Wednesday, May 9, 2007

  • LEVAL (Lewal) ZHjul Lui (1823-1908), the French military theorist, the divisional general (1880). Negated " perpetually and invariable principles " military art, and also relation of the strategy to policy; attempted to create the "positive" strategy, highlighting technique of fulfilment of premeditation.
  • LEVANEVSKY Sigizmund Aleksandrovich (1902-37), the Russian pilot, the Hero of Soviet Union (1934). In 1934 participat in salvage of crew of motorship " ×åëþñêèí ", in 1936 has committed flight Los Angeles - Moscow. The member Central Executive Committee (Central Electoral Committee) of the USSR. Was missing at attempt of flight through an arctic pole.
  • LEVANT (from frants. levant or ital. levante - the Orient), non-proprietary name of countries, accumbent to eastern part of Mediterranean m. (Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Egypt, Turkey, Greece, Cyprus), in fine-bored sense - Syria and Lebanon.
  • LEVANTINTSY, ethnographic group in structure of the Lebanese and syrian arabs, descendants of european migrants of epoch of the crusades which have mixed up with local population. Tongue Arabian.
  • LEVASSER (Levasseur) Pierre Emil (1828-1911), the French economist and the historian. Transactionses primarily on an economic history of France.
  • LEVASHOV Valentine Sergeevich (1915-94), the Russian composer and the choral conductor, the national actor of the USSR (1985). In 1941-49 chief of different army choral collectives. With 1954 artistic administrator of the Siberian national chorus, with 1962 - Russian national chorus him. Pjatnitskogo. Musical - scenic compositions, products for chorus, machining of Russian national songs.
  • LEVASHOV (Zinovjeva) Olga Stepanovna (1837-1905), Russian revoljutsionerka, in 1870 member - founder of Russian section of 1-st Internatsionala, on its means the log-book and the newspaper " National business " were emitted.
  • LEVVEJ, see Judah Faddej.
  • LEVEK (Levecq) Louise (1703 - between 1743 and 1745), the French writer. The writer of critical notes about " Don Kihote " M.Servantesa, poems " Sancho Pansa - the governor " (1738), verses, comedies and fairy tales. Novels " the Lily, or the History of Carthago ", " ours of eyelids, or Memoirs the column de Solenvilja " (both 1736).
  • LEVELLERY (English levellers, characters. - equalisers), the radical political party in the season of the English revolution of 17 century (up to 1647 left-handed wing independentov). Levellery led by Dzh. Lilbernom supported republic, against liquidation of a private property and have kept separate from diggers (t. n. True levellerov). Have sufferred a defeat in extirpation with independentami (1649).
  • LEVEN (Luven) (flam. Leuven, frants. Louvain), city in Belgium. 84 thousand inhabitants (1988). Metal-working, machine-building, chemical, impregnated-paper, a flavoring industry. University. Municipal museum Vanderkelen-Mertene. It is known with 884. In Middle Ages a residence of dukes Brabant. Gothic churches 13 - nach. 16 centuries, a town hall (15 century).
  • LEVENGUK (Leeuwenhoek) Anthony van (1632-1723), the Netherlands naturalist, one of founders of a scientific microscopy. Having produced lenss with 150-300-êðàòíûì increase, for the first time supervised and has sketched (publications with 1673) a number of Protozoa, spermatozoons, bacteria, erythrocytes and their motion in capillaries.
  • LEVENTAL Valery Jakovlevich (r. 1938), the Russian theatrical artist, the national artist of the USSR (1989), corresponding member AH (1988). Has issued many performances of the musical and drama theatres in Russia and abroad. In 1988-95 main artist of Major theatre. The state premium of the Russian Federation (1994).
  • LEVERKUSEN (Leverkusen), city in Germany, ground the Sowing. Rhine - Vestfalija, on r. Rhein. 161 thousand inhabitants (1992.) Center of a chemical industry (factory " Áåéåð "). Oil refining, machine-building, a metal-working industry.
  • LEVERE (Le Verrier) Urben Jean Zhozef (1811-77), the French astronomer, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1848). The main transactionses under the theory of motion of major planets, resistance of the Solar system. Ground probes of disturbances of Uranus has calculated (1846) orbit and a rule of the planet called as Neptune (I.G.Galle under indicatings Leverje in 1846 is open).
  • LEVZEJA, a stem of perennial grasses of a set of a thistle family. One of kinds - soiled a root.
  • LEVI (Levi) Karlo (1902-75), the italian writer, the painter, the public figure. The participant of movement of Resistance. The book of sketches " the Christ has stayed in Eboli " (1945), "Words - stones" (1955), " All honey was already terminated " (1964).
  • LEVI (Loewi) Otto (1873-1961), the Austrian physiologist. With 1940 in the USA. Has placed a chemical nature of drive of exaltation through synapses and a role in her of an acetylcholin. The Nobel Prize (1936, together with G.H.Dejlom).
  • LEVI Pol (1886-1971), the French mathematician. Transactionses on a theory of probabilities, function theories, to a functional analysis, mechanics.
  • ARMOUR, kind of an armour for protection against a defeat cool, and later and fire-arms. Originally from a leather or a closely woven fabric with metal plates and scales, in 14-16 centuries a tag metal armour.
  • LATYNINA Alla Nikolaevna (r. 1940), the Russian critic, the literary critic. The main orb of interests: the Russian literature of 19 century, the modern literary process in his communication with a political situation. Books: " Vsevolod Garshin: Creativity and destiny " (1986), "Signs of the times" (1987), " Behind the open lifting gate: the Literary situation of the extremity of 80th " (1991).
  • LATYNINA Larissa Semenovna (r. 1934), Russian sportsmenka (sporting gymnastics), the deserved master of the sport (1956), the deserved trainer of the USSR (1972). CHempionka Olympic Games (1956, 1960, 1964; 9 golden medals), repeated chempionka the world and Europe (1957-62), the USSR (1956-64) in personal and command competitions.
  • LATYSHEV Vasily Vasiljevich (1855-1921), the Russian philologist, the historian, epigrafist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (with 1917; the academician Petersburg AN with 1893). The creator and the editor of " Informations of an archeologic commission " (1900). The main transactionses on an ancient history and the Grecian inscriptions the Sowing. Black Sea Coast, the byzantian literature.
  • LATYSHEV Nikolay Gavrilovich (r. 1913), the Russian sporting figure, the judge all-Union (1941) and international (1952) grades, Cand.Tech.Sci. It is awarded FIFA " Golden svistkom " (1962) and Silver order (1987).
  • LATVIANS (the self-title - latvieshi), people, the main population of Latvia (1390 thousand person, 1992). In the Russian Federation 47 thousand inhabitants. An aggregate number 1,54 million person (1992). Tongue Latvian. Believing Latvians basically protesters, a part - roman catholics.
  • The LATVIAN SCAPES, the Latvian rifle parts built in 1915 during 1-st world war, and also servicemen of these formations. In 1916 have been organized in the Latvian rifle division. Participat in October revolution, the Civil war up to kon. 1920.
  • The LATVIAN TONGUE, falls into to Baltic group indoevropejskoj families of tongues. Writing on the basis of the latin alphabet.
  • LAUB (Laub) Ferdinand (1832-75), the Czech violinist, the teacher, the composer. Headed a quartet of Russian musical society. The professor of the Moscow conservatory (1866-74). Plays for a violin.
  • LAUBE (Laube) Genrih (1806-84), the german writer, the producer and the theatrical figure. Bordered on to " Pullet Germany ". Novels, dramas (" Pupils of school of Charles ", 1847, - about juvenile F.Schiller), teatrovedcheskie activities. In 1849-1867 chief austrian "Burgteatra".
  • LAUDA (Lauda) Niki (r. 1949), the Austrian sportsman (automobile sport). The triple world champion in races "Formula One" (1975, 1977, 1984).
  • LAUKIN (Laukien) Gjunter (r. 1924), german physics, the foreign member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; foreign member AN the USSR with 1988). Transactionses on probe of substance by methods of nuclear magnetic resonance, an electronic paramagnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy. Participat in building underwater laboratories for investigation of petroleum, a submerged welding, etc.
  • LAUMA (Laume), in Baltic mythology the godhood, nasylajushchee nightmares and is angry; originally the goddess of ground, wife Perkunasa overthrown by him on ground for matrimonial change.
  • LAUNGJEKJUDL, a volcanic mass and a liner icehouse (the area 1020 êì2) in the west Iceland. An altitude up to 1355 m.
  • LAURANA (Laurana) (an ice-film. Name Lutsijan from Vrany, Lucijan Vranjanin) Luchano (between 1420 and 1425-1479), the italian architect. The native of Dalmatia. The ducal palace in Urbino (it is ended in 1563) combines features of the medieval clasp with refinement of a urban palace of Early Revitalization.
  • LAURANA (an ice-film. Name Franjo from Vrany, Franjo Vranjanin) Franchesko (ok. 1430-1502), the italian sculptor. The native of Dalmatia. The representative of Early Revitalization. Iconic busts (" Princess Aragonskogo of a house ", 1470th) are noted by a sharpness of performance, refinement of an outline profile, softness of machining of marble.
  • The WINNER (from an armour. laureatus - topped with laurels), a face to which the premium is adjudged state, republican, international, etc., and also the winner of competitions (primarily art).
  • LAURI (Lowry) Malkolm (1909-57), the canadian writer. Wrote in English. The realistic novel " For foot of a burning mountain " (1947); the psychologic story " the Wood trail to a spring " (it is published 1961), etc.
  • LAURI (Lauri) Filippo (1623-94), the Flemish painter. Cable cores also worked in Rome. Wrote small landscapes with staffazhnymi scenes on mythological and biblical scenes. As the master of figurate compositions often the co-author of many landscape writers, especially, Kloda Lorrena.
  • LEVITAN Isaak Iljich (1860-1900), the Russian painter - peredvizhnik. The creator of " a landscape of mood " in which are inherent oof of poetic associations, mazhornost ("March", 1895; " Lake. Russia ", 1900) or mournful spirituality of a mode (" Above perpetually dormancy ", 1893-94), (1892) social - critical colour finding in pattern "Vladimirka". Deployment of the most thin conditions of a nature, plein-air, finely njuansirovannaja painting.
  • LEVITANSKY Jury Davidovich (1922-1996), the Russian poet, a translator. Collections of lyrical verses on war, about refractory zoetic roads " the Earth root " (1963), "Cinematograph" (1970), " Memory on red snow " (1975), "Years" (1987). The state premium of the Russian Federation (1994).
  • LEVITS Alexander Ivanovich (1835-77), the Russian writer. Stories and sketches about tragical destinies of country and urban poor ("Punishment", 1862; " Temporal court ", 1862; "Homeless", 1870).
  • LEVITICAL Grigory Andreevich (1878-1942), Russian botanik and the cytologist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1932). Transactionses on a structure and development of mitochondrions, structural botanies and evolution of chromosomes, kariosistematike, to application of a cytology in selection. It is repressed; it is rehabilitated posthumously.
  • LEVITS, ministers of a religious cult for ancient Jews.
  • LEVITSKY Anatoly Nikolaevich (1909-42), the participant of movement of Resistance in France, one of organizers of the newspaper "Resistance". The son of the Russian emigrant, the scientist - ethnographer. It is executed by fascists in Paris.
  • LEVITSKY Dmitry Grigorjevich (ok. 1735-1822), the Russian painter. In compositionly effective ceremonial portraits the solemnity combines with a vitality of modes, inking oof ("Kokorinov", 1769-70, a series of portraits vospitannits Smolnogo institute, 1772-76); are detailed - are individual on performances, are constrained on I blossom intimal portraits ("M.A.Djakova-Lvova", 1778). In the serotinal season Levitsky has partly perceived influence of a classicism (" Ekaterina II ", 1783).
  • LEVITSKY I.S., see Nechuj-Levitsky I.S.
  • LEVITSKY Nikolay Alekseevich (1911-82), the Russian producer, the scripter, the national actor of the USSR (1982). With 1957 worked in popular scientific kino.
  • LEVITSKY Oleg Dmitrievich (1909-61), the Russian geologist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1953). The main transactionses on genesis primarily stannic and tungsten deposits of Siberia and the Far East. The state premium of the USSR (1946).
  • LEVITSKY Orest Ivanovich (1848-1922), the Russian and Ukrainian historian, arheograf, the ethnographer, the writer narodnicheskogo directions, the academician (1919) and the vice-president (1919-21) AN Ukraine. Transactionses on a history of Ukraine of 16-19 centuries.
