Wednesday, May 16, 2007

  • BRISBANE (Brisbane), city and a port on the orient Australia, an administrative centre pieces. Queensland. 1,3 million inhabitants (1990, with suburbs). A machine industry, oil refining, chemical, a food-processing industry; ship-building shipyard. University.
  • BRISEIDA, in the Grecian mythology the daughter of tsar lelegov Briseja, captive Ahilla. Agamemnon has taken away her for Ahilla after has been compelled to return belonging to him Hriseidu to its father. It was the cause of anger Ahilla and quarrels between ahejskimi leaders (a scene of "Illiada" Gomera).
  • BRISSO (Brissot) Jacque Pierre (1754-93), the figure of the French revolution kon. 18 century, the leader zhirondistov. In the Convent with 1792 headed extirpation against jakobintsev. Under the sentence of the Revolutionary tribunal it is executed.
  • IVORY BAY Atlantic ok., for southwest coasts of the Great Britain. Length of 230 kms, depth up to 50 m. Primary ports: Bristol, Cardiff, Newport.
  • IVORY BAY Beringova in m., for southwest coasts of Alaska. Width for an orifice ok. 480 kms, depth of 27-54 m. Fishery (a cod, a flounder, etc.).
  • BRITAEV Elbyzdyko TSopanovich (1881-1923), the ossetic playwright. Plays (including tragedy "Amran", 1913-23, it is issued in 1927) proniknuty social - liberation motives.
  • BRITANISHSKY Vladimir Lvovich (r. 1933), the Russian writer, a translator. Collections of verses: "Searches" (1958), "Lines of communication" (1966), "Open-space" (1980), etc. Books of prose: " District of past summer " (1969), etc.
  • BRITAIN, one of ancient titles (from brittov) the modern terrain of England, Scotland and Wales.
  • The BRITISH ACADEMY, is based in 1901 in the London for assistance to development of historical, philosophical and philological probes. Executes a scientific - methodical guiding of activity of the British schools and institutes in a number of the Asian countries, Greeces and Italy. In 1991 - 531 member.
  • The BRITISH EMPIRE, the concept including the Great Britain and its colonial possessions; has come in the official use in 1870th. 20 century during disintegration of colonial system instead of concept British Empire included in the use of concept British Commonwealth of the nations, Commonwealth.
  • BRITISH COLUMBIUM (British Columbia), a province in the west of Canada. 947,8 thousand êì2. The population 3,1 million person (1990). Adm. ts. - Victoria.
  • " The BRITISH ENCYCLOPEDIA " ("Britannika") (Encyclopaedia Britannica), 1) the generalpurpose encyclopedia. There was with 1768 in Edinburgh (Great Britain), then in the London. With nach. 20 century actually the britano-American issuing, with nach. 40th are issued by the American book-publishing firm " the British encyclopedia ". In 1974 there was a new, 15 issuing in 30 volumes (1 volume - "Propaedia", 10 volumes - "Micropaedia", 19 volumes - "Macropaedia"), are annually emited in the staticized reprint (in 1987 - in 32 vol.). Leave a year-book " the British encyclopedia " (with 1938), and also year-books on science, medicine... 2) the American book-publishing firm in Chicago, with nach. 40th of 20 century, branches in the London, Toronto, Geneva, Tokyo, Sydney, etc. Issues " the British encyclopedia ", and also branch encyclopedias, dictionarys, issuings for children and youthes, including the encyclopedia "Compton" ("Compton"), fiction, etc.
  • The BRITISH ISLANDS, between Atlantic ok. And Boreal m. Ok. 314,4 thousand êì2. On British isles - the states Great Britains and Ireland (2 like large islands), actuate groups Gebridskih, Orknejskih, islands Shetlendskih, and also island Anglesea, Maine, etc.
  • The BRITISH HONDURAS (British Honduras), the title of the state Belize up to 1973.
  • The BRITISH CONGRESS of the TRADE-UNIONS, the largest profobedinenie the Great Britain. It is based in 1868. It is connected to the Labour party. 8,4 million person (1990). Enters into the International confederated states of loose trade unions.
  • The BRITISH MUSEUM in the London, one of the largest museums of the world. It is based in 1753, it is open in 1759 (the building - 1823-47, architect R.Smerk). Monuments of virgin art, drevnevostochnoj and an ancient art and art, medieval art of Europe and the Orient; ethnographic monuments of Africa, America, Oceania; collection of drawings, gravures, manuscripts, ceramics, coins, medals.
  • The BRITISH COMMONWEALTH, see. Commonwealth.
  • " BRITISH AEROSPEJS " (British Aerospace), English aviaraketno-space and an automobile company largest in country in these branches. It is based in 1977, after nationalization of 4 main English air firms. In 1981 it is to denationalized (a part of shares has remained with the state). In 1988 has joined master national automobile company " a Rover grup ". Sales volume 10 billion dol., a net profit 278 million dol., figure occupied in 131 thousand person kon. 1980th.
  • " BRITISH PETROLEUM " (British Petroleum), the English petroleum company. It is based in 1909.38 % of shares belongs to the state. Gets petroleum in the USA (Alaska) (ok. 60 %) and in Boreal m. (ok. 40 %); processes in 25 countries. Sales volume 46,2 billion dol., a net profit 2,2 billion dol., a crude production 77,5 million t, a thorough revision 96,2 million t., figure occupied in 126 thousand person kon. 1980 gg..
  • BOREL (Borel) Emil (1871-1956), the French mathematician, foreign corresponding member AN the USSR (1929). Transactionses on a calculus, function theories, mathematical physics and a theory of probabilities.
  • BORESKOV George Konstantinovich (1907-84), Russian fizikohimik, academician AN the USSR (1966), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1967). Transactionses under the theory of a catalysis, mathematical modelling of industrial catalytic processes. Has developed new industrial catalysts. State premiums of the USSR (1942, 1953).
  • BORESKOV Michael Matveevich (1829-98), the Russian artificer officer, the general - lieutenant. Supervised over installation of mine-fields during Crimean (1853-56) and russko-turkish (1877-78) wars. Has offered a method of calculation of charges for blasting (formula Boreskova).
  • The FIGHTER, in botany - the same, that an aconite.
  • BORETSKIE (Isakovy), family of the Novgorod boyars of 15 century. Are known: 1) Isaak Andreevich (? - ok. 1460), sedate posadnik in 1438-1439 and 1453; his wife - Martha Posadnitsa... 2) Dmitry Isaakovich (? - 1471), sedate posadnik in 1471, it is captivated in SHelonskoj to battle and it is executed by Ivan III;.. 3) Feodor Isaakovich, arrested for activity hostile to Moscow.
  • BORZHOMI, city (with 1921) in Georgia, on r. The hen. A railway junction. 19,3 thousand inhabitants (1991). Balneal and a climatic health resort. Factory on spreading capacity of mineral waters. Theatre. A study of local lore museum.
  • BORZHOMSKOE the GORGE, a gorge r. The hen, between Meshetskim and Trialetskim hr. On M.Kavkaze, in Georgia. Depth up to 1500 m, length of 60 kms. Broad-leaved and coniferous forests.
  • BORZNA, city (with 1966) on Ukraine, the Chernigov region, in 14 kms from zh.-d. An item. The daughter. 12,7 thousand inhabitants (1991). A brick - kiln, the alimentary enterprises. It is based in 16 century.
  • BORZOV Alexander Aleksandrovich (1874-1939), the Russian fiziko-geographer, the geomorphologist. The professor of the Moscow state university (with 1918), the honored worker of science of Russia (1935). Has placed some regularities of development of erosive and morainal landscapes of plains, the causes of education of asymmetry of valleys and interfluves.
  • BORZOV Valery Filippovich (r. 1949), the Ukrainian sportsman (track and field), the deserved master of sport (1970). The champion of Olympic Games (1972), the repeated champion of Europe and the USSR (in 1969-76) in trot race on 100 and 200 m. the President of National Olympic committee of Ukraine (with 1991).
  • BORZOV Ivan Ivanovich (1915-74), the commander, marshal of aircraft (1972). The hero of Soviet Union (1944). During Great Domestic war has committed 147 sorties.
  • BORZOI, group of breeds of hunting dogs of an ancient origin. From major (over 20) figures of breeds slavjatsja Russian borzoi, differ speed trot race. Hunt with a borzoi (for a hare, the fox, the wolf, etc.) routinely top part (having 2-3 and more dogs).
  • BORI, village in Karagaulskom r-not Georgia where it is open (nach. 20 century) the burial of the first centuries n. e. With affluent funeral stock: weapons, golden and silver ware, dressings, etc.
  • BORIDES, chemical combinations of a milletgrass with metals. Crystals, adamantine, high-melting, heat resisting. Components solid and high-temperature alloys, refractories, antiwear coatings, cathodes of electronic devices.
  • BORATING, saturation of a surface of items from steel and some other metals a milletgrass for increase of hardness, a heat-resistance and wear-resistance (primarily abrasive).
  • BORIS (?-1015), prince Rostov, the son of prince Vladimir I. It is killed by adherents Svjatopolka I. Together with brother Glebom it is sainted Russko-orthodox.
  • BORIS I (?-907), the Bulgarian prince in 852-889. In 864 has entered christianity (on an orthodox sample).
  • BORIS III (1894-1943), tsar of Bulgaria in 1918-43. Promoted tumble (1923) A.Tsankova. Conducted pro-German foreign policy.
  • BORIS ALEKSANDROVICH (?-1461), grand duke Tver with 1425. In the union with Dmitry Shemjakoj struggled against Vasily of II Dark, has reconciled from nymas later. Wared against Novgorod (1446). Under his order the annals stating a world history up to 1453 has been constituted.
  • BROWN (Brown) (Brown) Robert (1773-1858), English botanik, foreign corresponding member (1826) and the honorary member (1827) Petersburg AN. Has described a nucleus of a plant cell and a structure of a seedbud. Has placed the main distinctions between gymnosperm and pokrytosemennymi plants (1825), has discovered a Brownian movement (1827).
  • BROWN (Browne) Ð., see Brown R.
  • BROWNS Peter Ivanovich (1852/53-1927), the Russian meteorologist, one of founders of an agrometeorology, corresponding member AN the USSR (1925; corresponding member Petersburg AN with 1916, corresponding member Russian AN with 1917). Has entered (1910) concept of a "outside" (geographycal) environment of the Earth.
  • BROWNIAN MOVEMENT (braunovskoe motion), random motion of ultimate particles, fluidized in a liquid or gas, under influence of impacts of molecules of an environment; it is open by R.Brounom.
  • BROWN - SEKAR (Brown-Sequard) Charles (1817-94), the French physiologist and the neurologist. The main transactionses on physiology and a pathology of central nervous system. Probeed physiology of the endocrine glands, "rejuvenating" action on an organism of the person of an extract from seed plants animal.
  • BROH (Broch) Hermann (1886-1951), the Austrian writer. In novels "Lunatics" (1931-32), " Mors Vergilija " (1945), the anti-fascist novel "Adversary" (1953) has shown devaluation of traditional values in the modern world.
  • BROSHKEVICH (Broszkiewicz) Hedgehogs (r. 1922), the Polish writer, the playwright. Roman about F.Shopene " the Mode of love " (1950), dilogija " Ten precepts " (1970-71), the psychologic novel "Doctor Tvardovsky" (1977-79); plays of a morally - philosophical problematics.
  • BROOCH (frants. broche), a dressing with a fastener for prikalyvanija it to a coat frock for a neck, on a breast or on a collar.
  • The BOOKLET (frants. brochure), printed publicity material of small volume (in international practice from 5 up to 48 pages).
  • STITCHING PROCESSES (broshjurovka) (from frants. brocher - to crosslink, clamp), machining of stamped leafs at manufacturing booklets, log-books, books. The main operations: razrezka and a fillister of leafs, apposition of secondary members (case histories, fly-leafs, etc.), acquisition of writing-books in the unit and their binding.
  • BRUGMAN (Brugmann) Charles (1849-1919), german jazykoved, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1893). One of founders mladogrammatizma. Transactionses on comparative grammar indoevropejskih tongues.
  • BROODER (English brooder, from brood - to sit on eggs), the device for a heating of young plants of an agricultural bird in the first weeks of life. A roof hood of the pyramid-shaped form inside which the defroster is built.
