Thursday, May 24, 2007

  • HYDROTECHNICAL GATE, see in an item. A gate.
  • HYDROTECHNICAL TUNNEL, the culvert of a selfcontained lateral section. Distinguish hydrotechnical tunnels: water-overflow, power, shipping, irrigational, etc.
  • GIDROTIPIJA (from gidro... And grech. typos - an impress), a way of obtaining of colour positives with application of water soluble colors. Implements a successive carry of three colored plotting from gelatinous reliefs (templates) on photographic paper or a cine film.
  • HYDRAULIC TORQUE CONVERTER (from gidro... And the transformer), a hydrodynamic transmission; as against a hydraulic clutch in a hydraulic torque converter the circulating liquid follow-up passes through the reactor (stator) which veers a torrent and allows besstupenchato to adjust a twisting moment and a rotary speed of the conducted (turbine) bank. Apply in transmissions of automobiles, gasoline locomotives, etc.
  • HYDROTROPISM, see. Tropisms.
  • The WATER-WHEEL, the same, that the hydraulic turbine.
  • HYDRAULIC PERCUSSIVE BORING, percussion-rotary drilling with use of a submersible hydraulic submersible impact tool. It is applied in rocky breeds.
  • HYDRAULIC PROJECT, group of hydrotechnical constructions, consolidated on an arrangement and conditions of their team work. Are sectioned on power, vodno-transport, water-intaking, etc. There are complex, simultaneously executing some aquicultural functions More often.
  • GIDROFILIJA (from gidro... And... filija), an allogamy of some water plants (napr., a hornwort) with the help of water.
  • HYDROPHILY, ability of substance (material) to be watered. To hydrophilous substances concern, napr., clay, silikates. Hydrophily - a particular case of lyophilic property.
  • HYDROPHYTES (from gidro... And grech. phyton - a plant), the plants submersed in water only by heels (as against hydathophytes) and attached to a ground, napr. A reed, rice, etc.
  • HYDROPHOBY (from gidro... And grech. phobos - pavor, phobia), disability of substance (material) to be watered. To hydrophobic substances concern, napr., many metals, fats, waxes, silicone fluids. Hydrophoby - a particular case of lyophobic property.
  • The HYDROPHOBIC COATINGS, not watered covers on the basis of hydrophobic substances. Are put on a surface of metals (for a corrosion prevention in the wet atmosphere), tissues, a leather, wood and other materials (for waterproofing and nepromokaemosti).
  • HYDROPHOBIC CEMENT, receive pulverizing of a cement clinker with gypsum and gidrofobizirujushchej the additive (a naphthenate soap, asidol, etc.) which reduces a hygroscopicity of hydrophobic cement and drop of his activity prevents at a prolonged storage.
  • HYDROPHONE (from gidro... And... A background), the receiver of a note for an aqueous medium. The basis of a hydrophone - an electroacoustic transducer, more often piezoelectric type.
  • HYDROFORMYLATION (oxo synthesis), apposition of white damp and hydrogen to olefines at the presence of the catalyst with education of aldehydes, napr., CH3CH = CH2 + CO + H2? CH3CH2CH2CHO. Apply in an industry at obtaining spirits and acids (accordingly restoration and oxidation of aldehydes), napr., butanol from propylene.
  • HYDROCHEMISTRY, the science investigator chemical composition of natural waters and regularity of his change under influence physical, chemical and biological impacts. The hydrochemistry is closely related with a geochemistry and hydrogeology.
  • HYDROQUINONE (fallow - digidroksibenzol), C6H4 (OH) 2, light grey crystals, tïë 174 °C. An intermediate product in manufacture of the dyes, showing substance in photos, antioxidant, polymerization retarder.
  • HYDROPHORIA (from gidro... And grech. choreo - I advance), distribution of seeds and fruits of plants water flows (a sedge, an arrowhead, a water plantain, a coconut palm).
  • GIDROTSELE (from gidro... And grech. kele - a swelling), a clump of a liquid in environments of an ovule at aboriginal inflammatory processes, at a general dropsy or inborn.
  • GIBBONS (gibbonovye), a set of monkeys of order of primates. Anteriors very much the lengthy (up to 2 m in scope). 2 stems: true gibbons and srostnopalye gibbons, or siamangi (sometimes them integrate in one stem). For true gibbons length of a body up to 64 sm; 6 kinds, in JUzh. China, Indochina, on islands Sumatras, Java, Kalimantan. Live on trees. Some kinds under threat peterings; 4 kinds of gibbons in Red Data Book MSOP.
  • GIBBS (Gibbs) James (1682-1754), the English architect. The representative of a classicism (Ðýäêëèôôà library in Oxford, 1737-49).
  • GIBBS Dzhozajja Uillard (1839-1903), the American physics - theorist, one of creators of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Has developed the theory of thermodynamic potentials, has discovered the general condition of balance of heterogeneous systems - a rule of phases, has introduced equations of Gibbs - Helmholtz, the Gibbs - Djugema, the adsorptive equation of Gibbs. Has placed the fundamental law of a statistical physics - Gibbs canonical distribution. Has offered the graphics image of a condition of a ternary system (a triangle of Gibbs). Has put in pawn a fundamentals of thermodynamics of surface phenomena and electrochemical processes. Has entered concept of an adsorption.
  • GIBBS the RULE of PHASES in thermodynamics: the figure equilibriumly co-existing in any phase set cannot be more figures of components generatrix these phase a plus, as a rule, 2. It is established Dzh. U.Gibbsom in 1873-76.
  • GIBBS DISTRIBUTION canonical, a probability distribution of different conditions of macroscopic system with stationary values in volume and a dividend of the particles, located in balance with an environment of the given temperature; if the system can exchange particles with medium the Gibbs canonical distribution calls major canonical. For a unerthed system fairly Gibbs distribution microcanonical according to which all microstates of system with the given power are equiprobable. It is called named unblocking this distribution Dzh. U.Gibbsa.
  • GIBBS POWER (a Gibbs thermodynamic potential, a loose enthalpy), one of potentials of a thermodynamic system. It is meant G, it is determined by a difference between enthalpy H and product of entropy S on thermodynamic temperature T: G = H - T·S. The isothermal equilibrium process without costs of external forces can weep spontaneously only in a direction of decreasing of power of Gibbs up to achievement of its minimum to which the thermodynamic equilibrium state of system answers. It is called by name Dzh. U.Gibbsa.
  • GIBBSIT, a mineral of subclass of oxyhydroxides, Al (OH) 3. Hardness 2,5-3; firmness ok. 2,4 g / sm3. Basically hypergenic. A main mineral of some bauxites.
  • GIBELLINY, see in an item. Gvelfy and gibelliny.
  • WINTER SLEEP SYNTHETIC (from an armour. hibernatio - a hibernatation) (a steep neuroplegia), artificially called condition of delayed vital activity of the organism, recalling a hibernatation animal. It is reached by application of the antipsychotic and other pharmaceuticals which are blocking out mechanisms of neuroendocrinal reactions (at surgical operations, a shock, etc.).
  • GIBERTI (Ghiberti) Lorentso (ok. 1381-1455), the italian sculptor and the jeweller. The representative of the Florentine school of early Revitalization. In bronze reliefs of boreal (1404-24) and eastern (1425-52) doors of a baptistery in Florence has addressed to experience of an ancient art, achievements to ranges of a linear perspective.
  • GIBIL (Girra, Girru), in shumero-akkadskoj mythologies the god of fire.
  • HIBISCUS, stem of plants of a set malvovyh. Evergreen or deciduous trees and bushes, perennial and annual grasses. Ok. 300 kinds, primarily in tropics and subtropics. Major economic value the kenaf, and a hibiscus edible, or an okra have a hibiscus konoplevyj, or. Many kinds are decorative.
