents are numerous; in dry areas abundance kowtowing. Flock of birds, including ostriches, ibises, a flamingo. The damage to an economy is put with termites, a locust, a tse-tse fly. In Africa the states are located: Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea - Bissau, Djibouti, a large part of Egypt, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Cabo Verde, Cameroon, Kenya, Congo, the Cat - d'Ivuar, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Mauritania, Malawi, Mali, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Ruanda, Swaziland, Senegal, Somalia, Sudan, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, That, Tunis, Uganda, TSAR, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, the republic of South Africa, and also terrain Zap. Sahara, Ceuta and Melilla. On the islands relating Africa, - the states: Comoro islands, Mauritius, Madagascar, the Dignity - volume and Prinsipi, Seychelles, and also Reunion, Sacred Elena Ostrov. The population of Africa 670 million person (1993) .AFRIKAIstorija issledovanijaNachalnyj a stage (2 thousand up to n. e. - till 6 century) The beginning of study of Africa falls into an extreme antiquity. Ancient Egyptians mastered boreal part of continent, advancing coast-wise from a mouth of Nile up to gulf of Sidra, inpoured{insinuated} into the Arabian, Libyan and Nubian deserts. About 6 century up to n. e. finikijtsy committed the long-lived marine marchings around of Africa. In 6 century up to n. e. karfagenjanin Gannon the seafarer has undertaken float along a western shore of continent. According to record on a slab, waste him{it} in one of temples of Carthago, he has reached{achieved} an interior of gulf of Guinea where Europeans have penetrated later almost two thousand flying. In the season{term} of Roman domination and later fishing court reached Canary islands, Roman travellers inpoured{insinuated} penetrating into Libyan desert (L.K.Balb, S.Flakk). In 525 byzantian merchant, the seafarer and the geographer Cosmas Indikoplov has mounted up on the river Nile, has crossed Red sea and has travelled a shore of eastern Africa. He has kept the 12-languid composition being unique for the time a source of cramps on the river Nile and adjacent terrains. The second stage - Arabian marchings (7-14 centuries) After seizure of Boreal Africa (7 century) Arabs many times traverseed Libyan desert and desert Sahara, have started to study the rivers Senegal and Niger, lake Chad. One of the most early geographycal reports Ibn Hordadbeha in 9 century contains cramps on Egypt and trade ways to this country. In the beginning of 12 century. Idrisi has shown Boreal Africa on a map of the world which on accuracy considerably surpassed existing then in Europe maps. Ibn Battuta in 1325-49, vyjdja from Tangier, has crossed boreal and eastern Africa, has visited Egypt. Later (1352-53) he has passed Western Sahara, Niger has visited Timbuktu on the river and then has returned back through Central Sahara. Waste him{it} the composition contains valuable cramps on a nature of countries visited by him{it} and tempers of peoples populating them. The third stage - travelings of 15-17 centuries. In 1417-22 Chinese naval commander Chzhen He in one of the numerous marchings, projdja Red sea, has bent Somali peninsula and, being shaded slide along eastern shore, Zanzibar has reached{achieved} an island. In 15-16 centuries. Study of Africa has been connected to searches by Portugueses marine ways to India. In 1441 N.Trishtan the Burl - Blan has reached{achieved} headland. D.Diash in 1445-46 has bent a marginal western point of Africa as which has called as cape Verde. In 1471 Fernandos Po has discovered an island called as his{its} name. In 1488 B.Diash has discovered a marginal austral point of Africa, having called as its{her} headland of Storms (afterwards it is renamed into headland of Kind Hope); in 1500 nearby to this headland during B.Diash's storm has perished. Ground B.Diasha's reports the route to India was developed by Portuguese seafarer Vasko yes Gama-grass. In 1497-98 he, being directed in India from Lisbon, has rounded a cape Kind Hope and has passed along eastern shore up to 3 ° 20 ' ju. sh. (City Malindi). In 1487-92 P.Koviljan has committed traveling from Lisbon through Mediterranean sea up to a mouth of Nile, and has further passed along a southwest shore of Red sea about one . Suakin. To the extremity of 16 century circuits of continent have been established{installed}. In 17 century. In hinterlands of Africa, to the south from equator, the Portuguese travellers had been open{discovered} lakes Tanas (1613) and Njasa (1616), headstreams of Light-blue Nile and the lower flow of Congo are investigated. In the west of continent A.Brju's French expedition to 17 century probeed the river Senegal, English - the river Gambia. The fourth stage - expeditions of 18-20 centuries. From the extremity of 18 century the tendency to take possession of new affluent sources of natural resources stimulated{promoted} study of Africa by the English, French and german travellers. Expeditions are focused in internal ranges of continent. Englishmen create special " Association for assistance of discovering of interiors of Africa " which has organized a number{series} of the important expeditions. M.Park in 1795-97 and 1805-06 studied upper reaches Niger, U.Audni, D.Denem and H.Klapperton in 1822-23 have crossed Sahara from a north on the south (from city Tripoli up to lake Chad) and have proved, that the river Niger not a beret the beginning from this lake. Transition through Sahara in 1827-28 was committed by French traveller R.Kaje. In 1830 English expedition has studied a lower reaches and the river mouth Niger (R.Lender and D.Lender) .V the extremity 18 - the first half of 19 century starts study of Austral Africa which first explorer English traveller Dzh was. Barrow. In 1835 E.Smith inspected the river of Limpopo, in 1868 S.Ernskajn has passed on