  • BRUEVICH Nikolay Grigorjevich (1896-1987), the Russian scientist, academician AN the USSR (1942), the general - lieutenant of an engineering - air service (1944). One of creators of the theory of accuracy and reliability of machines and devices.
  • BROOK (Brooke) Alan Frensis (1883-1963), the British field marshal (1944). In 2-¯ world war the commander of the English body in France, in 1940-41 parent states commanding by a troops, in 1941-46 chief of an imperial General Staff.
  • BROOK (Broek Van den) Antonius van den (1870-1926), the Netherlands lawyer (the doctor of the right, 1895) and physics. Up to 1903 was engaged in legal practice, then his interests have transferred in range of natural sciences. The main transactionses are connected to study of a structure of an atomic kernel, isotopism. In 1913 has made a hypothesis, according to which nuclear charge of atom numerically is peer to a serial number of the conforming element a periodic system.
  • BROOK Isaak Semenovich (1902-74), the Russian scientist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1939). The main transactionses on electrical power systems, a computer.
  • BROOKITE, mineral of subclass of simple oxides, one of 3 natural polymorphic updatings TiO2.
  • BRUKNER (Brookner) Anita (r. 1928), the English writer. Psychologic novels "Hotel" For lake " (1984, premium Bukera), "Mismarriage" (1986), " Serotinal stay " (1988), etc.
  • BRUKNER (Bruckner) Anton (1824-96), the Austrian composer, the organist, the teacher. One of the largest symphonists 2-nd floor. 19 century of 11 concordances, 4 masses, the Requiem mass (1849). A magnificat (1852), songs, etc.
  • WART, noninflammatory nodous skinning of a virus etiology. Place more often on paintbrushes, autopodiums, a face.
  • WART (Nerodich) JAtsko (?-1621), the hetman of Zaporozhye cossacks, the chief of popular uprising 1619-21. It is executed under the order of hetm P.Sagajdachnogo.
  • BORODAVOCHNIK, not ruminant cloven-hoofed animal of a set of pigs. Length of a body up to 1,5 m. Dwell in savannahs and open forests of Africa (to the south from Sahara). Object of a hunt (meat, a leather).
  • BORODAVCHATKA, a fish of order skorpenoobraznyh. Length up to 40 see. The naked leather is coated with excrescences. In tropical waters Indian and Quiet ok. In the grounding of acanthous rays of a back fin venom glands, which poison it is hazardous.
  • BORODAJ Vasily Zaharovich (r. 1917), the Ukrainian sculptor, the national artist of the USSR (1977), the full member AH the USSR (1973). The generalized under the form portraits (P.G.Tychiny, 1963). One of writers of the building of the Ukrainian museum of a history of Great Domestic war 1941-45 in Kiev (1981; the Lenin premium, 1984).
  • BEARDED REBOUND LANDING, the same, that bezoarovyj rebound landing.
  • BORODIN Alexander Parfenjevich (1848-98), the Russian engineer and the scientist, one of founders of the Russian locomotive building. Brother I.P.Borodina. Has created (1880-82) first-ever laboratory of tests of steam locomotives.
  • BORODIN Alexander Porfirjevich (1833-87), the Russian composer and the scientist - chemist. The member " Mighty kuchki ". Opera " Prince Igor " (N.A.Rimskim-Korsakovym and A.K.Glazunovym is completed, 1890) - a sample of the national heroic epos in music. One of creators of the Russian classical concordance (2-n, "Powerful", 1876, unblocking geroiko-epicheskoe a direction in Russian simfonizme; a symphonic pattern " In Central Asia ", 1980), Russian classical string quartet. The master of vocal lyrics (" For coasts of fatherland dalnoj "); has entered into a romance modes of a folk epic, has embodied liberation ideas of 60th of 19 century (" Latent knjazhna ", " the Song of a dark wood "). The writer of many transactionses on an organic chemistry. Has developed methods of obtaining bromzameshchennyh (1861) and acid fluorides (1862) organic acids. Has discovered (1872, odnovremennlo from S.A.Vjurtsem) aldolnuju condensation.
  • BORODIN Ivan Parfenjevich (1847-1930), Russian botanik, academician AN the USSR (1925; the academician Petersburg AN with 1902, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science with 1917). Brother A.P.Borodina. Transactionses on physiology of respiration, anatomy and a plant ecology. The writer of known tutorials, including " the Brief tutorial of botany " (10 issuings in 1888-1911), popular scientific activities. The founder (1915) and the first president of Russian botanical society. One of pioneers of conservation movement in Russia.
  • BORODIN Leonid Ivanovich (r. 1938), the Russian writer, the publicist. With 1965 participat in "social - Christian" motion; in 1967-73 and 1982-87 political prisoner. It was published abroad: the story "Version" (1978; the hero - the political terrorist), the story of "Game rule" (1978; a camp theme), " the Third truth " (1981; phylums of the Russian righteous man and "rebel") - about social and moral banefulness of an atheistic communist mode and opposition to him of intelligent and the muzhik; "Parting" - the novel of condemnation and regret about metropolitan intelligent, the dissident on ideas, about the conformist on a mode of life. In novel "Bozhepolje" (1993) - a pattern of " a reorganization landslide ". With 1992 managing editor of the log-book "Moscow"; in publicism - orientation to revitalization proof Russian the mandatory powers on the orthodox basis.
  • BORODIN Paul Dmitrievich (r. 1911), the organizer of manufacture, the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1966). In 1963-82 director of the Moscow car factory him. I.A.Lihacheva. State premiums of the USSR (1971, 1981).
  • BORODIN Sergey Petrovich (1902-74), the Russian writer, the national writer of Uzbekistan (1973). The historical novel "Dmitry Donskoj" (1941; the State premium of the USSR, 1942), the trilogy " Asters above Samarkand " (1953-73).
  • BORODINO, city (with 1981) in the Russian Federation, Krasnoyarsk kr. 18,8 thousand inhabitants (1992). Production of brown coal; machining of mica.
  • BORODINO, village in Mozhaisk r-not the Moscow region about which in 1812 there was a Borodino battle. Military - historical museum - reservation and monuments of military glory.
  • BORODOVSKY Vasily Andreevich (1874-1914), the Russian radiochemist. For the first time has shown (1910), that absorption of beta-rays by a mass unit of a chemical element directly proportional to the radical cubic of atomic weight of an element (t. n. Law Borodovskogo). This discovering has allowed to determine the size atomic weight of elements. Probeed radioactive residues after extraction of uranium from the Fergana ores, has found in them radium. With 1912 managed chemical laboratory of the Main bureau of standards.
  • BORODULIN Rygor (Grigory) Ivanovich (r. 1935), the Byelorussian poet. Collections of lyrical verses and poems " Month above steppe " (1959) "To turn green, blossom, be poured" (1961), " the Root of thy eyes " (1976), " the Holiday of a bee " (1980).
  • FURROW, the flute derivated by tilling or other instrument, for water drainage from fields at an overmoistening, watering in an irrigation farming and for crop of agricultural crops.
  • BOROMSKY RESERVATION, in Georgia, in spurs of a mountain Adzharo-Imeretinskogo hr. It is based in 1935. The area 18048 ga. Woods from an oak, eastern spruce, Caucasian fir, a beech eastern. The Caucasian deer, the bear, wood and stone martens, Caucasian protein.
  • HARROW, farm implement for a harrowing of soil. Distinguish a harrow zubovye (finger, the knife, rotated, etc.) and disk.
  • BRASSAJ (Brassai) (an ice-film. A name and fam. Djula Halas) (1899-1984), the French photographer of the Hungarian origin. Has arrived to Paris in 1923 where worked the press photographer. A series of photos of life of night Paris (" Bizhu on Montmartre ", 1933) is most known.
  • BRASSENS (Brassens) George (1921-81), the French chansonnier, the poet, the composer, a film actor. On a platform with 1952. Many songs on natural texts.
  • BRASSER (Brasseur) Pierre (1905-72), the French actor. On the scene with 1925 (" Theatres of parkways ", etc., Paris). It was taken out in films: " Embankment of fogs ", " Children paradise apple ", " On surburb of Paris ", " the Strong of the world this ", etc.
  • BRATANOV Cyril (1911-86), the Bulgarian stock breeder, foreign member VASHNIL (1967). Transactionses on biology, a pathology, an immunology, reproduction agricultural animal.
  • BRATINA, Russian ball-shaped vessel of 16-17 centuries for a drinking on bratchinnyh feastings (" on all conventual community ") from a tree, copper, silver, gold.
  • BRATISLAVA (Bratislava), capital of Slovakia, a port on Danube. 441 thousand inhabitants (1990). An international airport. Center chemical and a petrochemical industry. A machine industry, flavoring, textile, sewing, a printing industry. University. Slovak AN. Slovak national passageway. With 1541 capital of the Hungarian kingdom; exposed to german colonization (from 13 century german title Presburg, Pre? burg). With 1.1.1919 Bratislava - main city of Slovakia. The clasp the Hail (9-18 centuries), residues of urban strengthening (13-18 centuries), Gothic churches (over. Martina, 13-19 centuries), palaces in styles of Baroque and a classicism.
  • BRATISLAVSKY UNIVERSITY him. J.A.Komenskogo, Slovakia (Czechoslovakia), is based in 1919. In 1991 over 18 thousand students.
  • BRATSK, city (with 1955) in the Russian Federation, Irkutsk region, a port on Bratsk water reservoir. A depot. 259,4 thousand inhabitants (1992). A timber industry complex. Factories: aluminium, a power machine industry, etc. Industrial institute. Theatre. Has arisen in connection with construction of the Brotherly river plant to the north of an arcaded settlement Bratsk (it is based in 1631 as gaffs), drowned waters of Brotherly water reservoir.
  • " BROTHERLY DEMOCRATS ", an international society in the London (1845-53). It is based left-handed chartistami and revolutionary emigrants. Chiefs - Dzh. Garni, E.Dzhons.
  • " BROTHERLY PEOPLE ", the Russian title the Buryat in 17-18 centuries.
  • BROTHERLY SCHOOLS, 1) vsesoslovnye educational institutions in 16-18 centuries at brotherhoods. An initial stage - the letter, singing under notes; the higher - slavonic, Grecian, latin and other tongues, grammar, rhetoric, poetics, elements of mathematics and philosophy; orthodox religion... 2) In the Volga region in 1867-1913 missionary elementary schools " Brotherhoods over. Gurija ".
  • BROTHERLY WATER RESERVOIR, on r. Angara. It is derivated by a dam of a like river plant. It is filled in in 1961-67. The area 5470 êì2, water volume 169,3 êì3. 2 main of a reach: on r. Angara length of 500 kms, an extreme breadth of 33 kms; on r. Oka length of 370 kms. Navigation. It is used for a floating, water supply. Fishery. A port Bratsk.
  • BROTHERHOODS, national - religious and educational public organizations of 15-18 centuries at orthodox tserkvah Belarus, Ukraine, Lithuania, Czechia (Lvov, it is based 1586; Kiev, 1615; Lutskaja, 1624, etc.). Struggled against national oppression and violent okatolichivanija the orthodox population. On structure reminded urban operations, had charters. Unclosed schools, printing houses, kollegiumy.
  • BRATTEJN (Brattain) Uolter (1902-87), American physics. Has discovered (1948) together with Dzh. Bardin the full-transistorized effect also has created the first transistor. The Nobel Prize (1956, together with Dzh. Bardin and U.Shokli).
  • BRATUS Sergey Nikitich (r. 1904), the Russian lawyer, doctor of juridical science, the honored worker of science of Russia (1960). Transactionses on a general theory of the right and the Soviet civic right.
  • BRATUHIN Ivan Pavlovich (1903-85), the designer, the scientist in range of a helicopter construction, Dr.Sci.Tech. (1962). Worked in a TsAGI, then in MAI where in developmental office under his guiding a number of helicopters has been exhausted by a small series, including "Omega". The state premium of the USSR (1946).
  • BRAUDO Isaj Aleksandrovich (1896-1970), the Russian organist, the pianist, the musicologist, the teacher, the honored worker of arts of Russia (1957), the doctor of art criticism (1965).
  • BRAULEZ (a pediculosis of bees), invazionnaja the disease called by the wingless fly - a bee louse. Workers are restless, a uterus terminate a laying of eggs, often perish.