  • NONRIGID FILAMENT, in structural mechanics - a nonrigid element with negligiblely small t. n. The flexural stiffness, capable to work only on a stretching. Cables and suspension wires of flying bridges, elements of suspension constructions, wires of power lines and other are considered at calculation as a nonrigid filament.
  • The FLEXIBLE SHAFT, the bank with the form of a center line changed in the space. Apply in power drives, napr., in drives of servo-mechanisms of a hand tool.
  • GIBRALTAR (Gibraltar), possession of the Great Britain in the south Pirenejskogo p-ova, for the Gibraltar prol., from Spain it is unbound by a neutral region. 6,5 êì2. The population of 29,1 thousand person (1993). The official language - English. A rock (an altitude 425 ì) and the sandy isthmus bridging her with an island. Gibraltar - possession of the Great Britain with 1713. Rights to Gibraltar are challenged by Spain. Anglo-spanish agreement 1980 (has come into force in 1985) actuates regulations about equality of rights gibraltartsev in Spain and Spaniards in Gibraltar, their loose removal. In 1985 the border between Gibraltar and Spain is open. The economy is connected primarily to service of marine and air-force bases of the Great Britain, a transit port, and also foreign tourists. The enterprises mild and a food-processing industry. A ship repair.
  • The GIBRALTAR CHANNEL (Estrecho de Gibraltar), between austral tip Pirenejskogo p-ova and a northwest part of Africa; bridges Atlantic ok. And Mediterranean m. Length of 59 kms, width of 14-44 kms, a critical depth on a fairway of 53 m. On boreal coast - ports Gibraltar and Algeciras, on austral - Tangier.
  • HYBRID (from an armour. hibrida - a cross), an organism received as a result of a crossing of generically discriminating parental forms (kinds, breeds, lines, etc.).
  • HYBRIDIZATION, crossing of heterogeneous organisms in hereditary attitude. One of the major factors of evolution of biologic forms in a nature. Apply to obtaining economic valuable forms animal and plants. The crossing of individuals of the same kind (a different subspecies, grades, breeds or lines) calls as an intraspecific hybridization, and different kinds or stems - a remote hybridization.
  • The HYBRID COMPUTING SYSTEM, complex from several computers or computing circuits (analog and digital), consolidated a unified guidance system. Apply at simulation of the composite systems, to optimisation of automatic control systems, the solution of nonlinear partial equations, etc.
  • HYBRID SEEDS, will be derivated as a result of a crossing of miscellaneous grades, lines, kinds and stems of plants. Plants from hybrid seeds of 1-st generation more adapted to growing conditions and are more fruitful (see. A heterosis), than from seeds of initial parental forms. Use at cultivation of corn, sugar-beet, a cucumber, a tomato, etc.
  • GEOLOGIC INSTITUTE (GIN) the Russian Academy of Science, is built in 1930 in Leningrad as Institute of Geological Sciences (IGN), conducts a history from Mineral cabinet Kunstkamery. With 1934 in Moscow (the modern title with 1956). Probes on theoretical problems of a tectonics, lithology, a stratigraphy, a history of geology.
  • GEOLOGIC INSTITUTE All-Russia (VSEGEI) him. A.P.Karpinsky in Saint Petersburg. Conducts the beginning from Geologic committee. Up to 1939 called as Central research prospecting institute (TSNIGRI), it is based in 1931. Probes of problems metallogenii, a geologic structure and a geologic mapping of terrain of Russia.
  • GEOLOGIC COMMITTEE, establishment of Russia. It is based in 1882 in Saint Petersburg for organization of geological investigations, assistance to departments and the private companies in use of mineral oofs. After 1917 in structure VSNH. In 1929-30 it is reorganized. Scientific subdividings with 1931 become a research institute.
  • GEOLOGICAL RECORD (earth cross section), the graphics image of a geologic structure of district in a vertical plane.
  • GEOLOGIC LETOSCHISLENIE, the same, that geochronology.
  • GEOLOGY (from geo... And... logija), a complex of sciences about structure, a structure and histories of development of earth crust and the Earth. Headstreams of geology fall into an extreme antiquity and are connected to the first cramps on rocks, minerals and ores. The term "geology" was entered by Norwegian scientist M.P.Esholt (1657). In a do-it-yourself branch of natural sciences the geology was secured in 18 - nach. 19 centuries (U.Smith, A.G.Verner, Dzh. Getton, C.Lajel - abroad; M.V.Lomonosov, V.M.Severgin - in Russia). A quantum leap in a history of geology - its metamorphosis into a complex of sciences (kon. 19 - nach. 20 centuries) - It is connected to introduction of physico-chemical and mathematical methods of probes. The modern geology actuates: a stratigraphy, a tectonics, geodynamics, geological oceanography, areal geology, mineralogy, petrography, lithology and a geochemistry, the doctrine about the mineral wealths, an investigator structure, structure of earth crust. The geology is closely related with physical geography, geophysics (physics of the "solid" Earth), crystallography, paleontology, etc. The Special group is compounded by branches of applied value: hydrogeology, engineering geology, geokriologija, etc., and also the recent trends of geology engendered on joints with other natural sciences, - petrochemistry, a petrophysics, tektonofizika, etc.
  • GEOMAGNETISM, 1) a magnetic field of the Earth. 2) Section of geophysics in which the spatial distribution and time histories of a magnetic field of the Earth is studied, and also the bound from nymas geophysical processes in the Earth and its magnetosphere.
  • GEOMAGNETIC COORDINATES, latitude F and longitude?, locating a point above ground by consideration of the phenomena of a terrestrial magnetism. Latitude F - angular distance from geomagnetic equator (in a plane of geomagnetic meridian) up to a considered point; longitude? - a dihedral angle between planes of the geomagnetic meridian passing through the given point on a surface of the Earth, and the geomagnetic meridian passing through a geographycal pole.
  • GEOMETRIZATION of the DEPOSIT, complex of activities under the tax, systematizations, to mathematical machining and the graphics image of data about structural and quality features of a mineral deposit.
  • GEOMETRICAL ABSTRACTION, one of kinds of the abstract art, preferring to a composition, in which basis - a severe rhythmicity geometrical or (in a sculpture) stereometric figures. Its early versions (partly orfizm R.Delon and F.Kupki, and also K.S.Malevich suprematism and neoplastitsizm P.Mondriana) combine rationalism with romanticism, gravitating to construction of the "absolute" colourful - actuarial monumental numerals expressing mystical laws of cosmos. At the same time the geometrical abstraction has absorbed in itself and texnocratic fervor of constructivism. In second half of 20 century in such flows as the op-art and the postpicturesque abstraction, geometrical abstraction saves the " rationalistic mysticism ", even more closely approaching with diversiform dynamics of the modern life.
  • PLANE SYMMETRIC ISOMERISM, the same, that cis - trans-izomerija.
  • RAY OPTICS, section opticians in which the illumination in transparent mediums is considered on the basis of submission about a light ray as lines along which the light energy is distributed. Laws of ray optics are applied to calculations of construction of the plotting at a light transmission through optical systems.
  • GEOMETRICAL PROGRESSION, sequence of numbers from which each following is received from previous by multiplication to a dividend q, called as a denominator of a geometrical progression, napr., 2, 8, 32, 128..., q = 4.
  • GEOMETRICALLY INVARIABLE SYSTEM, in structural mechanics - system coherent among themselves bodies (napr., rod stock, discs) which change in shape is impossible without a strain of a material. All load-carrying structures of buildings and structures are geometrically invariable systems.