its{her} in-leak{influx} Olifants. Geographycal and geologic study of basin of Light-blue Nile conducted in E.P.Kovalevskogo's 1847-48 Russian expedition, first of the Russian travellers describing Abyssinia. In midpoint of 19 century in basin of White Nile worked French (A.Lenan de Belfona and D'Arno) and german expeditions (F.Verne). A peak level of mainland burning mountain Kilimandzharo have discovered in I.Krapf and I.Rebman's 1848-49 german missionarys. English expedition Dzh. Speek and R.F.Burton in 1856-59 has found lake Tanganyika. To 1858 lake Victoria has discovered Dzh. Speek, later (1860-63) steady together with Dzh. The underback, that from this lake the river Nile rises. The major investment in probe of Africa Scottish traveller D.Livingston, in 1849 unblocking has introduced lake Ngami, first of Europeans crossed Austral Africa west-to-east (1853-56), incidentally having inspected a considerable proportion of a water-collecting area of Zambezi and having discovered the world's largest Victoria falls (1855). In 1867-71 he has studied austral and western lakeshores Tanganyikas, has discovered lake Bangweulu. In Europe expedition of Livingstone considered{counted} missing and on his{its} searches journalist G.M.Stenli met with Livingstone in 1871 on lake Tanganyika has departed. Further they together inspected boreal part of this lake and have straightened{found} out, that it irrelevants with Nile. One more expedition on searches of Livingstone in 1873 was headed by the English seaman and traveller V.L.Kameron. However his{its} help has retarded, t. To. By then Livingstone has died of a fever. Kameron has prolonged traveling and 1874 has reached{achieved} lake Tanganyika and has discovered his{its} drainage - river Lukuga. Probes of Sahara G.Rolfs's german travellers, in 1865-67 first of Europeans crossed have conducted Africa from coasts of Mediterranean sea (city Tripoli) up to gulf of Guinea (city Lagos), and G.Nahtigal executed in 1869-74 marching in area of lake Chad. He first of Europeans has reached{achieved} mountains Vadai and has collected an extensive material about a nature and the population of hinterlands of Central Africa. Later he has published three-volume transactionses " Sahara and Sudan " (1879-89). The Russian biologist, the doctor and traveller A.V.Yeliseyev in 1881, being still the student, has departed to Egypt, has driven up across Nile up to Siuta, and then two months wandered across Arabia. Three years later he has again visited Africa, from city Tripoli he has moved to Algeria, has passed across Sahara, has visited Morocco; his{its} pen posesses many geographycal compositions, including and on Africa. The Russian traveller of Century. Century. JUnker in 1876-78 has committed major traveling across Central Africa during which has conducted geographycal and ethnographic supervision{observations}, has updated hydrography of river heads White Nile. On following expedition to 1879-86 he probeed a watershed of the rivers Nile and Congo; outcomes of the supervision{observations} has extended in the book " Travelings across Africa (1877-78 and 1879-86) " (1949). In 1896-1900 the Russian traveller A.K.Bulatovich has triply visited Ethiopia, has conducted filming slaboizuchennyh southwest and western ranges of country, first from Europeans has crossed mountain range Kaffa. Terrain of the modern Angola and Mozambique A.A.Serpa's Portugueses studied the Pint (1877-79) which has discovered headstreams of the rivers of Cunene and Cubango, E.Britu Kapelu and R.Ivensh (1877-79) who have crossed continent west-to-east. As a result of geographycal probes to the extremity of 19 century four great African rivers have been studied: Nile, Niger, Congo and Zambezi. In the beginning of 20 century. Huge natural resources of the African continent are revealed. The literature: Zabrodskaja M.P.Russkie travellers across Africa. М., 1955. Magidovich I.P.Ocherki on a history of geographycal discoverings. М., 1967. Gornung M.B., Lipets J.G., Olejnikov I. N. A history of discovering and probe of Africa. М., 1973. Moljavko G.I., Franchuk V.P., Kulichenko V.G.Geologi. Geographers. Kiev, 1985. E.G.Mirlin



fast relevant articles, work control

  • The ATTENUATOR (from frants. attenuer - to slacken), the radio device (napr., by the way the waveguide or an electric circuit from resistors) for a undertension{undervoltage} or a signal power.
  • ATTERBERG (Atterberg) Kurt (1887-1974), the Swedish composer, the conductor, the musical - public figure. 5 operas, 4 ballets, 9 concordances spirit of the musical romanticism. Used national musical folklore.
  • The CERTIFICATE (from an armour. attestor - I testify).. 1) the document on the terminal of a mean educational institution, appropriation of an academic status... 2) the Document giving to the serviceman at transfers{translations} on a service, business trips, about satisfaction his{its} different kinds{views} of a ration, and also to the member of his{its} family on the right of obtaining of a part of his{its} ration.
  • CERTIFICATION (from an armour. attestatio - the certificate), definition of qualification of the worker, a product quality, jobs, a level of knowledge of pupils; the recall, the characteristics.
  • ATTIC (from grech. attikos - attic), a wall above crowning an architectonic structure a corbel, often decorated with reliefs and inscriptions. Routinely finishes a triumphal arc.
  • ATTIC Sevastijsky (mind{wit}. ok. 320), the Christian martyr - soldier damaged in the Sebasta in persecution of emperor Litsinija. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on November, 3 (16).
  • ATTIC, in an antiquity range in a southeast Compare. Greeces. In the modern Greece Attica - one of nomov (the centre - Athenes).
  • ATTILA (Attila) (? - 453), the leader gunnov with 434. Has headed devastating marchings in Vost. Roman empire (443, 447-448), Gallia (451), the Sowing. Italy (452). At Attile gunnsky the union of nations has reached{achieved} the best power.