  • BROWN (Braun) the Werner a background (1912-77), the designer of missiles. One of chiefs of the German military exploratory rocket-propelled centre in Penemjunde (1937-45) in which missile V-2 (Ôàó-2) has been built, applied by a german command for firing cities of the Great Britain and Belgium. With 1945 in the USA where under his guiding missiles "Redstoun" are developed, the "Jove", launchers of a series "Saturn", etc.
  • BRIANTSA (Brianza) Karlotta (1867-1930), the italian actress of ballet. Master solistka theatre " Ac the Rock ". In 1887-91 acted in Russia. The first performer of a consignment of the Aurora in ballet " the Latent beauty " P.I.Chajkovskogo.
  • BRIG (English brig, abbr. from ital. brigantino - a brigantine), 1) a marine sailing two-masted vessel with goosewings... 2) In a VTR - the battle sailing ship (18-19 centuries).
  • BRIGADE (frants. brigade).. 1) tactical connection in all kinds of armed forces, service arms (forces), a special troops; exists in different countries about 2-nd floor. 16 century, in Russia - with nach. 18 century. In a land forces will consist routinely of several batallions (divisions) and subdividings of a special troops. Can be separate or enter in a division... 2) the Group of faces in unison executing a fixed complex of activities.
  • The FOREMAN (a nem. Brigadier).. 1) an officer grade in Russian army in 18 century, intermediate between the colonel and the general - major; exists in English and other armies... 2) the Chief of a production team.
  • The BRIGADE COMMISSIONER, military rank (in 1935-42) the maximum political-military structure of Red Army and a VTR.
  • BRIGANTINE (from ital. brigantino).. 1) a marine sailing two-masted vessel with goosewings on a forward spar tree (foremast) and skew on rear (mainmast). In 17-19 centuries were used in a VTR... 2) Parusno-rowing in Russian fleet of 18 century for a troop movement and freights in offshore areas; had 2-3 instruments.
  • BRIGGEN (Brigen) Alexander Fedorovich (1792-1859), the decembrist, the colonel in demission. The participant of Domestic war of 1812 and oversea marchings. The member of " Soyuz of prosperity " and Boreal society of decembrists. It is convicted on 2 years of penal servitude. With 1827 in Nerchinskih mines, in 1828-56 on a settlement in Pelyme, Kurgan.
  • BRIGITA (latinisen form Brigantia, from irl. Top), the goddess of the Celtic myths, daughter Dagdy, the goddess of wisdom, the patroness of poetic handcraft and secret knowledge. It was figured in a mode of a bird with a human head.
  • BREEDER (English breeder), a version of the reactor - razmnozhitelja.
  • BRIDGE (English bridge, characters. - the bridge), a version of gambling (2 pairs playing) with a pack from 52 maps. Has arisen presumably in Constantinople (in 1870), under other data - in Russia (in 1880th). The sporting version of a bridge is most distributed. World league of a bridge (WBF; it is based in 1960) integrates 96 countries (1990). The european league of a bridge is based in 1948, the All-Russia league of a sporting bridge - in 1989. Olympic world championships - with 1950, Europe - with 1932 are carried out with 1960.
  • SERVICE BREECHES (from English breeches), the trousers, fitting a shin and little bit extending up. Them have routinely with boots (napr., at a horseback riding). In some armies a fitting of an officer service dress.
  • The BRIDGEMAN (Bridgman) Persi Williams (1882-1961), American physics and the philosopher. The founder of high-pressure physics, has developed methods for obtaining pressure up to 425 thousand atmospheres, probeed properties of many substances at high pressure (the Nobel Prize, 1946). One of creators operatsionalizma.
  • BRIDGEPORT (Bridgeport), city and a port on north-east the USA, pieces. Connecticut. 142 thousand inhabitants (1990, with suburbs over 400 thousand inhabitants). A machine industry and metal working, a chemical industry. Universities.
  • BRIDGETOWN (Bridgetown), capital and a main port of Barbados. 97,5 thousand inhabitants (1990, with suburbs). An international airport. Flavoring, a light industry.
  • BRIEDE (Briede) Alexander (r. 1901), the Latvian sculptor, the national artist of the USSR (1972), corresponding member AH (1958). Chamber and monumental statues, gravestones in Riga, portraits, small-sized porcelain a plastic.
  • BRIER (Brierre) Jean (r. 1909), the haitian poet and the public figure. Writes in French. Patriotic dramas in verses, poems " Black a shower " (1947), "Discoverings" (1962); the collection of verses " we Shall save the god " (1945) Z.Rumenu, " Other world " (1973), " Figures from clay and gold " (1977) is dedicated.
  • BRISANCE (from frants. brisant - dividing), ability of blasting explosives to effect at explosion aboriginal cleavage of a solid medium, accumbent directly to a charge. Industrial blasting explosives have brisance of 7-30 mm.
  • BLASTING BLASTING EXPLOSIVES, class of blasting explosives, which explosive metamorphosis weeps in the form of a knocking. Apply to equipment of an ammunition, primers - detonators and at blasting.
  • BORISEVICH Nikolay Aleksandrovich (r. 1923), physics, the academician (1969) and president AN of Belarus (1969-87; with 1992 honorary president), the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR 1981), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1978). The main transactionses on a luminescence, infrared spectroscopy, a quantum electronics. The lenin premium (1980), the State premium of the USSR (1973).
  • BORISLAV, city (with 1940) on Ukraine, the Lvov region. A depot. 41,1 thousand inhabitants (1991). Chemical, a light industry; factories: porcelain, synthetic diamonds and diamond tool; furniture factory, etc. It is known about 1387. Bliz Borislavs a crude production, native paraffine.
  • BORISOV, city (with 1795) in Belarus, the Minsk region. A depot. 150,2 thousand zhitielej (1991). A machine industry (a software "Screen", etc.), wood-working, chemical and himiko-pharmacological, alimentary, a light industry; manufacture of musical instruments, flint glass, etc. The Study of local lore museum. It is based in 1102, with kon. 12 century belonged to Lithuania, then Poland, with 1793 in Russian empire.
  • BORISOV Alexander Alekseevich (1866-1934), the Russian artist. The pupil and the continuer of tradition A.I.Kuindzhi. As a result of traveling on tundra, coasts of White m. and Ledovitogo ok. On It is new. The Earth has become in the landscapes the pioneer of Far North for Russian from - art.
  • BORISOV Alexander Fedorovich (1905-82), the Russian actor, the national actor of the USSR (1951), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1981). With 1928 at the Leningrad theatre him. Pushkin. It was taken out in films: " the Academician Ivan of Pauls ", "Musorgsky", etc. State premiums of the USSR (1947, 1950, 1951 - doubly).
  • BORISOV Vasily Ivanovich (r. 1939), the scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991). The main transactionses on a PLL of frequency, method broadband and shumopodobnyh signals, development of frequency synthesizers. The state premium of the USSR (1983)
  • BORISOV Leonid Iljich (1897-1972), the Russian writer. Started as the poet. Popularity was received after the publication of the novel with " Course by a horse " (1927). At the centre of many products - life of Russian and foreign writers and composers (A.Green, Z.Vern, R.Stevenson, S.V.Rakhmaninov, etc.). Books: " Nezakatnoe the sun " (1940), " the Wizard from the Jelly - Gju " (1945), " Flying the flag Katriony " (1957), " the on heart " (1966), etc.
  • BORISOV Oleg (Albert) Ivanovich (1929-94), the Russian actor, the national actor of the USSR (1978). On the scene with 1951. With 1964 at the Leningrad Major drama theatre him. Bitter (Grigory Melehov in " Quiet Don " on M.A.Sholokhov, etc.), in 1983-1989 in Moskovsk Art Academic theatre (about 1987 Moscow Art Academic theatre him. CHehova), with 1989 at Central Academic theatre of the Soviet Army (about 1993 Central Academic theatre of the Russian Army) (Paul in " Paul I " D.S.Merezhkovsky). To the game of Borisov the intellectual sharpness, thinness of a psychologic manner, use of methods of a block type are peculiar. It was taken out in films: " the train ", "Gardener", "Servant" Has stayed, etc. State premiums of the USSR (1978, 1991), the State premium of the Russian Federation (1991).
  • BORISOV Trofim Mihajlovich (1882-1941), the Russian writer. In the prose noted by oof of Russian and workshops by the plotting of a nature, reverts to life of fishermen on the Siberian rivers and Quiet ok. Books: " Secret of small small river " (1927), " On broad reaches of Amur " (1938), " On coasts of Kamchatka " (1939), etc.
  • BORISOV Julia Konstantinovna (r. 1925), the Russian actress, the national actress of the USSR (1969), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1985). With 1949 at Theatre him. Vahtangova. (Valka in " the Irkutsk history " A.N.Arbuzova, 1959, Nastasja Filippovna in "Idiot" on F.M.Dostoevskomu, 1958, Kleopatra in " Anthonies and Kleopatre " U.Shakespeare, 1971). It was taken out in films " Three meetings ", "Idiot", " the Salting of Soviet Union ", etc. The State premium of the Russian Federation (1994).
  • BORISOGLEBSK, city (with 1698) in the Russian Federation, the Voronezh region, on r. A crow. A depot. 72,0 thousand inhabitants (1991). A machine industry (factory of a chemical machine industry, etc.), mild, a food-processing industry. Pedagogical institute. Theatre. A study of local lore museum.
  • BORISOGLEBSK, city in 1777-1822, is joint since. Novels to novel - Borisoglebsk (with 1918 - Tutaev).
  • BORISPOL, city (with 1956) on Ukraine, the Kiev region, in 35 kms to a southeast from Kiev. A depot. 52 thousand inhabitants (1991). An international airport of Kiev. The enterprises alimentary, mild, a building materials of an industry. It is known with 1590.
  • BORISFEN, the ancient greek title r. Dnepr and about. Berezan.
  • BORISJAK Alexey Alekseevich (1872-1944), the Russian geologist and a paleontologist, academician AN the USSR (1929), the chapter of domestic scientific school of paleontology of vertebrates. The initiator of building and the first director of Paleontologic institute AN of the USSR (with 1930). The main transactionses on tertiary mammals, jurskim to Invertebrata. The state premium of the USSR (1943).
  • BORKOVSKY Victor Ivanovich (1900-82), Russian jazykoved, academician AN the USSR (1972). Probeed a history of syntax of east - slavonic tongues, including old russian tongue, Russian dialects. The linguistic analysis of the Novgorod birch-bark letters. The state premium of the USSR (1970).
  • BORKOLDOJ, a backbone in Internal Tjan-Shang. Length ok. 100 kms. An altitude up to 5049 m. Semidesert vegetation. On boreal downslope icehouses.
  • BRUKNER Ferdinand (an ice-film. A name and fam. Teodor Tagger, Tagger) (1891-1958), the Austrian writer. An acute psychologic conflictness in anti-fascist dramas " Elizabeth English " (1930), " the Heroic comedy " (production in 1942), " Simon the Bolivar " (1945).
  • The BROOKS (Brooks) Van Vick (1886-1963), the American literary critic. It is close to cultural - historical school. Books " Lawful age of America " (1915), " M.Twain Torture " (1920), and also about G.James, G.Melville, R.U.Emerson. A cycle of activities about a becoming of the American literary tradition and its value for a modernity.
  • The BROOKS (Brooks) Gvendolin (r. 1917), the afro-American poetess. Collections of verses " Street in Brounzville " (1945), " Mouths to feed of a bean " (1960), the anthology " World Gvendolin the Brooks " (1971). The autobiographical book " Statements from a part first " (1972).
  • The BROOKS (Brooks; an ice-film. Name Melvin Kaminski, Kaminsky) the Chalk (r. 1926), the American continuity writer, the producer, the actor, the producer. Has become it is known as the writer of parodies to popular Hollywood genres - a western (" Blazing saddle ", 1973), films of horrors (" Pullet Frankenshtejn ", 1974, " Pavor of an altitude ", 1977), etc.
  • The BROOKS the BACKBONE (Brooks Range), in the Sowing. To America, in a north of Alaska. Length ok. 1000 kms. An altitude up to 2761 m. Mountain tundra.
  • BRUKHEJVENSKAJA the NATIONAL LABORATORY (Brookhaven National Laboratory) the Energy Research and Development Administration the USA, is based in 1947 (about. Lond Island, pieces. New York). Probes on a nuclear energy, radiation medicine, etc.
