Tuesday, July 3, 2007

  • VURUNSEMU, in hettskoj mythologies htonicheskoe the godhood, the marital partner of the god of a thunder-storm.
  • VUSTEJNE (Woestijne) the Karelian van de (1878-1929), the Belgian writer. Wrote in the Netherlands tongue. It is close to symbolists. In the basis{fundamentals} of many scenes - arcaded legends and natural life of the poet. The poetic trilogy " the Person is built from clay " (1920), " the God on the pest " (1926) and " Mountain lake " (1928).
  • WORCESTER (Worcester), city on north-east the USA, pieces. Massachusetts. 169,8 thousand inhabitants (1990), with suburbs over 400 thousand inhabitants. Metal working and a machine industry, a glass industry. 2 universities. Publishing.
  • VUTTIG (Wuttig) Iogann Fridrih Christians (1783-1850), the Russian chemist - technologist and the pharmacist, corresponding member Petersburg AN (1810). By origin the German. Has constructed in 1805 first factory in Russia on manufacture of sulfuric acid (of sulfur in selfcontained lead chambers). In 1811 has placed{installed} the fact of metamorphosis{transformation} of starch in sweeteners under action of inorganic acids. In 1812 has returned to Germany.
  • VUCHETICH Eugeny Viktorovich (1908-74), the Russian sculptor, the national artist of the USSR (1959), the full member AH the USSR (1953), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1967). In geroiko-symbolical (monument - band to soldiers of the Soviet Army in Treptov-park in Berlin, 1946-49), sometimes hypertrophied - monumental (monument - band on Mamayev a tumulus in Volgograd, 1963-67, the Lenin premium, 1970, - with co-authors) modes{images} aspired{tried} to reflect exploit of Soviet people in Great Domestic war, extirpation for the world (" we Shall reforge swords on shouted ", 1957). Portraits ("I.D.Chernjahovsky", 1945). The state premium of the USSR (1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950).
  • VUE (Vouet) Simon (1590-1649), the French painter. It is more 10 flying has conducted in Italy; having returned home, has headed court school. In creativity Vue, bridged color oof of venetians, classical composition Pussena, decorative effect and dynamism of baroque painting, the French version klassitsizirovannogo Baroque was formed.
  • VHUTEIN, the Maximum artistic - technical institute, in 1922-30 educational institutions in Leningrad (it is based in 1922 on the basis AH) and Moscow (is based in 1926 on the basis Vhutemasa).
  • VHUTEMAS, the Maximum artistic - technical workshops, the Moscow educational institution, it is based in 1920. Had art and industrial faculties; prepared basically artists - stankovistov and architects, has created a fundamentals of preparation of artists - designers. In 1926 Vhutemas it is transformed{reformed} in Vhutein.
  • VTS, see. Computer center.
  • VTSIK, see the All-Russia Central Executive committee.
  • " YESTERDAY AND TODAY ", the Russian literary collection constituted by V.A.Sollogubom; left in Petersburg in 1845-46 (kn. 1-2). V.F.Odoevsky, A.K.Tolstogo, I.S.Turgeneva, N.M.Jazykova, M.J.Lermontov products{creations} were typed, etc.
  • VCHK, see the All-Russia Extraordinary Commission.
  • VSHI, order blood-sucking vtorichnobeskrylyh hexapods. Ok. 300 kinds{views}. Parasites of the person and mammals. On the person parasitize head vosh, length up to 4 mm, platjanaja vosh, length up to 4,7 mm, and also a crab louse, or pubic vosh, length up to 1,5 mm. Can minister carriers of contagions (a sapropyra, a typhinia, etc.). Vshi animal per capita do not pass.
  • VSHCHIZH, old russian city of 11-13 centuries, on r. Desna, for the modern seconds. ZHukovskoe (the Russian Federation, Bryansk region). Residues of defensive and inhabited constructions, numerous subjects of a household activities.
  • The VYBORG PARTY, historical area of Saint Petersburg, in a north-east part of city, on the right to coast of Neva. The title on a road to Vyborg. Many large factories, the Finnish passenger depot.
  • SELECTIVE SUPERVISION{OBSERVATION}, statistical study of a part of the set{combination} (sampling) organized so that was ensured its{her} correspondence to properties of set{combination} general. A selective way receive a part of cramps at population censuses.
  • ELECTORS, in some states the faces directly voting at indirect samplings for the candidate for the position of the president (napr., in the USA), in deputies of parliament, etc.
  • WEATHERING, process of destruction and chemical change of rocks in conditions of a surface or near to it{her} under influence of temperature variations, chemical and mechanic atmospheric exposure, water and organisms. Distinguish physical (mechanic), chemical and organic (under influence of vital activity of organisms) a weathering.
  • GAGARIN (up to 1974 settlements. Erzhar), city in Uzbekistan, Dzhizak region. Depot (Irdzharskaja). 18,8 thousand inhabitants (1991). Factories: hlopkoochistitelnyj, concrete products. It is called named J.A.Gagarina.
  • GAGARIN Ivan Sergeevich (1814-82), prince, the Russian diplomat. In 1843 has kept Russia, has lodged in Paris, has transfered in a catholicism and has entered order of jesuits. Has based in Paris the Slavonic library (nowadays - in Medone).
  • GAGARIN Paul Pavlovich (1789-1872), prince, the Russian statesman. The participant of preparation of country reform 1861, settled interests of landlords. In 1864-72 chairman of the cabinet council, in 1864-65 simultaneously the chairman of the Council of state.
  • GAGARIN Jury Alekseevich (1934-68), the Russian astronaut, a pilot - astronaut of the USSR (1961), the colonel, the Hero of Soviet Union (1961.) on April, 12 1961 for the first time in a history of mankind has committed flight in cosmos on spacecraft " Orient ". Participat in education{learning} and training of crews of astronauts. Has perished during practice flight on an airplane. A name of Gagarin educational institutions have, streets and the areas of many cities of the world, etc. The Name of Gagarin calls a crater on a underside of moon.
  • GAGARINSKAJA PARKING, epoch of a serotinal{late} paleolith, for a seconds. Gagarino (the Russian Federation, Lipetsk region). Residues of home units, stone and bone instruments, bone figures of women.
  • GAGARINSKY Jury Vladimirovich (1915-76), the chemist - neorganik, corresponding member AN the USSR (1970). Probeed crystalline structure of inorganic compounds and thermodynamic properties of connections of uranium.
  • GAGATE (from grech. gagates - a black amber), a viscous version of mineral coal. Hardness 3-3,5; firmness of 1,3-1,4 g / sm3. Meets by the way clumps in layers of coal. It is well glazed{polished}. An ornamental stone.
  • GAGAUZSKY TONGUE, falls into to Turkic tongues (oguzskaja group). Writing on the basis of the Russian alphabet.
  • GAGAUZY, people in Moldova (153 thousand person) and on Ukraine (32 thousand person, 1992); live also in the Russian Federation (ok. 10 thousand person), Bulgaria, Romania, Greece and Turkey. An aggregate number of 220 thousand person (1992). Tongue gagauzsky. Believers - orthodox.
  • EIDERS, a stem of birds of a set utinyh. 4 kinds{views}. Length of a dace eider ok. 63 see. In a north of Eurasia and America, on a shore and islands. The down is thought much. Habitats - on Barentsovom, White and Baltic m., are guarded in special reservations; the hunt is forbidden.
  • GAGY Nikopolsky (Armenian) (mind{wit}. ok. 319), one of a magpie of five Christian martyrs damaged in Nikopol Armenian in the persecution of emperor Litsinija. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 10 (23).
  • GAGIK I (? - 1020), tsar Anijskogo of a kingdom (990-1020). Has aggregated the Armenian ground. Pursued{adopted} a policy a centralization of country; at a nem capital Ani - large trading? The craft and cultural centre.
  • GAGRA, city (with 1933) in Georgia, Abkhazia, a port on Black m. A depot. 26,9 thousand inhabitants (1991). A bayshore climatic and balneal health resort. A food-processing industry.
  • GADAMER (Gadamer) Hans George (r. 1900), the german philosopher, one of main representatives of philosophy of hermeneutics of midpoint of 20 century (" True and a method ", 1960). Transactionses on a history of philosophy, an aesthetics and philosophy of a history.
  • GAVELLA (Gavella) Branko (1885-1962), the Yugoslavian producer. Worked at theatres of Belgrade, Ljubljana, Prague. Asserted{approved} on the scene national dramatic art.
  • GAVERSOVY CHANNELS (named English anatomist K.Gaversa, C. Havers), tubular cavities in compact substance of bones for the maximum vertebrates and the person on whom pass blood vessels and nerves.
  • GAVIAL (gangsky gavial), kowtowing order of crocodiles. A unique kind{view} of a set. Length up to 6,6 m. A mug the lengthy, fine-bored. Dwells{lives} in the rivers of Hindustan and Indochina. Under threat peterings. In India and Nepal designs on his{its} conservation are adopted. In the Red Data Book of the International union of nature protection and natural resources (MSOP).
  • GAVIT (zhamatun), in the Armenian medieval architecture the frame ledge of a temple - a tomb, a place for a pray and collections, routinely a hall overlapped{blocked} by the canopy on arcs.
  • The GAVLICHEK-BOHR Karelian (1821-56), the Czech political figure, the publicist, the poet; has formulated (1846-48) philosophy avstroslavizma.
  • GAVOTTE (frants. gavotte), arcaded French dance, originally national, horovodnyj, the dicotyledonous dimension. In kompozitorskoj to practice - the do-it-yourself play or a part of a suite.
  • HAVRE (Le Havre), city in France, a fore bay of Paris in a mouth r. Hay (freight turnover over 50 million t annually). 196 thousand inhabitants (1990). Shipbuilding, oil refining, chemical, cement, cotton industry. Oceanographic institute. It is based in 1517. Architectonic monuments of 17-18 centuries Bliz of Le Havre in church (11-14 centuries)-a museum of a medieval sculpture and archeology.
  • GAVRANEK Boguslav (1893-1978), Czech jazykoved. Activities on the Czech tongue, comparative grammar and comparative-historical study of literary slavonic tongues. Developed functionly - strukturalnuju the theory. The representative Prague linguistic a mug.
  • GABRIEL, in christianity the archangel, has informed{notified} maiden Maria about a volume, that for it{her} the son Jesus Christ will be born.
  • GABRIEL (in the world Vasily Nikolaevich Voskresensky) (1795-1868), the Russian orthodox seminary student, the outlet box. Taught in the Moscow and St.-Petersburg spiritual academies, in 1835-50 professor of the Kazan university. The writer of " the History of philosophy " (1839-40), 6-n which part is dedicated Russian philosophy.
  • "GABRIEL", a destroyer of Baltic fleet, in formation with 1916. In 1919 reflected attacks of the English ships{spacecrafts} in Koporskom a hall. And to Kronstadt. It was undermined on mines in October 1919.
  • GABRIEL I (Raich) (mind{wit}. 1659), the patriarch Serbian, the martyr, is executed by turkish authorities for failure{refusal} to accept moslem faith. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on August, 30 (on September, 12) (a cathedral of the Serbian prelates).
  • GAVRILA OLEKSICH, combatant Alexander Nevskogo, the hero of the Neva battle 1240. An ancestor of many Russian seignioral and nobiliary surnames (including. Pushkinyh).
  • GAVRILIN Valery Aleksandrovich (r. 1939), the Russian composer, the national actor of Russia (1985). Ballets "Anyuta" (1982), "Second lieutenant Romashov" (1985), the actions stylized in national spirit (including "Perezvony", " the Shepherd and a water - rail "), a vokalno-symphonic poem " Military letters ", cantatas, vocal cycles, music to performances and films. The state premium of the USSR (1985).
  • GAVRILOV Ignatius Gavrilovich (1912-73), the Udmurt writer. The novel - trilogy " In native edges{boundarice} " (1958-63).
  • GAVRILOV Michael Aleksandrovich (1903-79), the Russian scientist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1964). The main{basic} transactionses on a telemechanics, theories of relay devices and finite state machines.
  • GAVRILOV POSAD, city in the Russian Federation, Ivanovo region. A depot. 8,5 thousand inhabitants (1992). Textile and sewing factories. A stud farm (the vladimirskiy draft-type horses), etc. It is based in 16 century by Ivan Terrible.