  • LEVITSKY Sergey Aleksandrovich (1908-83), the Russian philosopher, the writer, the publicist, the literary critic. Karlov has ended university in Prague, pupil N.O.Lossky. Within 2-nd world war has entered numbers of National - labour union (NTS), one of main ideologists Russian "solidarizma". With 1950 in the USA, in 1965-74 taught the Russian literature and philosophy at university of Georgetown. The main transactionses - " the Fundamentals of organic world outlook " (1947), " Tragedy of freedom " (1958), " Sketches of a history of Russian philosophical and public idea " (1968).
  • LEVITSKY Sergey Lvovich (1819-98), the Russian master of photoart. Indicative portraits of figures of Russian crop.
  • LEVITSKY Feodor Vasiljevich (1858-1933), the Ukrainian actor, the honored artist of Ukraine (1926). On the scene with 1888. Worked in the first professional Ukrainian theatrical companies (M.L.Kropivnitskogo, N.K.Sadovsky). In 1918-19, 1925-29 at 1-st Ukrainian theatre him. Shevchenko (Kiev, about 1927 Dnepropetrovsk).
  • LEVICH Veniamin Grigorjevich (1917-88), Russian physics, corresponding member AN the USSR (1958). With 1978 - in Israel. The main transactionses on physico-chemical hydrodynamics. Has developed transport theory of substance to a phase boundary, the theory of concentration-polarization, the theory of a continuous double electrical layer.
  • LEVI-CHIVITA Tullio (1873-1941), italian mathematician, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1904) and foreign honorary member AN the USSR (1934). Transactionses on a tensor analysis, a Riemannian geometry, a gravitational astronomy, hydrodynamics.
  • LARSEN the ICE SHELF (Larsen Shelf Ice), in Antarctica, on eastern a shore Antarctic p-ova. Ploshad with ice caps ok. 86 thousand êì2. Power of ice of 150-500 m.
  • LARUSSA ENCYCLOPEDIAS, are issued by publishing house " Ëàðóññ " (Librairie Larousse), founded in 1852 in Paris the teacher and leksikografom P.Larussom (1817-75). The main issuing: " the Major generalpurpose dictionary of XIX century in 15 t. (1865-76, 2 padding t. In 1878 and 1890), " Major encyclopaedic Laruss in 10 volumes " (1960-64, a padding volume - in 1968), the same in 15 t. (1985-87), etc. With 1906 annually leaves one-volume " Small Laruss ". Are emited also numerous branch "Larussy".
  • LARCHEMI, see. Soinari.
  • LARY, in Roman religion of the godhood - promoters of family and a house. Their plotting were for the locus or in a special small room. Were honored also lary - promoters of roads, their plotting were put on crossroads. Figuratively - a synonym of a house, a home.
  • LARJUSHIN Eugeny Ivanovich (r. 1934), the pilot - verifier, the Hero of Soviet Union (1982). Worked in OKB him. N.I.Kamov, tested helicopters Ka.
  • LAS KASAS (Las Casas) Bartolome (1474-1566), the spanish humanist, the historian, the publicist. Diocesan. In 1502-50 cable cores in countries Center., JUzh. America and Mexico. His transactionses - a valuable source on a history of discovering of America and capture by its Spain.
  • " LASARILO WITH TORMESA " (the full title - " Life Lasariljo with Tormesa, it nevzgody and misadventures "), the spanish story. It is issued anonymously in 1554. It is dedicated destiny of the boy becoming the cheat in severe extirpation with poverty. One of the brightest compositions of the literature of Revitalization; has laid foundation to the swindling novel.
  • LAS-VEGAS (Las Vegas), city in the west the USA, pieces. Nevada. 258 thousand inhabitants (1990). An international airport. Center of tourism and show business of national value. Electrical industry. University. A climatic health resort.
  • AC - SEJBA (La Ceiba), city and a port in Honduras, an administrative centre dep. Atlantida. 72 thousand inhabitants (1989). Alimentary, tanning, rezinotehnicheskaja an industry.
  • LASI Peter Petrovich (1678-1751), the Russian general - field marshal (1736). By origin the Irish. With 1700 on Russian service, the participant of Boreal war 1700-21. In russko-turkish war 1735-39 commanded army, in 1737-38 doubly invaded to Crimea on Arabatskoj to a sand - bar and the Turk has divided. Successfully commanded Russian army in the russko-Swedish war 1741-43.
  • LASK (Lask) Emil (1875-1915), the german philosopher, the representative. neokantianstva. The doctrine about objective theoretical life connected to the theory of values.
  • CARESS, mammalian sets kunjih; length of a body of 11-26 sm, a tail ok. 5 see In Eurasia, the Sowing. To America. Eats predominary small-sized rodents.
  • LASKER (Lasker) Emanuil (1868-1941), the german chess player, the doctor of philosophy and mathematics (1902.) 2-nd world champion (1894-1921), the winner and the prize-winner of many international tournaments. The writer of the tutorial of the checkrow game.
  • LASKER - SHJULER (Lasker-Schueler) Elza (1869-1945), the german poetess, close to ekspressionizmu. Has deceased in emigration in Palestine. Collections of verses "Stiks" (1902), " the Jewish ballads " (1913), " Wash a blue grand piano " (1943). The play " I and I " (1945, it is put in 1979).
  • LASKO (Lascaux), a cave in France, ok.. Montinjak, with etched and picturesque wall plotting (hunts for a bison, deers, feral bulls, horses) pozdnepaleoliticheskogo time.
  • LASKORIN Boris Nikolaevich (r. 1915), the Russian chemist - technologist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1976). Transactionses on sorption and extraction processes in technology colour and rare metals, nature protection. The lenin premium (1958), the State premium of the USSR (1978).
  • LASLO I Sacred (ok. 1040-1095), king of the Hungarian kingdom with 1077, from dynasty Arpadov. In 1091 has conquered Slavonia. Has supported the papacy in extirpation with " Sacred Roman empire ".
  • LAS-NAVAS-DE-TOLOSA (Las Navas de Tolosa), settlement in Spain (prov. Haen), bliz which in course Rekonkisty on July, 16 1212 consolidated troops of kingdoms of Castile, Leon, Aragon and Navarry (led by kastilskim king) have routed troops Almohadov.
  • LAS-PALMAS (Las Palmas), city in Spain, on the Canary islands, on about. Grand Canary, an administrative centre prov. Las Palmas. 342 thousand inhabitants (1991). A ship repair. Fishery. Plodokonservnaja an industry. A bayshore climatic health resort.
  • LEVCHEV Ljubomir (r. 1935), the Bulgarian poet. In the collection " my Asters " (1957), "Shooting range" (1971), " the Diary for incinerating " (1973), "Gibbet law" (1975), "Onions" (1983) - acute modern civil, political and moral problems.
  • LEVCHENKO Anatoly Semenovich (1941-88), the Russian astronaut, a pilot - astronaut of the USSR (1987), the deserved pilot - verifier of the USSR, the Hero of Soviet Union (1987). Flight on " Soyuz TM-3,-4 " and an orbital complex "World" (decks. 1987).
  • LEVCHUK Timotheus Vasilyevich (r. 1912), the Ukrainian film director, the national actor of the USSR (1972). Films: " Ivan Ex " (1956), " the Space alloy " (1964), " the Duma about Kovpak " (3 series, 1973-78), " If an enemy is not handed... " (1983).
  • LEVSHIN Alexey Iraklievich (1799-1879), the Russian statesman, the historian, the honorary member Petersburg AN (1856). In 1856-59 deputy minister of internal affairs, the participant of preparation of country reform 1861. Transactionses on a history of cossacks and peoples of the Kazakh steppes.
  • LEVSHIN Vasily Alekseevich (1746-1826), the Russian writer, translator, the economist. The employee of log-books N.I.Novikova. The representative of early Russian sentimentalism (" Morning performances in love ", 1779). " Russian fairy tales " (hours 1-10, 1780-83) actuate a thorough revision of bylinas and household short stories.
  • " The LEFT-HANDED COMMUNISTS ", the group in RKP (á) in 1918 (N.I.Buharin, K.B.Radek, G.L.Pjatakov, etc.), opposed the conclusions of the Brest world, for " revolutionary war ".
  • LEFT-HANDED ESERY, the political party in Russia 1917-23 (till December 1917 left-handed wing eserov). Leaders: M.A.Spiridonov, B.D.Kamkov, M.A.Natanson. Newspapers " the Earth and will " and " the Banner of transactionses ". Participat in October revolution, RSFSR (December 1917 - March 1918) entered in revolutionary-military committee, All-Russia TSentralny Ispolnitelny Committee (VTSIK), Advice of national commissioners (SNK). With nach. 1918 opponents of the Brest world, an agrarian policy of the Soviet authority. In July 1918 have raised rebelion which has been suppressed. In 1923 consignment has stopped existence.
  • LEGA (Lega) Silvestro (1826-95), the italian painter. In conversations ("Visit", 1868) poeticheski figured scenes of provincial life.
  • LEGAVYE, group of breeds of hunting dogs. Use for a hunt for a feathered game. Cultivate English legavyh - pointers, setters, German pointers - short-woolled (kurtshaar), wire-haired (drathaar), long-wool (langhaar).
  • LEGALIZATION (from an armour. legalis - legal), 1) the sanction of activity of any organization, its legalization, collimating of legal force to any certificate, action. 2) Acknowledgement of authenticity of signatures available on documents. Legalizations, as a rule, are subject the documents constituted abroad or intended for action in the foreign state. It is effected in the form udostoveritelnoj inscriptions of the consul.
  • " LEGAL MARXISM ", ideological and political flow of the Russian intelligency in 1890th (P.B.Struve, S.N.Bulgakov, M.I.Tugan-Baranovsky, etc.). "Life" (1897-1901), "Beginning" (1899) acted in legal log-books " the New word " (1894-97), etc., used rules of a marxist economic theory for the substantiation of development of a capitalism in Russia, supported democratic freedom, developed liberal theories of reforming of a society. With kon. 1900th went from marxism to liberalism, their leaders become a nucleus of a consignment of cadets.
  • LEGAR Ferents (Frants) (1870-1948), the Hungarian composer, the conductor. The representative t. n. A new austrian operetta. " The cheerful widow " (1905), " Columns Luxembourg " (1909), " Gipsy love " (1910), etc.
  • LEGASOV Valery Alekseevich (1936-88), the Russian chemist - neorganik, academician AN the USSR (1981). Transactionses on chemistry of rare gases of plasma chemistry. Was the member of a governmental commission on elimination of consequences of emergency on Chernobyl atomic power station. The lenin premium (1984), the State premium of the USSR (1976). Has committed suicide.
  • The LEGACY (an armour. legatus), 1) in Other. Rome a salting assigned by a senate or authorized. 2) the Legacy papal - a title of the maximum diplomatic representatives of Vatican. 3) the Testamentary gift (an armour. legatum).
  • LEGATO (ital. legato, it is literally - coherently, it is continuous), in music - a soft junction of one note in other; one of the main methods of performance (see. An articulation). In the musical letter it is meant by league or the word legato.
  • The EXPLANATORY NOTES, the canopy of conventional signs and explanations to a map.
  • LEGEND (from an armour. legenda, characters. - that it is necessary to read), 1) in medieval writing - zhitie sacred and the religious - moralizing story, a parable; in folklore - the national story including in tradition about wonderful, accepting by the story-teller and the listener as reliable (a legend of " gold eyelid "); in the off-the-shelf literature any product distinguished by poetic fiction, but claiming for a certain certainty in past. 2) In everyday value - something incredible, a fabrication.
  • LEGI (Leahy) William Daniel (1875-1959), the American fleet admiral (1944). In 2-¯ world war, with 1942 chief of headquarters of general headquarters armed forces the USA and the committee chairman of chiefs of headquarters (up to 1949).
  • LEGION, in old russian account 100 of one thousand.
  • LEGION (an armour. legio, a stem. Item legionis), main organizational and tactical unit in army Other. Rome (4,5-10 thousand person). Comprised from manipul and towers, and with it is grey. 1 century up to n. e. From cohorts. In 16-19 centuries different military formations in France, the Great Britain, Germany, Russia had the title "legion".
  • LUB (Labe), the aged slavonic title r. Elba in Czechia.
  • GRANARY, lake in a central part Sev.-Siberian nizm. 470 êì2. It is bridged protokoj about an eskar. Hargy; escapes r. Kegerdy.
  • LABAZNIK (spirea), a stem of perennial grasses of a set of a rose family. Ok. 20 kinds, in moderate and subarctic belts the Sowing. Hemispheres. Honey plants; some are decorative.
  • LABAN (Laban) Rudolf a background (an ice-film. fam. Varaljash, Varaljas) (1879-1958), the Austrian dancer, the choreographer, the teacher. One of founders german " indicative dance ". Acted in natural productions in which often was the writer of music and registration, in Austria, Germany, Switzerland. With 1938 in the Great Britain. Has developed (with the pupils K.Jossom and A.Knustom) the recording system of dancing motions known under the title "labanotatsija".