  • BRUKHEJZEN (Broekhuizen) Joan van (1649-1707), the Netherlands soldier and the poet. Commentator Propertsija and Tibulla. Books "Verses" (1677, in the Netherlands tongue), "Poems" (1684, in latin tongue).
  • BRUM (Brum) Baltasar (1883-1933), the president of Uruguay in 1919-23, with 1913 on different portfolios. The adherent of reforms Batlje-i-Ordonjesa. Has committed suicide in a mark of the protest against establishment in country in 1933 dictatorships.
  • BRUMBERG Eugeny Mihajlovich (1907-77), the Russian engineer, the expert in range of optical instrumentation technologies. Has created a number of original optical devices: ultrahemiskop (the device for a development hromogramm in ultraviolet rays), a ultrofioletovyj-microscope. Has developed the method of a contact luminescent microscopy used at study of a microstructure of microscopic sections of organs and tissues of the person and animal. The state premium of the USSR (1942).
  • BRUNGILDA (Brunhilde) (ok. 534-613), frankskaja queen, with 575 actually steered Avstraziej. Combated king Nejstrii Hilperikom I and his wife Fredegondoj and with avstrazijskoj znatju. Has sufferred a defeat. It is executed.
  • BRUNGILDA (Brjunhilda), in the Scandinavian mythology one of valkiry; in german " Songs about Nibelungah " the queen of Iceland becoming suprugoj Guntera, king burgundov; vinovnitsa morses Zigfrida.
  • BRUNEI, Brunei Darussalam (Brunei Darussalam), the state in JUgo-Vost. Asia, on northwest coast about. Kalimantan. 5,8 thousand êì2. The population of 275 thousand person (1993); primarily malayans, and also Chinese, dajaki, etc. The Urban population of 90 % (1993). Official languages - malayan and English. The majority of believers - moslems - sunnity. Capital - Bandar Seri Begawan. Enters into Commonwealth. Brunei - the constitutional monarchy (sultanat). The chief of state - the anthurus. A large part of a surface - plain. A climate equatorial. An air temperature all the year ok. 26 °S. A rainfall 2000 - 4000 mm annually. St. 75 % of terrain take the wet tropical forests. In 1888-1983 British protectorate. On January, 1 1984 independence of Brunei is professed. The basis of economy - a crude production, manufacture of liquified gas. A lobe in a gross internal product (1990, %) an industry 41,6, an agriculture 2,1. Cultivate rice, a sago palm; Plantations of rubber plants. Animal husbandry. Timber loggings. Oil processing. A principal view of the transport - river navigation. An expansion (1990) railways of 19 kms, motorways of 2,2 thousand in km. Export: the petroleum, the liquefied natural gas, petroleum, rubber, saw-timber. The main foreign trade partners: Japan, JUzh. Korea, Singapore. Monetary unit - dollar of Brunei.
  • BRUNELLESKI (Brunelleschi) Filippo (1377-1446), the italian architect, the sculptor, the scientist. Worked in Florence. One of creators of the architecture of Revitalization and the theory of a linear perspective. Innovatively used antique traditions. Products Brunelleski differ harmonic clearness, strictness of proportions, perfection of construction solutions (a dome of a cathedral Santa-mary del Fjore, 1420-36; Ospedale delji Innochenti, 1421-44; chapel Patstsi, 1429, - all in Florence).
  • BRUNER (Bruner) Dzherom Sejmur (r. 1915), the American psychologist. One of the first beginnings of probe of requirements and values as organizing factors of perception. Transactionses on problems of education.
  • BRUNI Lion Aleksandrovich (1894-1948), the Russian artist, in the 1910-beginning of 1920th bordered on to futurism and constructivism, creating counterreliefs and pointless compositions. The virtuoso of drawing, a light colour stain, has transfered to more traditional painting and the schedule (including to landscapes of desert Optinoj) in spirit of " quiet art " later. Was also the master of monumental painting (in 1935-48 headed the conforming studio at Academy of the architecture), developing here again principles alien to semi-official organ free, rhythmically - refined creativity.
  • BRUNI (Bruni) Leonardo (a nickname - Aretino) (1370 or 1374-1444), the italian humanist. Settled idea of full growth of the personality, condemned asceticism. The convinced republican, the opponent of tyranny. The writer of products " the History of Florence " (t. 1-12, 1439), " Life Dante ", " Petrarca Life ".
  • BRUNI Feodor Antonovich (1799-1875), the Russian historical painter. Combined elements of a classicism and romanticism (" the Copper snake ", 1827-41). With kon. 1840th the chapter of Russian academism (paintings Isaakievskogo of a cathedral in Saint Petersburg, 1841-45).
  • BRUNNER (Brunner) Genrih (1840-1915), the german historian, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1908). Transactionses on a history of the state and the right of an early West-European Middle Ages. The adherent of the communal theory.
  • BRUNNER Emil (1889-1966), the Swiss Protestant theologian, the representative of dialectic theology.
  • BOTSMANMAT (from the boatswain and niderl. maat - the mate), in Russian fleet with kon. 17 century on 1917 rank of front corporal of 1-st article.
  • BOTSU (Botu) Paul Petrovich (1933-87), the Moldavian writer. Collections of lyrical verses " the Earth fathers " (1959), " the Dwelling in Budzhake " (1973), " the Crane root " (1978), "Swearing" (1981). Stories.
  • DEEP POOL, 1) a steep place in the river... 2) Small lake, the rest of the drying up river; routinely bochagi place a chain.
  • COOPERS Anatoly Georgievich (r. 1922), the Russian critic, the literary critic. In articles and books about the multinational literature of the Soviet season (" the Exacting love ", 1977, " Than is alive the literature?.. ", 1986, " the Literature and time ", 1988, etc.) investigates regularities and tendencies of the modern literary process. Separate activities are dedicated Em. Kazakevichu (1965), to V.S.Grossman (1970.).
  • COOPERS Michael Ilyich (1831-95), the Russian theatrical artist. The representative of serotinal romanticism (M.P.Musorgsky opera " Boris Godunov " in Mariinsk theatre in Saint Petersburg, 1874).
  • COOPERS Sergey Georgievich (r. 1929), the Russian literary critic. The main transactionses on poetics and histories of the Russian literature (including about A.S.Pushkin, N.V.Gogole, F.M.Dostoevskom, K.N.Leontjeve, A.P.Platonove).
  • BOCHVAR Anatoly Mihajlovich (1870-1947), Russian metalloved, the professor, the honored worker of science and technique of Russia (1933). Has created a number new (antifrictional, etc.) alloys.
  • BOCHVAR Andrey Anatoljevich (1902-84), Russian metalloved, academician AN the USSR (1946), doubly the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1949, 1953). Son A.M.Bochvara. The main transactionses on crystallization, casting characteristics, recrystallizations and high-temperature strengthes of non-ferrous metals and alloys, to a physical metallurgy of uranium and plutonium. The lenin premium (1961), State premiums of the USSR (1941, 1949, 1951, 1953).
  • BARREL, in Russian stone and wooden 17-18 architecture of centuries a roof in the form of a semicylinder with the heightened and cuspidate top part, generatrix on a front a keeled frontispice. Traverse of two barrels will derivate kubovatoe cover.
  • BARREL, Russian arcaded volume measure of liquids, to equal 40 pails (491,96 ë).
  • BARREL, figure of flying - a complete revolution of an airplane (water elm) around of a centerline.
  • BARREL ROAD, the metal float bolstering a circuit (bridle), going from the anchor of major mass superjacent on a ground ("mooring anchor"). Barrels road establish for parking courts outside of berthes.
  • BOCHKAI (Bocskai) Ishtvan (1557-1606), the chief antigabsburgskogo motions of 1604-06 peasants, town-dwellers, parts of nobility in the Hungarian kingdom. Has released of the Austrian troops a considerable proportion of a kingdom. In 1606 has signed the Austrian world keeping a number of concessions Gabsburgov Hungarian znati.
  • BOTCHKAREV Ellin Petrovich (r. 1926), the Russian metallurgist, corresponding member Russian AN (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1981). Transactionses on technology of rare metals and semiconductive materials. The lenin premium (1964).
  • BOCHKIN Igor Ivanovich (r. 1957), the Russian actor. Worked in Moskovsk drama theatre him. N.V.Gogolja. At kino has created stored modes of contemporaries: Komsomol worker Nikolay Shumilina (" state of emergency of a regional scale ", 1989), Barhanova (" Crescent-shaped sand dunes and his bodyguard ", 1996), etc. The Title role in a teleserial " Gorjachev and other " (1992-94).
  • BOCHCHONI (Boccioni) Umberto (1882-1916), the italian artist. One of leaders of futurism. In his patterns the motive of overall construction, total transfiguration of the world dominates. In 1912 has addressed to a sculpture, aspiring directly to embody motive of motion, dynamic development of figures and things in the space. Has perished at the front 1-st world war.
  • BOSH (Bosch) Charles (1874-1940), the german chemist - technologist. Has created (1913) first plant of synthesis of ammonia under pressure on the iron catalyst. The Nobel Prize (1931, together with F.Bergiusom).
  • BOSHKOVICH (Boskovich) Rudzher Iosip (1711-87), physics, mathematician and the astronomer, the foreign honorary member Petersburg AN (1760). Was born in Dubrovnik (Dalmatia), worked in Italy and France. Basically transactionses " the Theory of natural philosophy... " (1758) has advanced the quality theory of a structure of substance and has stated a hypothesis about relation of character (an attraction or a repulsion) forces of interaction of particles from distance between them.
  • BOSHNJAK Nikolay Konstantinovich (1830-99), the Russian naval officer, the participant of expedition G.I.Nevelskogo. Probeed (1852) western shore of an island Sakhalin where has found hard-coal deposits. In 1853 has discovered convenient for parking fleet a bay - bay Hadzhi (nowadays the Soviet Haven), and also has constituted the description of the Tatar prol.
  • BOEF (3-2 centuries up to n. e.), the ancient greek sculptor, the moulder and torevt from Halkedona in Vifinii (M.Azija), son Afineja. Boefu the statue of the boy with the goose from temple Asklepija on Samos, known in numerous copies is attributed. It agrees Pliniju to the Higher, has created a statue Athenes in Lindose (Rhodes).
  • APPRAISAL OF QUALITY AGRICULTURAL ANIMAL, a complex assessment of them by origin, to an exterior, efficiency, a breeding capacity and quality of offspring. An appraisal of quality agricultural animal apply in breeding activity.
  • BONIFATSY I (Bonifatius) (mind. In 422), sacred, a dad Roman with 418. Was the presbyter in Rome; it is selected a part of Roman clergy simultaneously with anti-pope Evlaliem, has taken stand only in 419 when Evlaly has been ejected by emperor Gonoriem. Countersteered attempts of emperor Feodosiya II to subordinate Thessaloniki and Illyria konstantinopolskomu to the patriarch; has denounced pelagianstvo. Memory in the Latin church on September, 4.
  • BONIFATSY VIII (Bonifacius VIII) (ok. 1235-1303), Pope with 1294. Laid claim on the supremance of law above society sovereigns. Has sufferred a defeat in extirpation with the French king Phillip IV. Has entered into 1300 celebration of anniversary years.
  • BONIFACHO (Bonifacio), a channel between islands Corsicas and Sardinia, bridges Tirrenskoe and Mediterranean mm. Length ok. 19 kms, width of 12-16 kms, depth up to 69 m. A port - Bonifacho (Corsica).
  • BONIFICATION (frants. bonification, from compare - eyelids. An armour. bonifico - I improve), in a civic right - the extra charge to content the agreement to the price if the goods of higher quality are put. It is most widely applied in export trade.
  • BONN (Bonn), city in Germany, on terrains of ground Rhine - Vestfalija, a residence of government of Germany (1949-94), a port on r. Rhein. 296 thousand inhabitants (1992). An international airport. A machine industry (including electrotechnical), pharmacological, polygraphic, alimentary, a furniture industry. Underground railway. University. Urban art collections, etc. Beethoven Dwelling - museum (was born in Bonnet). It is known from 1 century. In 1273-1794 residence Cologne kurfjurstov. A Romanesque cathedral (11-13 centuries).