  • GAVRILOV-HOLES, city (with 1938) in the Russian Federation, Yaroslavl region, on r. Kotorosl. A depot. 21,1 thousand inhabitants (1992). Lnokombinat.
  • GAGANOVA Valentine Ivanovna (r. 1932), prjadilshchitsa at factory Vyshnevolotskogo of cotton combine, the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1959). In 1958 has acted the initiator of motion for transition of leaders of manufacture to lagging epines.
  • GABJAUJA (Gabjauis), in the Lithuanian mythology the godhood of a crop of small crops, oofs and happiness.
  • HAWAII (Hawaii), an island in Quiet ok., largest of the Hawaiian islands. 10,4 thousand êì2. It is derivated by tops of 5 burning mountains (Mauna Kea, Mauna Loa, Kilauea, Hualalai, Kohala). Main city - it is sickly. Vulkanologicheskaja an observatory.
  • HAWAII, staff the USA, on the Hawaiian islands. 16,7 thousand êì2. The population of 1172 thousand person (1993). Adm. ts. - Honolulu. Before arrival of Europeans and down to midpoint of 19 century were steered by an aboriginal royal dynasty. In 1893 the USA are annexed, in 1959 the USA become 50-th staff.
  • HAWAIIAN 1941 OPERATION, see. Pearl Harbour.
  • The HAWAIIAN ISLANDS (Hawaiian Islands) (islands Sandvichevy), archipelago in Quiet ok. 24 islands (Hawaii, Maui, Molokai, Oahu, etc.) - tops of a submerged volcanic crops. An altitude up to 4205 m. Active volcanoes - Mauna Loa and Kilauea. The wet tropical forests, savannahs. A recreation area and tourism; climatic health resorts.
  • The HAWAIIAN FLORISTS, a set of birds of order sparrow. Length of 11-21 sm, 22 kinds{views}, on the Hawaiian islands. Some kinds{views} eat a nectar. Many views on of an edge of petering.
  • The HAWAIIAN ANTICYCLONE (Severo-pacific anticyclone), stationary value range of a heightened atmospheric pressure in subtropical and tropical latitudes of boreal part Quiet ok.
  • The HAWAIIAN TONGUE, falls into to the Polynesian tongues which are included in avstronezijskuju family. Writing on the basis of the latin alphabet.
  • HAWAIIANS, people, an aboriginal population of the Hawaiian islands (USA). 170 thousand person (1992). Tongue Hawaiian. Believers - protesters and roman catholics.
  • The HAVANA UNIVERSITY, Cuba, is based in 1728; it is reorganized in 1960. In 1990 ok. 16 thousand students.
  • HAVEN (from niderl. haven), the coastal part of the water space for parking, repair and winterings of courts is naturally or artificially protecting from a wind, waves and flows. The part of a dock space for manufacture of cargo-passenger operations calls as haven also.
  • GAVAR, gazoneftjanoe a deposit in Saudi Arabia (the oil-and-gas-bearing basin enters in Persian gulf). It is open{discovered} in 1948. Deposits on depth of 1,5-3 kms. Beginning inventories of petroleum 10,14 billion t, gas 1,01 billion in m3. Firmness of petroleum of 0,85 g / sm3, content S of 1,66 %.
  • GAVARNI (Gavarnie), a cataract in verhovjah r. Gav-de-Po, on boreal downslopes Pireneev, in France. An altitude of a cataract of 422 m; it is overthrown from downslopes of the glacial circus largest in Europe. Tourism.
  • GAVARNI (Gavarni) Pol (an ice-film. A name and fam. Sjulpis Guillaume Shevalje, Chevalier) (1804-1866), the French schedule{chart}. Alive, indicative, often full humour of a lithograph, drawings, water colours on themes from life of the bourgeois, poor, bohemia.
  • GAVAS (Havas), French information agency in 1835-1940. In 1944 on his{its} base it is based France press.
  • GAVATSTSI (Gavazzi) Alessandro (1809-89), the italian priest, with 1859 spodvizhnik Dzhuzeppe Garibaldi in his{its} military marchings.
  • GAVGAMELY (sovr. Tel-Gomel), ancient settlement in Mesopotamia, in area of the modern cities Erbil (Iraq); at Gavgamelah on October, 1 331 up to n. e. A troops Alexander the Great have finally routed the persian army of tsar Darija III Kodomana.
  • GAVEDDAJ (Gavdelas) Persian (mind{wit}. In it is grey. 4 century), the Christian martyr, the son of tsar Shapura of II Persian. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on September, 29 (on October, 12).
  • GAVEL (Havel) Vaclav (r. 1936), the president of Czechia with 1993; the president of Czechoslovakia in 1989-92; the Czech playwright. In the season{term} of " the Prague spring " 1968 chairman of " Club of independent writers ". Later one of leaders pravozashchitnogo motions in country. Repeatedly exposed to imprisonment. With 1989 leader of motion " the Civil forum ". Satirical plays spirit of nonsense of a drama about the modern Czechoslovak real, including " the Park celebration " (it is put 1963, is published 1964), "Notice" (is put 1965), "Audience" (is put on a wireless, 1975), "Tempting" (1985), "Assonans" (1987).
  • GABION (frants. gabion), a box from a gauze, the filled a broken stone; it is used in reguljatsionnyh and bank protected structures.
  • HABIT (an armour. habitus), external appearance of the person, his{its} constitution, bearing; an exterior, appearance animal, plants, a crystal.
  • GABIJA (Gabie), in the Lithuanian mythology the godhood of fire, personification of sacred fire of a home.
  • GABO (Gabo; an ice-film. fam. Pevzner) Nahum Abramovich (1890-1977), the artist and the theorist of art. Brother N.A.Pevznera. The native of Russia, in 1917-22 worked on Rhodinum, then - in Germany, France, the Great Britain and the USA. One of leaders of constructivism, osmysljal it{him} predominary as the abstract art, is only indirectly the bound with social-political problems. Created stable compositions and mobiles, it is strict geometrichnye or more loose, representing do-it-yourself worlds of regional{spatial} forms; masterly used plastic capabilities of diverse materials - from metals and plastics materials up to a stone.
  • GABOVICH Michael Markovich (1905-65), the Russian ballet dancer, the national actor of Russia (1951). In 1924-52 at Major theatre. The first initiator of consignment Romeo (" Romeo and Dzhuljetta " S.S.Prokofjeva), etc. The State premium of the USSR (1946, 1950).
  • GABON (Gabon), Republic Gabonskaja (Republique Gabonaise), the state in Center. To Africa. 268 thousand êì2. The population 1,3 million person (1993); fang, mpongve, mbete, punu, etc. The Urban population of 45,7 % (1993). The official language - French. Believers - christians (primarily roman catholics and protesters), ok. 3 % hold on to traditional convictions, etc. Administrative territorial division: 9 provinces. Capital - Libreville. The chief of state - the president. The body of legislation - unicameral National assembly. An interior of Gabon - a tableland and a mountain (an altitude up to 1580 m. Ibundzhi); along Atlantic ok. - lowland. A climate subequatorial; in a north equatorial. A rainfall of 1800-4000 mm annually. Mean temperatures of April 25-27 °S, July 22-24 °S. The main river - Ogooue (navigation in the lower flow). Tropical forests. On a shore - mangroves. National parks - Wong - Wong, Okanda. Terrain of Gabon in 19 century. It has been seized by France. The Berlin conference 1884-85 has recognized the right of France on new colony. About 1886 Gabon - separate French colony, in 1888 it is merged from Congo in one colony, in 1910-58 entered{included} in the French Equatorial Africa; in 1958-60 - the independent{autonomous} state. Since August 1960 independent republic. The party in power - Gabonskaja democratic party (it is based in 1968), supports the close union with France. The basis{fundamentals} of economy - a mining industry (under the supervisory control primarily the French capital). A lobe in a runway (1990, %): an industry 52,8, including mining 47; village and a forestry 11,4. Main export agricultural crops: a cane, cocoa, a peanut. The main{basic} consumer crops: maniocas, bananas, corn, fig. Fishery. Timber loggings. A crude production, manganous and uranic ores. Manufacture of the electric power 914 million kVt·ch (1991). Length of railways of 668 kms, motorways of 6,9 thousand. Km (1993). The tonnage of a marine merchant marine fleet of 30,2 thousand t deadweight. Main seaports: the Port - ZHantil and Libreville. Export: petroleum, wood, a manganese ore, uranic concentrates. The main{basic} foreign trade partners: France, the USA, Japan, Germany, etc. Monetary unit - franc KFA (the African financial community).
  • GABOR Andor (1884-1953), the Hungarian writer. Satirical plays and feuilletons " Peshtskie sobbings. The book about ill city " (1912), the collection of verses "Orgovan" (1920), anti-fascist stories and articles. Roman " the Doctor anybody " (t. 1-2, 1946).
  • GABOR Dennis (Denesh) (1900-79), physics. Was born in Hungary. With 1927 in Germany, with 1934 in the Great Britain, with 1967 in the USA. Has constructed a general theory of a holography and has received the first holograms. The Nobel Prize (1971).
  • GABOR Miklosh (r. 1919), the Hungarian actor. From 1941 National theatre master the actor and Theatre him{it}. I.Madacha. It was taken out in films: "Bear - aristocrat", " Albian stage Regija ", "Wall", etc.
  • GABORIO (Gaboriau) Emil (1832-73), the French writer, one of initiators of a detective genre. Ò. n. Criminal novels: " Business Leruzh " (1866), " the Crime in Orsivale " (1867), " Slaves to Paris " (1868).
  • GABORONE (Gaberones) (Gaborone, Gaberones), capital of Botswana, an administrative centre of the Southeast district. 134 thousand inhabitants (1991). The alimentary enterprises. University.
  • GABRIADZE Revaz Levanovich (r. 1936), the Georgian prose writer, the playwright, the producer, the artist, the honored worker of arts of Georgia (1979). Art Gabriadze is organically connected to national art traditions. In 1981 has organized the Tbilisi theatre of puppets. Productions (Gabriadze - the writer of plays, the producer and the artist): " Alfred and Violetta " (on motives of opera Dzh. Verdi "Traviata" (1981), " Autumn of our spring " (1985), etc. The Writer of scripts of films " Not gorjuj! ", "Mimino" (from V.S.Tokarevoj and G.N.Danelia), etc. The State premium of the USSR (1989).
  • GABRIELS (Gabrieli), italian composers: Andrea (between 1510 and 1520 - after 1586) and his{its} nephew Giovanni (between 1553 and 1556-1612 or 1613), representatives. The venetian school. Organists of a cathedral the Dignity - Marko in Venice.
  • GABRIEL (Gabriel) Jacque Anzh (1698-1782), the French architect. The representative of a classicism. Rational on grading, legible and clear under the form, refined products{creations} on furnish (Small Trianon in Versailles, 1762-64, a square. The consent in Paris, 1753-75).
  • GABRILOVICH Eugeny Iosifovich (1899-1993), the scripter, the honored worker of arts of Russia (1969), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1979). Scripts of films: "Mashenka" (1942), "Dream" (1943), "Communist" (1958), " Lenin in Poland " (1966), " thy contemporary " (1968), "Declaration of love" (1978), " Lenin in Paris " (1981), etc. Them the attention to psychologic deployment of characters distinguishes, soul interest in display{demonstration} of human destinies at the moment of acute historical events. The state premium of the USSR (1943, 1967, 1983).
  • GABRICHEVSKY George Norbertovich (1860-1907), a microbiologist, the founder of scientific school, one of organizers of manufacture of bacteriological drugs in Russia. Has organized in Moskovsk university bacteriological laboratory and Bacteriological institute, has based the Russian bacteriological society. Together with N.F.Filatovym has entered wheyish treatment of a diphtheria.
  • GABROVO, city in Bulgaria, on r. JAntra. 81 thousand inhabitants (1988.) Center textile and a leather and foot-wear industry. A machine industry. Tourism (Shipka pass). A dwelling - museum of humour and satyrs. Festivals of humour.