  • LABAS Alexander Arkadjevich (1900-83), the Russian artist, a team member OST, one of most outstanding Russian "postfuturists". In his most known activities (painting of 1920th) the world of the modern technique is transfigured in romantic imaginations. To the extremity of life has again returned to the abstract art with motives kosmizma (which had a fancy in a youth).
  • LUBBOCK (Lubbock), city in the south the USA, pieces. Texas. 186 thousand inhabitants (1990, with suburbs of 227 thousand inhabitants). A machine industry, alimentary, hlopkoochistitelnaja, a tanning industry. University.
  • LABBU, in akkadskoj mythologies a monstrous celestial lion who beats Tishpaka.
  • LABEON, Mark Antisty Labeon (Marcus Antistius Labeo) (ok. 50 up to n. e. - 18 n. e.), the Roman lawyer, the founder prokulianskoj schools of lawyers - posledovatelej Aristotelja. The adherent of republic.
  • LABZIN Alexander Fedorovich (1766-1825), the Russian poet, the publisher, the religious educator. Has tested influence a mug of the Moscow masons N.I.Novikova and I.E.Shvartsa, transferred and emitted books of the mystical content (Ekkartshauzena, the Sea boy - SHtillinga) and the log-book " Sionsky the bulletin ". In 1818-22 - the vice-president of an imperial Academy of arts. In 1822 it is deported in Sengilej, in 1823 it is transferbed to Simbirsk.
  • LABIALIZATSIJA (from medieval. An armour. labialis - lip) (ogublenie), utterance of notes of speech with a round-off elongated forwards lips.
  • LABIAU, the title of. Polessk in the Kaliningrad region up to 1946.
  • LABILITY (from an armour. labilis - slipping, unstable), 1) the functional motility nervous and a muscular tissue, defined by the greatest frequency from which the tissue can be excited in beat irritations. The highest lability for tag nerve fibres which can drop up to 500-600 pulses in 1 seconds 2) Motility, instability of psychics, a physiological state, a body temperature, etc.
  • LABINSK (up to 1947 village Labinskaja), city in the Russian Federation, in Krasnodar kr., on r. Laba. A depot. 59,2 thousand inhabitants (1991). A machine industry, chemical, alimentary, a light industry.
  • LABYRINTH, see in an item. An internal ear.
  • LABYRINTH (grech. lab-yrinthos), a structure with the composite and entangled plan. Figuratively - entangled rules, attitudes.
  • The LABYRINTHITIS, inflammation of an internal ear is more often as a result of transition of inflammatory process from a middle ear. Results in unbalance and to kickdown or a full hearing loss.
  • LABIRINTOVYE, a set of fishes of order okuneobraznyh. Ok. 40 freshwater and solonovatovodnyh tropical kinds, including anabasy (sliding bars), zmeegolov, etc. Many kinds (gurs, nitenostsy) - aquarian fishes.
  • LABIRINTODONTY, group extinct amphibian. Lived in serotinal Devonian - triase, on all mainlands. Outwardly resembled crocodiles or salamanders. Length up to 5 m. St. 100 stems. Dwelt in bog forests, lakes and the rivers. Managing minerals.
  • LABYRINTHS boreal, cult structures of 1-st thousand up to n. e. By the way the composite figures from the small stones which have been laid out on ground. Meet on a shore in Scandinavia and in a north of the European part of the Russian Federation.
  • LAO-TSZY (Lie Ayr), the legendary writer drevnekitajskogo tract "Lao-tszy" (the ancient title - " the Dao de a jing ", 4-3 centuries up to n. e.), the canonical composition daosizma. The main concept of the tract - a dao which metaphorically assimilates to water (pliability and neodolimost). A way of action escaping from a dao - nedejanie (for vej): compliance, humility, failure of desires and extirpation. The governor - wise man should, having rejected luxury and war to return people to primitive singleness, purity and the ignorance, existing before originating crop and moral.
  • LAO-TSZY, legendary drevnekitajsky the thinker, the founder of a religious - philosophical direction daosizma, a figure mysterious in many respects. Under this name which, most likely, is a nickname and " the aged wise man " means literally (and even " the aged baby "), in tradition three miscellaneous characters figure at least. 1) Lie Ayr (Lao the Tribute, Lie Bojan, Lao the Bay - tszy), the native of village Tsjujzhen of volost of Lie of district Ku of a kingdom of Chu, born in 604 up to n. e. On this version which are going back to the chapter " Biography Lao-tszy Han Fej-tszy " â " Historical notes " (SHi tszi) great historian Syma Tsjanja (ok. 145-86 up to n. e.), Lao-tszy ministered the archivist in chzhouskom book depository. Met with Konfutsiem which on 55 flying was younger than it, and this meeting has made on pullet Konfutsija an indelible impression. To the extremity of the pits it was disappointed in the modern to him a real and has departed to the west with the purpose for ever to abandon China. In boundary range Hangu (terrain of the modern province Henan) he has been stalled certain by " the sentinel of an outpost " In Si (Guan In-tszy) at the request of which has written or has dictated five thousand words; so there was a main text daosizma - the book " the Dao de a jing " (" the Book about a dao and de "). Then he has prolonged a path to India where his sermon has reduced in originating the Buddhism (Lao-tszy represented almost the father of the founder of the Buddhism - Siddharthi Gautamy). 2) Lao-tszy was known under name Lao-tszjun as the maximum godhood daosskogo a pantheon and implementation of a dao. In one of the latest legends it is spoken, that he was born in 1358 up to n. e. From heavenly " Nefritovoj maidens " (JUjnjuj). In honour Lao-tszy the official cult has been established: the first victims to him have been brought under the order of emperor on his Rhodinum in 156 up to n. e. Later in so-called " national religion " Lao-tszy (Lao-tszjun) has become one of three maximum godhoods in a pantheon, having constituted, alongside with " Nefritovym Emperor " (JUjhuan a shandy) and " Great Initial " (Thaw shi), a popular figure so-called " Three Clear " (San tsin) to which often worshipped as one godhood. 3) At last, name Lao-tszy should be called and the substantial writer (or writers) the philosophical aphorisms gathered in the book " the Dao de a jing ". The fervor of philosophizing in style Lao-tszy - in accusation of distortions of the human nature called by repressive crop imposed to the individual which it is meant first of all konfutsianskaja moral, and in call-ups to return to certain simple and natural attitudes in conditional rural idyll.
  • AC - PAMPA (La Pampa), a province in a central part of Argentina. 143,4 thousand êì2. The population of 260 thousand person (1991). Adm. ts. - Santa-dew.
  • LAPAROSCOPY (from grech. lapara - a groin, a belly and... skopija), a medical method of inspection of an abdominal cavity and its organs with the help of the endoscope introduced through a puncture in an abdominal wall.
  • LAPAROTOMY, see. CHrevosechenie.
  • AC - GRAZED (La Paz), city in Bolivia, actual capital of country, an administrative centre dep. La Paz. 711 thousand inhabitants (1992). An international airport. The main economic centre of Bolivia (ok. 3/4 production of a manufacturing industry). Textile, alimentary, kozhevenno-boot, cement, etc. an industry. Art handcrafts (items from silver, gold, ceramics). University AN. National museum "Tlauanako", etc. Theatres. Palaces and churches of 18 century. It is based by Spaniards in 1548.
  • LAPERUZ (La P-erouse) Jean Fransua (1741-1788), the French seafarer. In 1785-88 chief of round-the-world expedition, probeed islands Quiet ok., coasts Cåâåðî-Çàï. of America, Vost. Asia and the Tatar prol., has discovered a channel called as his name. Expedition was missing, vyjdja from Sydney (Australia) north-up; its residues are retrieved in 1826, 1828 and 1964 on about. Vanikoro (from islands Santa Cruz).
  • LAPERUZA the CHANNEL, between islands Sakhalin (Russian Federation) and Hokkaido (Japan). Bridges Japanese and Ohotskoe starving. Length of 94 kms, the least width of 43 kms, depth of 27-118 m.
  • LAPIDARNOST (from an armour. lapidarius - a stone cutter, a cutter on a stone), a short, a conciseness, expressiveness of a syllable, style. These qualities were inherent in inscriptions on drevnerimskih stone monuments.
  • LAPIK (Lapique) Lui (1866-1952), the French physiologist. The main transactionses are dedicated study of originating and realization of exaltation in nervous and muscle tissues. Has entered (1909) into physiology of concept a rheobase and a chronaxia defining an excitability of tissues and organs.
  • LAPIKOV Ivan Gerasimovich (1922-93), the Russian actor, the national actor of the USSR (1982). In 1942-63 at the Volgograd theatre. It was taken out in films: "Chairman", " Minute of silence ", " they combated for Rhodinum ", television film " Perpetually call ", etc. The State premium of the USSR (1979).
  • LAPILLI (from an armour. lapillus - kameshek), spherical or angulate volcanic ejectamentas in the dimension from 2 up to 50 mm. Will consist of the tear-out which has stiffened in flight of a fresh lava, aged lavas and breeds alien to a burning mountain.
  • WINGNUTS Boris Matveevich (1905-41), the Russian writer. Ocherkovye books, together with Z.L.Hatsrevinym, including " Far East stories " (1935), " Letters from front " (in the collection " Selected. Prose ", it is published 1958). Has perished at the front.
  • WINGNUTS Nikolay Ivanovich (r. 1931), the Russian philosopher, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991); corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1987). Transactionses on a history of philosophy of marxism, problems of global modeling of sociology of organizations and steering. The state premium of the USSR (1983).
  • WINGNUTS Peter Ivanovich (1909-86), Russian botanik, corresponding member AN the USSR (1976). Transactionses on use of plant resources, an introduction and acclimatization of woody plants.
  • LAPINSH (Lapins) Arturs (1911-86), the Latvian theatrical artist, the national artist of Latvia (1954), corresponding member AH the USSR (1970). With 1945 main artist of the Academic theatre of opera and ballet of Latvia in Riga ("Boris Godunov" of Musorgsky, 1949; ballet " Sakta freedom " Skulte, 1950). The state premium of the USSR (1950, 1951).
  • LAPIFY, in the Grecian mythology the nation lived in Thessaly, on downslopes of mountains Ossy and Peliona. Descended from Lapifa, son Apollo. Differed militant and independent character.
  • LAPITSKY (Mihajlov) Joseph Mihajlovich (1876-1944), the Russian producer, the honored artist of Russia (1936). In 1906-08 and 1921-28 (with rests) the producer of Major theatre. The organizer and the art director of the musical drama (1912-19, Petrograd), one of organizers Donetsk (1941) theatres of opera and ballet, has introduced the investment in a becoming of the Ukrainian theatre of opera and ballet.
  • LAPLAND, natural range in a north of Sweden, Norway, Finland and in the west Kola p-ova (Russian Federation). Tundra and taiga landscapes. The main area of moving saamov (falls, or lapps).
  • LAPPISH RESERVATION, in the Russian Federation, Murmansk region, for an eskar. Imandra, primarily in limits Monchetundry. It is based in 1930. The area of 278,4 thousand ga. Open spruce and pine forests. A feral reindeer, the moose, a brown bear, a marten, a beaver; white and tundrjanaja partridges.
  • The LAVAL (Laval) Charles Gustav Patrik de (1845-1913), the Swedish engineer and the inventor. Has constructed the vapor prime mover of active type (1889) in which for the first time has applied many technical improvements.
  • The LAVAL (Laval) Pierre (1883-1945), the prime minister of France in 1931-32 and 1935-36; in 1934-35 Minister for Foreign Affairs. The adherent of "reconciliation" of fascist aggressors. In 1942-44 chapter kollaboratsionistskogo governments " Vichys ". It is executed as the betrayer.
  • The LAVAL - MUSSOLINI of the AGREEMENT, see. The Roman pact 1935.
  • LAVENDER, stem of bushes and subshrubs of a set of a mint family. St. 25 kinds, primarily in the Mediterranean. In many countries narrow-ringed and other kinds cultivate a lavender for obtaining a lavender oil. Some kinds the decorative, medicinal honey plants.
  • LAVENDER OIL, the essential oil received from racemes of a lavender; a colourless liquid with an odor of a lavender, firmness of 0,870-0,896 g / sm3; odorous substance in perfumery.
  • LAVDZHOJ (Lovejoy) Arthur Onken (1873-1962), the American philosopher. The representative of critical realism (in philosophy); has advanced the theory of numerals.
  • LAVDOVSKY Michael Dormidontovich (1846/47-1902/03), the Russian histologist. Probeed a structure and function of formal elements of blood, has placed a role of thrombocytes. Classical transactionses on a structure and development dermal and muscle receptors.