  • BONNAR (Bonnard) Pierre (1867-1947), the French painter. Team member "Nabi". Decorative - lyrical contemplative household scenes spirit of serotinal impressionism and "modernist style" (" Autumn. The tax of fruits ", 1912).
  • BONN (Bonnet) Charles (1720-93), the Swiss scientist and the philosopher, the foreign honorary member Petersburg AN (1764). Experimental activities on a parthenogenesis and regenerations; has formulated a generality of an asexual reproduction, regeneration and a transplantation, has marked, that the sexual reproduction increases a diversification. Has paralleled between thickening of an organism in an ontogenesis and along a ladder of entities.
  • BONNSKY UNIVERSITY (the Rhine university him. Fridriha Wilhelm), Germany, it is based in 1786. In 199040 thousand students.
  • BONNER Elena Georgievna (r. 1923), Russian public and the political figure, pravozashchitnitsa. The wife and the colleague of academician A.D.Saharova. The participant of Great Domestic war 1941-45. The writer of several books, memoirs. The winner of the premium of International fund him. Raulja Vallenberga.
  • BONOMI (Bonomi) Ivanoe (1873-1951), one of leaders of Italian socialist party, in 1912 is eliminated from it for support of italo-turkish war 1911-12; one of osnovatelej (together with Bissolati) the Socialist reformist consignment. In 1916-21 minister, in 1921-22 prime minister, in 1943-44, during occupation of Italy by a german troops, the chapter of Committee of national discharging, in 1944-45 prime minister.
  • BONTEMPELLI (Bontempelli) Massimo (1878-1960), the italian writer. The theorist "novechentizma" - a literary direction, close to futurism. Novels " the Son of two mothers " (1929), " People in time " (1937), combining a realistic manner with a grotesque fantasy.
  • BONUS (from an armour. bonus - good), in commerce - compensation, the premium.
  • BONDS - FRJAZIN, the italian architect kon. 15 - nach. 16 centuries. In 1505-08 has constructed the lower 3 storeys of a belltower of Ivan Great in Moskovsk the Kremlin.
  • BONHEFFER (Bonhoeffer) Ditrih (1906-45), the german Protestant seminary student and the church figure. One of chiefs " Ispovednicheskoj churches ", standing up to to a hitlerite mode and philosophy of national socialism. After arrest (April 1943) and the conclusions have been executed.
  • BONCH-BRUEVICH Vladimir Dmitrievich (1873-1955), the Russian political figure, the doctor of historical sciences. Brother M.D.Bonch-Bruevich. The organizer of lines bolshevistskih newspapers and publishing houses. In 1917-20 upravdelami Advice of National Commissioners. Then on scientific activity. Transactionses on a history revolutionary, religious - social movements in Russia.
  • BONCH-BRUEVICH Michael Aleksandrovich (1888-1940), the Russian scientist, one of pioneers of radio engineering, corresponding member AN the USSR (1931). Has organized the first domestic production of electron tubes (1916-1919). In 1918-28 chief of the Nizhniy Novgorod radiolaboratory. Under a guiding of Bonds - Bruevicha the first-ever potent radio broadcast station is built by him. Komintern in Moscow (1922). Transactionses on many problems of radio engineering.
  • BOETSY (Boetius, Boethius) Anitsy Manly Severin (ok. 480-524), the Christian philosopher and the Roman statesman. Approximated Teodoriha, it is accused of a plot against him, pending to execution wrote the main composition " Comfort philosophical ", were renowned in Middle Ages and rendered broad influence on the european literature. Has translated into on latin tongue logic compositions Aristotelja and the Porphyria, "Arithmetic" Nikomaha, "Beginnings" of Euclid. The writer kompiljativnogo the tract under the Grecian musical theory.
  • BOJADZHIEV Grigory Nersesovich (1909-74), the Russian theatrologist, the critic, the teacher, the doctor of art criticism, the professor. Among activities: " Poetry of theatre " (1960), "Moliere" (1967), " the Shower of theatre " (1974).
  • BOJADZHIEV Zlatju (1903-76), the Bulgarian painter. Reverting to traditions of art of Revitalization and national lubka, created epicheski the generalized scenes of national life, portraits, the landscapes distinguished by decorative effect of a composition, a sonority of colour.
  • BOJAN, archeologic crop of epoch of a neolith (4 thousand up to n. e.), in terrain of Romania, Bulgaria and Moldova. The title on an eskar. Bojan (Romania). Residues of settlements, ornamentirovannaja ceramics. An economy: agriculture, cattle breeding, a hunt, fishery.
  • BOJANUS (Bojanus) Ludwig Genrih (1776-1827), the anatomist and the zoologist, corresponding member Petersburg AN (1814). One of organizers of veterinary education in Russia. Transactionses on anatomy, an embryology, zoology, an epizootology and a zootechny.
  • BOJARDO (Boiardo) Matteo Maria, columns Skandiano (Scandiano) (1441-94), the italian poet. In a knightly poem " In love Roland " (1495, it is unfinished) elements of medieval legends and the court novel interlace; F.Berni is reworked. Lyrics, epigrammy, eclogues.
  • BOYARS.. 1) in Russia 9-17 centuries the maximum estate of feudal lords. In the Old russian state - descendants rodo-breeding znati, the higher combatants - vassals and members of a princely duma, large landowners. Had the vassals, were immune also the right of leaving to other knjazjam. In the season of feudal dissociation - the richest and most influential feudal lords, rivals of a princely authority. In the Novgorod republic actually steered the state. From 14 century of their right gradually limited knjazjami. At yards of grand dukes knew individual industries of a palace economy (acceptable boyars) and steering of the state territories. From 15 century in Russian state - the maximum of a peavine sluzhilyh people on fatherland, first a peavine of the Seignioral duma, took main administrative, judicial and military positions, headed orders, were voevodami. Were part of aristocracy. The rank is cancelled by Peter I in nach. 18 century in connection with liquidation of the Seignioral duma and process of reorganization of nobility.. .. 2) In Romania a class of feudal lords (in Middle Ages were divided on generic and pomestnyh), usual in 13-14 centuries. It is liquidated in 1945 as a result of an agrarian reform. BOJARKA, city (with 1956) on Ukraine, the Kiev region. A depot. 39,1 thousand inhabitants (1991). Machine works, etc. N.A.Ostrovsky Museum. A climatic health resort. Residues Scythian gorodishcha 7-3 centuries up to n were saved. e.
  • SEIGNIORAL DUMA.. 1) in the Kiev state advice at prince of members of the higher team and other close faces to it... 2) In the season of feudal dissociation advice of notable vassals at prince in great and specific principalities... 3) In Russian centralized state kon. 15 - nach. 18 centuries a permanent soslovno-representative body of aristocracy at grand duke (tsar) zakonosoveshchatelnogo the character, discussing problems external and internal policy.
  • SEIGNIORAL PISANITSA, rock drawings of the Iron Age (ok. 7-1 centuries up to n. e.) on rocks Bojary, along mean flow r. Dry Tes (in-leak of Yenisei), in Khakassia.
  • SEIGNIORAL Klavdija Sergeevna (r. 1939), Russian sportsmenka, the deserved master of sport (1964). CHempionka Olympic Games (1964) in cross-countr on 5, 10 kms and in relay race 3 h 5 kms, the world (1966) - on 10 kms and in relay race 3 h 5 kms, the USSR (1964-67) in different kinds of races.
  • BOJARCHUK Alexander Alekseevich (r. 1931), Russian astrophysicses, the academician Russian AN (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1987). Transactionses on an astrospectroscopy, theories nestatsionarnosti asters, extra-terrestrial astronomy. The state premium of the USSR (1984).
  • HAWTHORN, stem of trees and bushes of a set pink. Ok. 200 (under other data, ok. 1000) kinds, in the Sowing. To America and Eurasia. Fruits of some kinds are edible. Many aglets the decorative, some medicinal - ex-expenditure from fruits or insist from flowers accept at vascular diseases.
  • PIERID BUTTERFLY, the butterfly of a set beljanok; the pest of fruit crops in Eurasia and the Sowing. To America. Side panels white with black veins. Eats (caterpillars) kidneys, leaves and flowers.
  • BPR (BPR), creative group of italian architects (on the first characters of surnames): Beldzhojozo (Belgioioso) Lodoviko (r. 1909), Peressutti (Peressutti) Enriko (r. 1908) and Rogers (Rogers) Ernesto Natan (r. 1909). Developing principles of architectonic rationalism, aspire to take into account national traditions and historically usual surrounding of buildings (a skyscraper Torr Velaska in Milan, 1956-58).
  • WING-BAR (frants. bras), a wall lamp (wing-bars - lamp-stands of 17-19 centuries from metal, glasses, a tree; electrical wing-bars of 20 century).
  • BRABANSONY, tjazhelovoznaja breed of horses, is introduced in 19 century in Belgium (Brabant). Animal large, early, serviceable. Cultivate in Europe and in the USA.
  • BRABANT (Brabant), medieval duchy, then (with kon. 15 century) one of 17 provinces of Netherlands historical. In consequent in part in structure of Netherlands (prov. A sowing. Brabant), in part Belgium (prov. Brabant, with 1830).
  • BRABANT REVOLUTION 1789-90, bourgeois, is directed against the Austrian domination in Belgian provinces. Began in Brabant. During her all Belgian terrain has been free almost and independence of the United States of Belgium is professed. To kon. 1790 Austrian government has reduced the authority.
  • HARROWING, cultivation of surface layer of soil by harrows and rotated mattocks. Protects soil from drying-out, equalizes its surface, collapses a soil crust, extirpates weeds.
  • BOROPLASTIKI, the plastics materials keeping fibers of a milletgrass in the capacity of of a reinforcing filler. Differ very high mechanical strength. Are applied in aircraft manufacturing and a rocketry.
  • BORORGANICHESKIE CONNECTIONS, contain in a molecule atom of a milletgrass, directly the bound with atom of carbon. Connections such as RnBX3-n (organoborany), where R - an organic radical, X - halogen, hydrogen, OH, OR, etc., n=1-3 are most known. Apply as reactants in organic synthesis and an analytical chemistry, to synthesis of polymers (see also Carboranes).
  • BORORO (the self-title - orarimugudoge), American Indian people of group in Bolivia (2 thousand person) and Brazil (1 thousand person, 1992). Save traditional convictions, a part - roman catholics.
  • BOROTBISTY, the Ukrainian consignment left-handed eserov in 1918-20. Entered in Vseukrainsky revkom. Samolikvidirovalis.
  • BORO-HORO, a backbone in Tjan-Shang, in the west of China and in Kazakhstan. Length of 250 kms, an altitude up to 4359 m. Icehouses; mountain steppes, spruce forests, meadows.
  • BORRAS (Borras) Enrike (1862-1957), the spanish actor. Worked at theatres of Barcelona, Madrid, JUzh. America. Has become famous in the roles requiring of major temperament (Otello - "Otello" U.Shakespeare).
  • BORRELIOZ, the same, that a spirochetosis of birds.
  • BORREL (Borrel) Amadej (1867-1936), the French microbiologist and the virologist. Transactionses are dedicated an englobement, a bacteriophagia, study of viruses, a pathogeny of a plague. Together with E.Ru and A.Kalmetom has prepared (1894) first antiplague vaccine from microbes, heat-killed. Has laid foundation to study of structural botany of viruses, in particular smallpox (this group of viruses is called as his name). Has put forward (1903) hypothesis about a virus origin of a cancer.
  • BORROMEO (Borromeo) Karlo (1538-84), the outstanding figure of roman catholic Counter-reformation, a cardinal bird, archbishop Milan. Participant Tridentskogo of a cathedral, one of makers Tridentskogo of the catechisn.
  • BORROMINI (Borromini) Franchesko (1599-1667), the italian architect. The masterly representative of bizarre picturesque art of mature Baroque (church the Dignity - Karlo alle Kuatro the Spout, 1634-67, Sant-Iwo, 1642-60, in Rome).
  • SIDE (niderl. boort), crystals and units of diamond of poor quality, unusable for a faceting. Are used as abrasives.
  • SIDE (from a nem. Bord) a vessel, set of set numbers and a skin, generatrix lateral walls of a body. Left-handed (from a stern to the bow) a side - a port side, starboard - shtirbort.