  • GABSBURGI (Habsburger), a dynasty setting in Austria (with 1282 dukes, with 1453 ertsgertsogi, with 1804 Austrian emperors). Having joined in 1526 Czechia and Hungary (where were titled by kings) and other terrains, become monarches of an extensive multinational state (in 1867-1918 Austria-Hungary). Gabsburgi were emperors of " Sacred Roman empire " (permanently in 1438-1806, except for 1742-45), and also kings of Spain (1516-1700). The most known representatives: Charles V, Phillip II (spanish), Maria Terezija, Joseph II, Frants Joseph I.
  • GABT, see. Major theatre.
  • VYACHESLAV (Vaclav, Ventseslav) Czech (mind{wit}. 935), prince, the passion bearer, the grandson of the martyress of princess Lyudmila. Memory{remembrance} in Orthodox and in the Latin church on September, 28.
  • VJACHKO (Vyacheslav) (?-1224), prince Kukejnosa. Struggled against german knights, but has been compelled (1207) to leave to Russia. Has perished at the defence from Germans of. JUrjev.
  • G, the fourth character of the Russian alphabet; goes back to cyrillic A character (speak), having, except for acoustical, also digital value 3.
  • The HAGUE CONVENTIONS.. 1) international conventions on laws and customs the wars adopted on 1-st (3 conventions) and 2-nd (13 conventions) nonpredatory conferences in Hague in 1899 and 1907. The Hague conventions contain regulations about the nonpredatory sanction of state differences, neutrality, about protection of nonpredatory inhabitants, a mode voennoplennyh, speed up injured and ill and t. d... 2) the Convention 1954 about a protection of cultural objects in an event of armed conflict... 3) Conventions on international private law 1902-05, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1961, etc.
  • GAAZ Feodor Petrovich (1780-1853), the Russian doctor - humanist. As the chief medical officer of the Moscow prisons (with 1828) has achieved improvement of the content encased, organizations of prison hospital (1832), schools for children of prisoners.
  • GABAJ Ilya Jankelevich (1935-73), the Russian poet. Participat in pravozashchitnom motion. In 1970 it is repressed, sentenced to three years of the conclusion. At life it was not emitted. Collections: "Crosier" (1990), " Verses. Publicism. Letters. Memories " (1990), " Elected places " (1994).
  • GABERDINE (frants. gabardine), mild woollen, half-woolen, silk or a cotton; has small-sized slope scars. From a gaberdine sew a coat and costumes{suits}.
  • DIMENSION (frants. gabarit), limiting{marginal} external lineaments{outlines} of subjects, structures and devices.
  • DIMENSIONAL GATE, are established{set} on ways of depots for check of maximum moving dimensions. A dimensional gate up to 4,5 m are established{set} by an altitude on highways from both parties of grade crossing through the electrified railway.
  • GABASHVILI George (Gigo) Ivanovich (1862-1936), the Georgian painter, the national artist of Georgia (1929). In realistic portraits - phylums of town-dwellers and peasants combined a household juiciness with features of monumentalism (" Three town-dwellers ", 1893).
  • GABBE Tamara Grigorjevna (1903-60), the Russian writer. Plays - fairy tales for children (" City of masters, or the Fairy tale on two humpbacks ", 1943), articles about the nursery literature.
  • GABBRO (ital. gabbro), an intrusive main{basic} depth rock; will consist of the main{basic} plagioklaza, piroksenov and a small amount of metallic minerals. Firmness of 2800-3200 kg / m3; compression strength 80-360 MPa. Deposits of magnetite, titano-magnetite, nickelous sulphides are connected to intrusions of a gabbro, copper, etc. Building and a covering material.
  • GABELJA (up to 1991 Kutkashen), city (with 1973) in Azerbaijan, in 63 kms from zh.-d. An item. Ljaki. 13,4 thousand inhabitants (1991). Canning, tabachno-fermentative factories, etc. The Istoriko-study of local lore museum.
  • GABEN (Gabin) Jean (1904-76), the French film actor. At kino with 1930. Has brought on the screen spirit of democracy merged with the strong-willed, effective beginning and respect for the human personality. It was removed in films: " Great illusion ", " Embankment of fogs{mists} ", " For walls Malapagi ", " the Strong of the world this ", " the Thunder celestial ", " Two in city ", "Cat", etc.
  • GABER (Haber) (Haber) Frits (1868-1934), the german chemist - neorganik and the technologist, foreign honorary member AN the USSR (1932). In 1933 has emigrated from Germany. For the first time has received (1908) on a halfway unit a luquid ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen on the osmic catalyst at pressure up to 20 MPa. The Nobel Prize (1918). The initiator of military application of poisonous substances.
  • GABERLANDT (Haberlandt) (Haberlandt), german physiologists of plants, father and the son: 1) Fridrih (1826-78). Transactionses on an ontogenesis and roles of physical factors in development of agricultural plants, their protection against pests, acclimatizations, to a sericulture. 2) Gotlib Iogann Fridrih (1854-1945), foreign corresponding member AN the USSR (1925; foreign corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science with 1924). One of founders of a physiological direction in a plant anatomy; has developed grading plant tissues, founded on their functions. Transactionses on tropisms; has discovered t. n. Wound hormones.
  • GABERONES (Gaberones), capital of Botswana; see. Gaborone.
  • GABES, city and port in Tunis, an administrative centre vilajeta Gabes. 92 thousand inhabitants (1984). Chemical, a flavoring industry. Fishery.
  • GABES (Small Sirt), a bay of Mediterranean m. for boreal shore Africa (Tunis). Length of 41 kms, width ok. 68 kms, depth ok. 50 m. A large island - Dzherba. Primary ports: Gabes, Sehira.
  • VJAZEMY (Major Vjazemy), village in the Moscow region, in 45 kms to the west from Moscow, bliz zh.-d. An item. Golitsyno. Former farm of Russian tsar Boris Godunova (16 - nach. 17 centuries), with kon. 17 century - princes Golitsynyh. Preobrazhenskiy church and a belfry (kon. 16 century).
  • The VISCOUS VACUUM GAUGE, the manometer, which action it is based on change of viscosity of a dilute gas with pressure variation. A range of gauged pressures 1-10-5 Pa.
  • VYAZNIKI, city (with 1778) in the Russian Federation, the Vladimirskiy region. Landing stage on r. Klyazma. A depot. 45,4 thousand inhabitants (1992). A textile industry, factories: "Tehmash", automotive lighting fitting. Branch of the Vladimiro-Suzdal istoriko-architectonic and art museum - reservation.
  • VJAZ... 1) the decorative letter at which characters are bridged in a continuous decorative pattern (some kinds{views} of the old slavic, Arabian letter).... 2) Connection of two or several characters in one constituent{integrate} mark or combined group (napr., in devanagari).
  • VYAZMA, city in the Russian Federation, Smolensk region, on r. Vyazma. A railway junction. 59,9 thousand inhabitants (1992). Machine-building, graphitic items, tanning factories; lnokombinat. It is known with 1239. Church Odigitrii Smolensk, Troitsky a cathedral (both - 17 century). An Istoriko-study of local lore museum. In Domestic war 1812 ok. Vyazma Russian troops on October, 22 (on November, 3) have defeated receding napoleonic army.
  • VYAZMA, the river in Smolensk region, the left-handed in-leak{influx} of Dnepr. 147 kms, the area of basin 1350 êì2. In ancient times - a part the ways, connected verhovja a bass. Volga, Oka and Dnepr.
  • VJAJNAMERI (the Fly, the Fly - Vjajn, Moonzund), a channel between islands of Hiiumaa, the Fly and mainland (Estonia). Bridges a north-east part of Baltic m. with Riga a hall. Length ok. 83 kms, width of 6-27 kms, the greatest depth of 3,8 m. Solidifies in the winter.
  • VJAJNJAMEJNEN (Vjajnamejne, Vejnemejnen), in the karelo-Finnish mythology wise starets, the created world with the help of spells.
  • VJALBE Elena Valerjevna (r. 1968), Russian sportsmenka, the deserved master of sport (1989). CHempionka Olympic Games (1992, 1994), the world (1989, 1991, 1993, 1995) in different kinds{views} of cross-countr. Obladatelnitsa the Cup of the world (1989, 1991, 1992).
  • VJALTSEVA Anastasy Dmitrievna (1871-1913), the Russian variety singer (soprano), the performer of gipsy romances, the actress of an operetta.
  • VJATICHI, the union of east - slavonic nations of the upper and mean flow of Oka. In the Kiev Russia with it is grey. 10 century. Since 12 century terrain vjatichej in the Chernigov, Rostovo-Suzdal and Ryazan principalities.
  • VYATKA, the title of city Kirov (regional) in 1781-1934.
  • VYATKA, the river in the European part of the Russian Federation, dextral in-leak{influx} of Kama. 1314 kms, the area of basin of 129 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water 890 m3 / with. Driveable. It is navigable up to Kirov (700 kms), in the spring up to landing stage Kirs (1000 kms). On Vyatka - cities Kotelnich, Sovetsk, Vjatskie Glades, etc.
  • VYATKIN German Platonovich (r. 1935), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1987). Transactionses in range of the physico-chemical bases{fundamentals} of metallurgical processes.
  • GROUND VJATSKAJA (Hlynovskaja), the historical title in 12-18 centuries of terrain in basin upper and parts of mean flow r. Vyatka. From 6 century it inhabited Komi and Udmurts, from 10 century also by maris. Accustomed the Novgorod republic. In 1489 it is adjoined to the Russian state.
  • VJATSKAJA the HORSE, legkouprjazhnaja aboriginal, is introduced and long since gets divorced in terrain of boreal forest regions of the Russian Federation. Animal stunted, hardy, unpretentious. In past were glorified by fast driving (troechnaja the horse).
  • VJATSKIE GLADES, city (with 1942) in the Russian Federation, the Kirov region, landing stage on r. Vyatka. A depot. 46 thousand inhabitants (1992). Machine works; wood-working, a food-processing industry. It is known with 1595.
  • VJATSKY UVAL, a high ground in Republic of Maries El and the Kirov region. An altitude of 284 m. It is combined by dolomites, limestones and gypsums; karst is developed. It is traverseed by a valley r. Vyatka. Coniferous forests.
  • VJATSKO-KAMSKOE the DEPOSIT of phosphorites, in the Kirov region. It is developed with 1917. The area 1900 êì2. Known reserves ok. 2100 million t ore; content P2O5 in ore of 11-17 %. An opencast mining. The main{basic} centre of production - a settlement. Miner.
  • WOOD PIGEON (wood pigeon), bird of a set of pigeons. Length ok. 45 see In Eurasia and Severo-Zap. To Africa. Lives primarily in coniferous forests, sometimes lodges in parks.
  • VEN-JUANSHUAJ (a whale. Commander-in-chief Ven), in the Chinese mythology spirit, the sovereign of spirits Tai Shan. It was figured with a wristlet and a club.
  • VJUJJAR (Vuillard) Eduar (1868-1940), the French painter. Team member "Nabi". Finely emotional, harmonic on I blossom household scenes, portraits, landscapes (" In sand bed ", 1891).
  • VJURMSER (Wurmser) Andre (1899-1984), the French writer, the publicist. The participant of movement of Resistance. The cycle of novels " the Person comes to the Earth " (t. 1-7, 1946-55) - the realistic chronicle of the French life of 1-st third of 20 century. Literary - critical and publicistic books.
  • VJURMSKOE the GLACIATION, the title of the last pleistocene glaciation in the Alpes (from 70 up to 11 thousand flying back). The Sowing is compared on time with vislinskim a glaciation. And Center. Europe, Valdai on East European plain and viskonsinskim in the Sowing. To America.
  • WURTTEMBERG, german county (with it is grey. 13 century), about 1495 duchy, in 1805-1918 kingdom (capital Stuttgart), then ground of Germany; with kon. 1951 part of ground Baden-Wurttemberg.
  • WURTZITE, mineral of a class of sulphides, polymorphic hexagonal updating ZnS. Impurity{additives} Fe, Cd. Radially - radiative units, kollomorfnye secretions. Hardness 3,5-4; firmness of 4 g / sm3. Basically a hydrothermal mineral. Ore of zinc, sometimes a cadmium.
  • VJURTS (Wurtz) Charles Adolf (1817-84), the French chemist, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1873). Has developed (1855) generalpurpose method of synthesis of paraffinic hydrocarbon action of metal natrium on alkilgalogenidy (reaction Vjurtsa). Has discovered (1872, it is simultaneous from A.P.Borodinym) aldolnuju condensation.