  • LAVEJKIN Alexander Ivanovich (r. 1951), the Russian astronaut, a pilot - astronaut of the USSR (1987), the Hero of Soviet Union (1987). Flight on " Soyuz TM-2 " and an orbital complex "World" (February - July 1987).
  • LAVEL (Lavelle) Lui (1883-1951), the French philosopher. Combined ideas, close to A.Bergson philosophy, with Christian existentialism.
  • AC - VENTA (La Venta), the cult centre olmekskoj crops on an island in a mouth r. Tonala (pieces. Tabasko) in Mexico. Bloom in 8-4 centuries up to n. e. Pyramids, cult a site, crypts, altars, huge basalt sculptures of human heads.
  • LAVERAN (Laveran) Charles Lui Alfons (1845-1922), the French doctor, the parasitologist. Has discovered the causal organism of a malaria (1880). Transactionses on an etiology and prophylaxis of protozoal diseases, military hygiene. The Nobel Prize (1907).
  • LAVEROV Nikolay Pavlovich (1930), the Russian statesman, the geologist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1987), the vice-president of the Russian Academy of Science (with 1991; vice-president AN the USSR of the Russian Academy of Science; in 1988-91), the academician (1987) and the president (1987-89) AN Kirghiz SSR. The main transactionses on geology of ore deposits and economy of mineral resources. In 1989-91 vice-president of Council of Ministers of the USSR - the chairman of State committee of the USSR on science and technique.
  • AVALANCHE (from sr .-eyelid.s of an armour. labina - a landslip) (snow slide), the mass of snow dropping or sliding from abrupt downslopes of mountains, it is analogous to a landslide. Travelling speed on the average 20-30 ms. Fall of an avalanche is accompanied by education of the air preavalanche wave effecting the greatest destructions.
  • LAVINIJA (an armour. Lavinia), in Roman mythology the daughter reigning a Latina surrendered by him in the wife arriving from under Troy Eneju. In its honour the city constructed Eneem, has been called Lavinium.
  • LAVIS (frants. lavis), a kind of a deepened gravure in which the plotting is put on copper board by a paintbrush, the wetted acid; etched deepenings are filled in with a paint for printing.
  • LAVISS (Lavisse) Ernest (1842-1922), the French historian, foreign corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1917; foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN with 1914). Transactionses primarily on a history of Prussia. The editor (together with A.Rambo) multivolume collective transactionses on an overall history.
  • LAVKRAFT (Lovecraft) Hauard Filipps (1890-1937), the American writer. The writer of " novels of secrets " and the fancy short stories which have exerted influence H.L.Borches, H.Cortazar, etc.
  • LAVLINSKY Leonard Illarionovich (r. 1930), the Russian poet, the critic. Collections of verses and poems: "Key" (1979), "Planes" (1982), " the Cabin above breakage " (1989), etc. Books about the modern poetry: " Hearts explosive force. About lyrical poetry of 60th " (1972), " not abandoning a fire line " (1975), etc. With 1977 managing editor of the log-book " the Literary review ".
  • LAVO (La Vaulx) Anri de (1870-1930), the French aeronaut. Has committed major figure of flights on air balloons. Has based the French aeroclub (1898). During 1-st world war participated in designing airships for needs of army. Has based International federation of an aeronautics (nowadays International air federation) and has become its president in 1927. Has perished in fatal flight accident. In his honour the International air federation establishs a medal (1933).
  • LAVOCHKIN Seeds Alekseevich (1900-60), the Russian aircraft designer, corresponding member AN the USSR (1958), the general - major of an engineering - air service (1944), doubly the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1943, 1956). Under guiding Lavochkina fighters the MARGINAL FEN - 3, Ac - 5, Ac - 7, a number of jets are built. The state premium of the USSR (1941, 1943, 1946, 1948).
  • LAZORNIK, a plant from a stem a day flower.
  • LAZSKY TONGUE (chansky tongue), falls into to the Caucasian (iberijsko-Caucasian) tongues (kartvelskaja group).
  • LAZURITE (silver nitrate - glazing), mineral of subclass of tectosilicates, Na6Ca2 [AlSiO4] (SO4) S. Impurity Cl, etc. Blue, greenish-blue. Hardness 5,5-6; firmness ok. 2,4 g / sm3. It will be derivated at kontaktovom metasomatizme. A valuable ornamental stone; a natural blue paint (ultramarine).
  • LAZURSKY Alexander Fedorovich (1874-1917), the Russian psychologist. Employee V.M.Bekhterev, has developed a technique of " natural experiment ". The main transactionses on harakterologii and gradings of personalities.
  • LAZER (Lazar) George (1779-1823), the figure of the Romanian Enlightenment. In 1818 has based the first school in Walachia with teaching in the Romanian tongue.
  • CLIMBING ASCIGEROUS (possumy), a set of mammals of a marsupialia. Length of a body of 6-80 sm, a tail for the majority the lengthy. 15 kinds, including kuskusy, in Australia, on islands Tasmania, It is new. Guinea, Bismarck, Solomonovyh, on Malayan arh. Some - object of hunting of fur animals. 4 kinds in the Red Data Book of International Soyuz of nature protection and natural resources.
  • LAY, see. A bay.
  • LAIK Sulejman (r. 1931), the Afghani poet, the public figure. Collections of verses "CHungar" (1962), " Tent of the nomad " (1976), " the Light path " (1984).
  • BAY (Lay), in the Grecian mythology tsar of Thebes, father Edipa.
  • LYALLPUR, the former title Faisalabad in Pakistan.
  • LAJAMON (Layamon), the English outlet box and the poet. On the basis of lines of books, including " Roman about Brute " Vasa, has constituted a poetic history of Britain "Brut" (ok. 1205).
  • LAJBAH (Laibach), up to 1918 german title Ljubljana - capital of Slovenia.
  • LAJDY, the title of coastal low plains in a north of the European part of the Russian Federation and in Siberia, deluged during marine inflows and drying at drip moulds.
  • LEATHER, the leather manufactured in main from the skins ovets and she-goats; has major ropiness and softness. Produce notions items (napr., gloves), top part of shoe, etc.
  • LEATHER, group of breeds of hunting dogs. Are used for a hunt for beasts, wood and a water fowl. Cultivate chaser - dogs russko-european, zapadnosibirskuju, vostochnosibirskuju, karelo-Finnish, etc.
  • LAJKMAA (Laikmaa) Ants (1866-1942), the Estonian artist. One of founders of national art school. Realistic portraits, landscapes in technique of a pastel (" Aged Ajtsam ", 1940).
  • LIMA BEAN (Lima), city on the orient the USA, pieces. Ohio. 154 thousand inhabitants (1986, with suburbs). A machine industry, including manufacture of tanks, parts of airplanes. Branch of university. A historical museum.
  • ICE, water in a solid state. 11 crystalline updatings ice and amorphous ice are known. In a nature one form of ice - with firmness 0,92 g / sm3, a heat capacity 2,09 kDzh / (kg·K) is found only at 0 °S, melting heat of 324 kDzh/kg, which meets by the way naturally ice (continental, swimming, underground), snow and hoarfrost. On the Earth ok. 30 million êì3 ice. It is used for a storage, refrigerating alimentary. Products, obtaining of a fresh water, in medicine.
  • " ICE ZEPPELIN " (Led Zeppelin), the English rock group, is derivated in 1968 in the London. Structure: Dzhimmi Pejdzh (gear quadrant), Robert Plant (vocal), John Pol Johnes (the bass - gear quadrant, keyboard), John Bonem (impact). One of leaders in a history of world rock music. In a debut album " Led Zeppelin " (1969) rudiments of elements of hard - fate were marked out. The second disc, " Led Zeppelin II ", has become the best seller and the first rigorous hard - fatal design. In music of group the hard - fate organically combines with folklore motives. Many songs of group become unsurpassed classics of hard - fate (" Stairway To Heaven " (1971), etc.). Has broken up in 1980 after mors of John Bonema. Now all former participants of group work solo.
  • ICE the FOSSIL, relict underground ice kept from Pleistocene and occurring on the considerable depth from a surface.
  • LEDA, in the Grecian mythology of the marital partner of Spartan tsar Tindareja. Zevs, captivated by beauty Ledy, has taken possession of her, having addressed in a swan. On one of versions, from this communication Elena has appeared.
  • LEDA, the guide of the Jove, is open by D.Kouelom (the USA, 1974). Distance from the Jove ok. 11 million in km, a diameter ok. 10 kms.
  • LEDEBUR Charles Fridrih (1785-1851), german botanik, corresponding member Petersburg AN (1814). In 1811-36 professor of university in Derpte. Traveled across Altai (1826). The writer first critical " the Flora of Russia " (t. 1-4, 1842-53, over 6500 kinds).
  • LEDERBERG (Lederberg) Dzhoshua (r. 1925), American genetics, the pioneer of probe of genetics of microorganisms. Has discovered transduction and a recombination (together with E.Tejtemom) for bacteria. The Nobel Prize (1958).
  • LEATHER CLOTH (from a nem. Leder - a leather), a bookbinding material; a tissue (coarse cambric) or a paper with a secund colored nitrocellulose coating. As against a calico the leather cloth is water-resisting, has a glossy surface with drawing.
  • LEDERMAN (Lederman) Leonid Maks (r. 1922), American physics. Transactionses on an elementary particle physics. Has discovered (together with other) the neutral kaon, an antideuteron, a black cutworm - particle, muonium, probeed a birth leptonic fallow in adronnyh crashes. Has discovered two types of a neutrino (the Nobel Prize, 1988, together with Dzh. Stejnbergerom and M.Shvartsem).
  • LEDESMA (Ledesma) Alonso de (1552-1632), the spanish poet. Collections saturated learning, complicated - metaphorical verses (" Fruits of acute mind ", 1600, etc.), giving rise to school t. n. "konseptizma" (or "kulteranizma") - a serotinal spanish version literary manjerizma.
  • The ICEHOUSES, driving natural clumps of ice of an atmospheric origin above ground; will be derivated in those areas where a solid rainfall deposits more, than melts and exhales. Within the limits of icehouses secrete recharge areas and ablations. Icehouses are divided on terraneous glacial covers, shelf and mountain. A gross area of the modern icehouses ok. 16,3 million êì2 (10,9 % the area dry), total amount of ice ok. 30 million êì3.
  • GLACIAL EPOCH (LEDNIKOVE) (gljatsial), interval of time of a geologic history of the Earth, defined by the strong cooling-down of a climate and development of extensive land ice not only in polar, but also in moderate latitudes.
  • GLACIAL DRIFTS, major group of the adjournments, resulting activity of icehouses and thawed glacial waters. Actuate different phylums of moraines, fluvioglacial, ozerno-glacial and lednikovo-marine adjournments. On character of a detrital material secrete drift clay, pebbles, sands, a sandy loam, loams, etc.
  • GLACIER PERIOD, stage of a geologic history of the Earth during which intervals of time with very cool climate (sharp expansion of the area of icehouses) with intervals of warmer climate when the considerable proportion of continental icehouses melted multiply alternated. The glacier period in Pleistocene is most well studied; are known also in Paleozoic and a Pre-Cambrian.
  • ICE SLAUGHTER, battle on ice CHudskogo an eskar. On April, 5 1242 between Russian troops led by Alexander Nevskim and german knights - crusaders. Has concluded full rout of crusaders.
  • ICE THEATRE " ALL ASTERS ", is based in Moscow (1983). The artistic administrator - T.A.Tarasova (with 1983). Among performances " Polovetskie dancings " (1987), "Carmen" (1989), " Memories on New York " (1991).
  • STARLING, the device on supports of bridges and dams (or in front of bridges of the pile phylums) for their protection during a drifting of the ice.
  • LEDOSOLJANOE REFRIGERATING, see in an item. Freezing mixtures.
  • LEGIONELLEZ (disease of legionaries), the acute communicable disease of the person called by a special kind of bacteria: the fever, a pneumonia, are frequent gastro-intestinal distresses; heavy flow. For the first time it is found in 1976 in the USA during a cross-over of the American legion (from here the title).
  • LEGIONS the POLISH, volunteer Polish military formations forming at foreign armies for extirpation for restoration of independence of Poland. Existed in France in 1798-1807, Italy and Hungary in 1848-49, and also generated in Russia and Austria-Hungary during 1-st world war.
  • DOPING (a nem. legieren - to alloy, from an armour. ligo - I catenate, I bridge), 1) introduction in structure of metal alloys t. n. Alloying elements (napr., in steel - Cr, Ni, Mo, W, V, Nb, Ti, etc.) for collimating to alloys fixed physical, chemical or mechanical properties. 2) Introduction of foreign atoms in a solid (napr., in semiconductors for building a required electrical conductance). Doping of dielectrics routinely call as labilizing.