  • BORTKO Vladimir Vladimirovich (r. 1946), the Russian film director. Activities Bortko are noted ostrosotsialnoj by orientation. Has delivered films: " the Blonde behind an angle " (1983), " Once having told a lie " (1987), " the Afghani fracture " (1991), " Good luck to you, sirs! " (1992), a TV movie; " the Dog heart " (1988, on M.A.Bulgakov).
  • WILD-HIVE BEEKEEPING (from a wild hive - a hollow of a tree), a wild-hive beekeeping. Originally an acquisition of honey of feral bees from natural dupel, then cultivation of bees in hollowed-out hollows.
  • BORTNJANSKY Dmitry Stepanovich (1751-1825), the Russian composer. By origin ukrainets. The master of the choral letter and a chapel, has created new phylum of Russian choral concert. Kamerno-tool products - the first samples of the large cyclical form in Russian music. Opera " the Son - rival... " (1787), etc.
  • ONBOARD TISSUE (bortovka), dense (primarily linen) a dressed fabric of a calico weave. Apply in the capacity of the internal layer pad, the stabilizing form of an outerwear (napr., to a collar). For this purpose use also bonded fabrics.
  • BORUKAEV CHermen Bejbulatovich (r. 1936), the scientist, corresponding member Russian AN (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1987). Transactionses on a tectonics dokembrijskih educations, tectonic to a zoning.
  • BORUTA (Boruta) Kazis (1905-65), the Lithuanian writer. Collections of lyrical verses, the novel " Wooden miracles " (1938), the story " Heavy monuments " (1960) from life of artists, the comic story of " Adventure JUrgisa Pakjaturisa " (1963).
  • BORHART (Borchardt) Rudolf (1877-1945), the german poet of a roman catholic direction, a translator of antique writers. Books of verses " Poluspasennaja a shower " (1920), "JAmby" (it is published in 1966). The autobiographical book " the Childhood and a youth " (it is published in 1966).
  • BRAZAUSKAS (Ârazauskas) Algirdas (r. 1932) the president of Lithuania with 1993. With 1956 on technical-engineer activity. With 1965 minister for an industry of building timbers, with 1966 1-st vice-president of the State plan of Lithuania. With 1977 secretary of a Central Committee, in 1988-89 1-st secretary of Central Committee KP of Lithuania. Since December 1990 chairman of Democratic party of transactionses of Lithuania (with 1990 chairman Independent KP Lithuania). Since January 1990 chairman of Presidium VS of Lithuania. In March 1990 - January 1991 deputy of the prime minister of Lithuania. Since November 1992 chairman of the parliament acting the president of Lithuania.
  • BRAZZA (Brazza) Pierre Savornjan de (1852-1905), the French explorer and the colonialist of Equatorial Africa. In 1875-80 probeed a bass. rr. Ogooue, Njanga and Kvilu, in 1891-92 inflow of Congo - rr. Sanga and Ubangi. Has subordinated France hinterlands of Gabon and ground on the right to coast of the lower Congo.
  • BRAZZAVILLE (Brazzaville), capital (with 1960) Congo. It is administrative secured in autonomous region. 760 thousand inhabitants (1990). A port on r. Congo, opposite Kinshasa (Zaire). An international airport. The textile, alimentary, chemical enterprises. A handicraft wood carving, manufacture of art ceramics. University. A national museum. It is based as the French military post in 1880 Items. Ñ. de Brazza. In 1903-50 administrative centre Compare. Congo, in 1910-58 - and the French Equatorial Africa, in 1958-60 - autonomous republic Congo. During 2-nd world war one of the main bases of motion " Loose France " (with 1942 - " the Combating France ").
  • BRASIL, Federative Republic of Brazil (Republica Federativa do Brasil), the state in JUzh. To America. 8,5 million êì2. The population 156,5 million person (1993), over 95 % - Brazilians. A urban population of 75,5 % (1991). The official language - Portuguese. The majority of believers - roman catholics. Brazil - federation in structure of 26 staffs, and the Federal (metropolitan) district. Capital - Brazil. The chief of state and governments - the president. The body of legislation - a two-chamber National congress. Central and austral parts of Brazil takes plateau of Brazil (a peak level-. Bandejra, 2890 ì); in a north - Amazonian nizm. And spurs of a mountain of Guiana highlands. In the marginal south - Laplatskaja nizm. The climate varies from northwest on a southeast from equatorial up to subtropical (mean temperatures of January from 23 up to 29 °S, July from 16 up to 24 °S). A rainfall of 3000 mm in the west Amazonian nizm., up to 500 mm on north-east of plateau of Brazil, 1200 mm annually in the south. The main rivers - Amazon, the Dignity - Fransisku, Parana. On Amazonian nizm. - vlazhnoekvatorialnye woods, in a central part - savannahs and a thin forest, on Priatlanticheskoj nizm. - tropical peremenno the wet, in the south - ever-green forests. Under a wood - 38 % of terrain of country. St. 20 national parks, reservations, protection regimes. In an antiquity the terrain of Brazil was populated by Indians, in nach. 16 century it is conquered Portuguese konkistadorami, deleted a large part of an aboriginal population and built large plantatorskie economies with use of a slave labour of the Negros imported since 16 century from Africa. As a result of liberation movement in 1822 Brazil is professed by independent empire (with 1889 - federative republic). Up to 1888 the servitude was saved. With kon. 19 century into Brazil were inpoured with the English and North American capital. Kon. 19 century it is noted by extirpation of peasantry for ground. Especially large performance - in pieces. Baija in 1896-97. In the season after 2-nd world war in economy of Brazil items the USA and Germany have amplified. Attempts of some governments (especially Z.D.Vargasa and Z.Gularta) in 50-60-Õ to deliver under the state supervisory control production and petroleum refining to supply foreign policy independent of the foreign mandatory powers have come across resistance of reaction. After military tumble 1964 the authority up to 1985 had military governments. Brazil - the industrial - agrarian country largest on an economic potential in JUzh. To America. A lobe in a gross internal product (1991, %): an industry 30,3, village, a forestry and fishery 10,8. Production iron and manganese ores, ores of non-ferrous metals, including niobium, beryllium, tantalum, bauxites, petroleum, mineral coal, etc. Manufacture of the electric power 234 billion kVt·ch (1992), over 90 % - on a river plant. Black and colour (smelting of aluminium, copper, a nickel, etc.) Metallurgy. A machine industry (avia-and shipbuilding, agricultural, radio electronic), military, oil refining, chemical and petrochemical, cement, pulp and paper, textile (especially hlopko-impregnated-paper) and flavoring (sugar, maslobojnaja, meat, tobacco) an industry. Main documentary agricultural crops (1992): coffee (1,3 million t, a master place in the world), a cane (281 million ò), cocoa, bananas, a soya bean, a sisal. Pascual cattle breeding (153 million heads of a large horned stock in 1992), a meat - wool production (19,5 million heads). Marine and river fishery. In woods - preparations of a soft wood, the tax of juice of a hevea, a carnauba wax, Brasil nuts. Length of railways of 32 thousand in km, motorways 1,7 million in km, internal waterways over 31 thousand in km (1989). The tonnage of a marine merchant marine fleet 9,9 million t deadweight (1992). Large seaports: Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Rio Grande, Paranagua, the Port - Alegri, Tubaran, San Sebastian. Export: finished products and semifinished items heavy and a light industry, coffee, iron oxide, soya beans - bean, tobacco, Saccharum. The main foreign trade partners: the USA, countries of European Economic Community, the Latin American countries, Japan, Canada. Monetary unit - kruzejro, real.
  • BRASIL (Brazilia), capital (with 1960) Brazil. 1,6 million inhabitants (1991). With accumbent terrain it is secured in the Federal (metropolitan) district with the population 2,9 million person (1992). An international airport. The enterprises alimentary and a light industry. University. Brazil is specially constructed (1957-60) for fulfilment of functions of capital. The plan of Brazil is developed in 1957 architect L.Kosta; on the area of Three authorities - administrative and public buildings (architect O.Nimejer).
  • The BRAZILIAN HOLLOW, submerged hollow in an austral part Atlantic ok., to the west from Southern - Atlantic hr. Depth up to 6697 m.
  • The BRAZILIAN RAMP, see. The southern - American ramp.
  • The BRAZILIAN BOARD, projection dokembrijskogo the base of the Southern - American ramp, to the south from r. Amazon. In a central part it is combined predominary by breeds of an Archean and the lower Proterozoic, in eastern - breeds of the upper Proterozoic.
  • The BRAZILIAN TABLELAND, on orient JUzh. America, between 3 and 35 °ju. sh., predominary in Brazil. An altitude of 250-900 m, the greatest up to 2890 m (. Bandejra). It is combined dokembrijskimi by the crystalline breeds prominent by the way of socle plains (an altitude 250-900 ì), separate masses and blocks; are typical ostantsovye peschanikovye a plateau - shapady. Shrub savannas, in a north and the orient - mesohylies. Large deposits iron (pieces. Minas-ZHerajs) and manganous (pieces. Minas-ZHerajs, to the Mat - Grosu) ores, bauxites (Posus-di-Kaldas, I I Shout - Pretu), etc.
  • The BRAZILIAN FLOW, warm current Atlantic ok. For coasts JUzh. America, directed on a southwest; a branch of Austral trade current.
  • BRAZILIANS, people, the main population of Brazil. 149 million person (1992). The USA, Portugal live also in Argentina, Paraguay. An aggregate number 149,4 million person. Tongue Portuguese. Roman catholics believing main.
  • BRAZOS (Brazos), the river in the south the USA. 1530 kms, the area of basin of 114 thousand êì2. Runs into the Mexican hall. Average discharge of water 214 m3 / with. It is navigable in a lower reaches, in a high water - on 400-500 kms from a mouth.
  • BRAJ (Bray) Salomon de (1597-1664), the Netherlands painter, the architect and the poet. Studied for Holtsiusa and Kornelisa Harlemskogo. Wrote patterns on mythological both religious scenes and portraits. In 1627 has manufactured the book of verses.
  • BRAJANT (Bryant) William Kallen (1794-1878), the American poet. Romantik. In poem "Tanatopsis" (1811, it is issued in 1821), collections of "Poem" (1832) and "Hymns" (1864) brightly expresses correspondences between "temple" poetic showers and harmony of a nature.
  • BRAJLJA the FONT, the relief - dot font for the letter and readings blind, designed French tiflopedagogom Lui Brajlem (L. Braille; 1809-52). In basis Brajlja of the font the combination of 6 points lays, enabling to mean characters, digits, punctuation marks, mathematical, chemical and musical marks. The first book on system Brajlja - in France, 1837; in Russia - 1885.
  • BRIGHT (Bright) Richard (1789-1858), the English doctor, one of founders of a nephrology. Has described (1827-36) structural botany and clinic of a nephritis.
  • BRAJTMEN (Brightman) Edgar Sheffield (1884-1953), the American philosopher, the representative personalizma; developed the doctrine about values.
  • SPOILAGE, the matrimony of the man and woman, generating their rights and responsibilities on attitude to each other and to children. In the majority of the modern states the law demands the conforming registration (registration) of spoilage in special state organs; alongside with it in some states legal effect is given also to the spoilage encased on religious rities. In some states (napr., the marital contract quite often consists of France) at registration of spoilage. In the Russian Federation the spoilage encased in state organs of record of certificates of registration (registry offices) is recognized only. Up to 1944 to registered it was equated t. n. Actual (nonregistered) spoilage. See. Family.
  • MAJOR JELLY DROPS, the river in Vost. Siberia, dextral in-leak of Lena. 460 kms, the area of basin of 29,6 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water 360 m3 / with. Full of rapids. In a lower reaches driveable.
  • MAJOR PES (an armour. Canis Major), mia maid of Austral hemisphere in which there is a Sirius, the brightest aster in the root. In middle latitudes of the Russian Federation the mia maid is visible in the winter.
  • MAJOR PIT, the river in west Vost. Siberia, dextral in-leak of Yenisei. 415 kms, the area of basin of 21,7 thousand êì2. Driveable. It is navigable from landing stage Brjanka.
  • MAJOR SALYM, the river in Zap. Siberia, the left-handed in-leak of Ob. 583 kms, the area of basin of 18,1 thousand êì2.