  • VJURTSBURG, city in Germany, ground Bavaria, a port on r. Main. 128,5 thousand inhabitants (1992). A machine industry, chemical, alimentary, a printing industry. University. Citadel Marienberg (11-16 centuries) with a circular chapel (8 century), a bishopic residence (18 century).
  • BINDERS, building timbers for manufacturing betons and solutions. Distinguish inorganic (mineral) binders (cement, gypsum, a lime, etc.) and organic (bitumens, tars, artificial asphalts). Mineral binders (routinely powdery) at commixing with water (sometimes with water solutions of salts) will derivate the flexible mass purchasing then kamnevidnoe a condition. Them divide on hydraulic, capable to solidify and save{grow hard and save} toughness on air and in water (napr., portland cement), and air, solidifying{growing hard} and keeping toughness only on air (gypsum, a lime).
  • ASTRINGENTS, the medicinal substances which are generatrix at a contact with an injured leather or mucous membrane a protective packed bed on their surface at the expense of interaction with albumens; render anti-inflammatory action.
  • ELM, some kinds of trees of a stem an elm.
  • KNITTING MACHINE, the same, that a knitter.
  • KNITTING, manufacturing of a fabric or finished products from continuous filaments their bending in hinge strains which interlace{bind} among themselves. Distinguish knitting manual (a peg or spokes) and engine (on knitters).
  • VJAZEMSKY, city (with 1951) in the Russian Federation, Khabarovsk kr. A depot. 18,2 thousand inhabitants (1992). An industry: a building materials, alimentary; a logging enterprise, a woodworking.
  • VJAZEMSKY Alexander Alekseevich (1727-93), prince, the Russian statesman, the honorary member Petersburg AN (1776), close confidant Ekaterina II. With 1764 general - public prosecutor of the Senate, in 1767 chairman of the Commission on drawing up of a new Establishment, with 1769 councilor at the highest yard.
  • VJAZEMSKY Afanasy Ivanovich (? - ok. 1570), prince, oruzhnichy, approximated Ivan IV, influential oprichnik. It is accused of change. Has died in the conclusion.
  • VJAZEMSKY Paul Petrovich (1820-88), prince, Russian arheograf, the historian of the literature. Son P.A.Vjazemskogo. The publication of materials about A.S.Pushkin; memories. Literary mystification " Letters and note Ommer de Gell " (are published in 1933) in which Vjazemsky acts in a role of an imaginary translator, - attempt to create the risky novel, in a skandalno-sensational key drawing " unknown pages " M.J.Lermontov biographies, peculiar deflecting{refraction} of natural memories Vjazemskogo and family legends.
  • VJAZEMSKY Peter Andreevich (1792-1878), prince, the Russian poet, the literary critic, the academician Petersburg AN (1841). In early lyrics - combination of civil traditions of 18 century and " mild poetry ". Since 40th - poetry of memories, tragical motives; held on to conservative public views. Memoirs (" the Aged notepad ").
  • VJAZEMSKY Jury Pavlovich (r. 1951), the Russian writer. In stories and stories - problems of a becoming of the personality, moral conflicts of duties. Collections: "Fool" (1982), " Pappuses have brought " (1985), etc.
  • VJURKOVYE, a set of birds of order sparrow. 133 kinds{views}, are distributed widely. In Russia it is routine hawfinches, a goldfinch, a siskin, konopljanka, a finch, lentil, crossbills, chechotkas, etc. Erase destructive insects and seeds of weeds; some damage grain and ogorodnye crops.
  • BRAMBLING (jurok), a bird of a set vjurkovyh. It is little bit less than sparrow. Dwells{lives} in a forest zone of Eurasia. A migrant; arrives in March - April. Nests twists on trees, predominary on spruces and birches. Eats seeds of plants and hexapods.
  • VJUHI, in induizme four implementations of god Vishnu (Vasudeva, Sankarshana, Pradjumna and Aniruddha).
  • The PACK TRANSPORT, shipping goods in packs on horses, mules, camels, donkeys, etc. It is developed predominary in mountains, a taiga, deserts.
  • VJASA, the legendary old indian poet. To him the authorship of "Mahabharata", puran (canonical texts induizma) and ordering of the text ved is attributed.
  • VEJ BOREAL (Toba Vej), the state and a dynasty in 386-535 in terrain the Sowing. China. It is based Toba Guem - by the leader of nations toba.
  • VEJ THAT, in mythology of the Chinese Buddhism a saver of the law, the militant sentinel. It is figured with a sword and in an armour.
  • VEJ CHANHOJ (? - 1856), one of chiefs Tajpinskogo of revolt 1850-64 in China. Commanded large connection tajpinskoj armies; the party to a plot against JAn Sjutsina. It is killed under order Hun Sjutsjuanja.
  • VEJ SHANG - TSZJUN, in the Chinese mythology the daos-healer. Was to ill with a black dog.
  • VEJ YUAN (1794-1857), the Chinese thinker, the historian, the geographer and the poet. The writer " Maps and the description of overseas countries ", one of the first Chinese books about countries of Europe.
  • VEJ-GU, in the Chinese mythology the god - healer, the promoter of doctors.
  • WEIFANG, city in China, in prov. Shandong. 428 thousand inhabitants (1990). A machine industry; alimentary, textile, a chemical industry.
  • VEJHE, the river on the orient of China, component r. Hajhe. Ok. 600 kms, the area of basin ok. 50 thousand êì2. Weeps on Great Chinese plain. A lower reaches in system of the Great channel. It is navigable. In a mouth - Tianjin.
  • VEJSHE, in the Chinese mythology the spirit - snake with a bifurcated body and two heads in red caps.
  • VENGAPUROVSKOE the DEPOSIT petrogas condensate, in a north of the Tyumen region (the Western - Siberian oil-and-gas-bearing province). It is open{discovered} in 1968. Deposits on depth of 1-2,9 kms. Beginning inventories 237 billion in m3. Center of production - a settlement. Tarko-bacon.
  • VEN-TUB, in the Chinese mythology the god of the literature, knizhnosti, knowledge; the passing examinations depends on him{it}. It was figured sitting on a throne with a scepter in an arm{a hand}.
  • WENCHOU, city in China, in prov. Chekiang. 402 thousand inhabitants (1990). Seaport in a mouth r. Outszjan. Center chaeobrabotki. Porcelain manufacture.
  • VENSHU, in mythology of the Chinese Buddhism the sacred soldier, ohranitel the law. Corresponds{meets} indian Mandzhushri.
  • VEN-SHEN (a whale. Spirits of epidemies), in the Chinese mythology five spirits, correspond{meet} to the parties of light (four parties + the centre) and to seasonal epidemies.
  • WATER RESERVOIR VYSHNEVOLOTSKOE, in valleys of rivers SHlina and TSna, in the Tver region. It is filled in in 1719; supporting constructions are renovated in 1951. The area 109 êì2, volume 0,32 êì3, length of 12 kms, an extreme breadth of 9 kms. Executes seasonal flow regulation; fluctuations of level up to 3 m. It is used with the purposes of water supply, energetics and navigation.
  • VYSHNEGRADSKY Ivan Alekseevich (1831/32-95), the Russian scientist, the honorary member Petersburg AN (1888). One of founders of the theory of automatic regulation, the founder of scientific school on designing machines. In 1888-92 Minister of Finance.
  • VYSHNEGRADSKY Nikolay Alekseevich (1821-72), the Russian teacher. The adherent of mean women classless education. Has based the log-book " the Russian pedagogical bulletin " (1857-61). Has constituted the first Russian program on pedagogics.
  • VYSHNY VOLOCHEK, city (with 1770) in the Russian Federation, the Tver region, landing stage on Vyshnevolotskoj to water system (acts with 1709). A depot. 64,3 thousand inhabitants (1992). Wood-working, a building materials, mild, alimentary, etc. an industry. Theatre. A study of local lore museum.
  • LEACHING, extraction of separate components of a solid material with the help of the solvent (napr., a metallurgical extraction of metals from ores, an alkali extraction of the lignin from wood, a bacterial leaching of uranium from ores). The leaching calls also as abstraction.
  • LEACHING of ROCKS, process of selective dissolution and offset underground waters of separate components of rocks, first of all of good solubility chlorides Na, K, etc., and then sulphates and carbonates Ca (napr., the phenomena of karst).
  • " VE KOLOMBE " (Vieux-Colombier) (" the Theatre of an aged pigeon coop "), is based in Paris in 1913 Z.Kopo. In repertoir classical dramatic art, plays of modern writers.
  • VELE-GRIFFEN (Viele-Griffin) Fransis (1864-1937), the French poet. For the collection " Glowing of life " (1897), "Departure" (1899) are characteristic a cult of beauty, ljubovanie a nature, estetizm. The master of a loose verse.
  • TWISTS Ô., see Vieta F.
  • VETAN (Vieuxtemps) Anri (1820-81), the Belgian violinist, the composer and the teacher. One of osnovatelej Belgian national skripichnoj schools. Gave concerts and taught in Russia (1838-40, 1845-52). 7 concerts for a violin with an orchestra, compositions on Russian themes. The professor of the Bruxelles conservatory.
  • VETMIN (the full title Vietnam of docks - pads dong-min - League of extirpation for independence of Vietnam), in 1941-51 unified national front of Vietnam. It is built under initiative KP of Indochina. In 1951 has drained with Ljen-Vjetom.
  • VIETNAM, Socialist Republic Vietnam (Cong Hoa Xa Hoi Chu Nghia Viet Nam), SRV, the state in JUgo-Vost. Asia, on p-ove Indochina. 332 thousand êì2. The population 70,9 million person (1993); primarily vjetnamtsy (88 %), all over 60 nationalities{national characters} and ethnic groups. A urban population - 20,1 % (1989). The official language - Vietnamese. Believers - 55 % Buddhists, 7 % - roman catholics. Administrative territorial division: 50 provinces, 3 cities of central subordination. Capital - Hanoi. The chief of state - the president (with 1992). The maximum body of legislation and a public authority - unicameral National assembly---the Large part of terrain take mountains an altitude up to 3143 m; on a shore - lowlands (primarily in deltas of the rivers of Songka in a north and Mekong in the south). A climate tropical monsoon. A rainfall of 1500-3000 mm annually. Mean temperatures in the south vary a little (from 26 °S in December up to 29 °S in April), in a north - from 15 °S in January up to 28 °S in July, in mountains is more cool. Typhoons, floods in the autumn are frequent. 40 % of terrain are coated{obtected} with tropical forests. National park Batma-Hajvan, numerous wildlife reserves, zakazniki.---the Most ancient Vietnamese states were Vanlang and replaced it{him} Aulak and Namvjet. In 2 century up to n. e. Aulak and Namvjet have been conquered by China. In 10 century n. e. As a result of liberation extirpation the independent Vietnamese state is professed. Since 11 century the Vietnamese state Dajvjet - one of the largest states of Southeast Asia. To 1858-84 Vietnam it is seized by France. In 1930 the Communist party of Vietnam (KPV) (later KP Indochina, with 1951 - the Consignment of workers of Vietnam - PTV is based; with 1976 - KPV). To 1941-45 Vietnam it is occupied by a Japanese troops. August revolution 1945 was finished by professing on September, 2 1945 DRV; The president and prime minister DRV has been selected Ho SHi the Min. In 1945-46 French troops have organized act of war in the south, and then have led annexationist war to scale all country. A number{series} of serious defeats of the French troops (especially in r-not Djenbjenfu in 1954) and requests of peace loving forces have forced government of France to go on the conclusion of Geneva agreements 1954.---To 1964-65 USA have organized air war against DRV, in 1965 have entered in JUzh. Vietnam a troops, have undertaken direct management of war against patriotic forces. In 1969 the Temporary revolutionary government of Republic Austral Vjetnam.---In January 1973 signed the Parisian agreement on the arrest of war and restoration of the world in Vietnam has been built. In July 1976 state recombination of Vietnam has been completed, Socialist Republic Vietnam (SRV) is professed. 4-th cross-over KPV in December 1976 has scheduled a course on construction of socialism to scale all country. In 1980 constitution SRV is adopted. On 6-th (December 1986) and (June 1991) cross-overs KPV is determined by 7-th a course on gradual privatization of economy, building of market economy and engaging of foreign investments. In 1992 it is adopted new konstitutsija.---Vietnam - agrarian country with a developing industry. A lobe of a runway (1993, %): village and a forestry 36,6, an industry 20,9. A crude production, coal, apatites, chromites, iron oxide, tin, a tungsten. Manufacture of the electric power 10,8 billion kVt·ch (1993). Black and nonferrous machine industry, metal working and a machine industry (manufacture of diesels, agricultural machinery, precise mechanisms, assembly, etc.), A chemical industry; manufacture of a building materials. The wood-working and pulp and paper enterprises; machining of rubber. Mild and a flavoring industry. Art handcrafts. In an agriculture agriculture prevails{dominates}. It is treated{processed} ok. 21 % of terrain of Vietnam. Cultivate rice (the main{basic} food crop), a sweet potato, corn, from technical crops - a cotton, a jute, a cane, tea, etc.; plantations of rubber plants. A fruit growing, a vegetable raising. A large horned stock (it is used primarily as draft force), a swine breeding. Fishery. A harvesting of wood (fine woods). Length (one thousand in km, 1992) railways 2,5, motorways 105, internal waterways 6. Main seaports: Ho Chi Minh, Haiphong, Da Nang, Honggaj, Cam Pha. Export: petroleum, coal, rice, rubber, rybo-and marine products, etc. The Main{Basic} foreign trade partners: Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, JUzh. Korea, France, Australia, Germany. Monetary unit - dong.