  • ATTIS, in frigijskoj mythologies the god of the fertility, beloved goddesses Kibely. Corresponds{meets} to a Phoenician Adonis and babylonian Tammuzu.
  • ATTITJUD (frants. attitude), one of the main{basic} postures of classical dance at whom the crooked leg in an elbow is raised and retired.
  • ATTO... (from an armour. atten - eighteen), a prefix for education of the name of submultiple phisical unit, an equal 10-18 lobe initial{starting}. A contracted notation - and. An example: 1 ace = 10-18 seconds.
  • ATTON Nikopolsky (Armenian) (mind{wit}. ok. 319), one of a magpie of five Christian martyrs damaged in Nikopol Armenian in the persecution of emperor Litsinija. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 10 (23).
  • The ATTORNEY (English attorney), in the Great Britain the charge d'affaires, in the USA attorneys of districts, areas, cities - advisers of government bodies under matters of law, execute also functions of criminal prosecution and the charge on criminal cases.
  • The ATTORNEY - GENERAL, in the Great Britain the general counsel of government, executes also functions of procurator's supervision, judicial protection of financial interests of a corona; in the USA the main legal adviser of government, the representative of his{its} interests to court, etc. It is nominated as the president. Attorneys - generals are present in separate staffs.
  • ATTRACTANTS (from an armour. attraho - I attract to myself), the natural or synthetic substances involving animal, especially hexapods. Are applied as a bait to pests of agricultural plants.
  • AMUSEMENT (frants. attraction, characters. - an attraction).. 1) effective circus or variety number... 2) the Device for entertainment in places public guljany (a roundrobin, a big wheel, etc.).
  • ATUM, in egyptian mythology one of the most ancient gods, main demiurg in geliopolskoj a cosmogony, heading Great Enneadu, implementation of the vesper catching sun. Gradually cult Atuma drains with cult Ra.
  • ATUEJ (Hatuey), the American Indian leader who has headed extirpation against spanish conquerors to Haiti and Cuba. It incinerated by Spaniards on a boon (1515).
  • ATF, the reduced title adenozintrifosfata.
  • ATHARVAVEDA, one of four sacred indian books - ved, keeping spells and magic formulas.
  • ATHARVAN, in vedijskoj mythologies the sacrificer who first mined fire and has founded immolation to fire.
  • ATKOV Oleg Jurjevich (r. 1949), the Russian astronaut, a pilot - astronaut of the USSR (1984), the Hero of Soviet Union (1984), the doctor of medical sciences (1986). Flight on the spacecraft " Soyuz T-10,-11 " and orbital station " Salute - 7 " (February - October 1984). The state premium of the USSR (1989).
  • ATJA SUA, the chief of revolt in Cambodia in 1864-66 against king and the French colonialists. After depressing{supression} revolt it is banished.
  • AUBAKIROV Toktar Ongarbaevich (r. 1946), the Russian astronaut, a pilot - astronaut of the USSR (1991). The hero of Soviet Union (1988), the deserved pilot - verifier of the USSR (1990). Flight on " Soyuz TM-12,-13 " and an orbital complex "World" (October 1991). With 1993 general director of National space agency of Kazakhstan.
  • AUVERS (Auwers) Arthur (1838-1915), the german astronomer, the foreign honorary member Petersburg AN (1904). Transactionses on an astrometry. Has placed{installed} fundamental system of sidereal rules{situations;positions} and has constituted 1-st fundamental check list of asters (1879).
  • AUGRABIS (Aughrabies), a cataract on r. Orange, in the republic of South Africa. An altitude of 146 m.
  • AUGSBURG (Augsburg), city in the south of Germany, ground Bavaria, in piedmonts of the Alpes. 260 thousand inhabitants (1989). The arcaded textile centre; a machine industry. It is based in 15 up to n. e. In 15-16 centuries one of the main trade and financial centres of Europe. A Romansko-Gothic cathedral (11-15 centuries), a town hall (nach. 17 century).
  • AUGSBURGSKAJA LEAGUE 1686, the union encased in Augsburg by Holland, emperor of " Sacred Roman empire ", Spain, Sweden, Bavaria, Pfaltsem, Saxony with the purpose to suspend seizures of territory of France in Zap. To Europe. Augsburgskaja the league which in 1689 England has joined, waged war in 1688-97 with France (see. Pfaltsskoe the patrimony), completed Risvikskim the world 1697.
  • AUGSBURGSKY RELIGIOUS MIR 1555, between German Protestant knjazjami and emperor Charles V. Has finished a number{series} of wars between roman catholics and protesters. Has placed{installed} the right of princes to define{determine} religion of the citizens (by a principle: " whose country, that and belief "), has recognized a lutheranism as official religion (alongside with a catholicism). Promoted an accretion of power of princes.
  • AUGSBURGSKOE CONFESSION, an exposition of the bases{fundamentals} of the lutheranism, constituted by F.Melanhtonom (1530).
  • AUD, historical range in India (the modern pieces. Uttar Pradesh). In 18 - nach. 19 centuries. Aud - one of the considerable indian principalities awakely struggling against expansion of the English East indian company; it has been seized by her{it} in 1856.
  • AUD (Oud) Peter (1890-1963), the Dutch architect. The leader Dutch funktsionalizma and groups " Styles ". Designs of complex{integrated} grading and site development of working residential districts in Rotterdam.
  • AUDERSKAJA (Auderska) Halina (r. 1904), the Polish writer. Plays; novels: " Revenge of an alerter " (t. 1-2, 1980) - about anti-fascist extirpation; historical - " Queen of Bonn " (1983), psychologic - " To kill pavor " (1985).