  • GEOMETRICAL CONSTRUCTIONS, the methods permitting under actuarially data to elements (to points, direct, to circles) to find (to construct) with the help beforehand the given means other elements, the bound with data some conditions. Constructions with the help of a divider and a ruler (secund, without divisions) are most known. In this connection the phylum of geometrical constructions have arisen classical problems of an antiquity: a quadrature the circle, a trisection of an angle and a gemination of a cube.
  • GEOMETRICAL STYLE in art, early (9-8 centuries up to n. e.) a stage of development of ancient greek art: a geometric pattern, the geometrized figures of people and animal in vazopisi, schematical bronze figurines.
  • GEOMETRIC LEVELLING, method of definition of excesses by a sighting a horizontal ray with the help of a level and readout of an altitude difference on rods. An accuracy of reading on rods of 1-2 mm (a technical levelling procedure) and up to 0,1 mm (precision levelling).
  • GEOMETRICAL TRANSFORMATION, one-to-one map direct, planes or the spaces on itself. Examples of geometrical transformation: a similarity, motion, an affinity.
  • GEOMETRICAL AVERAGE, value (a *), equal to the radical n-® degrees from product n datums (à1, à2..., àn):Ãåîìåòðè÷åñêîå mean of two figures and, b, equal, calls also as mean proportional between and and b.
  • LAKE GENISARETSKOE, see. Tiberias lake.
  • GENICHESK, city (with 1938) on Ukraine, the Kherson region, a port on the Azov m. A depot. 23,9 thousand inhabitants (1991). The alimentary enterprises, manufacture of a building materials, a light industry. A study of local lore museum.
  • GENICHESKY the CHANNEL, bridges Azov m. about a hall. Sivash. Length ok. 4 kms, width of 80-150 m, depth up to 4,6 m. Port Genichesk.
  • GENK (Genk), city on the orient Belgium. 61,2 thousand inhabitants (1989). An autostructure, metallurgy.
  • GENKIN Dmitry Mihajlovich (1884-1966), the Russian lawyer, the honored worker of science of Russia (1945), the professor. Transactionses on a civic right, legal problems of export trade.
  • GENLEJN (Henlein) Konrad (1898-1945), the founder (1933) and the leader (up to 1938) a fascist Sudeto-german consignment (genlejnovskoj) in Czechoslovakia. In 1939-45 viceroy in occupied Germany t. n. Region Sudetskoj. Has committed suicide.
  • GENNADI Grigory Nikolaevich (1826-80), the Russian bibliographer. Transactionses: the index " the Literature of the Russian bibliography " (1858), the biobibliography " the Reference dictionary about Russian writers and scientists... " (t. 1-3, characters And - R, the issuing 1876-1908).
  • GENNADY (? - 1505), the Novgorod archbishop in 1484-1504, the writer. The chapter a mug of church publicists and translators. The participant of drawing up first in Russia the full text of the Bible - " Gennadievskoj bibles " (1499). Promoted subordination of the Novgorod clergy of the Moscow hierarchy. Pursued the novgorodsko-Moscow heresy.
  • GENNADY II Sholary (in the world George) (ok. 1400 - ok. 1468), patriarch Konstantinopolsky in 1453-59. The agreement reached by him with anthurus Mohammed II determined attitudes between the Orthodox church and Muslim authorities down to 1923. The writer of numerous doctrinal and philosophical compositions.
  • GENE ENGINEERING, the same, that genetic engineering.
  • GENNIN Villim Ivanovich (George Wilhelm de Gennin) (1676-1750), the general - lieutenant. By origin the Dutch, on the Russian service with 1698. Chief Olonetskih (with 1713) and Ural (with 1722) mountain factories, with 1734 control Main collective office.
  • GENOCOPY, originating of similar phenotypical attributes under influence of the genes located in different epines of a chromosome or in different chromosomes. Compare. A phenocopy.
  • GENOME, set of the genes keeping in a haploid (single) set of chromosomes of the given organism. Diplobionts contain 2 genomes - paternal and parent. The term "genome" in the modern genetics use and in relation to set of genes for bacteria, viruses, organellas (mitohondrialnyj a genome, hloroplastnyj a genome). In 1988 under the initiative of scientists the USA (U.Gilbert, Dzh. Watson, etc.) international organization " the Genome of the person ", staking by the purpose a coordination of activities by definition full nukleotidnoj sequences of all DNK the person is built. The solution of this problem important for comprehension of an origin and evolution of the person, making out of the causes and mechanisms of originating of hereditary illnesses, etc.
  • GENON (Guenon) Ren (1886-1951), the French philosopher and the writer, the representative esoteric traditsionalizma. Considered religious - mystical traditions of the West and the Orient (a catholicism, a freemasonry, sufizm, daosizm, vedanta) as different expressions nekoej unified esoteric true. Has accepted moslem faith under name Abdel Vahed Jahja and from 1934 cable cores in Cairo.
  • GENOTYPE (from a gene and phylum), the genetic (hereditary) constitution of an organism, set of all of his genes. In the modern genetics it is considered not as a mechanic panel separately operating genes and as the unified system, in which any gene can be in the composite interaction with remaining genes. See also Phenotype.
  • GENE POOL (from a gene and frants. fond - the grounding), set of genes which are present for individuals, components the given population. Emphasizing necessity of conservation of all extant kinds, speak also about a gene pool of the Earth (ecumene). Methods of conservation of genetic resources of ecumene, especially a gene pool of plants and animal, having practical value or threatened peterings are developed.
  • GENOCIDE (from grech. genos - a stem, nation and an armour. caedo - I kill), in the international law - one of tjagchajshih crimes against humanity, liquidation of separate groups of the population to racial, national, ethnic or religious attributes, and also intentional building of the zoetic conditions designed for full or partial physical destruction of these groups, no less than measures on an avoidance detorozhdenija in their medium (biological genocide). Such crimes were committed in mass scales by hitlerites during 2-nd world war, especially against the slavonic and jewish population. The international convention " About the warning of a crime of genocide and punishment for him " (1948) establishes the international criminal liability of the faces guilty of committing of genocide.
  • HENRY, see. O.Genri.
  • HENRY, unit of inductance and mutual inductance of a SI. It is called in honour of Joseph Genri, it is meant Gn. 1 Ãí=1 V·s/A =1 Wb / A of =109 sm (units of C.G.S.M.) =1,11·10-12 units of C.G.S.E.
  • HENRY (Henry) Joseph (1797-1878), American physics. Has constructed potent temporary magnets and the electromotor, has discovered (1832, irrespective of Michael Faradeja) a self-inductance, (1842) vibratory character of a capacitor discharge has placed. The first director (1846) Smitsonovskogo institute.
  • The HIMALAYA TONGUES, the collective title of tongues of Nepal and adjacent areas of India, except for indian (indoarijskih) and Tibetan. Do not compound unified group. Vostochnogimalajskie tongues: to a dial, jakha, sunvar, etc.; zapadnogimalajskie: kanauri, kanashi, etc.; central - Himalaya: nevari, etc.
  • , the second character of the Russian alphabet; goes back to the cyrillic character ("beeches").
  • BA, in the Chinese mythology spirit of the drought dwelling{living} in the south; it is figured by the way woman volant by air. Bears a drought, famine and mors.
  • BA GUA, art work of universe, designed in drevnekitajskom tract "Itszin". Will consist of eight (ba) three gramme (gua); from them each is combination of three lines and symbolizes the party of light correlated to different natural phenomena, animal, etc.
  • BA TSZIN (an ice-film. A name of Lie Fejgan) (r. 1904), the Chinese writer. The trilogy " Precipitant flow " (1933-40) about disintegration of feudal family, the patriotic novel "Fire" (1943), the novel " Chamber N 4 " (1945).