  • The VIETNAMESE TONGUE, the official language of Vietnam, falls into avstroaziatskoj to family of tongues (vjetmyongskaja group). Writing on the basis of the latin alphabet.
  • VIETNAMESE NEWS AGENCY (VIA), Hanoi. It is based in 1945. In 1976 earlier existing in a north and the south of country VIA and News agency Discharging (it is based in 1961) are joint in a unified information organ - VIA.
  • VETNAMTSY (the self-title throw, twists), people, the main{basic} population of Vietnam (61 million person). The USA live also in Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, etc. The Aggregate number 62,15 million person (1992). Tongue Vietnamese. Buddhists believing main{basic}, daosisty, konfutsiantsy - a cult of ancestors, a part roman catholics and adherents of syncretic religions.
  • BLIZZARD, the same, that a blizzard.
  • MORNING-GLORY FAMILY, set of dycotyledonous plants. Grasses, dwarf semishrubs, bushes, rarely small trees; many - curling plants. St. 1500 kinds{views} (50 stems), primarily in tropics and subtropics; including ok. 40 kinds{views} from 4 stems (a cress, the morning glory, a bindweed and a glorybind), will grow in Compare. Asia, on Central Russian plain, Caucasus, the south of Siberia and the Far East. The greatest economic value have a sweet potato (it is used in peep) and a jalap (medicinal).
  • BINDWEED, stem of grasses and bushes of a set of a morning-glory family. Ok. 250 kinds{views}, primarily in moderate ranges. A bindweed field (berezka) - a malicious weed of crops. As bindweeds call also kinds{views} of a glorybind with curling stalks and grechishku vjunkovuju - a weed of a set of a buckwheat family.
  • VJUNY, a stem of fishes of order karpoobraznyh. Length up to 30 see. Some kinds, in internal water reservoirs of Europe, JUzh. And Vost. Asia. Object of laboratory probes.
  • OUTPUT CRAMPS, set{combination} of cramps on the issuing (data about volume and circulation of the book, date of delivery in a panel and signings for printing, cramps on a format, etc.); are typed on the last page or on the back of a banner page.
  • NATIVES Peter Sozontovich (r. 1923), the Russian literary critic, the Doctor of Philology (1962), the professor (1968). The main{basic} orb of interests - a history of the Russian literature of 20 century, folklore. Books: "Alexander Tvardovsky" (1958), " Russian Soviet poetry and national creativity " (1963), "Paul Vasiljev" (1972), " In searches of the new word: Destinies of Russian Soviet poetry of the twentieth - thirtieth years of XX century " (1980), " the Earth and fruits: Sketches about Russian Soviet poetry 40-70-Õ " (1989).
  • MUSKRAT, mammalian an insectivora. Length of a body up to 22 sm, a tail up to 20 see. Meets only in a bass. Volga, Don and Ural. It is acclimatized in a bass. Ob. Conducts a semiaquatic mode of life. Fur very valuable. Number is reduced, primarily because of violation{disturbance} of a habitat. Production everywhere is forbidden. It is guarded in 5 reservations and ok. 40 protection regimes.
  • VYCHEGDA, the river in a north of the European part of the Russian Federation, dextral in-leak{influx} the Sowing. Dvina. 1130 kms, the area a bass. 121 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water 1160 m3 / with. Driveable. It is navigable up to landing stage Voldino (938 kms). On Vychegda - cities Syktyvkars, Solvychegodsk, Kotlas (in a mouth).
  • DEDUCTION in theory figures. The figure a calls as a deduction of figure b modulo m if the difference a-b is divided on m (a, b, m> 0 - integers). Otherwise a calls as a non-residue. Napr., figure 24 is a deduction of figure 3 (and figure 25 - a non-residue) modulo 7, t. To. 24-3=21 it is divided on 7 (and 25-3=22 it is not divided on 7). See also the Power residue.
  • CALCULUS MATHEMATICS, the section of mathematics including a circle of problems, manufacturing-oriented calculations and use of a computer. In more fine-bored comprehension calculus mathematics - the theory of numerical methods of the solution of standard mathematical problems.
  • The COMPUTER, complex or the separate device intended for mechanization and automation of process of information processing and calculations, executed{designed} according to the given algorithm. Distinguish following phylums of computers: mechanic, electrical, electronic (computers), hydraulic, air-operated{air-powered;pneumatic}, optical and combined.
  • COMPUTER FACILITIES... 1) set{combination} of a technical and mathematical means (computers, devices, devices, programs and so forth), used for mechanization and automation of processes of calculations and information processing. It is applied at the solution of scientific and engineering problems, the bound with great volume of calculations, in systems automatic and automated management, at the count, planning{glide}, forecasting and economic evaluation, to acceptance of scientifically reasonable solutions, data interpretation, in information retrieval systems and t. d.... 2) the Branch of technique engaging development, manufacturing and operation of computers, devices and devices.
  • The COMPUTER SYSTEM, interdependent equipment of computer facilities into which enters not less than 2 processors, consolidated a guidance system and having the total memory, unified software and general peripheral units.
  • COMPUTER CENTER (VTS), the organization intended for the tax, storage and information processing of a different kind{view} with the help of a computer, and also development and probe of software of a computer, methods of the solution of different classes of problems, organizations of computational activities, etc. Version VTS - computing station for machining the registration, statistical, accounting information.
  • The COMPUTER CENTER of the Russian Academy of Science, is built in 1955 in Moscow. Development of computational methods, probes on software of a computer.
  • The COMPUTER CENTER of the Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of Science, is built in 1963 in Novosibirsk. Probes on applied{economic} and calculus mathematics.
  • SUBTRACTION, arithmetic operation, revertive to build, i.e. presence of one of summands (difference) on the given sum of two summands (reduced) and given other summand (deducted). It is meant it is familiar - (minus).
  • VYCHULKOVSKY Leon (1852-1936), the Polish painter and the schedule{chart}. In realistic portraits and genre compositions ("Ploughing", 1903) used impressionisticheskuju technique of the letter; executed{designed} landscape water colours and lithographs.
  • VYSHGOROD, city (with 1968) on Ukraine, the Kiev region, on r. Dnepr, in 18 kms from Kiev. 21,6 thousand inhabitants (1991). The Kiev river plant, pumped storage plant. An archeologic monument of 11-12 centuries. It is known with 946.
  • VYSHELESSKY Sergey Nikolaevich (1874-1958), the Byelorussian scientist - epizootologist, academician AN of Belarus (1928). Probeed many theoretical and practical problems of extirpation with communicable diseases animal, including with a plague, a Siberian plague, etc. The State premium of the USSR (1941).
  • VYSHINSKY Andrey Januarjevich (1883-1954), the deputy of the public prosecutor and the public prosecutor of the USSR in 1933-39, academician AN the USSR (1939). In 1939-44 vice-president of Advice{Council} of National Commissioners of the USSR. In 1940-53 on managing posts{stations} in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the USSR (in 1949-53 minister). The member of a Central Committee of the CPSU with 1939. Telescoped in activities Vyshinskogo of a rule{situation;position} have been directed on the substantiation of gross violations of legitimacy, mass reprisals, in particular{personally} by collimating value of the master proof to confession accused. Was the public prosecutor on the forged political processes of 30th.
  • VYSHNEVOLOTSKAJA WATER SYSTEM, a waterway from Volga up to Baltic m. Into structure Vyshnevolotskoj of water system enter: in-leak{influx} of Volga - r. Tvertsa, Vyshnevolotsky the water-partite channel, r. TSna, an eskar. Mstino, r. Msta, Siversov and Vishersky channels, r. Volkhov, by-pass the Ladoga channel and r. Neva. It is built in nach. 18 century.
  • The MAXIMUM NERVOUS ACTIVITY AND NEUROPHYSIOLOGY INSTITUTE (IVND) the Russian Academy of Science, is organized in 1960 in Moscow on the basis Institute of the maximum nervous activity AN the USSR (it is based in 1950). Probes on physiology of nervous system, conditioned reflexes, etc.
  • The MAXIMUM WOMEN COURSES, in Russia up to 1917 higher educational establishments for women. Prepared doctors and teachers. The first maximum women courses are open{discovered} in Saint Petersburg (Alarchinskie) and in Moscow (Lubjanskie) in 1869. Courses of professor V.I.Gerje in Moscow (are based in 1872) and Bestuzhevskie in Saint Petersburg (1878 are most known; are called by name their official chief of historian K.N.Bestuzhev - Ryumin).
  • The MAXIMUM CRUSTACEA, subclass of Invertebrata of a class of Crustacea. 13 orders (ok. 19,5 thousand kinds{views}), including tonkopantsirnye, Stomatopoda, mizidy, kumovye, ravnonogie, fresh-water shrimps, evfauzievye, decapoda.
  • HIGHER PLANTS (telomnye plants), podtsarstvo flora. As against lower plant - forms the body of higher plants separates into specialized organs - leaves, a stalk and a root. St. 300 thousand kinds{views}. Departments: riniofity, mossy, psilotovidnye; plaunovidnye, hvoshchevidnye, paporotnikovidnye, gymnosperm and floral (pokrytosemennye) plants.
  • HIGHER EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS (high schools), plot experts with higher education for different branches of an economy, science and crop on the basis the secondary education, many conduct also a research work of theoretical and applied{economic} character, execute improvement of professional skill{advanced training} of teachers of the maximum and mean special school and graduated experts. Universities, institutes, the maximum schools, educational academies, conservatories concern to high schools. Periods of training 4-7 flying.
  • The MAXIMUM ARBITRATION COURT of the Russian Federation, the maximum court of justice under the sanction of economic chaffers and other businesses considered by arbitration courts. Executes in foreseen the federal act remedial forms judicial supervision behind their activity and explains on the judiciary law. The judge of the maximum arbitration court are nominated as Council of Federation on presentation of the President of the Russian Federation. The maximum arbitration court posesses the power to initiate legislation.
  • The MAXIMUM ATTESTATIVE COMMITTEE of the Russian Federation, is built in 1992, the supreme body of the federal executive authority executing judgment to scientific and scientific and pedagogical workers of scientific degrees and appropriation to science officers of academic statuses. The main task - realization of a unified state policy, a verification of compliance in range of certification of scientific and scientific and pedagogical staff{frames} of the top skills.
  • The HIGH COUNCIL of NATIONAL ECONOMY (VSNH)... 1) the maximum central organ on steering of a national economy, primarily an industry, in 1917-32. It is built at Advice{Council} of National Commissioners of RSFSR. With education of the USSR - consolidated (sojuzno-republican) narkomat (1923-32). VSNH the USSR supervised over industrial enterprises of allied value, union republics VSNH - remaining. Aboriginal organs: provincial, circumferential sovnarhozy; in 1920-29 - also regional Prombjuro (integrated some provinces). VSNH the USSR is reorganized in 3 narkomata: heavy, mild and a forest industry.... 2) the Maximum state organ on a guiding of an industry and construction at Council of Ministers of the USSR in 1963-65. Aboriginal organs - sovnarhozy.