  • MAJOR SYMPHONIC ORCHESTRA GOSTELERADIO, him. P.I.Chajkovskogo, academic, is based in 1930. Conductors headed: A.I.Orlov, N.S.Golovanov, A.V.Gauk, G.N.Rozhdestvensky. The main conductor and the artistic administrator - V.I.Fedoseyev. (with 1974).
  • MAJOR TAP, the river in Zap. Siberia, the left-handed in-leak r. Konda. 504 kms, the area of basin of 6,7 thousand êì2.
  • MAJOR UVAT, lake in the south Zap. Siberia. 179 êì2. From Major Uvata escapes r. Vertenis also runs into a mouth of Ishim.
  • MAJOR UZBEK TRACT, highway Tashkent - Termez, 708 kms. It is constructed in 1939-40. Passes through the regional centres of Uzbekistan: Gulistan, Dzhizak, Samarkand, Karshi. A plot of a main highway Alma-Ata - Bishkek - Tashkent - Termez.
  • MAJOR UZEN, the river in Saratov (Russian Federation) and Ural (Kazakhstan) region of 650 kms, the area of basin of 15,6 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water for. Novouzensk 6,7 m3 / with. Runs into drainless Common reed - Samara lakes. A drainage in the spring. It is used for an irrigation.
  • MAJOR CHEREMSHAN, the river in Zavolzhje, the left-handed in-leak of Volga (runs into water reservoir Kujbyshevskoe). 336 kms, the area of basin of 11,5 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water in a mouth 36,1 m3 / with.
  • MAJOR JUGAN, the river in Zap. Siberia, the left-handed in-leak of Ob. 1063 kms, the area of basin of 34,7 thousand êì2. Driveable. It is navigable on 457 kms. From a mouth.
  • BOLYAI (Bolyai) (Bolyai) JAnosh (1802-1860), the Hungarian mathematician. Has self-contained come to the main ideas of a non-Euclidean geometry (are published in 1832).
  • BOM (evenk)., a high vertical wall, an abrupt downslope of a river valley; a heavy going gorge (Altai, Sayan mountains, Transbaikalia).
  • BOMA (Boma), city in the west of Zaire, 246 thousand inhabitants (1991). A port (available for courts of admiralty) in an estuary firth r. Congo, in 75 kms from Atlantic ok. A thorough revision of agricultural raw material; the chemical, wood-working, metal-working enterprises. A ship repair. Fishery. It is based in 16 century. In 1886-1926 administrative centre of Belgian Congo.
  • BOMANUAR (Beaumanoir) Phillip de Remi (1250-96), the French lawyer, one of the first French theorists of the right, the maker of the collection of customs of medieval France (t. n. kutjumy Bovuazi).
  • BEAUMARCHAIS (Beaumarchais) Pierre Ogjusten (1732-99), the French playwright. In comedies " the Seville barber " (1775) and " Marriage Figaro " (1784) is figured the conflict between the third estate and nobility before Great French revolution; the hero of a comedy - full powers and mind the servant. On scenes of plays V.A.Mozart operas (1786) and Dzh are written. Rossini (1816).
  • CHARGE (frants. bombe), 1) the obsolete title of ammunition gear. From 19 century in Russian artillery gears in mass over 1 pood (16 kg) called as a charge... 2) the Aerial bomb, a kind of an air ammunition. Exist nuclear (see. A hydrogen bomb, the Nuclear bomb), high-capacity, fragmentation, armour-piercing, anti-tank, antisubmarine and other charges... 3) the Depth charge - marine boepripas for a defeat of submersibles, anchor and ground mines, etc. Are air and ship... 4) the Gear made by a crude method, for the subversive and terrorist purposes.
  • BLOAT (frants. bombage) canned food, a swelling of a can - education of gases in connection with reproduction in canned food of microorganisms (canned food are unusable to the use) or owing to t. n. A spurious bulging (napr., a carbonic bloat at preparation of canned food from a fresh-killed meat).
  • BOMBAKSOVYE (baobabovye), a set of dycotyledonous plants. Almost all bombaksovye - tropical trees. Ok. 180 kinds (20 stems), among which baobab, durian, a balsa wood tree, etc.
  • BOMBARDA (frants. bombarde), one of the first artillery pieces used at osade and the defence of strengths in 14-16 centuries.
  • BOMBARDIR (a nem. Bombardier), in Russian army and on fleet originally the soldier or the mariner maintained bombardirskie the instruments (howitzers, mortiry, unicorns); since 19 century a rank in the army artillery, matching to the corporal in other service arms.
  • BOMBER, the combat aircraft intended for a defeat of terraneous and marine objects of the opponent by charges and missiles. Are sectioned on front (tactical), long-distance (strategic) and deck (ship).
  • BOMBARDIRSKY the SHIP, a sailing combat ship kon. 17 - nach. 19 centuries. Had up to 20 guns or 2-4 mortiry. It was applied to firing bayshore strengths.
  • BOMBARDIRY, a subfamily of bugs of a set of carabids. Length of 5-20 mm. St. 500 kinds, are distributed widely. Sheltering, bombardiry vybryzgivajut a caustic liquid which in air turns to fallow, as though blasting out (from here the title). Larvas bombardirov - parasites of cocoons of other bugs.
  • BOMBAY (Major Bombay), city, one of the main economic centres of India, administrative centre pieces. Maharashtra. 9,9 million inhabitants (1991). A port on the Arabian m. (freight turnover ok. 30 million t.). An international airport. The large centre of cotton industry. A machine industry and metal working, petrochemical, chemical, mild, alimentary, a woodworking industry, motion picture industry. University. Near to Bombay - atomic power station Tarapur. The largest centre national-liberation and working-class movement. It is known from 16 century.
  • The BOMBAY UNIVERSITY, India, is based in 1857. In 1990 over 570 thousand students.
  • BOMBELLI (Bombelli) Raffaele (ok .1526-72), italian mathematician and the engineer. In "Algebra" (1572) for the first time regularly developed the theory of complex numbers.
  • MORTAR, 1) the instrument of short-range crocked eggs (templet from 20 up to 152 mm), similar on the device on a mortar, but as against him was charged from treasury. It was applied in 1-¯ world war... 2) the Ship mortar - antisubmarine weapon of surface ships for shooting by depth charges on submersibles.
  • The BAUME (Baume) Antoine (1728-1804), the French chemist, the pharmacist and the technologist. Has invented (1708) areometer called as his name. Has organized (1770) manufacture of muriate of ammonia (chloride of an ammonium). Has introduced improvements to manufacture of porcelain. In books " Elements of a theoretical and practical pharmaceutics " (1762) and " Experimental and regular chemistry " (t. 1-3, 1773) it is detailed cramps on chemistry of the extremity of 18 century from an item of the theory flogistona are stated.
  • BOMON (Beaumont) William (1785-1853), the American doctor and the physiologist, one of the first physiologists in the USA. For the first time has conducted (with 1822) regular probes on a stomach of the person for which as a result of a wound not healing fistula was formed. Outcomes of probes has extended in fundamental transactionses " Experiments and supervision above a gastric juice and physiology of digestion " (1833).
  • BEAUMONT (Beaumont), city in the south the USA, pieces. Texas, seaport (freight turnover ok. 50 million t annually) on r. Neches. 114 thousand inhabitants (1990), with suburbs of 360 thousand inhabitants). Oil refining and a petrochemical industry. Shipbuilding. University.
  • BOMA (Bomu), an oil deposit in Nigeria (gulf of Guinea oil-and-gas-bearing basin). It is open in 1958. Deposits on depth of 1,9-2,3 kms. Beginning inventories of petroleum ok. 75 million t.
  • BONDS, the former title Annaba, in Algeria.
  • BOND DEA (an armour. Bona Dea - the kind goddess), in Roman mythology the goddess of fertility, goddess - mother which name was known only dedicated, was identified with JUnonoj, Gekatoj. The holiday in its honour, surrounded with a secret, managed in Rome in the beginning of December, on a nem there could be only women.
  • BONAVENTURA (Bonaventura) (sobstv. Giovanni Fidantsa, Fidanza) (1221-74), the philosopher - mistik, the representative avgustinovskogo platonizma; the chapter of franciscan order, a cardinal bird. Has been consecrated a saint (1482), to figure 10 of the greatest teachers of Christian church (1587). Taught at the Parisian university. The main composition - " the Guidebook showers to the God ".
  • BONALD (Bonald) Lui Gabriel Ambruaz (1754-1840), the French philosopher, the political figure and the publicist. In the main composition " the Theory of a political and religious authority in a civil society " (1796) from clerical items argued against with philosophy of the French Enlightenment; shadowed idea of a heavenly origin of a monarchy. Views Bonalda have received the title traditsionalizma.
  • BONAPARTISM, initial notation of dictatorship of Napoleon Bonaparte and Lui Napoleon, manoeuvring between social groups; combined demagogy with policy of approach to democracy and revolutionary movement. In a more comprehensive sense - the dictatorship manoeuvring between social groups in conditions of unstable social balance.
  • BONAPARTISTY, adherents of restoration in France Bonaparte dynasties after fall of the First empire (1814) and the Second empire (1870). Promoted Lui Bonaparte coming to power (Napoleon III).
  • BONAPARTES (Bonaparte), a dynasty of the French emperors in 1804-14, 1815 (Napoleon I) and in 1852-1870 (Napoleon III). In board of Napoleon I in the chapter conquered France or the states derivated by him had been put representatives of a stem of Bonapartes (Zhozef Bonaparte - in 1806-08 Neapolitan king, in 1808-13 king of Spain; Lui Bonaparte - in 1806-10 king of Holland; Zherom Bonaparte - in 1807-13 king of Westphalia, etc.).
  • The BUDAPEST CONVENTION (secret), between Russia and Austria-Hungary 15.1.1877 about the consent of Russia to occupation by the Austrian troops of Bosnia and Herzegovina under condition of observance by Austria of neutrality in russko-turkish war. Has given Austria a halter to demand revision of conditions the Dignity - Stefanskogo of the world 1878.
  • The BUDAPEST OPERATION, 29.10.1944-13.2.1945, during Great Domestic war. The Soviet troops of 2-nd and 3-rd Ukrainian fronts (Marshals of Soviet Union R.J.Malinovsky, F.I.Tolbuhin) in December 1944 have enclosed in Budapest almost 190-thousand grouping from structure of a german army group "South" (general - colonel G.Frisner) and after persistent breakages liquidated her, having released Budapest (13.2.1945).
  • The BUDAPEST UNIVERSITY him. L.Etvesha, Hungary, is based in 1635. In 1990 over 8 thousand students.
  • To BUDDHA Eugeny Fedorovich (1859-1929), Russian jazykoved, corresponding member Petersburg AN (1916). Transactionses on dialectology and histories of Russian literary language.
  • BUDDHAGHOSHA (5 century up to n. e.), the outstanding scientist - Buddhist who has constituted arguments and additions to a Buddhist canon.
  • BUDEN (Boudin) Ezhen (1824-98), the French painter. Poetical, landscapes finely relaying air medium anticipated impressionism.
  • BUDYONNOVSK, (up to 1920 Sacred Cross, in 1920-35 and 1957-73 Prikumsk), city in the Russian Federation, Stavropol kr. A depot. 58,5 thousand inhabitants (1992). A chemical, alimentary, textile industry. It is based in 1799. It is renamed in honour of S.M.Budyonny.
  • BUDENNOVSKAJA BREED of horses, high, is introduced in 1921-48 in stud farms of the Rostov region. Animal large, proof build, wanton, hardy. Use and in a harness.
  • BUDYONNY Semen Mihajlovich (1883-1973), Marshal of Soviet Union (1935), triply the Hero of Soviet Union (1958, 1963, 1968). In the Civil war commanding 1-st Horse army (1919-23). In 1939-41 deputy narkoma defences of the USSR. In Great Domestic war (in 1941-42) the commander-in-chief a troops of the Southwest and North Caucasian directions, commanding Stand-by and North Caucasian fronts. One of organizers of mass reprisals among military in 1930-40-Õ. Memories: " Projdennyj a path " (kn. 1-3, 1958-73).
  • BUDENOVKA, the national title of the headgear existing in Red Army in 1919-1941.
  • BUDZHAK, historical range between ostiums of the rivers Danube and Dnestr in 16-19 centuries, an austral part of Bessarabia (the south of the modern Odessa region). In 17-18 centuries kochevja the Belgorod Horde. With 1812 in Russian empire.