  • BAADE (Baade) Walter (Uolter) (1893-1960), the german astronomer. In 1931-58 in the USA. Has placed{installed} a sidereal nature of a nucleus of a galaxy of the Andromeda and its{her} different bright guides, existence of two phylums of a stellar population in galaxies. Probeed variable and novas, has discovered asteroids Gidalgo and an Icarus.
  • BAADER (Baader) Frants Ksaver a background (1765-1841), the german religious philosopher, the doctor, the scientist, the representative of philosophical romanticism and not orthodox catholicism.
  • BAAL (to the Dancing party, the Baal), ancient obshchesemitskoe the godhood of fertility, waters, wars. It was honored in Phoenicia, Palestine and Syria, then his{its} cult was distributed to the west (to Egypt, Greece, etc.).
  • BAAL-SHEM-TOV ISRAEL BEN ELIEZER (abbr. BESHT) (ok. 1700-60), the jewish thinker - mistik, the founder of sect of Chassids and the largest authority hasidizma.
  • BAALBEK, city in Lebanon, for foot hr. Anti-Lebanon. Ok. 20 thousand inhabitants. Debris ancient (since 18 century up to n. e.) Heliopolis, Julia - Avgusty-Feliks the latest Roman colony. Residues of temples and public constructions.
  • BAAS (the arab., characters. - revitalization), the title of the Consignment of Arabian socialist revitalization used in the literature.
  • SKULL CRACKERS (naturally Sejid Ali Mohammed) (1819-50), the founder of sect babidov. In 1844 has declared itself Babom, i.e. "gate" through which the will of the prophet - deliverer (mahdi) should be transmitted to people. In 1847 it arrested; in time babidskih revolts in Iran rasstreljan.
  • SKULL CRACKER, in technique - a working impact part of tups, rum engines and other machines; a wooden pig for a manual pile driving.
  • SKULL CRACKER (Baba) Korneliu (r. 1906), the Romanian painter, the honorary member AH the USSR (1958). Psychologic portraits, landscapes, scenes of country life ("Peasants", 1958) differ the steep zoetic truth, expressiveness of a constrained gamma and the pastose pattern.
  • SKULL CRACKER (Bhabha) (Bhabha) Homi Dzhehangir (1909-66), indian physics and the public figure. The founder and the first director of Nuclear centre Trombej (1957, nowadays him{it}. A skull cracker). Transactionses on nuclear and to a nuclear physics, ultrarays, an elementary particle physics.
  • BABADAG, top Main, or Water-partite, hr. B.Kavkaza, bliz headstreams r. Karachaj, in Azerbaijan. 3629 m.
  • BABADZHAN (an ice-film. fam. Babadzhanov) Ramz Nasyrovich (r. 1921), the Uzbek poet and the playwright, the national poet of Uzbekistan (1981). Poetic collections " New rubai " (1966), " the Sun in pupils " (1969), " Yes, I am an asian " (1973), " Bow of love " (1980). Poems "Water of life" (1969; the State premium of the USSR, 1972), " JUsuf and Zulejha " (1981). Comedies. Transfers{translations}.
  • BABADZHANJAN Arno Arutjunovich (1921-83), the Russian composer and the pianist, the national actor of the USSR (1971.) " the Heroic ballad " for a piano with an orchestra (1950), fortepiannoe a trio (1952), concerts for instruments with an orchestra, songs (including " the Song of the first love ", " Think of desire "), etc. The State premium of the USSR (1951).
  • BABAYEV Agadzhan Geldyevich (r. 1929), the Turkmen geographer, the academician (1975) and the president (in 1975-86, with 1989) AN Turkmenii, corresponding member Russian AN (19913 corresponding member AN the USSR with 1976). Transactionses on physical geography, a typology and assimilation of deserts. The state premium of the USSR (1981).
  • The HEMPEL (Hempel) Charles Gustav (r. 1905), the nemetsko-American philosopher of science, the participant Austrian a mug. With 1937 in the USA. Developed the program neopozitivizma and formal models of methods and procedures of science. Activities on logic problems of a theory of probabilities, and also about a nature of historical laws.
  • HEMERYTHRIN, ferruginous protein; a respiratory pigment of some marine Invertebrata animal, the ensuring transport of oxygen.
  • GENE (from grech. genos - a stem, an origin) (hereditary factor), unit of a hereditary material which is responsible for formation of any unit character. For higher organisms (eukariot) is part of chromosomes. Set of all genes of an organism compounds his genetic constitution - a genotype. Discrete hereditary disposition have been open in 1865 G.Mendel; in 1909 V.Iogansen has called as their genes. Development of molecular genetics has reduced in deployment of a chemical nature of a genetic material and submission about a gene as about a plot of molecule DNK (for some viruses RNK) with a specific panel of nucleotides in which linear sequence the genetic information (see is ciphered. A code genetic). Each gene otvetstven for synthesis of fixed protein (a ferment or other) . Monitoring their education, genes steer all chemical changes of an organism and determine thus his attributes. Unique property of genes - combination of their high stability (permanency in a lineage) with ability to inherited changes - to mutations which are a source of genetic variability of organisms and the basis for action of a natural selection.
  • GENE Ervin-Victor Juljevich (1884-1937), the Russian microbiologist, the doctor of medicine (1929), the professor (1932). By origin the German. Transactionses are dedicated a choleroid vibrio, an active immunization against a diphtheria, to definition of force of antidiphtheritic and antitetanic wheys, use of a bacteriological method for a sanitarian assessment of water. In 1937 it is repressed, rehabilitated posthumously.
  • GENE Ervin-Victor Juljevich (1884-1937), the Russian microbiologist, the doctor of medicine (1929), the professor (1932). By origin the German. Transactionses are dedicated a choleroid vibrio, an active immunization against a diphtheria, to definition of force of antidiphtheritic and antitetanic wheys, use of a bacteriological method for a sanitarian assessment of water. In 1937 it is repressed, rehabilitated posthumously.
  • ... The GENE... GENIC (from grech. - genes - bearing, born), the part of the composite words meaning: descending from something or generatrix something (napr., a carcinogenic agent, cancerogenic).
  • GENATULIN Anatoly Jumabaevich (r. 1925), the Bashkir writer, writes in Russian. In prose (stories "Attack", 1982, " Hundred walks on war ", 1983, "Tunnel", 1987, etc.) - a theme of war with its cruelty and tragic element, the realistic plotting of front everyday lives. Books: " Rjabinovaja a mountain " (1969), "Aju-tash" (1975), " Golden washing a cradle " (1984), etc.
  • HANDEL (Handel) George Fridrih (1685-1759), the german composer and the organist. About poluveka worked in the London. The master of a monumental oratorio, primarily on biblical scenes (ok. 30), including "Saul", " Israel in Egypt " (both 1739), "Messiah" (1742), "Samson" (1743), " Judah the Maccabee " (1747). More than 40 operas, organnye concerts, koncherto grosso for an orchestra, tool sonatas, suites.
  • GENDEMIANSKY MIR, between Russia and Khivan hanstvom (24.8.1873, Garden Gendemian, a summer residence of khan). Hahn has recognized itself as the vassal of Russia, Russian merchants have received the right of a free market, in hanstve were erased servitude and rabotorgovlja.
  • GENDERSON (Henderson) (Henderson) Arthur (1863-1935), one of leaders of the Labour party of the Great Britain, in 1911-34 its secretary. In 1915-17 minister of state, in 1924 Minister of Internal Affairs, in 1929-31 Minister for Foreign Affairs. In 1932-33 president of the International conference on disarming. The Nobel Prize of the world (1934) for the investment in business of disarming.
  • GENEALOGICAL GRADING of TONGUES, see. Grading of tongues.
  • GENEALOGY (grech. genealogia - parentage), auxiliary historical discipline (has arisen in 17-18 centuries), investigator an origin, a history and family ties of stems and families; practical branch of knowledge, drawing up of genealogies.