  • DISPATCH... 1) in Russia 19 - nach. 20 centuries removal of a face on court or administratively from capitals, fixed provinces or cities with granting or without according a right of choice of domicile outside of the given district.... 2) In the Russian Federation till July, 1 1992 kind{view} of the punishment under criminal law comprising of his{its} habitation at a distance convicted from a place with ban to live at fixed districts.
  • VYTEGRA, city (with 1773) in the Russian Federation, the Vologda region, in 198 kms from zh.-d. Item Lodejnoe the Field. Landing stage on the Volga-Baltic waterway. 12,9 thousand inhabitants (1992). Metal working; a food-processing industry. A study of local lore museum.
  • VYTEGRA, the river in northwest of the European part of the Russian Federation. 64 kms, the area of basin 1670 êì2. Escapes from Matkozera, for a headstream it is paired by the Mariinsky channel with r. Kovzha. The eskar runs in Onega. It is sluiced. A part Volga-Baltic a waterway.
  • REPLACEMENT{EXPULSION}, the protective mechanism of psychics consisting in expulsion{relegation} from consciousness of experiences unacceptable for him{it} - appetences and pulses, and also their derivative - emotions, memories, etc.; one of the main{basic} concepts of a psychoanalysis.
  • TO HOWL... 1) unit of taxation in Russia 16-17 centuries. With transition to podushnoj podati in nach. 18 century it is substituted tjaglom.... 2) the Structural part sezzhej (prikaznoj) log huts, other title - povytje.
  • EXTENSION, method of treatment at fractures, dislocations and some diseases of extremities and a backbone by building a pull-rod - by hand-carry or with the help of special apparatuses.
  • EXTRACT, in medicine - the medicinal form; the same, that an extract.
  • EXTRACT, in metal working-... 1) the forge operation - increase of length of preparation by a reduction of area of its{her} lateral section (the extract in the smooth anvil blocks calls as drive); implements on tups and presses serial compression with turning movement of preparation on 90 °.... 2) the Die-stamping operation - a convolution of sheet preparation between a punch and a template in a hollow item.... 3) the Proportionality figure, equal to attitude{relation} of lengths of preparation after and up to the operation.
  • OUTPUT COUNTRY, in Russian state of 11-17 centuries the right of peasants on transition from one feudal lord to other. In 11-15 centuries limited for separate grades of rural population. The litigant 1497 has placed{installed} unified time of an output country (see. JUrjev day). It is forbidden in 80th of 16 century. It is completely cancelled by the Cathedral establishment 1649.
  • DISMISSAL WAGES, under the Russian right a money, paid to the worker or the employee at dismissal on the fixed groundings (in connection with making redundant, a call to military service, restoration on activity of the worker or the employee, before executed{designed} this activity, etc.).
  • The DAYS OFF, under the Russian right days of leisure time activities, content the legislation, regulations of the internal labour order or shift schedules. Activity in the days off is supposed only from the sanction profkoma and only in the unusual cases statutory (napr., for an avoidance or liquidation of emergency). For activity in the days off other day of leisure time activities within the nearest two weeks is granted.
  • ALTITUDE, in geometry - a cutting of the perpendicular lowered{omitted} from top of geometric pattern (napr., a triangle, a pyramid, a cone) on its{her} grounding (or prolongation of the grounding), and also length of this cutting. An altitude of a prism, the cylinder, a spherical layer, and also truncated in bridge to the grounding of a pyramid and a cone - distance between the top and bottom groundings.
  • PITCH OF A TONE, quality of a note, the form of perception the person of vibration frequency of a soniferous body. With growth of frequency the pitch of a tone increases.
  • RISE OF TIDE, rule{situation;position} of a pitch tidal level at present, read out from a chart datum.
  • ALTITUDE SICKNESS, painful condition at rise on the high altitudes, stipulated by the considerable drop of fractional pressure of oxygen in an inhaled air: feeling of weariness, a vertigo, a headache, a nausea, a pain in ears, a syncope, etc.
  • ALTITUDE POJASNOST (altitude zonality), objective changeover of natural environments in mountains in accordance with increase of a true altitude. It is accompanied by changes geomorphological, hydrological, soil-building processes, structure of vegetation and fauna. Many features altitude pojasnosti are determined by an exposition of downslopes, their arrangement in relation to prevailing air masses and remoteness from oceans. The figure of belts will routinely increase in high mountains and with an approaching to equator.
  • HIGH-ALTITUDELY - COMPENSATORY the COSTUME{SUIT}, personal equipment of the pilot for protection against a parasite effect of a pressure fall in an event of a puncture of a sealed compartment by building adjustable external pressure. Together with a pressure helmet it is used at flights at the altitude up to 30 kms.
  • The ALTIMETER (altimeter), the device directing a flying height of a flight vehicle. A pressure altimeter measure an altitude concerning a departure point, radio altimeters - an altitude above proletaemoj terrain.
  • VYSOTSK (up to 1948 Uuras), city (with 1940) in the Russian Federation, the Leningrad region, on about. Vysotsky, a port in Finnish a hall. A depot. 1 thousand inhabitants (1991). It is based in nach. 18 century. Peter I as strength Trongzund; in 1918-40 in structure of Finland.
  • VYSOTSKAJA Olga Sergeevna (r. 1906), the speaker of the All-Union wireless (1932-89), the national actress of the USSR (1980).
  • VYSOTSKAJA (Wysocka) Stanislav (1878-1941), a Polish actress, the producer. Scenic activity started from Saint Petersburg. Posledovatelnitsa the Moscow Art theatre. Tragedijnaja an actress; has embodied the best modes{images} of national dramatic art.
  • VYSOTSKY George Nikolaevich (1865-1940), the Ukrainian forester and pedologist, academician VASHNIL (1934) and AN Ukraine (1939). The main{basic} transactionses on safeguarding foresting, soil hydrology, landscape science.
  • VYSPJANSKY Stanislav (1869-1907), the Polish playwright, the artist, the theatrical figure. Historical ("Legend", 1897) and the modern political dramas ("Discharging", 1903); metaphorical a drama - pamphlet "Wedding" (1901). In graphic and an ornamental art (ekspressivnye sketches of stained glasses on themes of a Polish history, lyrical pastel landscapes and portraits, sketches of furniture, tissues, metal wares, registration of books) aspired{tried} to expression of the national beginning in style "modernist style".
  • EXHIBITION of ACHIEVEMENTS of the NATIONAL ECONOMY of USSR (VDNH), in 1959-91 permanently reacting{working} all-Union exhibition in Moscow. In terrain VDNH 82 pavilions entered{included} in 7 complexes (1989), with a display area of 200 thousand in m2 and ok. 50 ga the open spaces for demonstrating bulky technique. 300 domestic, foreign and international exhibitions, were annually conducted by 5 thousand conferences, seminars, meetings of scientists and experts which participants became more than 300 thousand person; attendance ok. 11 million person annually, including 600 thousand aliens. About 1992 All-Russia exhibition centre.
  • "OUTRIGGER BOOM", the maximum officer courses him{it}. Marshal of Soviet Union B.M.Shaposhnikova in Solnechnogorsk of the Moscow region. Are based in 1918. Execute retraining officers of arms of a land forces of a link of shelves - a batallion.
  • HIGHER MATHEMATICS, set{combination} of the mathematical disciplines, technical curriculum technical and some other special educational institutions; routinely the course of higher mathematics actuates elements of an analytical geometry, a linear algebra, differential calculus, an integral calculus and differential equations.
  • The MAXIMUM NERVOUS ACTIVITY, activity of the maximum departments of central nervous system (bark of major hemispheres and the subcortical centres), ensuring the most perfect adaptation animal and the person to an environment. In the basis{fundamentals} of the maximum nervous activity conditioned reflexes and the composite unconditioned reflexes (instincts, emotions, etc.) lay. The availability is typical of the maximum nervous human activity not only 1-st signal system which is inherent and animal, but also 2-nd signal system, to the bound with speech and inherent only to the person. The doctrine about the maximum nervous activity is built by I.P.Pavlovym.
  • "HIGHER SCHOOL", publishing house, Moscow. It is based in 1939 (up to 1959 " the Soviet science "). The educational literature for high schools, mean special and professional educational institutions, a number{series} of log-books.
  • HIGHER EDUCATION, level of skill of the expert, received in higher educational establishments on the basis full secondary education and confirmed by the conforming diploma.
  • HIGH PLATEAU, non-proprietary name of an intermountain semidesert plateau in the Atlas. An altitude of 1100-1200 m in the west, 700-800 m on the orient. It is a lot of hollows with brine lakes (sebhi, shotty).
  • HIGH TAUERN (Hohe Tauern), mountain ridge Vost. The Alpes. Length of 120 kms, an altitude up to 3797 m (. Grosglokner).
  • HEATS the INSTITUTE of Russian Academy of Science (IVTRAN), is based in 1962 in Moscow. Probes of properties of substances at heats, processes warmly and mass transfer, development of installations of forward transform of a thermal energy in electrical. There is a branch in Shatura.
  • HIGH-PROTEIN CROPS, agricultural plants high in protein in a grain and a green material. To high-protein crops attribute pulse crops of crop, the strong of wheat. Are of great importance for a feed of the person, enrichment by a protein of rations agricultural animal.
  • VYSOKOVICH Vladimir Konstantinovich (1854-1912), the Russian pathologist, an epidemiologist and the bacteriologist. Alongside with I.I.Mechnikovym one of osnovatelej doctrines about reticuloendothelial system. Transactionses on a pathological anatomy of a lues and a tuberculosis, immunity and an epidemiology of some communicable diseases.
  • The HIGH-VOLTAGE ACCELERATOR, the device for speedup of charged particles by an electric field, to stationary values or weakly varying during all time of a beam acceleration. The electric field forms by the high-voltage generator with the greatest reached pressure{voltage;stress} ok. 20 MV.
  • VYSOKOVSK, city (with 1940) in the Russian Federation, the Moscow region. A depot. 11,5 thousand inhabitants (1992). Prjadilno-weaving; manufacture of fur-tree toys.
  • HIGH-MOUNTAINOUS PHYLUM of the RELIEF, morphological phylum of a relief of predominary pullet{predominary young man} highlands (the Alpes, Caucasus, Pamir, the Himalayas, etc.), defined by abrupt downslopes, a steep and sharp erosive partition, a sharpness and nakedness of tops and crests, glacial landforms.
  • VYSOKOGORSKAJA GROUP of IRON-ORE DEPOSITS, in Ekaterinburg region, in area of Nizhni Tagil. Up to 10 magnetite kontaktovo-metasomaticheskih deposits. The greatest large deposit-. High (it is developed with 1721). It is submitted{shown} plastoobraznymi by deposits of magnetite ores and skarnov, power from 2 up to 20 m. Known reserves 350 million t with mean content Fe of 38 %; production of a loose ore open{discovered} and underground ways.
  • HIGH, city (with 1940) in Belarus, the Brest region, in 3 kms from zh.-d. An item. Highly - Litovsk. 4,7 thousand inhabitants (1991). Manufacture of a building materials; an oil - mill, etc.
  • HIGH REVITALIZATION, the season{term} of a history of italian art (kon. 15 - 1-n chetv. 16 centuries) - a classical phase of art crop of Revitalization. In the architecture, painting and a sculpture of High Revitalization (Bramante, Leonardo yes Vinci, Rafael, Mikelandzhelo, Dzhordzhone, Titsian) the Renaissance realism and humanism, heroic ideals have received the generalized, full titanic force expression; monumental majesty, combination of raised ideality, harmony with depth and zoetic brightness of modes{images} are inherent{intrinsic} in art of High Revitalization.
  • HIGH-MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS, substances with high molecular weight. The majority of high-molecular compounds falls into to polymers.
  • HIGH-MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS the INSTITUTE of Russian Academy of Science (IVS), is based in 1948 in Leningrad. Probes on building new catalysts, a kinetics and mechanisms of education of macromolecules, properties of natural and synthetic high-molecular compounds.
  • HIGH-BULK YARN, the same, that a textured thread.
