Wednesday, May 16, 2007

  • BRAZAUSKAS (Ârazauskas) Algirdas (r. 1932) the president of Lithuania with 1993. With 1956 on technical-engineer activity. With 1965 minister for an industry of building timbers, with 1966 1-st vice-president of the State plan of Lithuania. With 1977 secretary of a Central Committee, in 1988-89 1-st secretary of Central Committee KP of Lithuania. Since December 1990 chairman of Democratic party of transactionses of Lithuania (with 1990 chairman Independent KP Lithuania). Since January 1990 chairman of Presidium VS of Lithuania. In March 1990 - January 1991 deputy of the prime minister of Lithuania. Since November 1992 chairman of the parliament acting the president of Lithuania.
  • BRAZZA (Brazza) Pierre Savornjan de (1852-1905), the French explorer and the colonialist of Equatorial Africa. In 1875-80 probeed a bass. rr. Ogooue, Njanga and Kvilu, in 1891-92 inflow of Congo - rr. Sanga and Ubangi. Has subordinated France hinterlands of Gabon and ground on the right to coast of the lower Congo.
  • BRAZZAVILLE (Brazzaville), capital (with 1960) Congo. It is administrative secured in autonomous region. 760 thousand inhabitants (1990). A port on r. Congo, opposite Kinshasa (Zaire). An international airport. The textile, alimentary, chemical enterprises. A handicraft wood carving, manufacture of art ceramics. University. A national museum. It is based as the French military post in 1880 Items. Ñ. de Brazza. In 1903-50 administrative centre Compare. Congo, in 1910-58 - and the French Equatorial Africa, in 1958-60 - autonomous republic Congo. During 2-nd world war one of the main bases of motion " Loose France " (with 1942 - " the Combating France ").
  • BRASIL, Federative Republic of Brazil (Republica Federativa do Brasil), the state in JUzh. To America. 8,5 million êì2. The population 156,5 million person (1993), over 95 % - Brazilians. A urban population of 75,5 % (1991). The official language - Portuguese. The majority of believers - roman catholics. Brazil - federation in structure of 26 staffs, and the Federal (metropolitan) district. Capital - Brazil. The chief of state and governments - the president. The body of legislation - a two-chamber National congress. Central and austral parts of Brazil takes plateau of Brazil (a peak level-. Bandejra, 2890 ì); in a north - Amazonian nizm. And spurs of a mountain of Guiana highlands. In the marginal south - Laplatskaja nizm. The climate varies from northwest on a southeast from equatorial up to subtropical (mean temperatures of January from 23 up to 29 °S, July from 16 up to 24 °S). A rainfall of 3000 mm in the west Amazonian nizm., up to 500 mm on north-east of plateau of Brazil, 1200 mm annually in the south. The main rivers - Amazon, the Dignity - Fransisku, Parana. On Amazonian nizm. - vlazhnoekvatorialnye woods, in a central part - savannahs and a thin forest, on Priatlanticheskoj nizm. - tropical peremenno the wet, in the south - ever-green forests. Under a wood - 38 % of terrain of country. St. 20 national parks, reservations, protection regimes. In an antiquity the terrain of Brazil was populated by Indians, in nach. 16 century it is conquered Portuguese konkistadorami, deleted a large part of an aboriginal population and built large plantatorskie economies with use of a slave labour of the Negros imported since 16 century from Africa. As a result of liberation movement in 1822 Brazil is professed by independent empire (with 1889 - federative republic). Up to 1888 the servitude was saved. With kon. 19 century into Brazil were inpoured with the English and North American capital. Kon. 19 century it is noted by extirpation of peasantry for ground. Especially large performance - in pieces. Baija in 1896-97. In the season after 2-nd world war in economy of Brazil items the USA and Germany have amplified. Attempts of some governments (especially Z.D.Vargasa and Z.Gularta) in 50-60-Õ to deliver under the state supervisory control production and petroleum refining to supply foreign policy independent of the foreign mandatory powers have come across resistance of reaction. After military tumble 1964 the authority up to 1985 had military governments. Brazil - the industrial - agrarian country largest on an economic potential in JUzh. To America. A lobe in a gross internal product (1991, %): an industry 30,3, village, a forestry and fishery 10,8. Production iron and manganese ores, ores of non-ferrous metals, including niobium, beryllium, tantalum, bauxites, petroleum, mineral coal, etc. Manufacture of the electric power 234 billion kVt·ch (1992), over 90 % - on a river plant. Black and colour (smelting of aluminium, copper, a nickel, etc.) Metallurgy. A machine industry (avia-and shipbuilding, agricultural, radio electronic), military, oil refining, chemical and petrochemical, cement, pulp and paper, textile (especially hlopko-impregnated-paper) and flavoring (sugar, maslobojnaja, meat, tobacco) an industry. Main documentary agricultural crops (1992): coffee (1,3 million t, a master place in the world), a cane (281 million ò), cocoa, bananas, a soya bean, a sisal. Pascual cattle breeding (153 million heads of a large horned stock in 1992), a meat - wool production (19,5 million heads). Marine and river fishery. In woods - preparations of a soft wood, the tax of juice of a hevea, a carnauba wax, Brasil nuts. Length of railways of 32 thousand in km, motorways 1,7 million in km, internal waterways over 31 thousand in km (1989). The tonnage of a marine merchant marine fleet 9,9 million t deadweight (1992). Large seaports: Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Rio Grande, Paranagua, the Port - Alegri, Tubaran, San Sebastian. Export: finished products and semifinished items heavy and a light industry, coffee, iron oxide, soya beans - bean, tobacco, Saccharum. The main foreign trade partners: the USA, countries of European Economic Community, the Latin American countries, Japan, Canada. Monetary unit - kruzejro, real.