  • ... The GENESIS (from grech. genesis - an origin, originating), the part of the composite words meaning: the bound with process of education, originating (napr., a histogenesis).
  • GENESIS (genesis), origin, originating; in a broad sense - the moment of a germing and the consequent development which has reduced in a fixed condition, a kind, the phenomena.
  • "GENESIS", "Dzhenezis" (Genesis), the English rock group, is derivated in 1967. Structure: Founder Benks (keyboard), Peter Gebriel (a vocal, a flute), Mike Rezerford (the bass - gear quadrant, the gear quadrant), Fil Collins (impact, a vocal). Albums " Nursery Crime " (1971) and " Selling England By The Pound " (1973) in style hard - fate become masterpieces of world rock music. In 1974 Gebriel has abandoned group. An album with the symbolical title "... And Then There Were Three... " (Them remained three) (1978) has become "golden". In the further activities a classical hard - rokovyj style of group noticeably abbreviated and approximate to priest - fate. Most considerable of consequent programs - "Genesis" (1983). Now participants of group are occupied primarily in solo designs.
  • The GENERAL (from an armour. generalis - general, main), military rank (grade) in armed forces. For the first time it is entered in France into 16 century, in Russia - in 2-nd floor. 17 century; in nach. 20 century in Russian army were generals - majors, generals - lieutenants, full generals: the general from infanterii, the general from a cavalry, the general from artillery, the engineer - general; general - field marshal. In the USSR in 1940 general ranks have been established: the general - major, the general - lieutenant, the general - colonel, the general; for generals of kinds of armed forces and service arms to a rank the general (except for the general of army) the conforming name, napr was added. The general - major of artillery (with 1984 only for generals of aircraft, a medical service and justicia). In the Russian army general ranks are saved: the general - major, the general - lieutenant, the general - colonel, the general.
  • GENERAL - ADMIRAL, the maximum marine grade in Russia with 1708, corresponds a peavine of general - field marshal in a land forces.
  • GENERAL - AIDE-DE-CAMP, in 18 century in Russia aide-de-camp at emperor, field marshal, etc. With nach. 19 century the title of honour, assigned to generals (admirals), the generals - lieutenants (vice-admirals) joining in suite of emperor.
  • The GENERAL - ANSHEF, in Russia under the Charter the military 1716 commander-in-chief army; since 40th of 18 century on 1796 grade of the full general.
  • GENERAL - BASS (a numbered bass, basso kontinuo), in music - a bass voice under which notes the digits meaning consonances in the upper voices are marked. It was applied in kon. 16 - 1-st floor. 18 centuries at the notation organnogo and klavesinnogo trackings.
  • HELMHOLTZ (Helmholtz) Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand (1821-94), the german scientist, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1868). The writer of fundamental transactionses on physics, biophysics, physiologies, psychologies. For the first time (1847) has mathematically justified an energy conservation law, having shown his overall character. Has developed the thermodynamic theory of chemical processes, has entered concepts of loose and bound powers. Has put in pawn a fundamentals of theories of vortex motion of a liquid and an abnormal dispersion. The writer of basic transactionses on physiology of ear and sight. Has found and has measured a heat buildup in muscles, has studied process of reduction of muscles, has measured rate of propagation of nervous impulse. The adherent of physiological idealism.
  • HELMHOLTZ POWER (an isochoric - isometric potential, a free energy), one of potentials thermodynamic, meant F (sometimes À) and defined by a difference between an internal energy (U) and product of thermodynamic temperature (Ò) on an entropy (S): F = U - TS. System operation is peer an equilibrium isothermal change to a loss of power of Helmholtz; spontaneously such isothermal change can weep only aside reduction of Helmholtz of power.
  • GELMERSEN Grigory Petrovich (1803-85), the Russian geologist, the academician Petersburg AN (1850), one of organizers and the first director (with 1882) Geologic committee. The main transactionses on geology of Ural, Altai and Compare. Asia. Has constituted " the General map of mountain formations of European Russia " (1841).
  • HELMINTHOZOONOSES, helminthiases, which causal organisms can parasitize for the person and animal. The term is offered in 1929 Soviet helminthologists K.I.Skrjabinym and R.S.Schultz.
  • HELMINTHIASES, invazionnye diseases of the person, animal and the plants, called by parasitic worms - helminths (helminths). According to classes of helminths distinguish akantotsefalezy, nematodoses, trematodozy and tsestodozy.
  • HELMINTHOLOGY INSTITUTE him. K.I.Skryabin of Russian Academy of Agrarian Sciences, it is organized in 1931 in Moscow on the basis a department (it is based in 1920) Institute of an experimental veterinary science. Probes on extirpation with helminthiases agricultural animal and plants.
  • HELMINTHOLOGY (from helminths and... logija), section of the parasitology, investigator parasitic worms and the diseases (helminthiases) called by them for the person, animal and plants.
  • GELMINTOSPORIOZY, the blights called by parasitic fungi. Strike grain and technical crops. A stain on leaves and fruits, rotting of roots and stalks, a darkening of a germ.
  • HELMINTHS (from grech. helmins, a stem. Item helminthos - a worm, a helminth), parasitic worms; causal organisms of diseases (helminthiases) of the person, animal and plants. Many concern to helminths flat and pervichnopolostnye sea-worms. Helminths of the person and animal call as helminths.
  • GELMOLD (Helmold) (ok. 1125 - after 1177), the german missionary, the writer of " the Slavonic chronicle ", has described capture by the German feudal lords of grounds polabskih slavs, them hristianizatsiju.
  • GELMONT (Helmont) (Helmont) JAn the Baptist van (1579-1644), the Netherlands scientist, the prominent representative jatrohimii and a vitalism. Has entered the term "gas". For the first time has delivered experiences on study of plant nutrition.
  • HELSINGFORS (Helsingfors), the Swedish title of Helsinki.
  • GELSINGFORSSKY UNIVERSITY, see. The Helsinki university.
  • GELSTED (Gelsted) Otto (an ice-film. Name Ejnar Eppesen, Jeppesen) (1888-1968), the danish poet. Essentials of his lyrical, political verses and publicism - humanism, anti-fascist extirpation and Resistance movement. Collections " Perpetually things " (1920), " Emigrant verses " (1945), " Verses of a solar coast " (1961).
  • GELTI (Hoelti) Ludwig Genrih Kristof (1748-76), the german poet. His inheritance gathered posthumously (the collection "Verses", 1783), a number of poems is set to music by F.Shubertom.
  • GELFAND Izrail Moiseevich (r. 1913), the Russian mathematician, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1984). The main transactionses on a functional analysis, mathematical physics, an applied mathematics. The lenin premium (1961), the State premium of the USSR (1951, 1953).
  • GELFAND Izrail Moiseevich (r. 1913), the Russian mathematician, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1984). The main transactionses on a functional analysis, mathematical physics, an applied mathematics. The lenin premium (1961), the State premium of the USSR (1951, 1953).
  • GELFERT (Helfert) Vladimir (1886-1945), the Czech historian of music. Transactionses on a history of the Czech music. The professor of university in Brno. The participant of movement of Resistance. Within 2-nd world war - in fascist concentration camp. Has died of a typhus after discharging.
  • GELFMAN Gesja Mironovna (between 1852 and 1855-1882), revolutionary narodnitsa. The member Kiev a mug, close to group of "muscovites", the agent of Executive committee " National will ", the participant of attempt at Alexander II 1 of March 1881. It is sentenced to transportation for life. Has died in prison.
  • GELFOND Alexander Osipovich (1906-68), mathematician, corresponding member AN the USSR (1939). Transactionses on a number theory and function theories.