  • HIGH-SPEED FILMING, filming with frequency over 104 staff / seconds. Apply at probes of stop-actions (at a projection of film with a standard frequency 24 staff / with there is an effect delayed-action).
  • HIGH-TEMPERATURE REACTOR, name title of a nuclear reactor (routinely grafito-gas) for which the working temperature in an active zone reaches 700 °S. The high-temperature reactor allows to create a power plant with a direct cycle in which the reactor and the turbine are connected directly.
  • TALL HERBAGE, grassy vegetation an altitude of 2-4 m, developing at a heightened atmospheric humidity and soils. Predominary in mountains, forest boundaries (napr are higher., Caucasus, Altai, and also in mountains of the Far East). The main{basic} representatives of a tall herbage - a cowparsnip, an angelica, a chervil, etc.
  • HIGH-FREQUENCY WELDING, weldment, at which edge of welded component parts heat up high-frequency currents to their ramollissement or melting away and squeeze. The current in an item is induced{guided} by an inductive or contact way. Use, napr., for a pipe welding from a tape.
  • HIGH-FREQUENCY DISCHARGE, electric discharge in the gas, originating in an electric field of a high frequency. On a way of a rendering of power distinguish: electrode, electrodeless, one-electrode, MICROWAVE - CATEGORY in cavity resonators and radio waveguides.
  • RUBBERY STATE, condition of amorphous polymers, in which they are capable to huge (up to hundreds %) to reversible deformations. Speaks that, that chain molecules of polymers can variate the form. The sample polymeric material maintained in rubbery state, - gum.
  • VYREZUB, a fish of a set karpovyh. The length up to 72 sm, weighs up to 8 kg. In basins of Black and Azov seas. In a bass. The Caspian m. the subspecies vyrezuba - kutum dwells{lives}. Object of a craft.
  • VYRY, in vostochnoslavjanskoj mythologies paradise where birds and showers died dwell{live}. Keys from Vyrija remain deposited for a bird.
  • DEGENERATES Ivan Grigorjevich (?-1564), the clerk, the chief of construction Svijazhska in 1551, siege towers near Kazan (1552), of some strengths in 1557. Voevoda in Astrakhan in 1558-60. It is executed in the season{term} oprichniny.
  • DEGENERATION, - consists of physics in a volume, that value of some physical quantity defining system, napr., powers, it is equal to different system conditions; the figure of such conditions calls as a degeneracy multiplicity. Degeneration testifies to a fixed symmetry of object (system) and is removed by external actions.
  • DEGENERATION the TEMPERATURE, temperature, is lower which in gases quantum effects, the bound with identity of particles (see show. Identity a principle). For a Bose gas of degeneration temperature Tâ is peer to temperature, is lower which descends Boze - the Einstein condensation, for Fermi gas of phase change does not descend, and Tv = EF/k, where EF - maximum power of particles at T = 0 (fermi-power), k - Boltsmana a stationary value.
  • The DEGENERATE GAS, quantum gas at the temperature of is lower than degeneration of temperature Tv. In a theoretical degenerate gas of bosons descends Boze - the Einstein condensation. Degeneration occurs, when a wavelength de Brojlja, conforming to a thermal-motion energy of particles, becomes comparable with mean distance between them. In routine nuclear or molecular gases of degeneration does not descend. For electrons in metals Tv 10000 To, therefore electronic gas in metals - always a degenerate gas.
  • VYRTSJARV, lake in a central part of Estonia. The area 270 êì2. An average depth of 2,8 m. Into lake runs r. Vjajke-Emajygi, escapes r. Emajygi. It is navigable. Landing stage Jyesuu.
  • SLASH, in metal working - the operation of a sheet-metal forming - obtaining of flat component parts by branch of a material from preparation on a close circuit in a dinking die (napr., circular preparations for an extrusion of pans).
  • VYRUBOVA Anna Aleksandrovna (1884-1964), the maid of honour of empress Aleksandry Fedorovny (with 1904). Posrednitsa between imperial family and G.E.Rasputinym. With 1920 in emigration. Memories: " Pages from my life ". Ò. n. " Diary Vyrubovoj " - a forgery.
  • TRANSPLANTATION, in metal working - the forge operation - building of joint thickenings on rod or tubular billets by reduction of their length (the partial upsetting). Transplantation receive bolts, rivets, flanges on pipes, etc.
  • SALTING - OUT, secretion of substance from his{its} solution gaining of other substance (salt more often), having the greater dissolubility. A salting - out apply at a soap manufacture, dyes and many other products.
  • VYSELOK (vyselki), in Russia village settlements, which all inhabitants have moved from other occupied point. Routinely saved the title of a former settlement with add-on of word "Vyselok".
  • SCRAPING of the UTERUS, surgical operation abortions (abortion) or with other medical or diagnostic purpose (napr., obtaining of a scraping of a mucous membrane of a uterus for consequent histological probe). Carry out{conduct} in a hospital.
  • The EXPRESSION, the thought expressed the narrative proposal and able to be true or false; in linguistics - unit of the voice dialogue which was made out under laws of the given tongue.
  • LONGEVITY, the long-lived season{term} of labour activity creating under certain conditions the right on privileges and advantage (money payments, retirement pays, etc.).
  • " HIGH COMMISSION ", extraordinary court on church affairs in England 16-17 centuries, the instrument English absoljutizma in extirpation with opponents of state anglican church. It is liquidated by the English revolution of 17 century.
  • RELIEF PRINTING (typographical), one of principal views of a seal{printing} at which the reprint is received from the form having prominent (typing) and deepened (probelnye) elements (drawing). It is used for printing of text issuings (the booklet, the book, the newspaper and so forth).
  • The scheme of the form and reprint of a relief printing are adduced on a case history.
  • FATIGUE LIFE, in a strength of materials - ability of materials and designs to oppose to action of repeated (cyclical) loads.
  • STIMULATED RADIATION (induced radiance), process of emitting of electromagnetic waves by excited atoms and other quantum systems under action of external (forcing) radiance. Frequency, a phase, polarization and a direction of released and forcing radiance coincide.
  • FORCED VIBRATIONS, arise in system under action of periodic{batch} external action (napr., forced vibrations of a floating lever under action of periodic{batch} force, forced vibrations in an oscillating circuit under action of periodic{batch} electromotive force). If frequency of influence comes nearer to a free-running frequency of system, there occurs a resonance.
  • The FRANK PROLAPSE, vyhozhdenie a uterus and walls of a sheath for limits a genital hiatus, is routine for elderly, it is a lot of rozhavshih women having lacerations of the perineum, started soon after stems to heavy physical work. It is quite often accompanied by an incontience wet. It is marked and for animal.
  • PROLAPSE OF THE RECTUM, the partial or full ectropion of a rectum through an anal orifice at slackening tissues of a perineum and a bottom of a pelvic cavity. Immediate causes: major exercise stresses, traumas, etc. It is marked and for animal.
  • VAPORIZATION, secretions of dissolved solids or obtaining of the clear solvent execute for concentrating solutions. To vaporization expos predominary water solutions nonvolatile or maloletuchih substances. In an industry vaporization effect in evaporators.
  • The BITTERN, two stems of birds of a set of herons: major a bittern (4 kinds, length up to 80 sm) and small a bittern, or water shoots (7 kinds{views}, length ok. 35 sm). Legs and a neck are shorter, than for the majority of herons. Are distributed widely.
  • VYPOLZOK, the national title of an outside keratosic layer of a leather the snakes, dropped by her{it} during a molting.
  • EXUDATE, the liquid soaking from small-sized blood vessels in a tissue or a perigastrium at an inflammation (see. An exudate), dropsies (see. A transudate).
  • VYPRAVITELNYE STRUCTURES, the same, that reguljatsionnye structures.
  • The RECTIFIER ELECTRICAL, the transducer of a variable current flow in permanent. The rectification of a current is routine implements an electrical valve for which phylum distinguish rectifiers electrical: vacuum, discharge, semiconductor, electrocontact. Apply in devices of automatics and a telemechanics, radio engineering (single-phase rectifiers electrical) and to a feed of potent plants (zigzag rectifiers electrical).
  • RECTIFYING PILE, the rectifier electrical by the way tandem semiconductor elements. Has a high allowable reverse voltage (up to tens kV). Some rectifying piles in a unified body will derivate the rectifier stack assembly.
  • RECTIFICATION, in the electrical engineer - transformation{conversion} of a current flow of a variable direction to a unidirectional current.
  • CONVEX CURVE, see in an item. Convex range.
  • The CONVEX RANGE, the part of a plane having that property, that a cutting bridging its{her} two any point is contained in her bodily. Any cohesive part of border{limit} of convex range calls as a convex curve (are those, napr., a circle and its{her} any arch, a triangle).
  • CONVEX SURFACE, see in an item. A convex body.
  • *ÂÛÏÓÊËÎÅ the BODY, a geometric object having that property, that the cutting bridging his{its} two any point is contained in a nem bodily (napr., the body a is convex, the body is not convex). A sphere, a cube - examples of a convex body. Any cohesive part of border{limit} of a convex body calls as a convex surface.
  • *ÂÛÏÓÊËÎÑÒÜ And the CONCAVE CAMBER, properties of the plot of the function y = f (x) (curve), consisting in a volume, that each arch of a curve is not higher (buldge from top to bottom, or a concave camber up) or is not lower (a concave camber from top to bottom, or buldge up) than its{her} subtending chord.
  • LEVELLING, in statistics - a method through which receive analytical and actuarial expression of the regularity basing the given empirical lines of statistical data.
  • INDICATIVE MOTIONS, express mental (especially emotional) conditions animal and the person, intonations of a voice, gestures, etc. show in a facial expression, pantomimike.
  • AGGREGATE EXPOSURE, in a photo - time during which light acts on a photosensitive photographic layer.
  • OTTER (Vydra) Vaclav (1876-1953), the Czech actor. On the scene with 1893. Worked at theatres Plzenja, Prague.
  • OTTERS, a stem of mammals of a set kunjih. Length of a body ok. 70 sm, a tail 45 see 8 kinds{views}, in Eurasia, Africa, the Sowing. And JUzh. To America. In Russia 1 kind{view} (poreshnja). Dwell{live} bliz fresh water reservoirs. Well float and dive. Eat primarily a fish. Valuable fur-bearing animals. Number of some kinds{views} is reduced; the hunt almost everywhere is forbidden. As otters some other stems of a set kunjih call also.
  • DRESSING... 1) schooling of the horse to activity in a harness and under saddle.... 2) the Kind{View} of equestrian sport (a higher school of a horseback riding), competitions in skill of steering of the horse on different gaits on a site 20? 40 or 20? 60 m (5-12 mines). In the program of Olympic Games with 1912, world championships with 1966.
  • PROCEDURE TO CLARE LOST DOCUMENTS VOID, the form of restoration judicially rights under the lost bearer instruments (napr., sberknizhkam).
  • MISCARRIAGE, see. An abortion.
  • The SWITCH electrical, a critical parameters: rated voltage and a current. Distinguish switches low (up to 1000 Â) and high (over 1000 Â) pressure{voltage;stresses}.
  • FILLET, curvilinear concave architectonic oblom in 1/4 circles.
  • VYKSA, city (with 1934) in the Russian Federation, the Nizhniy Novgorod region, bliz landing stages Doschatoe on r. Oka. A depot. 62,2 thousand inhabitants (1991). Metallurgical, machine-building, metal-working, etc. an industry. It is based in 2-nd floor. 18 century.
  • The REDEMPTION OPERATION, in Russia in 1861-1906 repayment peasants for landowners of the plots of land given by country reform 1861. The government has paid to landowners the sum of the repayment which peasants should reset for 49 flying on 6 % annually (redemption payments). The sum was estimated from value of a tax which peasants paid to landowners before reform. Collection of payments was stopped as a result of Revolution 1905-07. The government has had time to collect from peasants over 1,6 billion rbl., having received ok. 700 million rbl. of the income.
  • VYLKO Tyko (Ilya Konstantinovich) (1886-1960), the Nenets artist. The native stanovishcha Belushja a lip. Basically the self-educated person, has become the remarkable master of " naive art ", the writer genre stsenok and landscapes with kinds{views} of native New Land. The ethnographer, the collector of aboriginal folklore is known as well as. In 1924-56 was chairman Novozemelskogo of island Advice{Council}.