  • " BUDI UTOMO " (" the High purpose "), the first national Indonesian educational and anticolonial organization (1908-35). Integrated primarily representatives of the intelligency, learning youth, officials.
  • "ALARM CLOCK", the Russian satirical log-book issued in 1865-71 in Saint Petersburg, in 1873-1917 in Moscow (2 times a month, with 1866 it are weekly). In 60th published products of democratic writers. In 1881-87 in "Alarm clock" A.P.Chehov cooperated.
  • BUDINY, nomad tribes in terrain between Dnepr and Volga (1 thousand up to n. e.).
  • "BUDITELI", figures (primarily scientists, writers) the Czech national motion (" the Czech revitalization ") kon. 18 - 1-st floor. 19 centuries. The program (1818; writers F.Palatsky, P.Shafarik) - extirpation for revitalization of the Czech tongue, the literature, science, crop. Have played the considerable role in formation of the Czech national self-consciousness.
  • BUDISHIN, luzhitskoe the title of. Bautsen in Germany.
  • BUDISHINSKY the MIR 1018, has finished germansko-Polish wars 1003-18 (with a rest). It is signed in. Budishin. To Poland marks headed out Luzhitsa, part Mishenskoj (Mejsenskoj).
  • BUDISHCHEV Alexey Nikolaevich (1864-1916), the Russian writer, the poet. In lyrics (the collection of "Poem", 1901) - chamber intonations; poem "Kalitka" (" Only evening zateplitsja blue... "), set to music, has become a popular romance. Stories (the collection " Miscellaneous concepts ", 1901), novels.
  • BUDKER Gersh Itskovich (1918-77), Russian physics, academician AN the USSR (1964). The founder and the director of Institute of nuclear physics AN the USSR (with 1957). Transactionses on nuclear reactors, boosters, plasma physics, physics of particles of high energy. Has created boosters on colliding beams. The lenin premium (1967), the State premium of the USSR (1949).
  • BUDNIKOV Peter Petrovich (1885-1968), the chemist - neorganik, corresponding member AN the USSR (1939), academician AN of Ukraine (1939), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1965). Transactionses on chemistry and technologies of silikates, to complex study of mineral raw materials. State premiums of the USSR (1942, 1950, 1952).
  • BUDNYJ Simon (ok. 1530-93), one of chiefs reformatsionnogo motions in Belarus and Lithuania. The organizer of a printing house in Nesvizhe where has emited in the Byelorussian tongue "Catechisn" (1562) and other books.
  • BUDOCHNIK, the lowest grade of a city police in Russian empire. Had a post (a booth with black-and-white strips) on crossroads of streets. In 2-nd floor. 19 century it is substituted by the policeman.
  • BUDRAJTIS (Budraitis) JUozas (r. 1940), the Lithuanian actor, the national actor of Lithuania (1982). With 1979 at the Kaunas drama theatre. Art Budrajtisa is noted by restraint, courage, psychologic depth. Roles: Solnes ("Builder Solnes" G.Ibsena), Hereja ("Kaligula" A.Kamju), etc. Was taken out nobody in films " wanted to die ", " This sweet word - freedom ", television film "Roundrobin", etc.
  • BUDSKY (Budsky) Joseph (r. 1911), the Slovak actor, the producer. In 1945-53 chief of National theatre in Bratislava. Worked at other theatres. Among productions: " Love Summer " Treneva (1950), " Antirun and other " Karvasha (1962).
  • BUDUHSKY TONGUE, see in an item. The Dagestan tongues.
  • BUDHA, in vedijskoj and induistskoj mythologies olitsetvorenie planets a Mercury, the son Siluruses and Container.
  • BUDYKO Michael Ivanovich (r. 1920), Russian a geophysics, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1992). Transactionses on a climatology, bioclimatologies, ecology, a heat balance of a surface. The lenin premium (1958).
  • ICE YACHT (niderl. boeier), a special light-weight construction on skates or sprockets (a cabin, a ramp with a flag). Races on ice yachts on ice - the kind of sport popular in the USA, Canada, a number of european countries. World championships and Europe on ice yachting with 1964.
  • GILL (turki)., the title of superficially recessed gullies of a central part of East European plain.
  • BOUGIE (from frants. bougie - a probe) (widener), the instrument for probe and expansions of tubular organs (a urethra, an esophagus, etc.).
  • BUZHANE, the title of group of eastern slavs living in verhovjah Zap. Bug. In kon. 10 century were included in the Old russian state. See. Duleby, Volynjane.
  • PORK, the fried or baked meat product prepared from smeared over I shall decant also spices of a pork ham without a bone.
  • BOUGIES (Bougie), the former title of. Bedzhaija in Algeria.
  • BUZHINSKY Gabriel (?-1731), the Russian church figure (the member of Synod, a tread of all schools and printing houses; diocesan), the writer, a translator.
  • BUJUMBURA (Bujumbura), capital Burundi, a port on an eskar. Tanganyika. 236 thousand inhabitants (1990). An international airport. Alimentary, a light industry. Fishery. University. It is based in 1897. About 1922 administrative centre mandated, in 1946-62 podopechnoj Belgian terrain Ruanda - Urundi. With 1962 capital of an independent state of Burundi.
  • BUZANOV Ivan Feoktistovich (1903-84), the selector, academician VASHNIL (1956). Transactionses on selection, physiologies, biochemistry of sugar-beet. The lenin premium (1960).
  • BUZACHI, hilly peninsula in a north-east part Caspian m. (Kazakhstan). An altitude up to 61 m. Barhannye both hilly sands and solonchaks.
  • BUZDYHAN, the turkish title of a club.
  • BUGER (Bouguer) Pierre (1698-1758), the French scientist, one of osnovatelej a photometry. Has developed method of measurements of light intensity. Has placed (1729) law of slackening of light (law Bugera - a Lambert - Baire). In 1735-43 supervised over grade measurements in Peru (together with S.M.Kondaminom).
  • BUGERA - the LAMBERT - BAIRE the LAW, determines slackening light with initial intensity I0 at his transit in medium with an absorption index k and depth l: I = I0 (exp - kl). For solutions k-? C (With - concentration? - an absorption index of a solution of single concentration). Experimentally P.Bugerom (1729) is open, I.G.Lambertom (1760) is theoretically introduced, for solutions A.Berom (1852) is investigated.
  • BUGI-VUGI, 1) a manner of the piano game in tracking blueses (see. A blues): loose improvising on a characteristic, recurring melodiko-rhythmic model in a bass. Has engendered in the USA in kon. 19 in... 2) North American dance (the dimension 4/4); has arisen in 1920th on the basis of piano bugi-vugi. In Zap. To Europe it was distributed after 1945.
  • BUGIJSKY TONGUE, falls into southern - sulavesijskim to the tongues which are traditionally powered up in the Indonesian group avstronezijskoj of family of tongues. Writing on the basis of the latin alphabet.
  • BUGISY (the self-title - tougik), people in Indonesia (primarily on a southwest about. Sulawesi). Number 4,55 million person. Live also in Malaysia and Singapore. An aggregate number 4,6 million person. (1992). Tongue bugijsky. Believing moslems - sunnity.
  • BUGRIMOVA Irina Nikolaevna (r. 1910), the Russian actress of a circus, the national actress of the USSR (1969), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1979). Together with A.N.Buslaevym acted (with 1929) in air amusement, then in number with temper-rolled animal; in 1946-76 dressirovshchitsa lions.
  • BUGROV Nikolay Aleksandrovich (1837-1911), the Nizhniy Novgorod merchant, the industrialist, the millionaire. From old believers. Possessed power mills. N.Novgorodu the building of City council has presented, plotted asylums, schools, etc. Sustained the old believers living in woods Kerzhentsa and on r. Irgiz.
  • BUGRY PUCHENIJA, the cryosolic landforms of the spherical form which are generatrix at a freezing of hardly humidified stratas of rocks and increase of their volume owing to local accumulation of ice. Are developed in ranges of distribution of permfrost rocks in tundra and a forest - tundra.
  • BUGSKY the FIRTH, a bay in boreal part of Black m. Length of 47 kms, width up to 11 kms. Draining with Dneprovskim a firth, will derivate Dneprovsko-Bugsky a firth. It is navigable. On Bugskom a firth - Nikolaev.
  • BUGSKIH COSSACKS REVOLT (Bugskogo Cossack a troops) in July - September 1817 (the centre - Voznesensk) in connection with transfer of their military settlement. It is suppressed by a governmental troops.
  • BUGSKOE the COSSACK ARMY, is built in 1803 on r. JUzh. Bug in structure of 3 regiments. In 1817 it is transferbed in military settlements and it is converted to ulanskie regular shelves.
  • BUGULMA, city (with 1781) in the Russian Federation, Tatarija, at a lockin r. Bugulminka in r. Zaj. A depot. 91,1 thousand inhabitants (1992). A crude production. A machine industry (factory " Petroautomatics ", software "Bugulmaneftemash", etc.) and metal working, porcelain factory; the alimentary enterprises. Theatre. Museums: study of local lore and Jaroslava Gashek (in 1919 was the mate of the commandant of Bugulma). It is based in 1736.
  • BUGULMINSKO-BELEBEEVSKAJA the HIGH GROUND, a flat watershed (an altitude up to 418 ì) the left-handed inflow rr. White, Kama and Volga.
  • BUGURUSLAN, city (with 1781) in the Russian Federation, the Orenburg region, on r. B.Kinel. A depot. 54,1 thousand inhabitants (1992). Factory " Radiator "; alimentary, a light industry. Bliz Buguruslana - a crude production and gas. Theatre. A study of local lore museum. It is based in 1748 as a large village.
  • BUDAGOV Ruben Aleksandrovich (r. 1910), Russian jazykoved, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1970). Transactionses in range of general and Romanesque linguistics and philology.
  • BUDAJ-DELJANU (Budai-Deleanu) Jon (ok. 1760-1820), the Romanian poet - educator. Settled idea of national self-affirmation. Geroiko-satirical poem "TSyganiada" (1875-76).
  • BUDAJ-HESHAN, in the Chinese mythology the god of a health and happiness, is identified with Majtrejej. It was figured by the way the person with a tag belly.
  • Be - KOSHELEVO, city (with 1971) in Belarus, Gomel region. A depot (be - Koshelevskaja). 8,9 thousand inhabitants (1991). A food-processing industry.
  • BUDANTSEV Sergey Fedorovich (1896-1940?), the Russian writer. In the prose noted by a style diversification and an experimentation with the form, reverts to spores of bolsheviks and eserov with their different views on revolution (the novel "Rebelion", other title "Commander", 1922), the composite poslerevoljutsionnoj situations in Turkmenistan (the novel "Locust", 1927), to psychologic problems (" the Story about travail of mind ", 1929), etc. Books: " Japanese duel " (1927), "Zenith" (1934), "Writer" (it is published in 1959), etc. In 1937 it is repressed; has perished in the conclusion.
  • BUDAPEST (Budapest), capital of Hungary, on Danube. It is secured in a do-it-yourself administrative and territorial unit. An administrative centre medje Pesht. The population 2 million person (1992). A large traffic centre of country. An international airport. A machine industry (instrumentation technologies, electrotechnical, transport, a tractor construction); textile, chemical, pharmacological, rubber, sewing, polygraphic, a flavoring industry. Underground railway. University. Hungarian AN, the Musical academy. A museum of fine arts, the Hungarian national passageway, a museum of a folk art and ethnography, the east - Asian art. Theatres: Opera, drama - National, to them. I.Madacha, "Vichsinhaz", operettas, etc. It is known from Roman times (Akvinkum). Will consist of 3 historically usual parts - Peshta, Budy and Obudy (it is known with 1148), consolidated in 1872 to Budapest. Since 50th of 14 century. Being - capital of the Hungarian kingdom, in 1541-1686 under an osmanli yoke, with nach. 18 century under authority Gabsburgov. With 1867 capital of the Hungarian kingdom, with 1918 - an independent state Hungary. In March 1944 it is occupied by a fascist troops, it is free by the Soviet troops (on February, 13 1945) during the Budapest operation. Residues of Roman city Akvinkuma (nowadays a museum; 1-4 centuries), strengths of 13-17 centuries. A royal palace (13-18 centuries). A national museum (19 century), parliament (1884-1904).