  • GEOSYSTEM (geographycal system), integrated flock of interdependent, interacting components of a geographical envelope (napr., a geographycal landscape, a territorial-production complex).
  • GEOTECTONICS, the same, that a tectonics.
  • GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT, the heat power-station conversing internal heat of the Earth (power of hot steam-and-water sources) in electrical power. In Russia 1-n geothermal power plant (Pauzhetskaja) 5 MVt is started up by power in 1966 on Kamchatka; to 1980 its power it is finished up to 11 MVt. Geothermal power plants are present in the USA, New Zealand, Italy, Iceland, Japan.
  • GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES, reserves of depth heat of the Earth. Distinguish hydrogeothermal (thermal waters) and petrogeotermalnye (the dry rocks heated up to 350 °S and more) resources.
  • GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT, interval of depth of earth crust in meters on which the temperature is increased on 1 °S. Oscillates depending on depth and site from 5 up to 150 m (in limits, available to direct measurement).
  • GEOTERMAL GRADIENT, value on which the temperature of rocks in earth crust with increase of stratification depth at each of 100 m is increased. On the average value of a geotermal gradient is approximately peer 3 °S.
  • GEOTHERMIE (geothermics) (from geo... And grech. therme - it is warm), the section of geophysics investigator a thermal condition and a thermal history of the Earth. Geothermal probes are used at the solution of problems of a tectonics, investigation of mineral wealths, and also for the industrial and household purposes (napr., for industrial heating).
  • GEOTROPISM (from geo... And a tropism), growth motions of organs of plants under force effect of earth gravitation. The geotropism stipulates a vertical direction of axial organs of plants - a main stem up (negative geotropism), a main root downwards (positive geotropism).
  • GEOPHYSICS, complex of the sciences, probing physical methods a structure of the Earth, its physical properties and the processes descending in its environments. Accordingly in geophysics secrete physics t. n. The solid Earth (seismology, a geomagnetism, a gravimetry, prospecting geophysics, etc.), hydrophysics and atmospheric physics. Geophysical investigations are used in the weather forecast, and also at assimilation power and a source of raw materials of the Earth.
  • GEOPHYTES (from geo... And grech. phyton - a plant), perennial plants for which kidneys of resumption latent in soil. Napr., bulbous plants (an onions, a tulip), rhizomatous (a lily, an asparagus, many cereals and sedges) and klubnelukovichnye (saffron, etc.), klubnenosnye (a potato, etc.). Geophytes - a prevailing life-form in rainless steppes.
  • GEOPHONE (from geo... And... A background), the receiver of the sound waves extending in high layers of earth crust. It is used at a seismic survey.
  • GEOCHEMISTRY AND the ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY INSTITUTE him. V.I.Vernadsky (GEOCHI) of the Russian Academy of Science, built in 1947 in Moscow (laboratory with 1928). Probes under physico-chemical theories of geological processes, forecasting of mineral wealths, geochemical processes, space chemistry and comparative planetology, development of methods of definition and division of elements, etc.
  • GEOCHEMICAL ANOMALY, plot of earth crust (or surfaces of the Earth), distinguished essentially heightened concentrations of any chemical elements or their connections as contrasted to background values and regularly located concerning clumps of mineral wealths (an ore body, a petroleum or gas deposit, etc.).
  • GEOCHEMICAL PROVINCE, plot of earth crust with the heightened or under content of any chemical elements in rocks (as contrasted to a clarke). Character of a geochemical province is taken into account at planning and realization of geochemical searches.
  • GEOCHEMICAL FILMING, drawing up of geochemical maps on the basis of geochemical testing terrain on fixed system; density of a sampling at geochemical filming depends on its detail (the given scale).
  • GEOCHEMICAL EPOCH, the stage of a geologic history defined by accumulation in rocks of any chemical element or an element block and predominary by deposit formation of these elements of fixed type and structure (napr., iron-ore epoch in a Pre-Cambrian with broad development of stratas of ferruginous quartzite).
  • GEOCHEMICAL BARRIERS, zones of sharp reduction of migratory ability of any chemical elements; process is accompanied by their deposition from a solution and results in originating their heightened concentration, including workable deposits. Depending on factors of an ore deposition distinguish: physico-chemical, mechanic, biogeochemical barriers. Geochemical barriers play the important role in exogenic processes rudoobrazovanija.
  • GEOCHEMICAL SEARCHES, methods of searches of mineral wealths, are based on detection of heightened (abnormal) concentrations of chemical elements in a lithosphere, a hydrosphere, an atmosphere and ecumene near to deposits of mineral wealths.
  • GEOCHEMICAL CYCLES, serial numbers of geochemical processes in which chemical elements migrate, participate in different physico-chemical metamorphosises with education of minerals, undergo changes of isotope structure and return in a reference state. Geochemical cycles in earth crust actuate magmatic, postmagmatic, hypergenic, sedimental and metamorphic processes.
  • GETTER (English getter), the substance gettering (except for inert), binding them at the expense of a chemosorption. It is used for improvement of air void in electronic devices, in vacuum pumps.
  • GETTERNYJ the POMPE, a vacuum pump, which action it is based predominary on the phenomena of a chemosorption of pumped out gas by a getter (a titanium, a barium, etc.). Distinguish getternye pompes ablative, ionicly - getternye, magnetic electrodigit.
  • GOETTINGEN (Gottingen), city in Germany, ground the Lower Saxony. 122,7 thousand inhabitants (1992). A machine industry. University (with 1737).
  • The GOETTINGEN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (Germany), is based in 1751. In 1990 over 240 members (primarily teachers of the Goettingen university).
  • " The GOETTINGEN GROVE ", see " Soyuz of the Grove ".
  • The GOETTINGEN UNIVERSITY of a name of George Avgusta, Germany, is based in 1737. In 1990 ok. 30 thousand students.
  • " The GOETTINGEN COMMONWEALTH of POETS ", see " Soyuz of the Grove ".
  • GHETTO (ital. ghetto), the part of city dedicated in Middle Ages in countries Zap. And Center. Europe for isolated residing Jews. During 2-nd world war of a ghetto have been built by nazis in a number of cities Vost. Europe also are transformed in " camp of destruction ". The term is sometimes used for notation of area of city in which discriminated ethnic minorities lodge.
  • GETTON (Hatton) (Hutton) James (1726-97), the Scottish geologist, the founder plutonizma. Represented a geologic history of the Earth as repetition of cycles of destruction of one continents and originating other; has indicated similarity of the modern and ancient geological processes.
  • GETY, Thracian nations, affine dakam. By 1 century up to n. e. Lived across the lower Danube. Finally pokoreny Rome in 106 n. e.
  • GEFEST, in the Grecian mythology the god of fire, the promoter of smithcraft. Son Zevsa and Gery. It was figured broad-shouldered and lame. To him there corresponds a Roman Burning mountain.
  • GEFNERA the CANDLE, see. Hefnera a candle.
  • GEFFDING (Hefding) Harald (1843-1931), the danish philosopher and the psychologist, the historian of philosophy of New time. Attempted to combine empiricism with ideas of the Cant.
  • GEHT Seeds Grigorjevich (1903-63), the Russian writer. Has been repressed. Books: " the Person whom " the Son of the cobbler " (1931), " Cheerful adolescence " (1932), " the Instructive history " (1939) has forgotten the life " (1930), " the History of migrants Budlerov " (1930), " the Booth of the Nightingale " (1957), "Memories" (1960), " Debts of heart " (1963), etc.
  • GETS BACKGROUND BERLIHINGEN, see Berlihingen Gets a background.
  • GETSKIN Lion Solomonovich (1911-92), the Russian metallurgist, corresponding member AN KazSSR (1967). Transactionses on a complex processing colour and rare metals and alloys. The lenin premium (1961).