  • VYLCHANOV Rangel (r. 1928), the Bulgarian film director. Films: " the First lesson " (1960), " the Sun and a shade " (1962), " the Inspector and night " (1963), " the Inspector and a wood " (1975), " the Last desires " (1983), etc.
  • EXTORTION, in a criminal law a request of cession of goods or rights to him{it} under threat violence above a face, in management or under which guarding{preservation} there is this property, violence above his{its} close, announcements of defamatory cramps, liquidations of property. See also Racket.
  • The FREEZING, secretion of one of components of a slurry or gas mixture at refrigerating is lower than melting point of this component. Apply to concentrating solutions and obtaining of pure substances.
  • The HEIRLESS PROPERTY, the property which has stayed after mors of the proprietor for want of successors. Under the right of succession passes to the state.
  • STREAMER (goll. wimpel)... 1) the fine-bored, lengthy, bifurcated flag on the extremity, is hoisted on a spar tree of the ship of war located in float; alongside with an ensign serves as a sign a state fitting of the ship{spacecraft}.... 2) the Special mark (the panel attached to a shaft), is handed to participants of sporting and other contest{races}, exhibitions.... 3) the Case with the bright tape, used at drop from airplanes of reports, letters, etc.
  • VYM, the river in a north of the European part of the Russian Federation, dextral in-leak{influx} of Vychegda. 499 kms, the area of basin of 25,6 thousand êì2. Driveable. It is navigable on 172 kms from a mouth.
  • UDDER, mammary glands of mammals. Distinguish: a multiple udder from 4-8 lobes (napr., for a dog, a pig), a udder from 1 pair{vapour;couple} of lobes (for a sheep, a goat) or from 2 fallow, merged in a single whole a udder (for a cow, the horse, etc.).
  • WEATHERING of the DEPOSIT, the deposits of the mineral wealths which have arisen over bark of a weathering at decomposition of rocks for a surface of the Earth under influence of water, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and also organic and mineral acids. Among a weathering of deposits distinguish infiltratsionnye deposits and residual deposits. To a weathering to deposits some deposits of ores Fe, Mn, S, Ni, bauxites, a caolin, an apatite, barite concern.
  • DISLOCATION, nonperishable offset of the articulate cleaning cloth of bones for limits of their normal motility, sometimes with a breakage of an articulate ascus and svjazok and an output of the articulate extremity of one of bones from an ascus (at traumas, diseases of joints).
  • BREEDING, transition from parcels{sendings} to inquests (conclusions) on regulations of logic (see also Deduction).
  • PROLIFEROUS KIDNEYS, organs some paporotnikovidnyh and seed plants; will be derivated often on leaves (napr., for briofilljuma); are sometimes modified in cloves (for a toothwort and some lilies - in axils of leaves). Are capable to be abjointed from a parent organism and, sprouting to give new plants.
  • PROLIFEROUS BIRDS, group of birds, which nestlings at once after a hatching from eggs are capable to travel self-contained and even to search I peep, napr., a filling, cranes. Compare. Ptentsovye birds.
  • LEAD-OUT MARTEN, " a marten wedding ", in Russia 15-16 centuries the wedding duty for the benefit of the state or the feudal lord from relatives of the bride giving in marriage in other principality, volost, city, abroad. Later a lead-out marten called as "breeding", his{its} dimension was determined by the agreement of the parties (it is cancelled for state krestjanok in 1775, for privately owned - after reform 1861).
  • FLIGHT OF CAPITAL, export of capital, implements private concerns and the state. The capital is taken out in two ground forms: the enterprise capital (an investment in an industry, an agriculture, trade, etc.) and the loan capital (by the way loans). Originally the capital from developed capitalist countries was removed in economically backward countries, colonys and semi-colonial territories. After 2-nd world war characteristic the phenomena the relative{mutual} flood of capitals from one developed capitalist countries in other has become; the considerable role has become to play flight of capital in the form of state loans and credits of international financial organizations.
  • EXPORT COUNTRY (a breeding country), in Russia 15-16 centuries withdrawal by the feudal lord of peasants from the former master (under the arrangement with them or violently). With introduction reserved a flying alongside with an output country export country has been subjected to the interdiction. The cathedral establishment 1649 has placed{installed} irredeemable investigation on affairs about export country.
  • VYG, the river in Karelia. Up to a lockin in Vygozero has the title Upper Vyg (135 kms), after escaping him{it} - Lower Vyg (102 kms). The m runs in White. Average discharge of water 267 m3 / with. Lower Vyg logins the Belomorsko-Baltic channel; a coordinated hydroelectric system.
  • VYGODOVSKY (an ice-film. fam. Duntsov) Paul Fomich (1802-81), the decembrist, the bureaucrat, from peasants. The member of the Society of coherent slavs. It is convicted on 2 years of penal servitude. For antigovernment and antireligious compositions in 1855-71 in the reference in Viljujske.
  • VYGOZERO (water reservoir Vygozerskoe), in Karelia. The area 1159 êì2. Depth up to 18 m. On Vygozere - Segezha. Logins the Belomorsko-Baltic channel.
  • PASTURE, plot with a pasture for a grazing of cattle.
  • VYGONKA plants, obtaining of vegetables (potherb of a parsley, a celery, a green onions), colours (a rose - tree, a lilac, a pink, a tulip), berries (wild strawberry, a grape) in nonseasonal time for them, napr., in the winter. Carry out{conduct} in hothouses, greenhouses, cellars.
  • DEFLAGRATION (deflagration), transition of a knocking of a blasting explosive in burning; in collieries can call a fire-damp explosion, etc.
  • VYGOTSKY Lion Semenovich (1896-1934), the Russian psychologist. Has developed the cultural - historical theory which has laid foundation to school in the modern psychology. Transactionses on development of the maximum mental functions, intellection and speeches, psychologies of art.
  • EXTRADITION OF CRIMINALS (ex-tradition), in the international law drive to the state of the face making a criminal or international crime, for his{its} engaging to the criminal liability or performances{fulfillments} borne concerning him{it} a judgement. Conditions and the order of extradition of criminals are regulated by the international treaty and the national legislation.
  • EXPULSION, dispatch of aliens from country. Implements by the way the simple instruction to abandon country in fixed time or under compulsion.
  • SECRETION (excretion), in physiology - discharging of an organism of end - products of an exchange, stranger substances and excess of water, salts and the organic compounds proceeding with nutrition or derivated in an organism. For the person and animal secretion implements primarily through kidneys, and also lungs (or gills), a digestive tract, a leather. For plants metabolic products (water, carbon dioxide, salt, Saccharum, mucilage, essential oils, etc.) are secreted with roots, specialized zhelezkami flowers, leaves, stalks or all surface.
  • SECRETORY SYSTEM (excretory system), set{combination} of organs for animal and the person, executing secretion. Special organs of secretory system for many Invertebrata - protonefridii, metanephridiums, etc.; for vertebrates - kidneys.
  • VULGARIZM, the word or the expression which is inherent to familiar or rough speech.
  • The VULGAR MATERIALISM, flow in philosophy is grey. 19 century, which representatives (Foht, Bjuhner, Moleshott) extremely simplified materialistic outlook, negated specificity of consciousness, identifying it{him} with a matter (" the brain secretes thought the same as a liver - a gall ").
  • VULGAR SOTSIOLOGIZM (vulgar sociology), in the marxist literature the notation of abbreviated, straight-line{rectilinear} interpretation of forms of public consciousness (especially philosophy, the literature, art) is extreme as expression of interests of a fixed class, as direct inquest of influence on them of economy or technique.
  • VULCANO (Vulcano), an island in Tirrenskom m., in archipelago Lipari islands, in structure of Italy. 21,2 êì2. Top of a submerged active volcano (an altitude 499 ì).
  • VULPIUS (Vulpius) Christian Avgust (1762-1827), the german writer. The writer t. n. The predatory novels, including " Rinaldo Rinaldini " (1797-1800).
  • VULTURN, see. Evr.
  • WOOLF Vitaly Jakovlevich (r. 1932), the Russian critic, the doctor of historical sciences. With 1967 in Institute of comparative political science of the Russian Academy of Science. In 1990th read lectures on Russian theatre at universities of Amsterdam and New York. With 1980 cooperates on a television. From 1994 master popular programs " the Silver sphere " (about actors of theatre and kino).
  • WOOLF George (Jury) Viktorovich (1863-1925), Russian kristallograf, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1921). Has placed{installed} (1913, irrespective of U.L.Bregga) conditions of X-ray diffraction (conditions of the Bragg - Woolf).
  • WOOLF Eugeny Vladimirovich (1885-1941), Russian botanikogeograf, the florist. The main{basic} activities on probe of plant resources of the world and on a history of science. The expert on a flora and vegetation of Crimea. The writer of reports on efirno-oil-brearing plants, tannic, dyeing and to drug plants.
  • WOOLF (Wulff) Hilmar (1908-80), the danish writer. Realistic trilogies about workers: " How is the weather in April " (1942), " Such really there is " (1943), " an Ode of transactionses " (1945); novels about the modern Denmark (including "Bad weather", 1950, " the Young man in searches ", 1959).
  • WULFENITE, mineral of a class of molybdates, Pb [MoO4]. Impurity{additives} Ca, ÒR (infrequent grounds), W, V, U. Crystals, druses, crusts. Hardness ok. 3; firmness of 6,8 g / sm3. It will be derivated in oxidation zone of deposits of lead. Ore of lead.
  • VULCHI (Vulci), city etruskov in Center. Italy. In 280 up to n. e. It eroded by Romans. Tombs of 7-3 centuries up to n. e., including with paintings.
  • VUMERA (Woomera), an australian launching site (1946-76) in pieces. JUzh. Australia, in area of. Vumera. Some launch systems, maintenance areas and measuring points. 1-st start of an artificial satellite of the Earth in 1967. It is laid up.
  • The CHILD PRODIGY (a nem. Wunderkind - the miracle - child), the highly gifted child (sometimes ironical).
  • VUNDT (Wundt) Wilhelm (1832-1920), the german psychologist, the physiologist, the philosopher, the foreign honorary member Petersburg AN (1902). One of founders of experimental psychology. A central role in spiritual life retracted bullock. Has put forward a conception " an analytical introspection " (see. An introspection). " Psychology of peoples " (t. 1-10, 1900-20) - one of the first experiences of ethnopsychology, contains psychologic interpretation of the myth, religion, art, etc.
  • VUOKSA (fin. Vuoksi, Vuoksi), the river in Finland and the Russian Federation. 156 kms, the area of basin of 52,4 thousand êì2. Escapes from an eskar. Saimaa, runs in Ladoga an eskar. Average discharge of water over 600 from a river plant. On r. Vuoksa - a waterfall Imatra; Imatra (Finland).
  • VUOLIJOKI (Wuolijoki) Hella (psevd. JUhani Tervapjaja and Feliks Tuli) (1886-1954), the Finnish writer, the participant of Resistance movement. Wrote in the Estonian and Finnish tongues. Roman " Inhabitants Zatumannogo " (hours 1-2, 1914-33), plays ("Kojdula", 1932, etc.) from the Estonian life. A cycle of realistic plays about generic manor Niskavuori, including "Women Niskavuori" (1936), showing crash of a patriarchal household activities, the play of "Justin" (1937). The autobiographical trilogy (1945-53).
  • VUPPERTAL (Wuppertal), city in Germany, ground the Sowing. Rhine - Vestfalija. 372,4 thousand inhabitants (1989). A machine industry, textile, chemical, a food-processing industry. The Barman and Elberfeld is derivated in 1929 interflow of cities.
  • VURGUN Samed (an ice-film. A name and fam. Samed JUsif ogly Vekilov) (1906-56), the Azerbaijan poet, the national poet of Azerbaijan (1943), the public figure, academician AN of Azerbaijan (1945). The collection of verses on construction of new life; poetic dramas "Vagif" (1937), " Farhad and Breadths " (1941), "Person" (1945); a cycle of the verses dedicated Great Domestic war; poems about contemporaries "Mugan" (1949), "Ajgjun" (1951), " the Standard-bearer of eyelid " (1954). Transferred{translated} products{creations} of the Russian literature and literatures of peoples of the USSR. The state premium of the USSR (1941, 1942).
  • The VAMPIRE, see. The vampire.