  • AUDIENCE (from an armour. audientia - hearing), a formal reception for a face occupying a high post{station}.
  • AUDIOVISUAL (from an armour. audio - I hear also visual), founded on simultaneous perception ear and sight (napr., audiovisual training tools: movies, telecasts).
  • AUDIOLOGY (from an armour. audio - I hear and... logija), the doctrine about ear.
  • AUDIOMETER (from an armour. audio - I hear and... metrija).. 1) the device for definition of sensory acuity... 2) the Electronic device for a chronometry of inclusion of the television receiver with the purpose of calculation of a rating of drives (it is connected with the consent of the master of the television receiver).
  • AUDIOMETRY (from an armour. audio - I hear and... metrija), measurement of sensory acuity by definition of the least accepted sound intensity. Carry out{conduct} with the help of an audiometer.
  • AUDIOCARD (from an armour. audio-I hear and frants. plateau - a plate, a disc), the special device of a computer for a sound reproduction (music, speech, hums).
  • AUDITION (from an armour. audire - to hear), listening of the sounded texts for training their perception and comprehension on ear (primarily in educational process).
  • The AUDITOR, in Russian empire the position in military - judicial tribunals.
  • AUDITORS (from an armour. auditor - the listener), separate persons or the special companies, authorized a finance body or engaged by the enterprise, firm to inspect his{its} reporting and a financial position. Auditors state also an assessment{evaluation} of reputed operations, degrees of their hazard, efficacyy, etc. In the majority of countries the reporting, affirmed auditors, is subject to the mandatory publication. In the Russian Federation in 1991 the auditor service is built. The legislation establishes{sets}, in what events necessarily the conclusion of auditors.
  • AUDUMLA, in the Scandinavian mythology the cow which has arisen from hoarfrost of the World abyss. The milk rivers which flowed from its{her} udder have reared Imira, the grandparent ineistyh giants.
  • AUESKI DISEASE (Aujesky's disease), acute virus disease of pigs, a large horned stock, ovets, she-goats and sarcophagous. Symptoms: a defeat of central nervous system, the strong itch (except for pigs); a high lethality.
  • AUZINSH Imants (r. 1937), the Latvian poet. Books of lyrics " Sad optimism " (1968), "Lasting" (1972), " the Note of a hearth " (1976), " the Far voice " (1981), " This ground, thy kiss and a red light in the furnace " (1987).
  • AUITA (Aouita) Said (r. 1959), the Moroccan sportsman (track and field). The champion of Olympic Games (1984) and the world (1987) in trot race on 5000 m. The bronze prize-winner of Olympic Games (1988) in trot race on 800 m. The repeated champion of the world.
  • AUXINS, group of hormones of plants. Adjust{regulate} at miscellaneous stages of life of a plant his{its} growth, a differentiation of organs, growth responses on light and gravity. On a chemical nature - derivative an indol. The main{basic} representative - indole acetic acid.
  • AUXOTROPHS (from grech. auxo - I cultivate, I increase and trophe - nutrition, a feed), the microorganisms which have lost ability to synthesize one substances, necessary for their growth (an amino asid, vitamin or other). Without add-on in a substrate of this substance auxotrophs will not grow. Compare. Prototrophs.
  • SPOTTED LAUREL (golden tree), stem of plants of a set of a dogwood family. 3 kinds{views}, in Vost. Asia and a Himalaya. The bush a spotted laurel Japanese is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant; including on Black Sea a shore.
  • AUCTION (from an armour. auctio - public sale), a way of sale of the goods, at which (or his{its} samples) previously exhibit the goods for inspection. In the form of auction the real estate is sold also, the forced sale of property of insolvent debtors implements, etc. Routinely at auction the launching{starting} price is established{set}.
  • AUKSHTAJTIJA (Aukstaitija), ancient historical range in a southeast part of Lithuania. Populated aukshtajty. Since 13 century a main body of terrain of the Great principality Lithuanian.
  • AUKSHTAJTY, the group of Baltic nations secured{discharged} in 1-st thousand n. e. In terrain of Lithuania, nowadays ethnographic group of the Lithuanians living primarily in a southeast part of Lithuania.
  • VILLAGE (turki)., settlement (in past nomadic, nowadays nonmigratory) for peoples Compare. Asia; mountain settlement on the Sowing. Caucasus.
  • AULIE-ATA, the title Dzhambul in Kazakhstan up to 1936.
  • AUN the DIGNITY (1915-47), the national hero of Burma. In 1945 has headed revolt against Japanese occupiers, in 1945-47 supervised over extirpation for independence. It is killed by terrorists.
  • AUN DIGNITY SU CHZHI (r. 1945), the secretary general of a consignment National league for democracy in 1988-92, one of leaders of democratic opposition in Myanma. Daughter Aun of the Dignity. The Nobel Prize of the world (1991).
  • AURA (from grech. aura - winnowing).. 1) a development showers and spirit of the person; in the mystical literature it is described as the irradiant oval appearance visible only at super-sensitive perception ambient all body of the person, in fine arts - an aureola, a halation (napr., in ikonografii Transfigurations, etc.)... 2) Direct forerunners of an epileptic attack; peculiar short-lived visual, acoustical, emotional and other sensations and experiences.
  • AURANGABAD, city in India, pieces. Maharashtra. 573 thousand inhabitants (1991). Cotton and silk manufacture.
  • AURANGZEB (1618-1707), governor Mogolskoj of empire in India with 1658. In war for a holy table has deleted the brothers - rivals, has arrested the father. Has finished seizure of Deccan and JUzh. India. Pursued{chased;ran} hindus.