  • GECHSARAN, gazoneftjanoe a deposit in Iran (the oil-and-gas-bearing basin enters in Persian gulf). It is open in 1928. Operation with 1940. Deposits on depth of 0,3-3,6 kms. Beginning inventories 1,49 billion t, gas - 162 billion in m3. Firmness of petroleum of 0,87 g / sm3, content S of 1,60 %.
  • GESHOV Ivan (1849-1924), the prime minister of Bulgaria in 1911-13. The banker, the publicist. The adherent of the union with Russia. One of organizers of the Balkan union 1912. Minister of Finance in 1886, 1894-97. In 1898-1924 chairman of the Bulgarian society of adherents of knowledge (with 1911 - Bulgarian AN).
  • The GENERAL - GOVERNOR, 1) the maximum position of aboriginal administration of Russia in 1703-1917; had a civil and military authority, with 1775 headed a general - governorship. 2) the Official presenting the English king in some states, included in Commonwealth and admitting the English king in the capacity of chiefs of state (as a rule, major dominions).
  • GENERAL - GOVERNORSHIP, administrative and territorial unit in Russia in 1775-1917. Actuated one or several provinces or ranges; it was steered by the general - governor.
  • GENERALIZATION (from an armour. generalis - general, main), 1) generalization, logic transition from the particular to the general, subordination of the private phenomena to a general principle. 2) In medicine - distribution of disease process, in the beginning restricted, on all organism or an organ. 3) In cartography - process of selection and (or) generalizations of the content at drawing up of a geographical map according to its destination, subjects and capabilities of a scale.
  • The GENERALISSIMO (from an armour. generalissimus - the most important), the maximum military rank in some countries. For the first time it is entered in 1569 in France. In Russia (with kon. 17 century) a rank of the generalissimo had F.J.Romodanovsky, A.S.Sheyin, A.D.Menshikov, Anton Ulrih Braunshvejgsky (father of emperor of Ivan VI), A.V.Suvorov. In the USSR the rank of the Generalissimo of Soviet Union is assigned only to I.V.Stalin. In 20 century in foreign countries F.Franko (Spain), the Tub - Kajshi (China) had a rank of the generalissimo, etc. In 1992 rank of the generalissimo it is assigned Kim Ir to Hay (KNDR).
  • GENERALICH (Generalic) Ivan (r. 1914), the Croatian artist. Having created in 1930 in a native torrent to the Beebread school of country painters, has become one of the most known masters in the world of " naive art ". His painting (on a linen or on glasses) is as a whole colourful and mazhorna, is full folklore optimism, but actuates and many mournful motives of memory of a terror of times of 2-nd world war.
  • The GENERAL - KAPITANSTVA, in 16 - nach. 19 centuries of terrain in the American colonys of Spain, were under steering of the generals - captains quoted by a spanish corona. Nominally the general - kapitanstva entered in a vice-kingdom, but actually were do-it-yourself politiko-administrative units.
  • The GENERAL - KVARTIRMEJSTER, the staff position in some armies (the Great Britain, Russia, Germany, etc.). Routinely headed in headquarters development and planning of military operations.
  • GENERALS Vasily Denisovich (1867-87), the member of a terrorist fraction of " National will ". The participant of preparation of attempt 1.3.1887 on emperor Alexander III. It is hung up.
  • GENERALS Nikolay Alekseevich (r. 1933), Russian physics, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1987). Transactionses in range of mechanics, physics of a lightning discharge and a quantum electronics.
  • The GENERAL - PUBLIC PROSECUTOR, one of the maximum state positions in imperial Russia. Supervised of legitimacy of activity of state machinery, headed the Senate; with 1802 it is simultaneous also Minister of Justice.
  • GENERAL - FIELD MARSHAL, the maximum military grade in Russian and some foreign armies.
  • The GENERAL - FELDTSEJHMEJSTER, the main chief of artillery in Russian, Prussian (up to 1757) and German (19 - nach. 20 centuries) armies.
  • GENERAL ASSEMBLY of the United Nations, one of principal organs of the United Nations. Will consist of all members of the United Nations. - the member of the United Nations has each state no more than 5 representatives to General Assembly of the United Nations. Is proxy to consider any problems within the limits of the UN Charter, and also to do on nymas of the recommendation to states - members and Security Council of the United Nations. Has: 7 main committees - on political problems and safety issues, on disarming and international safety, on economic and to money matters, etc.; 2 standing committees - Advisory on administrative and budget problems and Committee under instalments. The establishment of ad hoc committees and commissions (napr practises., Committee on use of space in the nonpredatory purposes, the International Law Commission, etc.) . There are special organs of General Assembly of the United Nations on rights of independent international organizations, napr., International agency on atomic energy (MAGATE). Regular sessions of General Assembly of the United Nations are convoked annually, extraordinary and special sessions are if necessary carried out.
  • GENERAL the FOREMAN, the maximum central military and a civil affairs government on Left-bank Ukraine in 2-nd floor. 17-18 centuries, advice at the hetman. It was nominated as the hetman as agreed with imperial government. Structure: oboznyj, the judge, the clerk, esaul, horunzhy, podskarby, bunchuzhnyj - all called general.
  • GENERAL SURVEYING, refinement of borders of landholdings of landowners, communities of state peasants, etc. in Russian empire in it 1766-grey. 19 century. Has strengthened a landholding of noblemen.
  • The GENERAL TARIFF AGREEMENT AND TRADE (GATT), the multilateral intergovernmental agreement, directed on drop of customs duties and other barriers in international trade. Signed 23 countries in 1947. In 1990 in GATT at miscellaneous levels participat over 150 countries.
  • GENERAL STAFFS, 1) in France the maximum soslovno-representation establishment in 1302-1789, comprising of deputies of clergy, nobility and 3-rd estate. Were convoked by kings primarily for obtaining from them the consent to collection of taxes. Deputies of 3-rd estate of General Staffs 1789 have declared themselves National assembly. 2) In Netherlands historical (with 1463) - the maximum soslovno-representation establishment, in the modern Netherlands - parliament.
  • GENERAL (from an armour. generalis), main, the main, master (napr., the guideline of development); general, overall, native born.
  • The GENERAL RULES, the Russian act, the charter of state civil service in 18-íà÷.-19 Is issued by Peter I in 1720 centuries. Established responsibilities of officials of boards, the order of discussion of businesses in them.
  • BABURIN Sergey Nikolaevich (r .1959), the Russian statesman, the lawyer, the expert in range of a history of the state and the right, doctor of juridical science. With 1988 on scientific and pedagogical activity in Omsk state university. In 1990-93 member of a Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation. In 1993-95 deputy of the State Duma of Federal assembly of the Russian Federation. With 1995 vice-president of the State Duma. The leader of the Russian nation-wide union (DEWS).
  • BABUHIN Alexander Ivanovich (1827 or 1835-91), the Russian histologist and the physiologist. Has placed{installed} (1869) education of electric organs of fishes from embrionalnyh muscle cells; for the first time (1877) has proved double-end realization of exaltation on a nerve.
  • " BABE SUMMER ", the season{term} of dry solar and warm weather in Europe and the Sowing. To America (where calls " in the American Indian summer ") in September - October. It is routinely connected to a resistant anticyclone, 2-3 weeks last.
  • SKULL CRACKERS - EL-MANDEBSKY the CHANNEL, between Arabian p-vom and Africa. Bridges Red m. with Arabian. Length of 109 kms. The least width of 26 kms, depth of 31 m (on a fairway).
  • BABJUREN (Baburen) Dirk van (ok. 1590-1624), the Netherlands painter, alongside with Honthorstom and Terbrjuggenom the largest representative of the Utrecht school karavadzhizma. One of osnovatelej Benta in Rome (1623).