  • ALLOY STEEL, besides routine impurity contains t. n. Alloying elements (see. Doping). Distinguish low-alloy (the total content of alloying elements up to 2,5 %), srednelegirovannuju (2,5-10 %) and high-alloy (over 10 %) steel.
  • The STATE LEGISLATURE (from an armour. legislator - the offering administration bill), in state law the term used for notation of the body of legislation.
  • LEGITIMATION (an armour. legitimus), confession or acknowledgement of legitimacy of the government, any social institute, the status, the authorities, resting on values adopted in the given society. The basis of legitimation can be traditions and customs, charism, the constitutional norms, democratic elections, referendum or the plebiscite.
  • LEGITIMISTS (from an armour. legitimus - legal), in France 19 century (after July revolution 1830) adherents of a dynasty of Burbons; predominary large landowners of an aristocratic origin and representatives of the maximum roman catholic clergy. In a more comprehensive sense as legitimists call adherents svergnutyh dynasties of any state.
  • TRACK AND FIELD, one of the main and most mass kinds of sport; actuates trot race and walking on different distances, broad jumps and an altitude, throwings of sporting gears, track and field athletics multiathlon. Has engendered in the Great Britain in 18 century In International amateur federation - IAAF (IAAF; it is based in 1912) ok. 190 countries (1991). In the program of Olympic Games with 1896, world championships with 1983, Europe with 1934.
  • " MILD POETRY ", products in the French and Russian poetry kon. 18 - 1-st chetv. 19 centuries, vospevavshie - in a balance weight to "high" genres of a classicism - personal passions and earth desires (a cult of love, friendship, refined epikureizm). Anticipated romantic poetry. Representatives: E.Parni, S.Milvua, A.Shenje, early K.N.Batyushkov and A.S.Pushkin.
  • LIGHT INDUSTRY, set of the industries effecting primarily the consumer goods. The main branches: textile (cotton, linen, woollen, silk, penkovo-jute, sewing, knitted), tanning, furry, boot, notions.
  • LUNGS, respiratory organs for the person, terraneous vertebrates and some fishes. In lungs oxygen of air passes in blood, and carbon dioxide - from blood in air. For mammals and the person lungs are located in a chest. Will consist of lobes (in the right - 3, in left-handed - 2); the basis of them will derivate rezvetvljajushchiesja bronchuses and bronchioles which pass in alveolar courses with alveolas. The respiratory surface of lungs exceeds approximately in 75 times a body surface. As lungs call also a respiratory organs for some Invertebrata (pulmonary mollusks).
  • LIGHT METALS, the metals having concerning small (less than 5 g / sm3) firmness: Al, Mg, Ti, Be, Li, Na, K, Ca, Rb, Sr, Cs, Ba.
  • LIGHT-METAL ALLOYS, structural materials on basis Al, Mg, Ti and Be. High unit strength (attitude of strength indexes to firmness). Are applied in samoleto-, raketo-and shipbuilding, nuclear power, construction, manufacture of household items, etc.
  • LIGHTWEIGHT-AGGREGATE CONCRETE, non-proprietary name of betons with a volume weight no more than 1800 kg / m3. Receive, using porous (light) fillers, gravel or a crushed rock without a fine aggregate (t. n. Coarse-pored concrete) or porizuja (expanding) a water-cement paste (cellular concrete). Are most distributed a lightweight-aggregate concrete on expanded aggregates: expanded-clay concrete gravels, cinder concretes, agloporistye betons, vermiculite concretes, tefobetony, pumice concretes, perlitobetony, etc. Due to a small volume weight, a small heat conductivity and sufficient toughness a lightweight-aggregate concrete are widely applied in modular concrete both reinforced concrete constructions and items. Special a lightweight-aggregate concrete (a volume weight up to 500 kg / m3) - good teploizoljatsionyj a material.
  • LIGHT-METAL ALLOYS the INSTITUTE research All-Russia (VILS), is derivated in 1991 in Moscow on the basis Vses. Light-metal alloys of the institute built in 1961 (about 1988 leading research institute like NPO). Probes under the "know-how" of items from lungs and special alloys.
  • LOW-MELTING-TEMPERATURE ALLOYS, alloys, which melting point are lower, than for tin (ok. 232 °S). Contain in different combinations and ratios Sn, Bi, In, Pb, Cd, Zn, Sb, Ga, Hg, etc. elements. Are applied in the capacity of solders, fuse plugs, metal putties, materials to casting patterns and companion crops.
  • LEGNICA (Legnica), city on a southwest of Poland, administrative centre Legnitskogo voevodstva. 105 thousand inhabitants (1990.) Center Legnitsko-Gloguvskogo of mining area (production of copper ore). A copper production, a machine industry (mountain, etc.), mild, a food-processing industry; manufacturing of grand pianos and the piano. Architectonic monuments of 13-17 centuries.
  • LEGOGLOBIN (leggemoglobin), the red ferruginous protein present in root nodules of legumes, awakely fixative nitrogen. Similarly to a haemoglobin of blood, legoglobin it is reversible binds Î2, adjusting an oxygenous mode of a nodule.
  • PULMONARY HEART, acute or chronic heart failure owing to a pressure boots in a small circle of a blood circulation (an emboly of a pulmonary artery, a chronic pneumonia, a pulmanary emphysema, etc.), predominary on a background of pulmonary failure.
  • PULMONARY, subclass of Castropoda of mollusks. The mantle cavity is converted to a lung. 2 orders: sidjacheglazye and stebelchatoglazye. Ok. 100 sets, over 30 thousand kinds, on all terrestrial globe. Many pulmonary - intermediate hosts of parasitic worms, dangerous for domestic and trade animal.
  • LANKESTER (Lankester) Edvin Rej (1847-1929), the English zoologist, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1895). Transactionses after a taxonomist of fossil fishes and Invertebrata.
  • LANKLO (Lanclot) the Ninon or Anna de (1620-1705), the French courtesan, the mistress of known society and literary interior. The writer of pithy letters.
  • LANKRE (Lancret) Nikola (1690-1743), the French painter. The representative of a rococo. Gallant and theatrical scenes, pastorals.
  • LANN (Lannes) Jean (1769-1809), marshal of France (1804), duke Montebello (1808). The participant of revolutionary and napoleonic wars, commanded a troops at Austerlitse, Jena, in Spain.
  • LANNER (Lanner) Joseph (1801-43), the Austrian composer, the conductor and the violinist. One of creators of a classical austrian waltz.
  • LANOVOY Vasily Semenovich (r. 1934), the Russian actor, the national actor of the USSR (1985). With 1957 at Theatre him. Eugeny Vahtangova. It was taken out in films: "Paul Korchagin", "War and peace", "Anna Karenina", " Sixth July ", etc. Participat in building a film - epopee " Great Domestic " (1979; the Lenin premium, 1980).
  • LANOLINE (from an armour. lana - a wool and oleum - oil), an animal wax; viscous white or light yellow mass (tïë 35-37 °S). Receive clearing of woollen wax which extract organic solvents from a wool ovets. The basis of ointments and cosmetic flints.
  • LANSANG, the laotian state in 1353-1707.
  • LANCER Eugeny Aleksandrovich (1848-86), the Russian sculptor. Genre figurines and groups (plotting animal, stsenki national life).
  • LANCER Eugeny Evgenjevich (1907-88), the Russian painter and the schedule. Son E.E.Lansere. Paintings Kazan (in unison. With the father) Yaroslavl, Kursk passenger depots in Moscow (1940-50-Ñ), book the schedule (a series of albums " Monuments of Russian art of building ", etc.), portraits, landscapes prolong art traditions of family a Lancer.
  • LANSING (Lansing), city in a north the USA, an administrative centre pieces. Michigan. 127 thousand inhabitants (1990, with suburbs of 435 thousand inhabitants). Car factories. University.
  • LANSING - ISII AGREEMENT 1917, the American - Japanese agreement, is encased on November, 2 in the form of an exchange of notes between the state secretary the USA R.Lansingom (R. Lansing) and authorized Japan K.Isii. The USA have recognized " availability of soul interests of Japan in China ", Japan has recognized the American doctrine of " the open doors " (see " the Open doors " the doctrine). It is cancelled the USA in 1923.
  • LANSE (frants. lancier) a quadrille - lansje, the English ball dance. With it is grey. 19 century it was distributed in Europe. The musical dimension 6/8, 3/4 and 4/4.
  • LANTHANUM (an armour. Lanthanum), La, the chemical element of III group of a periodic system, atomic number 57, atomic weight 138,9055, falls into to rare-earth elements. It is called from Grecian lanthano - I am glazed, in connection with difficulties of obtaining. Metal. Firmness of 6,162 g / sm3, tïë 920 °S. Lanthanum - the basis getternyh alloys with a nickel, an addition element to aluminium and other alloys; LaCrO3 - a material of high-temperature electroconductive stonewares; La2Î3 - a component of optical glasses; LaF3, La2O3 - laser materials
  • LANTHANIDES, the same, that lanthanoids.
  • LANTHANOIDS (lanthanides), set from 14 chemical elements (metals) with atomic numbers 58-71. In a periodic system of the Mendeleyev follow lanthanum. Are very similar on chemical and to physical properties that speaks affinity of a structure of electronic shells. Enter into group of rare-earth elements.
  • LANTANOTUS (bezuhy the goanna), kowtowing a section of lizards. Length up to 40 see. Dwell in a north of island Kalimantan. Digs holes on coasts of water reservoirs, well floats.
  • LANFRANK (Lanfranc) (ok. 1005-1089), the Christian church figure and the seminary student, archbishop Kenterberijsky (with 1070). With 1042 outlet box, then the prior of monastery Bek in Normandy (France) where has based well-known school. In spore on an eucharist on the Lateran cathedral (1050) settled a traditional view against Berengara Turskogo. Has executed broad reforms in the English church. Memory in the Latin church on May, 28.
  • LEVKA (grech. White), in the Grecian mythology one of islands of beatas where after mors dwelt Ahill with Elena. About the Stock identified an island in Pontus Evksinskom (Black sea), for a mouth of Danube, presumably about. Berezan.
  • LEVKAS (from grech. leukos - white), Cretaceous a ground in Russian medieval painting.
  • LEVKY Kesarijsky (Vifinsky) (mind. ok. 251), the Christian martyr damaged in persecution of emperor Detsija. Memory in the Orthodox church on August, 17 (30) and on December, 14 (27).
  • LEVKIPP (5 century up to n. e.), the ancient greek philosopher, one of creators of antique atomism, teacher Demokrita.
  • LEVKIPP, in the Grecian mythology governor Messenii, the grandson the Persea, father Levkippid.
  • LEVKOV Vladimir Izrailevich (1895-1954), the Russian designer of the first air-cushion vehicles (air-support vessel). In-process " the Vortex theory of a curl " (1925) has justified a capability of building of air-support vessel. Tests of first three-man motorboat ï-1 were comprised in 1935. Up to 1941 under his guiding 15 trial motorboats with different displacement (from 2 up to 15 ò) are constructed. In 1939-52 headed special design bureau.
  • GILLYFLOWERS Igor Ivanovich (1909-78), Russian chemists - organics, corresponding member AN the USSR (1968). The main transactionses on chemistry tsianinovyh dyes and photographic materials. The state premium of the USSR (1946).
  • STOCK (stock), stem one and perennial grasses and subshrubs of a set. A cruciferae family. Ok. 55 kinds, in Eurasia and Africa. Grades of a stock gray-haired with flowers of the different form (simple and double-flowering) and colour use in an ornamental gardening.
  • LEVKON I, tsar Bosporskogo of the state (389/388-349/348 up to n. e.). Has finished seizure Vost. Crimea and terrain Prikubanja; for the first time has manufactured golden coins to Panticapaeum.
  • LEVKOFEJA, in the Grecian mythology the goddess of a meershaum to whom has turned Ino, rushed at-sea with the son Melikertom (Palemonom).
  • LEUCTRA, city in Boeotia (Greece), about Thebes. Ok. Leuctra 5.8.371 up to n. e. beotijskie troops Epaminonda, for the first time in a history built a striking force on flank for deposition of main impact, have routed Spartans, and Sparta has lost hegemony in Greece.
  • LEFT (Leveau, Le Vau) Lui (ok. 1612-70), the French architect. The representative of a classicism. Dynamically organized in the space, the composite under plans dvortsovo-park bands (In - le-Vikont, 1656-61, Versailles, 1661-68).
  • The LEFT-HANDED ARM the RULE, determines a force direction which acts on an explorer located in a magnetic field with a current. If a palm of the left-handed arm to arrange so that elongated pins have been directed on a current, and lines of force of a magnetic field entered in a palm the set aside major claw will indicate a force direction, operational on an explorer.