  • ORPIMENT (from an armour. aurum - gold and pigmentum - a paint), a mineral of a class of sulphides As2S3. Yellow-green or lemon yellow crystals, impregnations. Hardness 1,5-2; firmness of 3,5 g / sm3. Meets primarily in the cold hydrothermal deposits. Raw material for obtaining arsenic connections.
  • AUSAN, the state in JUzh. Arabias in 1-st thousand up to n. e. In 3 century up to n. e. The terrain Ausana was part of the states Kataban and Saba.
  • AUSGEJRSSON (Asgeirsson) Ausgejr (1894-1972), the president of Iceland in 1952-68. In 1931-34 Minister of Finance, in 1932-34 prime minister.
  • AUSEKLIS (Auseklis) (an ice-film. A name and fam. Mikelis Krogzemis, Krogzemis) (1850-79), the Latvian poet. Acute satyrs on german barons and clergy. Poeticized a patriarchal household activities.
  • AUSCULTATION (from an armour. auscultatio - an auscultation), medical research technique, an auscultation (directly, i.e. an ear, or with the help steto-or a phonendoscope) the acoustical phenomena primarily in lungs, heart.
  • AUSPITSII (an armour., a unit of hours auspicium, from avis - a bird and specio - I look), in Other. Rome guessings on overseeing by flight and cry of birds, etc. Auspitsii were expounded avgurami.
  • AUSTENITE (on behalf of U.Roberts - Ostena's English metallurgist, W. Roberts-Аusten; 1843-1902), structural component of iron-carbon alloys - a solid solution of carbon (up to 2 %), and also alloying elements in? To gland. In carbon steels and cast irons it is resistant above 723 °S.
  • AUSTERLITS (Austerlitz), the german title Slavkov in Czechia.
  • AUSTERLITSKOE BATTLE, 20.111805, decisive battle between the russko-Austrian and French troops in time russko-avstro-frantsuzskoj wars 1805 about one . Austerlits (nowadays Slavkov, Czechia). The French army of Napoleon I has divided the russko-Austrian troops under M.I.Kutuzov command, enforced to act under the unsuccessful plan of Austrian colonel F.Vejrotera approved by Alexander I. After battle 3-n the antiFrench coalition has broken up. AUSTERLITSKOE BATTLE on December, 2 (on November, 20) 1805 between the French and russko-Austrian troops bliz Austerlitsa (nowadays Slavkov, Czechia). Has determined disintegration of 3-rd antiFrench coalition. The previous history of battle After to 1805 Englands was possible to organize the antiFrench coalition of the european mandatory powers (Austria and Russia) and to transfer the theater of operations on continent, Napoleon has been compelled to throw ready to sending to British isles a troops from camp on La Manche to Bavaria, towards to avstro-Russian army. The French bodies have enclosed and have forced to delivery the Austrian army of the general of the Poppy in strength Ulm in Wurttemberg (on October, 20). Having taken prisoner or having deleted a considerable proportion of the Austrian army, the Frenchmen a fast flight have moved to Vienna on dextral coast of Danube. The Russian army making now the basis{fundamentals} of a military power of a coalition, was in Moravia, on the left-handed coast. On November, 13 Napoleon has come in Vienna. Russian army, sustaining huge loss, has departed to Olmjutsu (Olomouc, Czechia). Its{her} commanding M.I.Kutuzov did not consider{count} expedient to give decisive battle up to the approach of reinforcements from Russia and concentration of separate residues of the Austrian troops. Alexander I aspired{tried} to battle, supposing, that forces of the parties are approximately equal. Having guessed contraventions in headquarters of an allied troops, Napoleon through lines of diplomatic demarches has convinced allies, that itself is afraid of battle. He has managed to force the opponent to act on designed him{it} to the plan and during battle - for village Austerlits, in hundred kilometres northward from Vienna. Before battle the russko-Austrian troops have taken Pratsenskie altitudes about{near} Austerlitsa. Having loosened the left-handed flank, Napoleon has inspired with to the opponent thought to attack here and to saw the Frenchmen from Danube and roads to Vienna. Course of battle on December, 1 allies have assigned reserves with Pratsenskih altitudes on dextral flank Napoleon achieved that. Battle began at 7 o'clock in the morning on December, 2 on the left-handed flank of the Frenchmen. After here were knotted bitter crocked eggs, Napoleon has banged in the loosened centre of avstro-Russian army. The Frenchmen have fast taken Pratsenskie altitudes and rassekli allied army in two. Furious attempts again to beat off altitudes in anything have not reduced. The dextral flank of the russko-Austrian troops was prizhat to frozen lakes. When some thousand soldiers, retreating, have appeared on ice, the French army has become to beat on nymas a canister. Loss of an allied troops have constituted 27 thousand person, 180 guns, 40 banners. The defeat was crushing. Presburgsky the agreement Already on December, 26 in Presburge has been signed the world between Austria and France. Venice, Istria, Dalmatia headed out to a napoleonic Italian kingdom, Tirol - to the ally of Napoleon of Bavaria. Austria undertook to pay the huge contribution in 40 mill. Florins. Austerlits - hardly probable not the brightest victory of Napoleon. She has allowed Napoleon to become on some time the ruler of destinies of Europe. Literatura:Tolstoj L. N. War and peace. // Sobr. soch.: In 4 t. М., 1951. T. 1. Thiry J. Napoleon Bonaparte. Ulm, Trafalgar, Austerlitz. Paris, 1962. E.I.Lebedeva
  • AUSTRIJA PRESS of AGENCIES (Austriа Presse Agentur), the Austrian news agency, cooperative association of newspapers, a wireless and a television with the participation governments of Austria. It is based in 1946, Vienna.