  • BRASIL (Brazilia), capital (with 1960) Brazil. 1,6 million inhabitants (1991). With accumbent terrain it is secured in the Federal (metropolitan) district with the population 2,9 million person (1992). An international airport. The enterprises alimentary and a light industry. University. Brazil is specially constructed (1957-60) for fulfilment of functions of capital. The plan of Brazil is developed in 1957 architect L.Kosta; on the area of Three authorities - administrative and public buildings (architect O.Nimejer).
  • The BRAZILIAN HOLLOW, submerged hollow in an austral part Atlantic ok., to the west from Southern - Atlantic hr. Depth up to 6697 m.
  • The BRAZILIAN RAMP, see. The southern - American ramp.
  • The BRAZILIAN BOARD, projection dokembrijskogo the base of the Southern - American ramp, to the south from r. Amazon. In a central part it is combined predominary by breeds of an Archean and the lower Proterozoic, in eastern - breeds of the upper Proterozoic.
  • The BRAZILIAN TABLELAND, on orient JUzh. America, between 3 and 35 °ju. sh., predominary in Brazil. An altitude of 250-900 m, the greatest up to 2890 m (. Bandejra). It is combined dokembrijskimi by the crystalline breeds prominent by the way of socle plains (an altitude 250-900 ì), separate masses and blocks; are typical ostantsovye peschanikovye a plateau - shapady. Shrub savannas, in a north and the orient - mesohylies. Large deposits iron (pieces. Minas-ZHerajs) and manganous (pieces. Minas-ZHerajs, to the Mat - Grosu) ores, bauxites (Posus-di-Kaldas, I I Shout - Pretu), etc.
  • The BRAZILIAN FLOW, warm current Atlantic ok. For coasts JUzh. America, directed on a southwest; a branch of Austral trade current.
  • BRAZILIANS, people, the main population of Brazil. 149 million person (1992). The USA, Portugal live also in Argentina, Paraguay. An aggregate number 149,4 million person. Tongue Portuguese. Roman catholics believing main.
  • BRAZOS (Brazos), the river in the south the USA. 1530 kms, the area of basin of 114 thousand êì2. Runs into the Mexican hall. Average discharge of water 214 m3 / with. It is navigable in a lower reaches, in a high water - on 400-500 kms from a mouth.
  • BRAJ (Bray) Salomon de (1597-1664), the Netherlands painter, the architect and the poet. Studied for Holtsiusa and Kornelisa Harlemskogo. Wrote patterns on mythological both religious scenes and portraits. In 1627 has manufactured the book of verses.
  • BRAJANT (Bryant) William Kallen (1794-1878), the American poet. Romantik. In poem "Tanatopsis" (1811, it is issued in 1821), collections of "Poem" (1832) and "Hymns" (1864) brightly expresses correspondences between "temple" poetic showers and harmony of a nature.
  • BRAJLJA the FONT, the relief - dot font for the letter and readings blind, designed French tiflopedagogom Lui Brajlem (L. Braille; 1809-52). In basis Brajlja of the font the combination of 6 points lays, enabling to mean characters, digits, punctuation marks, mathematical, chemical and musical marks. The first book on system Brajlja - in France, 1837; in Russia - 1885.
  • BRIGHT (Bright) Richard (1789-1858), the English doctor, one of founders of a nephrology. Has described (1827-36) structural botany and clinic of a nephritis.
  • BRAJTMEN (Brightman) Edgar Sheffield (1884-1953), the American philosopher, the representative personalizma; developed the doctrine about values.
  • SPOILAGE, the matrimony of the man and woman, generating their rights and responsibilities on attitude to each other and to children. In the majority of the modern states the law demands the conforming registration (registration) of spoilage in special state organs; alongside with it in some states legal effect is given also to the spoilage encased on religious rities. In some states (napr., the marital contract quite often consists of France) at registration of spoilage. In the Russian Federation the spoilage encased in state organs of record of certificates of registration (registry offices) is recognized only. Up to 1944 to registered it was equated t. n. Actual (nonregistered) spoilage. See. Family.
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