  • LEVOMYCETINUM (Chloramfenicolum), the antibiotic formed by a microorganism from group of actinomyces or received by chemical synthesis. Has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial action. It is used for treatment of a typhoid, paratyphoids, a dysentery, etc.; it is applied in biochemistry at probe of a biosynthesis of protein in cells.
  • LEVOCHA, city in Slovakia. 13 thousand inhabitants (1988). Gothic church over. JAkuba (14-15 centuries, pozdnegoticheskie altars, including masters of Paul from Levochi), a town hall in style of the Renaissance (15 - nach. 17 centuries).
  • LEVOESEROVSKY REBELION, armed performance left-handed eserov 6-7.7.1918 in Moscow with the purpose to thwart the Brest world to provoke war with Germany. It is suppressed by Red Army.
  • LEVRETKA (from frants. levrette), the decorative nanous breed of a borzoi of dogs. It is introduced in Middle Ages in Italy. Are distributed in many countries.
  • LEVSKY Vasil (1837-73), the Bulgarian public figure, the participant of 1-st and 2-nd Bulgarian legy, one of organizers of the Bulgarian revolutionary central committee (the writer of his charter). The initiator of building (1872, Bucharest) the unified centre of the Bulgarian revolutionary movement. It is executed by turkish authorities.
  • LEVSTIK (Levstik) Fran (1831-87), the Slovene writer. Liroepicheskie verses spirit of national songs, ballads, satyrs; the story " Martin Krpan " (1858) has laid foundation to Slovene classical prose.
  • LEVULOZA, the same, that a fructose.
  • The LEVIATHAN, in the Bible - a huge marine monster. Figuratively - something huge and monstrous.
  • LEVI-BRJUL (Levy-Bruhl) Ljusjen (1857-1939), the French ethnographer and the psychologist. Has created the theory of domination of " prelogical intellection " in public consciousness of virgin epoch.
  • LEVI-MONTALCHINI Rita (Levi-Montalcini) (r. 1909), the italian biologist. Probes on decoding mechanisms of a regulation of growth of cells and organs animal. Has discovered nerve growth factor. The Nobel Prize (1986, together with S.Koenom).
  • LEVIN Aron Vulfovich (1905-74), the Russian power engineer, the expert in range turbinostroenija. The main transactionses are connected to probe of toughness and vibration of blades and discs of vapor prime movers. The state premium of the USSR (1948). The lenin premium (1963).
  • LEVIN Boris Mihajlovich (1898/99-1940), the Russian writer. At the centre of a story " two comrades " (1931) and the novel "Young man" (1932-33) - the heroes searching for the path Lived and seek to understand contraventions of an ambient real.
  • LEVIN Vladimir Alekseevich (r. 1939), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1994). Transactionses on mechanics of liquids of gases.
  • LEVIN Vladimir Konstantinovich (r. 1929), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1987). Transactionses on development of element base and structure of highly-productive computer systems. The lenin premium (1957), the State premium of the USSR (1982).
  • LEVIN (Lewin) Kurt (1890-1947), the nemetsko-American psychologist. In 20th the representative of Gestalt - psychology, an experimental research of will and hot blood. With 1932 in the USA, has worked out a concept personalities, in which basis - concept of "field" (borrowed of physics) as unities of the personality and its surrounding. One of founders of an experimental research of motivation and psychology of groups (t. n. The formation dynamics).
  • LEVIN Leonid Mendelevich (r. 1936), the Byelorussian architect. One of writers of a memorial complex "Khatyn" (1968-69). The lenin premium (1970).
  • LEVIN Jury Davidovich (r. 1920), the Russian literary critic, the Doctor of Philology (1969). The main orb of interests: international relations of the Russian literature (predominary Russian-English), a history of transfer in Russia. Books: " Ossian in the Russian literature " (1980), " Russian translators of 19 century and development of art transfer " (1985), " Shakespeare and the Russian literature of 19 century " (1988), etc.
  • LEVIN Revekka Saulovna (1899-1964), the Russian economist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1939). The main transactionses in a sector of the economy of an agriculture.
  • LEVINAS (Levinas) Emmanjuel (r. 1906), the French philosopher. Was born in Lithuania. Has tested E.Gusserlja, M.Heidegger influence and religious tradition of a judaism. As the basis of philosophy considered ethics, its central concepts for Levinasa - "other" and " meeting with other ".
  • LEVINZON Rina Semenovna (r. 1949), the Russian poetess. With 1976 in emigration in Israel. In the poetry noted by musicality, - philosophical problems, religious motives, a theme of travail. Collections of verses: "Traveling" (1971), " Two portraits " (1977), " Snow in Jerusalem " (1980), " Absence of autumn " (1986), " the Lullaby to the father " (1993), etc. Verses for children. Writes also in a Hebrew and Arabian tongue.
  • LEVINSKY (Lewinsky) Joseph (1835-1907), the Austrian actor. With 1858 in "Burgteatre" (Vienna). Has become famous in U.Shakespeare tragedies (" Richard III ") and F.Schiller ("Robbers").
  • LEVINSON (Levinson) Barry (r. 1942), the American continuity writer and the producer. Started as a wireless and the TV reporter (3 premiums "Emmi"). In 1982 debuted film "Dining room" in which has created a nostalgic portrait of the generation. Has hereinafter removed miscellaneous films on genres (" Pullet Sherlok Holmes ", 1985; " Good morning, Vietnam ", 1987), including a psychologic drama " the Person of a rain " (1988; 4 premiums "Oscar", " the Golden bear " Berlin film festival).
  • LEVINSON Eugeny Adolfovich (1894-1968), the Russian architect. Railroad station in Pushkin (1948-50), an architectonic part of a memorial complex on Piskarevskom a cemetery (1960), hostel " Soviet " (1968) in Saint Petersburg (with collective of writers). The state premium of the USSR (1951).
  • LEVINSON-LESSING Frants JUlievich (1861-1939), the Russian petrographer, academician AN the USSR (1925). Transactionses on theoretical petrography (has justified submissions about petrographic provinces, has given the first chemical grading rocks), crystallographies, mineralogy, a volcanology, etc.
  • LEVIRAT (about an armour. levir - the brother-in-law, the brother of the husband), the custom on which the widow is obliged or has the right to leave in marriage for the brother of the husband. Has been distributed for many peoples in epoch generic building, it was saved and later (for peoples on Caucasus, in Compare. Asia, for Jews, etc.).
  • LEVI-STROS Klod (r. 1908), the French ethnographer and the sociologist, one of main representatives of structuralism. Has created the theory of virgin intellection, in L.Levi-Brjulja much standing up to theory.
  • LEVIT Charles (1897-1973), the german philosopher, the historian of the modern philosophy. In 1941-52 - in the USA.
  • LEBEREHT (Leberecht) Hans (1910-60), the Estonian writer. Wrote in Russian. The story about post-war transformations to the Estonian village " Light in Koordi " (1948; the State premium of the USSR, 1949), novels "Captains" (1954), " Soldiers go home " (1956), the historical novel " Palaces Vassarov " (1960).
  • LEBERT (Lebert) Hans (r. 1919), the Austrian writer. In novels " the Wolf skin " (1960) and " the Igneous circle " (1971) - accusation of fascism, a problem of the aiding and abetting and partnership in fascist crimes. Stories.
  • The LEBLANC (Leblanc) Nikola (1742-1806), the French chemist - technologist. Has developed (1787-91) first industrial way of obtaining of soda.
  • LEBLON (Leblond) Jean Batist Alexander (1679-1719), the French architect. Worked in Russia with 1716. Participat in grading and construction of Saint Petersburg, Peterhof (nowadays Petrodvorets), Strelny, etc.
  • LEBON (Le Bon) Gjustav (1841-1931), the French scientist, the social psychologist. Has put forward one of the first versions of the theory of " a mass society " In the book " Psychology of peoples and masses " (1895) considered crowd as the irrational destruction force suppressing individuality of the person. Denied idea of a social equality and socialism.
  • LEBON (Lebon) Phillip (1769, under other data, 1767-1804), the French engineer. Has developed a way of obtaining of lighting gas dry distillation of wood (1799).
  • LEBRIHA, Nebriha (Lebrija, Nebrija) (an ice-film. Antonio Martinez name de the Faecal matter) (1444-1522), the spanish philologist - humanist. The creator of grammar and the dictionary spanish (kastilskogo) tongue (1492).
  • LION (an armour. Leo), zodiacal mia maid with bright aster Regul.
  • LION III (ok. 675-741), the byzantian emperor with 717, founder Isavrijskoj of a dynasty. Has reflected a rush of arabs in 718 for Constantinople, in 740 - bliz Akroinosa. Has emited in 726 Eclogue. Has laid foundation ikonoborchestvu.
  • LION IX (Leo) (1002-54), Pope with 1049. Promoted Cluniac reform. Aspiring to join to papal possessions JUzh. Italy, in vain wared for it against Normen. At a nem there was a division of churches.
  • LION VI Wise (866-912), the byzantian emperor with 886, from the Macedonian dynasty. Has emited the decrees (short stories) revising aged legislative norms, and Vasiliki. Led wars with arabs, has sufferred a defeat in war 894-896 with Bulgaria.
  • LION X (1475-1521), Pope with 1513. At a nem the nepotism, gamble by indulgences prospered. In 1520 otluchil from M.Luther church.
  • LION XIII (1810-1903), Pope with 1878. The writer of an encyclic " Rerum novarum ". The foreign honorary member Petersburg AN (1985).
  • LION TAG (. Astapovo), a urban settlement in the Russian Federation, Lipetsk region. A railway junction. 9,1 thousand inhabitants (1991). In 1910 L.N.Tolstoj here has died. A dwelling - museum Tag.
  • HAW, the wet deciduous forests from an alder, violet willows, poplars, an elm on bottom lands of the rivers of the south of Ukraine, and also in Bulgaria, Greece, Romania.
  • HAW Jury Aleksandrovich (r. 1930), the Russian sociologist. Transactionses on a general theory of social action, sociology of religion and crop, conversion of the social space and time, game structures of conduct, anthropology of the Soviet society. The book " Lectures on sociology " (hours 1-2, 1969, has called I pickle on the part of authorities, having reduced to perennial excommencement of the writer from public life in science), " Is judgement! " (1990), " the Soviet simple person " (1993, both - together with collective of writers), " Articles on sociology " (1993). The director of the All-Russia centre of study of public opinion (VTSIOM, with 1992), the managing editor of the newsletter " Economic and social vicissitudes " (with 1994).
  • LEVADITI (Levaditi) Konstantin (1874-1953), the French doctor, the immunologist. The Romanian by origin, with 1900 in France. Transactionses on experimental medicine, a bacteriology, a virology, an immunology. Has received (1913) crop of a virus of a nursery paralysis in a cell outside of an organism. Has found (1922, together with S.G.Nikolau) a ultrafiltration of viruses and has proved, that immune responses at virus and bacterial diseases are various. Has entered (1923-26) concepts " histic immunity ", " cell-like immunity ". Studied a capability of treatment of a lues antibiotics.
  • LEVAJN (Levine) James (r. 1943), the American conductor. With 1964 conducted Klivlendskim a symphonic orchestra, with 1971 - at theatre " Underground railway - opera " (with 1975 main conductor); acts with the largest european orchestras, including on festivals. Has become famous for productions of operas of V.A.Mozart, Dzh. Rossini, Dzh. Verdi, Dzh. Puccini.
  • LEBEDEV Nikolay Alekseevich (1897-1978), Russian kinoved, the honored worker of arts of Russia (1969), the doctor of art criticism. Transactionses on a history of kino. Professor VGIKa (with 1940).
  • LEBEDEV Peter Ivanovich (1885-1948), the Russian geologist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1939). The main transactionses on petrography, mineralogy, a geochemistry and the doctrine about mineral wealths.
  • LEBEDEV Peter Nikolaevich (1866-1912), Russian physics, the creator of the first Russian scientific school of physicists. The professor of the Moscow university (1900-11), has retired in a mark of the protest against afflictings students. For the first time has received (1895) and probeed millimeter electromagnetic waves. Has discovered and has measured light pressure on solids (1900) and gases (1908), quantitatively having confirmed the electromagnetic theory of light. Name Lebedeva has Physical institute of the Russian Academy of Science.
  • LEBEDEV Rem Fedorovich (1928-88), the Russian actor, the national actor of the USSR (1982). With 1948 in Leningrad TJUZe, with 1974 at the Leningrad theatre of a drama him. Pushkin.