  • OUTBREEDING (from English out - outside of and breeding - cultivation), a crossing of unrelated organisms of miscellaneous breeds, grades and kinds{views}. Use in animal husbandry and a plant growing for an avoidance of harmful consequences of a closely related crossing (inbreeding), etc.
  • The AUTHENTIC TEXT (from grech. authentikos - genuine), a body of the document officially adjudicated equivalent other text, constituted, as a rule, in the other tongue, and having equal legal force from nymas.
  • AUTHIGENOUS MINERALS (from grech. authigenes - an aboriginal origin), the minerals of sedimental rocks derivated during sedimentation and lithogenesis at-sight of adjournment a upsetting. Napr., barite, zeolites, some clay minerals.
  • AUTISM (from grech. autos - itself), the condition of psychics defined by predominance of selfcontained internal life and active discharge from an external world.
  • AUTO (isp. And portug. auto), one-act drama submission in Spain and Portugal (in 13-18 centuries) on religious scenes.
  • AUTO... (from grech. autos - itself), see. Avto...
  • AUTOHEMOTHERAPY (from auto..., gemo... And therapy), intramuscular or subcutaneous introduction ill natural blood (taken from a vein) with the purpose of a stimulation of protective functions of an organism and improvement of exchange processes; a method of treatment of sluggishly weeping zymotic and other diseases.
  • AUTOGENIC TRAINING (from grech. autogenes - itself effecting), a method of a psychotherapy: through a self-suggestion ill trains to influence on physical and mental condition. It is applied also able-bodied to short-lived leisure time activities, etc.
  • AUTO-DA-FE (isp. And portug. auto de fe, characters. - the certificate{act} of belief), solemn announcement of the sentence of inquisition in Spain, Portugal, and also execution of sentence (primarily public incinerating). The first auto-da-fe falls into 13 century, the latter was comprised in 1826 in Valencia.
  • AUTOIMMUNITY (from auto... And immunity), ability of immune system to recognize and attack cells of a natural organism. In the norm{standard} the immune system does not react to cells and tissues of the organism (see. A tolerance immunological). In 80th of 20 century it is exhibited, that the autoimmunity lays not only in the basis{fundamentals} of autoimmune diseases, but can be connected and to fulfilment of normal living functions, napr. With removal aged and deteriorated cells.



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ATMOGEOHIMIJA, studies an atmospheric composition of the Earth and his{its} evolution during a geologic history.
ATMOSPHERE, off-system unit of pressure. Normal, or physical, an atmosphere (it is meant atm.) it is peer 101325 Pa - 1013,25 gPa - 760 mm of a mercurial pile - 10332 mm of water column - 1,0332 at; the technical atmosphere (at) is peer 1 kgf / sm2 - 735,56 mm of a mercurial pile - 104 mm of water column - 98066,5 Pa.
EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE (from grech. atmos - fallow and an orb), air medium around of the Earth, rotated together with it{her}; mass ok. 5,15•1015 t. Its{her} structure for a surface of the Earth: 78,1 % of nitrogen, 21 % of oxygen, 0,9 % of argon, in minor lobes of percent uklekislyj gas, hydrogen, helium, a neon and other gases. In the lower 20 kms (for a surface - from 3 % the water fallow is contained in tropics up to 2•10-5 % in Antarctica) which quantity with an altitude fast diminishes. At the altitude 20-25 kms the layer of ozone which protects living organisms on the Earth from harmful short-wave radiation is located. Above 100 kms will be grown with a lobe of light gases, and on very high altitudes helium and hydrogen prevail{dominate}; the part of molecules is decomposed to atoms and ions, derivating an ionosphere. Pressure and an atmospheric density of the Earth with an altitude diminish. Depending on distribution of temperature (rice). Earth's atmosphere section into a troposphere, a stratosphere, a mesosphere, a thermosphere, an exosphere. The Earth's atmosphere has an electric field. Non-uniformity{irregularity} of its{her} calefaction promotes general atmosphere circulation which influences weather and a climate of the Earth.
ATMOSPHERIC NOISES, the radio signals which are radiated at electric discharges in an atmosphere. Atmospheric noises prevent{stir} radio reception, especially over the range superlong and long waves.
The AERO-ACOUSTICS, studies an acoustic propagation in an atmosphere and investigates last acoustic methods.
The ATMOSPHERIC OPTIC, studies the optical phenomena originating at a light transmission in an atmosphere (a halo, a Mirage, etc.).
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE, pressure of free air on subjects located in a nem and on a surface. In each point of an atmosphere the atmospheric pressure is equal to weight of an overlying column of air; with an altitude diminishes. The mean atmospheric pressure is sea-level equivalent to mercury pressure an altitude in 760 mm or 1013,25 gPa.
ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY.. 1) the electrical phenomena in an atmosphere: air ionization, an electric field of an atmosphere, electric charges of clouds and a rainfall, current flows and categories{discharges} in an atmosphere and t. d... 2) the Section of atmospheric physics investigator these phenomena.
ATMOSPHERIC WAVEGUIDE, layer of air for a surface of the Earth which, wedging extending radiowaves, directs them along the Earth. The atmospheric waveguide will be derivated, if the temperature diminishes with an altitude more slowly, and the atmospheric humidity is faster, than in normal conditions. In an atmospheric waveguide distribution{propagation} of the meter and more short radiowaves which have left under a small angle to horizon is possible.
ATMOSPHERE of ASTERS, surface layers of asters in which the observable radiation spectrum of asters is formed. In an atmosphere of asters routinely secrete the enveloping layer - an extended corona (see. A solar corona), then a chromosphere and the photosphere located even more deeply.
ATMOSPHERE of PLANETS, the gaseous envelopes of planets rotated together with planets, disseminating and absorptive a sunlight. An atmosphere of planets of the Jove, Saturn, Neptune Venus and Mars - primarily from a carbonic gas will consist predominary of hydrogen, helium and methane. The Earth's atmosphere (N2, O2, Ar, CO2, etc.) has the composite structure.
ATMOFILNYE ELEMENTS, in geochemical grading elements of V.M.Goldshmidta - group of chemical elements (nitrogen, hydrogen, rare gases), sample for an Earth's atmosphere at which structure they are present by the way free atoms or molecules.
ATOLL, the coral structure, shaped the solid or chipped ring ambient a shallow-water lagoon. The grounding for an atoll the top of a submerged burning mountain ministers routinely. Are distributed in tropical latitudes of Quiet and Indian oceans.
ATOM (from grech. atomos - indivisible), the ultimate particle of a chemical element keeping his{its} properties. At the centre of atom there is a positively charged nucleus in which all mass of atom is concentrated almost; the electrons which are generatrix electronic shells which dimensions (~10-8 sm) dimension atom around move. The stripped atom will consist of protons and neutrons. Figure of electrons in atom equally to figure of protons in a nucleus (the charge of all electrons of atom is peer to nuclear charge), figure of protons equally to a serial number of an element in a periodic system. Atoms can join or return electrons, becoming negatively or positively charged ions. Chemical properties of atoms are determined basically by figure of electrons in the outer shell; being bridged chemical, atoms will derivate molecules. The important characteristics of atom - his{its} internal energy which can accept only fixed (discrete) values conforming to stable states of atom, and variates only spasmodically by quantum transition. Capturing{absorbing;imbibing;occluding} a fixed bundle of energy, the atom passes in an exited state (on a higher level of power). From an exited state the atom, releasing a photon, can proceed{pass} in a condition with smaller power (to more low level of power). The level conforming to minimum power of atom, calls as the main{basic}, remaining - exited. Quantum transitions stipulate atomic spectrums of absorption and emitting, personal for atoms of all chemical elements.
ATOMISM (the nuclear doctrine, atomism), the doctrine about intermittent, an atomism of a matter. Up to kon. 19 century of atomism asserted{approved}, that the matter will consist of separate indivisible particles - atoms. From the point of view of the modern atomism electrons - "atoms" of an electricity, photons - "atoms" of light, etc. In a more comprehensive sense the atomism means a discretization of object, process, property (social atomism, logic atomism, etc.).
ATOMIC UNIT of MASS (and. e. M.), a mass unit used for expression of masses of microparticles. For 1 and. e. The m. adopt 1/12 part of mass of an isotope of carbon with mass number 12 (t. n. A carbon scale). 1 and. e. M. - 1,6605655 (86) ·10-27 kg.
ATOMIC WEIGHT, the mass of atom expressed in atomic units of mass. Atomic weight is less than sum of masses, components atom of particles (protons, neutrons, electrons), on the value stipulated by power of their interaction (see, napr., Defect of mass).
ATOMIC PHYSICS, section of physics in which are studied a structure and conditions of atoms. Has arisen in nach. 20 century. Up to kon. 19 century considered{counted} atom indivisible. After discovering a radioactivity (1896) and an electron (1897, Dzh. Dzh. Thomson) has become apparently, that atom - system of charged particles. In 1911 E.Rezerford has offered epicyclic atomic model (around of a heavy positively charged nucleus electrons are spun). The first quantum theory of atom on its{her} basis{fundamentals} has given in 1913 N.Bor; she has explained spectrums N and hydrogen-like atoms, but was not suit for atoms with figure of electrons? 2. The serial theory of atom is built later on the basis of a quantum mechanics. In 30-40-Х in an atomic physics actuated also sections, the bound with structure and properties of a nucleus, ultrarays, fundamental particles; afterwards they were secured{discharged} in do-it-yourself ranges of physics.
ATOMIC POWER STATION (atomic power station), power station on whom nuclear (nuclear) power will be converted to electrical. On atomic power station warmly, secreted in a nuclear reactor, the turboalternator is used for obtaining water fallow, gyrating. 1-n in the world of atomic power station moshchnnostju 5 MVt it has been started up in the USSR 27.6.1954 to Obninsk. The atomic power station compound{make} the basis{fundamentals} of nuclear power. Power of the largest operational multi-block atomic power stations (1989) over 9 GVt.
ATOMIC ENERGY, see. A nuclear energy
NUCLEAR WEAPONS, see. Automatic weapon.
ATOMIC KERNEL, see. A nucleus nuclear.
ATOMIC ENERGY INSTITUTE him{it}. I.V.Kurchatova, in 1992 is converted to the Russian centre of science " Kurchatovsky institute ".
ATOMIC RADIUSES, the performances permitting approximately to estimate interatomic (internuclear) distances in molecules and crystals. Are determined primarily from data of a x-ray structural analysis.
ATOMIC SPECTRUMS, optical spectrums of the loose or slightly associated atoms (monoatomic gases, steams{vapours}). Are stipulated by quantum transitions of atom. Atomic spectrums - ruled, will consist of separate spectrum lines which are defined by a fixed wavelength and for simple atoms are assorted in spectral series. Contain the information on a structure of atoms, are used also in spectral analysis.
ATOMIC CLOCKS, the same, that quantum hours.