  • LEBEDEV Sergey Alekseevich (1902-74), the Russian scientist, academician AN the USSR (1953) and AN Ukraine (1945), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1956). The director of Institute of a precision mechanics and computer facilities AN the USSR (1953-73). The main transactionses on resistance of power systems, computer facilities. Under guiding Lebedeva are built first Soviet electronic TSVM - "MESM", a number a high-speed computer - "computer". The lenin premium (1966), the State premium of the USSR (1950, 1969).
  • LEBEDEV Sergey Vasiljevich (1874-1934), the Russian chemist, academician AN the USSR (1932). With 1908 probeed a polymerization of unsaturated hydrocarbons. In 1926-28 supervised over development of a first-ever industrial way of obtaining of synthetic rubber (it is carried out in 1932).
  • LEBEDEVA Sara Dmitrievna (1892-1967), the Russian sculptor, the honored worker of arts of Russia (1945), corresponding member AH the USSR (1958). Wife Vladimir Vasiljevicha Lebedeva. The acute psychologism, picturesqueness are characteristic for products Lebedevoj and etjudnaja a spontaneity of an artistic molding ("Tchkalov", 1936; "Tvardovsky", 1943).
  • LEBEDEVA Tatyana Ivanovna (1850-87), revolutionary narodnitsa. The member a mug "chajkovtsev", " the Earth and will ", Executive committee " National will ", the participant of attempts at Alexander II. In 1882 it is sentenced to transportation for life. Has died on the Caret.
  • LEBEDEV-TURKEY RED Vasily Ivanovich (1898-1949), the Russian poet. One of creators Soviet mass songs - " the Song about Rhodinum ", " Marche cheerful guys "; " Sacred war " (1941) - a peculiar hymn of Great Domestic war, etc. Wrote spirit of official philosophy of patriotic enthusiasm of time, promoting mifologizatsii to the Soviet real. Satirical verses. The state premium of the USSR (1941).
  • LEBEDEV-POLJANSKY Paul Ivanovich (1881/1882-1948), the Russian literary critic, academician AN the USSR (1946). In 1918-20 chairman Proletkulta. Activities on revolutionary-democratic and marxist critics, the Soviet literature.
  • SWANS, stem of birds of a set utinyh. Length up to 180 sm, weigh up to 13 kg. 6 kinds: 4 - in the Sowing. Hemisphere, 1 - in JUzh. To America and 1 - in Australia and Tasmania. Dwell predominary on coasts of fresh water reservoirs. Number is reduced. The hunt for swans is forbidden. The decorative birds. The small swan is guarded.
  • LEBEDIN, city (with 1797) on Ukraine, the Sumy region. ZH.-d. Item (Lebedinskaja). 33 thousand inhabitants (1991). A food-processing industry; factory of machine clusters, etc. The Art museum. It is based in 17 century.
  • SWAN SONG, the latter, routinely the brightest creative svershenie, premortal product (expression is based on national poverje, that swans sing unique time in life - before mors).
  • LEBEDINSKY Andrey Vladimirovich (1902-65), the Russian physiologist, academician AMN (1960), the general - major of a medical service (1949). The main transactionses on physiology of sight, a radiobiology, bioastronautics and medicine.
  • LEBEDINSKY Vyacheslav Vasiljevich (1888-1956), the Russian chemist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1946). The main transactionses on complexes of platinum, rhodium, iridium, etc. metals. Has developed industrial methods of obtaining of rhodium. The state premium of the USSR (1946).
  • SWAN (an armour. Cygnus), mia maid the Sowing. Hemispheres with bright aster Deneb. In the Orache 2 X-ray sources CygX-1 CygX-2, first of which, probably are found, is connected to a black hole.
  • SWAN Alexander Ivanovich (r. 1950), the Russian statesman, the commander, the general - lieutenant. In 1981-82 commander of a batallion in Afghanistan. In 1992-95 commanding 14-th army in Pridnestrovje where has managed to stabilize the rule, usual as a result of armed conflict between authorities of Moldova and self-professed Pridnestrovskoj the Moldavian Republic. With 1995 deputy of the State Duma of Federal assembly of the Russian Federation. In 1996 within several months the post of the secretary of Security Council of the Russian Federation held. In August 1996 at his direct sharing have been signed Hasavjurtovskie the nonpredatory agreements which have put an end to act of war in the Chechen Republic.
  • LEBEDJANTSEV Alexander Nikandrovich (1878-1941), the Russian agriculturist and agrohimik, the honored worker of science and technique of Russia (1929). Probeed efficacyy of miscellaneous kinds and forms of fertilizers on different soils USSR; has developed a number of methods of agrochemical probes.
  • LEBEDJAN, city (with 1779) in the Russian Federation, Lipetsk region, on r. Don. A depot. 23,1 thousand inhabitants (1992). Factories: machine-building, tool, sugar, canning, etc. The Study of local lore museum. It is known from 16 century.
  • LE SHATELE (Le Chatelier) Anri Lui (1850-1936), French fizikohimik and metalloved foreign corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1917; foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN with 1913) and foreign honorary member AN the USSR (1926). Has formulated (1884) general law of offset of a thermodynamic equilibrium (Le SHatelje - Brown a principle). Probeed processes at heats, metal alloys, has constructed a metallographic microscope.
  • LEANDR, see. Gero and Leandr.
  • LEB (Loeb) Jacque (1859-1924), the American biologist. One of founders of a physico-chemical biology. Transactionses on physiology of a brain, conduct animal, to a synthetic parthenogenesis. Has put forward the chemical theory of an angenesis.
  • LEBA (Lebas) Phillip (1765-94), in the season of the French revolution jakobinets, spodvizhnik M.Robespjera. With 1793 committee member of the social security. In time termidorianskogo tumble has committed suicide.
  • LEBANIDZE Murman Silovanovich (r. 1922), the Georgian poet. Lyrical verses on love to fatherland, about moral issues of our time in collections " the Green song " (1959), "Seasons" (1961), " Selected lyrics " (1977, 1984, 1987).
  • LEBESGUE (Lebesgue) Anri (1875-1941), the French mathematician, foreign corresponding member AN the USSR (1929). One of creators of a function theory true variable. On the basis of measure theory has given rather general definition of an integral.
  • ORACHE, stem of grasses, subshrubs or bushes of a set of a goosefoot family. Ok. 200 kinds, in moderate and subtropical belts. Weedy, feed, some - edible (in I peep there are pullet leaves, shoots and racemes) and an ornamental plant. Often as an orache call kinds of a stem the goosefoot.
  • LEBEDEV Alexander Alekseevich (1893-1969), Russian physics, academician AN the USSR (1943), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1957). Transactionses on applied and technical optician, to photoelectric phenomenas. Under guiding Lebedeva are built the first supermicroscope in the USSR, the camera for filming fast weeping processes. The lenin premium (1959), the State premium of the USSR (1947, 1949).
  • LEBEDEV Alexander Ignatjevich (1830-98), the Russian schedule. Caricatures, albums of lithographs genre stsenok, case histories (" Drawings to N.A.Nekrasov poems ", 1865).
  • LEBEDEV Alexander Petrovich (1845-1908), the Russian historian of church. The professor of the Moscow spiritual academy and the Moscow university. Transactionses on church historiography, a history of early christian church, ecumenical councils of 4-8 centuries, divisions of churches, Eastern church of 9-19 centuries.
  • LEBEDEV Alexey Borisovich (1883-1941), the Russian electrical engineer, corresponding member AN the USSR (1939). Transactionses on an electric traction, uses of electric traction on railways, etc.
  • LEBEDEV Valentine Vitaljevich (r. 1942), the Russian astronaut, a pilot - astronaut of the USSR (1973), Dr.Sci.Tech. (1985), doubly the Hero of Soviet Union (1973, 1982). Flights on "Soyuz - 13" (decks. 1973), " Soyuz T-5,-6,-7 " and orbital station " Salute - 7 " (May - decks. 1982).
  • LEBEDEV Victor Vladimirovich (r. 1909), the Russian architect, the deserved builder of Russia (1967), the full member AH (1979). The main activities (with collective of writers): hostel " Soviet " (1950-52), a complex of the Choreographic school (1967-68), grading and Perov site development - Novogireeva (with 1968), Ivanovo (with 1970) - all in Moscow. The state premium of the USSR (1951).
  • LEBEDEV Vladimir Vasiljevich (1891-1967), the Russian schedule, the national artist of Russia (1966), corresponding member AH the USSR (1967). Husband S.D.Lebedevoj. One of osnovatelej Petrograd " Windows of GROWTH " and creators of domestic art of a case history to the nursery book.
  • LEBEDEV Gerasim Stepanovich (1749-1817), first Russian indolog. In 1785-97 cable cores in India. The writer grammatik indian tongues and transactionses about economy, geography and crop of India.
  • LEBEDEV Klavdy Vasilyevich (1852-1916), the Russian painter. Peredvizhnik. Genre historical compositions (" To boyar with izvetom ", 1904).
  • LEBEDEV Michael Ivanovich (1811-37), the Russian painter. From 1834 cable cores in Italy. The landscapes noted by tendency to truthful drive svetovozdushnoj of medium and appearance of a nature, romantic pripodnjatostju emotional building (" In park Gidzhi ", 1837), have exerted influence consequent development of Russian landscape painting.
  • LEBEDEV Michael Nikolaevich (1877-1951), Komi the poet. Plays in verses on folklore motives ("Maiden - beauty", 1919; "Sorcerer", 1920), verses, a fable, stories.
  • LACHIN (up to 1926 Abdaljar), city (with 1923) in Azerbaijan, on southwest downslopes Karabakh hr. 8,2 thousand inhabitants (1991). A food-processing industry.
  • LACHINOV Dmitry Aleksandrovich (1842-1902), Russian physics and the electrical engineer. Has proved (1880) capability of a power transfer via wire on the considerable distances. The writer of an electrolytic way of obtaining of hydrogen and oxygen in an industry (1888).
  • LACHINOVA (SHelashnikova) Ekaterina Petrovna (1813-96), the Russian writer. Roman " Tricks on Caucasus " (hours 1-2, 1844, a baking plate psevd. E.Hamar-Dabanov), convicting disorders in steering of Caucasus, protectionism, the graft, presenting the "secret" party of the Caucasian war; after noisy scandal has been forbidden.
  • AC - SHAPEL-O-SEN (La Chapelle-aux-Saints), pozdnepaleoliticheskaja cave parking bliz like village in France (department Korrez). Burial of the neanderthal man.
  • LASHELE (Lachelier) ZHjul (1832-1918), French logik and the philosopher. Bridged kantianstvo with t. n. Spiritualistic realism. Transactionses on logic of attitudes.
  • LASHO (Lashio), city in a north-east part of Myanma, national region. Shang. Lesopilenie. Production of iron oxide, coal.
  • AC - SHO-DE-FON (La Chaux-de-Fonds), city in the west Switzerland, in mountains JUra. 36,6 thousand inhabitants (1991). A hour industry, instrumentation technologies. A museum of a hour affair. Tourism.
  • LASHOSSE (La Chaussee) Pierre Klod Nivel de (1692-1754), the French playwright, the creator of a genre of a moralizing comedy (" the Cool prejudice ", 1735, "Melanida", 1741).
  • LAENNEK (Laennec) Ren Teofil Giatsint (1781-1826), the French doctor, one of founders of a kliniko-anatomic method in medicine. Has invented (1816) stethoscope, has developed (1819) and has entered into practice an auscultation. Has offered the term "tuberculosis", has placed specificity of tubercular process long before discovering the disease-producing factor.
  • BARK, the river on north-east of the European part of the Russian Federation, dextral in-leak of Pechora. 332 kms, the area of basin 9530 êì2.
  • LE BEL (Le Bel) ZHozef Ashil (1847-1930), the French chemist, one of founders of stereochemistry. Has offered (1874, it is simultaneous from J.H.Vant-Goffom) the theory of a spatial arrangement of atoms in molecules.
  • LE (an ice-film. fam. Be washed) Ivan Leontjevich (1895-1978), the Ukrainian writer. Roman " Roman mezhgorja " (1929-34) about Uzbekistan; historical novel "Nalivajko" (1940), "Khmelnitskiy" (1957-65).
  • LE to the RESIN BLASE John (an ice-film. Name Dejvid John Moore Kornuell, Cornwell) (r. 1931), the English writer. Extremely topical political detective novels about a role of a prospecting service in conservation of freedom and political stability in the state: " Assassination on - dzhentlmenski " (1962), " In one german small town " (1968), " the Honorary schoolboy " (1977), " Small barabanshchitsa " (1983). In novels about the British investigation " the Spy whom Brazier, the tailor, the soldier, the spy " (1974) has come from a cold " (1963), ", " the Theoretical spy " (1986; in two last business of "double" scout Filbi), " the Russian dwelling " (1989, in Russian transfer " Russian department ") - moral and ideological paradoxes was reflected.