ATOMIC NUMBER (serial number), Z, number of a chemical element in a periodic system of elements. It is peer to figure of protons an atomic kernel and determines chemical and the majority of physical properties of atom.
ATOMIC BOILER, the same, that a nuclear reactor.
NUCLEAR FLEET, set{combination} of civil courts and the ship of wars of different destination having in the capacity of of a main energy source nuclear power plants.
ATOM-POWERED SHIP, non-proprietary name of courts (above water and submerged) with a nuclear power plant. 1-st civil atom-powered ship - Soviet icebreaker " Ленин " (1959, the USSR).
ATON, in drevneegipetskoj mythologies the god of the sun. It was figured by the way a solar disc.
ATONALITY (from a - a negative prefix and chromaticity), in music - the term meaning absence of traditionally treated chromaticity in compositions of 20 century (failure{refusal} of a major and the minor, from konsonantnoj tonics, dodekafonija).
ATONIA (from grech. atonia - a release phenomenon), in medicine - loss of a normal tonus of muscles of a skeleton and an internals (napr., an intestines) at an exhausting, nervous and other diseases. Can be inborn.
ATRATO (Atrato), the river in northwest of Columbia. 664 kms, the area of basin 36 t. км2. Average discharge of water ok. 2500 m3 / with. It is navigable from Quibdo.
ATRAHASIS (akkadsk. Superior wisdom), in akkadskoj mythologies the hero of the myth about a deluge, the constructing ship{spacecraft} under the title " ladja, keeping life " and becoming the grandparent of a new generation of people on ground.
ATRESIA (from a - a negative prefix and grech. tresis - an aperture), inborn absence (malformation) or zarashchenie (owing to a trauma, an inflammation, etc.) any natural foramen, the channel (napr., an esophagus).
ATREJ, in the Grecian mythology tsar of Mycenae, father of heroes of Trojan war Agamemnona and Menelaus.
ATREK, the river in Iran and Turkmenii. 669 kms, the area of a mountain part of basin 27,3 t. км2. Average discharge of water for urban settlement Kizyl-Atrek 9,2 m3 / with. Water reaches the Caspian m. only in a flood, in the rest of the time is disassembled on an irrigation. Main in-leak{influx} - Sumbar.
ATRI, vedijsky a wise man - rishi, one of mythical writers "Rigvedy".
ATTRIBUTE (from an armour. attribuo - I give, I allocate).. 1) necessary, essential, integral property of object (napr., attribute of a matter in philosophy - motion)... 2) In linguistics - the same, that definition.
ATRIBUTSIJA (from an armour. attributio - an attribution), establishment of the writer, time and a place of building of a piece of art. Rests on the analysis of style, ikonografii, a scene, technique, on outcomes physical and analyses, etc.
ATRY (an armour. atrium), the closed aula in midpoint drevnerimskogo home units where there were remaining rooms. At the centre the basin (impluvium), above nymas an aperture (kompljuvy) for a drainage of a rain water was.
ATROPATENA, rannerabovladelcheskoe the state in JUzh. Azerbaijan in 4 century up to n. e. - 7 century n. e., the centre zoroastrizma. Capital-. Gazaka. Struggled against Selevkidov and Roman empire. It is conquered Arabian halifatom.
ATROPINE, the alkaloid keeping in plants of a set of a nightshade family (a belladonna, a henbane, a datura, etc.). It is used in medicine primarily as a cholinolytic means. Takes out spasms of bronchuses, dilates a pupil, etc.
ATROPOS (Atropa), in the Grecian mythology one of Mojr, a cutting filament of human life.
ATROPHY (from grech. atropheo - I starve, chahnu).. 1) reduction of the dimensions of an organ or a tissue with violation{disturbance} (arrest) of their function; there can be general (cachexia) and aboriginal; physiological (napr., an atrophy of sex glands at ageing) and pathological... 2) Figuratively - an obtusion, loss of any feeling.
ATROSHCHENKO Vasily Ivanovich (r. 1906), the Ukrainian chemist, academician AN of Ukraine (1972), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1971). The main{basic} transactionses in range of a kinetics of catalytic and absorptive processes, technologies of a bound nitrogen. The state premium of the USSR (1969).
ATTALEJA, a stem of palms. Ok. 20 kinds{views}, in tropics of America. From axils Brazilian attalei get{procure} piassavu. The solid environment of seeds of other kinds{views} goes on turning items. Some attalei cultivate in greenhouses.
ATTALIDY, a dynasty of governors of Pergamum in 283-133 up to n. e.
ATTAR Farid-ad-din, the persian and Tadjik poet - sufy of 12 century (see. Sufizm). A poem " Conversation of birds " (ok. 1175), lyrical verses; the anthology " the Biography of sheikhs ".
The ATTACHE (frants. attache, characters. - attached), the diplomatic rank, one of junior diplomatic positions. In diplomatic representations are present the attache military, marine, air-force, trade, on crop, a seal{printing} (press attache), etc.
ATTENBORO (Attenborough) Richard (r. 1923), the English film actor and the producer. Debuted as the actor in N.Kouarda and D.Lina's film "... In which we minister " (1942). Has removed some anti-war films; in 1982 has realized{sold} the dream - has delivered a biographic pattern "Gundy" (8 premiums "Oscar"). In 1996 picturized G.Villarda's documentary book and Dzh. Najdzhela " Heminguej in love and on war ".
ATTENUATION (from an armour. attenuatio - reduction), synthetic nonperishable slackening of a virulence of the pathogenic microorganism keeping ability to invoke{produce} immunity. It is used at manufacturing alive vaccines against a tuberculosis, a smallpox, etc.



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