  • LE CORBUSIER (Le Corbusier) (an ice-film. fam. ZHannere, Jeanneret) Charles Eduar (1887-1965), the French architect and the theorist of the architecture. In the modern technique and seriality of a prefabrication saw the basis of updating of the architecture, aspired aesthetically to reveal functionly justified structure of a structure. One of creators of the modern trends of the architecture (rationalism, funktsionalizma), applied flat covers, the ribbon windows, the open supports in lower storeys of buildings, loose grading (dwelling Tsentrosojuza in Moscow, 1928-35; the inhabited dwelling in Marseilles, 1947-52). In 50-60-Õ created major urban bands (Chandigarh in India, 1951-56), aspired to freedom and flexibility of spatially - plastic structure of the building (a chapel in Ronshane, 1950-53).
  • LE LOI (1385-1433), the Vietnamese feudal lord. Has headed national war with the Chinese feudal lords, trying to trap Vietnam (Dajvjet). In 1427 aggressors have been ejected. With 1428 emperor Dajvjeta.
  • LE SENNAS (Le Senne) Ren (1882-1954), the French philosopher, the representative " existential spiritualizma ". Has advanced the doctrine about the values connecting human consciousness with absoljutom (god). Transactionses on ethics and harakterologii.
  • LE the FORT (Le Fort) Gertruda a background (1876-1971), the german roman catholic writer. Roman of " Plates Veroniki " (1928), short stories, spiritual verses (the collection " Hymns of church ", 1924).
  • LE SHANUA (Le Chanois) (an ice-film. fam. Drejfjus, Dreyfus) Jean Pol (1909-85), the French film director. Films: " the Address is unknown " (1951), " the Dad, mum, the servant and I " (1954), "Fugitives" (1955), "Cast-off" (1958), " the Gardener from Arzhanteja " (1966), etc.
  • LE SHAPELE the LAW, is adopted by the French Constitutional assembly 14.6.1791 (it is offered attorney I.R.Le Shapelje, Le Chapelier). Provided against strikes and organizations of workers. The interdiction of strikes is cancelled in 1864, in 1884 trade unions are permitted.
  • LE SHATELE - BROWN the PRINCIPLE: the external action hatching system from a thermodynamic equilibrium, invokes in her the processes, seek to loosen outcomes of this influence. A.Le SHatelje (1884) is offered, termodinamicheski is justified by K.Brown (1887).
  • LAHAMA, in shumerskoj mythologies spirits of water physical agent, causing of the god of fresh waters of the Enka and world ocean Abzu.
  • LAHAR and ASHNAN, in shumerskoj mythologies of the goddess of cattle and the grains built Anu; should satisfy famine and I crave gods. The myth about spore Lahar and Ashnan about the superiority of agriculture or cattle breeding which beats Ashnan was saved.
  • LAHDENPOHJA, city (with 1945) in the Russian Federation, Karelia, on a shore Ladoga an eskar., bliz zh.-d. An item. JAkkima. 10,2 thousand inhabitants (1992). Plywood combine.
  • LAHEMAA (Lahemaa), national park in Estonia, on austral a shore of Finnish a hall. It is based in 1971. Ploshad 64 900 ga. Picturesque wood and forest-grassland landscapes. Thrickets of a treelike juniper. Monuments of a history and crop.
  • LAHESIS, in the Grecian mythology one of Mojr, a conductive filament of human life through all vicissitudes of life.
  • LAHORE, city in Pakistan, on r. Ravi, an administrative centre prov. Punjab. 2,9 million inhabitants (1982). An international airport. Textile, alimentary, chemical, a metal-working industry; a machine industry. Handcrafts (golden and silver items, an embroidery pattern and a decorative pattern). University. A central museum, the Museum of weapons. Has arisen in the beginning n. e. In 1799-1849 capital of the state sikhov. A fort (16 century) with palace complexes and the Pearl mosque (17 century); walls and towers of Aged city with mosques of 17-18 centuries.
  • LAHT (Laht) Uno (r. 1924), the Estonian writer. Collections of satirical verses " From a pouch of an overcoat up to a smart portfolio " (1958), " the Angel goes in a drugstore... " (1967), " Pink hum " (1980); collections of comic stories, including " the Banana ship in a lilac fog and other - with mild Baltic accent " (1985); literary parodies.
  • LAHTA (from fin. lahti), a shallow-water marine bay, lake, a bay in northwest of the European part of the Russian Federation, in Estonia and Finland (Lahta on coast Sjamozera, a lip Kandalaksha, etc.).
  • LAHTAK, the same, that a marine hare.
  • LAHTI (Lahti), city and a port in Finland, in system an eskar. Pjajjanne. 93 thousand inhabitants (1989). A woodworking, a machine industry. Winter kinds of sport.
  • LAHUTI Abulkasim (1887-1957), the Tadjik poet. The participant of Revolution 1905-11 in Iran. With 1922 in the USSR. Ballads, poems, lyrics. Traditions of eastern verse combine for Lahuti with the poetics perceived from Russian revolutionary poetry.
  • LATSARUS (Lazarus) Moritz (1824-1903), the german philosopher, one of osnovatelej t. n. Psychologies of peoples; " national the spirit ", on Latsarusu, is derivative from psychology of the individual.
  • LATIUM (Lazio), range in Center. Italy, on Apenninskom p-ove. 17,2 thousand êì2. The population 5,2 million person (1991). An administrative centre - Rome. It separate on prov. Viterbo, the Latina, Rieti, Rome, Frozinone.
  • LATSIS Vilis (1904-66), the Latvian writer, the statesman, the national writer Latvian. SSR (1947). The trilogy " Wingless birds " (1931-33); novels: " the Son of the fisherman " (t. 1-2, 1933-34), "Storm" (1945-48), " To new coast " (1950-51), etc. about life of fishermen, seamen, farm peasants in pre-war Latvia, about resistance to german fascism and the statement of the Soviet authority. In 1940-46 chairman SNK, in 1946-59 chairman of SM Latvian SSR. The state premium of the USSR (1949, 1952).
  • LATSIS Martyn Ivanovich (Sudrabs, Sudrabs, JAnis) (1888-1938), the Russian political figure. In 1918-21 member of board All-Russia extraordinary komissiii on extirpation with counter-revolution (VCHK), it is simultaneous in 1919 chairman Vseukrainskoj Extraordinary komissiii on extirpation with counter-revolution (CHK). With 1932 director of Institute of a national economy him. Plehanova (Moscow). It is repressed; it is rehabilitated posthumously.
  • LATSIS Otto Rudolfovich (r. 1934), the Russian journalist, the doctor of economic sciences. In 1964-71 the special correspondent, the economic reviewer of the newspaper of "Information". In 1975-86 scientific employee, the head of a department of Institute of economy of world system of socialism AN the USSR. With 1991 political analyst of the newspaper of "Information". The writer of numerous publications on vital topics political and an economic life of Russia.
  • LATSKOVICH (Lackowic) Ivan (r .1932), the Croatian artist. With 1957 lives and works in Zagreb. One of master artists - primitives of the East Europe. Scenes of his patterns - flowers, trees, houses - modes from memories on the childhood conducted in village.
  • LATSTSARONI (ital. lazzaroni - beggars, tramps), in 17-19 centuries deklassirovannye, ljumpen-proletarian elements in JUzh. Italy. In nominal sense - the poor man, the tramp.
  • LACHA, lake in the Archangelical region. Ploshad 345 êì2. Depth up to 5,0 m. In Lachu run rr. Svid, Kovzha, Lekshma, etc.; escapes r. Onega. Navigation.
  • LACHENS (Lutyens) Edvin (1869-1944), the English architect. The representative of neo-classicism. Has created official imposing style of public buildings (a palace of viceroy in New Delhi, 1913-30).
  • LAURI-VOLPI (Lauri-Volpi) Dzhakomo (1892-1979), the italian singer (the lyrical and drama tenor). On the opera scene of Italy with 1919 (including in " Ac the Rock "), the USA (in 1922-33 in "Underground railway - opera"). From 1935 cable cores in Spain. Transactionses under the theory and histories of a vocal art. With 1977 in Madrid International competition of vocalists by him is carried out. Lauri-Volpi.
  • LAURISTIN (Lauristin) Johannes Ansovich (literary alias JUhan Madarik) (1899-1941), the Estonian political figure, the writer. In 1923-38 in prison. With 1940 chairman of Advice of national commissioners (SNK) of Estonia, the secretary of Central Committee Kommmunisticheskoj of a consignment (bolsheviks) (KP (á)) Estonia. Books on histories of revolutionary movement, novels "Nisprovergateli" (1929), "Republic" (it is issued 1941-53). Has perished at the defence of Tallinn.
  • LAUTER (Lauter) Ants (1894-1973), the Estonian actor, the producer, the national actor of the USSR (1948). On the scene with 1913. The professor of the Estonian theatrical institute (with 1947). The state premium of the USSR (1952).
  • LAUTERPAHT (Lauterpacht) Hersh (1897-1960), the English lawyer, the member of the British academy of sciences. The professor of the Cambridge university, the member of International court of the United Nations (1955-60). Transactionses under the international law.
  • LAUTON ×., see Louton Hours.
  • LAUHHAMMER (Lauchhammer), city in Germany, ground Branderburg. 24 thousand inhabitants (1985). By-product cake combine. A machine industry.
  • The LAUE (Laue) Maks a background (1879-1960), german physics, foreign corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1924) and the foreign honorary member of Russian Academy of Science AN of the USSR (1929). Has developed the theory of X-ray diffraction on crystals and has offered a method with which help she has been open (1912). Transactionses on a superconductivity, relativity theories of a quantum theory, an atomic physics, a history of physics. The Nobel Prize (1914).
  • LAUE PATTERN, distribution dissipated a fixed single crystal of a X-radiation of the ionization continuum, fixed on a film. On figure and an arrangement of spots on Laue pattern judge, napr., about a symmetry of a crystal. The method of Laue patterns is offered M.Laue in 1912, applied in a x-ray structural analysis.
  • LAFARG (Lafargue) Pol (1842-1911), one of osnovatelej the French Working consignment, the member of 1-st Internatsionala. Activities on philosophy, political economies, to linguistics, literary criticism, etc.
  • LAFATER (Lavater) Iogann Kaspar (1741-1801), the Swiss writer. Wrote in German. Roman " Pontius Pilate, or the Small bible " (1782-85), a drama " Abraham and Isaak " (1776) - religious character; lyrical verses. The tract on physiognomics " Fiziognomicheskie fragments... " (1775-78).
  • STEERING CARRIAGE (a nem. Lafette), a part of the instrument on which the trunk of an artillery piece is fixed. Gives a trunk a necessary rule before an outrigger boom, absorbs energy kickback, ministers for removal of the instrument.
  • LAFITO (Lafitau) Zhozef Francois (1670-1740), the French missionary, one of the first explorers of a household activities of North American Indians.
  • LAFOLLET (La Follette) Robert Marion (1855-1925), one of leaders t. n. progressistskogo motions in the USA, acting against traditional policy of Republican and Democratic consignments, the senator with 1906. The independent candidate at presidential elections 1924. Supported limitation of an authority of monopolies.
  • LAFONTEN (La Fontaine) Anri (1854-1943), the Belgian political figure, the lawyer. In 1899-1936 member of a Belgian senate (in 1907-19 - his secretary, in 1919-32 - the vice-president). One of osnovatelej (1895) International federations under the documentation (originally - International bibliographic institute). The chairman of International office of the world (1907). The writer of the book " the Key solution. The greatest charter " (1916) in which has stated principles of international attitudes. The Nobel Prize of the world (1913).
  • LAFONTEN (La Fontaine) Jean de (1621-1695), the French writer. In " Fairy tales and stories in verses " (t. 1-5, 1665-85), comedies and well-known "Basnjah" (t. 1-12, 1668-94) appears as the thinker and the satirist resting on popular wisdom and folklore.
  • LAFORG (Laforgue) ZHjul (1860-87), the French poet - symbolist. Melancholic - ironical lyrics (collections of "Petition", 1885; " Flowers of good will ", it is published in 1890), E.Paunda and T.S.Eliot who has exerted influence poetry.
  • LAFORET (Laforet) Carmen (r. 1921), the spanish writer. Novels "anything" (1944), " the Island and demons " (1952) about disposal of the person in the modern world. The heroine of the novel " New woman " (1955) aspires to find the solution of moral problems in roman catholic religion. Roman "Sunstroke" (1963), the collection " the Girl and other stories " (1970) about problems of youth.
  • LAFFIT (Laffitte) Jacque (1767-1844), the French banker, the participant of July revolution 1830, in November 1830 - March 1831 head of government and Minister of Finance of France.