  • BAVARIA (Bayern), ground in Germany. 70,6 thousand êì2. The population 11,4 million person (1991). Adm. ts. - Munich. In Middle Ages duchy (it is derivated in 6 century bavarami), with 1623 kurfjurshestvo, in 1806-1918 kingdom, then ground. In 1180-1918 in Bavaria set Vittelsbahi.
  • The BAVARIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, is based in 1759 in Munich. In 1990 ok. 120 members; 35 commissions.
  • The BAVARIAN STATE COLLECTIONS of PATTERNS, association of some collections of german and world art (primarily in Munich). Actuate Aged and New pinakoteki, New passageway, etc. Branches of the Bavarian state collection of patterns are in other cities of Germany.
  • The BAVARIAN PATRIMONY, war (1778-79) for the Bavarian patrimony between Austria, on the one hand, Prussia and Saxony - with other. On Teshenskomu to the world 1779 in Bavaria the line of dynasty Vittelsbahov was affirmed pfaltsskaja; Austria has received only small district of Bavaria (Innas).
  • BAVARY, the German nation. From bavarov Bavaria has received the title.
  • BAVENITE, mineral, berillosilikat subclass of nesosilicates, Ñà4 [Be2Al2Si9O26] (OH) 2. Light spicular and flap-type units, sphemlitic aggregates. Hardness 5,5-6, firmness ok. 2,7 g / sm3. By origin hydrothermal. Ore of beryllium.
  • The BAHAMA ISLANDS (Bahamas), Commonwealth of Bahamas (Commonwealth of the Bahamas), the state in West Indies, on the Bahama islands. 13,9 thousand êì2. The population of 266 thousand person (1993), over 80 % - bagamtsy. A urban population of 64 % (1990). The official language - English. The majority of believers - protesters. Capital - Nassau (Nassau). Enters into Commonwealth. The chief of state - queen of the Great Britain, introduced the general - governor. The body of legislation - two-chamber parliament. A surface flat. A climate tropical, trade-wind. In an antiquity on islands Indians lived. In 1492 islands are open{discovered} by Spaniards. With 1783 colony of the Great Britain. In 1964 have received internal self-management. Since July 1973 independent state. The basis{fundamentals} of economy - foreign tourism (60 % of public revenues). Manufacture of the electric power 950 million kVt·ch (1990). The enterprises of an oil refining, cement, pharmacological industry. Timber loggings. Cultivate pineapples, citrous, tomatoes, a cane. Fishing and marine products (crawfishes, turtles, oysters). Length of motorways - 3,4 thousand in km., main roads no. Ok. 80 % of the foodstuffs are imported. Export: petroleum, medicines, rum. The main{basic} foreign trade partners - the USA, the Great Britain, Canada. Monetary unit - a dollar Bahamian.
  • BAGATEL (frants. bagatelle, characters. - a knickknack), the tool{instrument} play, primarily for a piano, easy for performance{fulfillment}.
  • BAGAEV Sergey Nikolaevich (r. 1941), Russian physics, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1994). Transactionses on laser spectroscopy of the super-high sanction, quantum standards of frequency.
  • BAGALEJ Dmitry Ivanovich (1857-1932), the Ukrainian historian, academician AN of Ukraine (1919). The professor and the rector (1906-10) Kharkov universities. Transactionses on a history of Russia, Ukraine 14-18 centuries, Lithuania, Belarus.
  • BABI (Baban), in egyptian mythology a demon of a gloom and the darkness, routinely prominent in a role of godhood Duata hostile died.
  • BABIDSKIE REVOLTS, national antifeudal revolts in Iran (in Mazenderane, Zenjan, Nejrize, etc.) under a guiding babidov in 1848-52, is objective directed also against begun enslavement of Iran by the foreign capital. Participants: peasants, handicraftsmen, the lowest clergy, dealers.
  • BABIZM, the religious doctrine of sect babidov, built Babom in 40th of 19 century in Iran. Babizm professed the terminal of domination of laws, founded on the Koran and the sharia, changing their new, coming from principles: equality of all people and protection of their rights, establishment of a sacred kingdom babidov, etc. Democratic elements babizma have been developed by followers the Skull cracker in time babidskih revolts.
  • BABY Boris Moiseevich (r. 1914), the Ukrainian lawyer, academician AN of Ukraine (1972). Transactionses on a history and theories of the Soviet state and the right.
  • BABY JAR, a gully on former northwest surburb of Kiev, a place of a mass destruction of the nonpredatory population, primarily Jews, and Soviet voennoplennyh fascist occupiers in 1941-43. In total in Babjem JAre it is deleted by fascists over 100. thousand Soviet citizens. A monument (1976).
  • ROAD BABINOVSKAJA (Verhotursky a path{route}) (from. Verhoturje on the rivers of Tours - Tobol), Russian official path{route} to Siberia through Compare. Ural with kon. 16 up to it is grey. 18 centuries Has substituted CHerdynskuju a road.
  • BABINSKY (Babinski) ZHozef (1857-1932), the French neuropathologist. By origin the Pole. Classical transactionses on pathological reflexes, a pathology of a cerebellum, a hysteria, etc.
  • BABIRUSSA, not ruminant cloven-hoofed animal of a set of pigs. Length up to 1 m. For samtsov the upper tusks the lengthy, curved. Dwells{lives} in mesohylies about. Sulawesi and some neighboring islands. Fast runs and well floats. It is rare, in the Red Data Book of the International union of nature protection and natural resources.
  • BABICH Shajhzada Muhametzakirovich (1895-1919), the Bashkir and tatar poet. One of initiators of the Bashkir literature. In verses invoked for extirpation for revolutionary ideals, anthemed working class.
  • PASTERN, in technique - a part metal-cutting or a woodworking machine. A support for a spindle (live head), the instrument (a pastern of a grinder) or the device bolstering preparation (tail stock).
  • BABLOEV Suren Isaakovich (1918-79), the Russian choral conductor, the national actor of the USSR (1978). With 1941 conductor of military orchestras and bands, in 1963-79 chief and the artistic administrator of Band songs and dancings Moscow IN.
  • BUTTERFLIES (Lepidoptera), order of hexapods. Side panels (2 pairs{vapours;couples}) are coated{obtected} with variously colored scales. For jumboes side panels in scope{span} up to 30 sm, for small-sized - ok. 3 mm. Adult (imago) live from several hours about several weeks (winter - some months). Ok. 140 thousand kinds{views}, are distributed widely. Many butterflies promote a pollination of plants; from cocoons mulberry and other silkworm moths receive silk. Larvas of many butterflies (caterpillar) damage agricultural and forest cultures, a commissary supplies, items from a wool and furs. 104 kinds{views} in the Red Data Book of the International union of nature protection and natural resources.
  • BABOCHKIN Boris Andreevich (1904-75), the Russian actor, the producer, the national actor of the USSR (1963), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1974). On the scene with 1927. In 1948-51 and with 1955 at Small theatre where has delivered: "Ivanov" of A.P.Chehova (1959, has played Ivanov), "Summer residents" (1964, has played Suslov), etc. The attenuatous psychologism, the careful analysis of a drama material, absence of spillovers, often polemic colour, new perusal of classical product{creation} are inherent{intrinsic} in Activities Babochkina. With 1927 acted in film: the first well-known role - CHapaev in film "CHapaev" (1934), main parts in television films " the Boring history " (1969) and " Plotnitskie stories " (1973), etc. The State premium of the USSR (1941, 1951, 1977, posthumously).
  • BABRY (2 century n. e.), the ancient greek poet - fabulist. Poetic transposition basen Ezopa, distinguished by refinement of the form, almost denuded moralizing and accusatory motives.
  • BABST Ivan Kondratjevich (1823-81), the Russian economist and the historian. The main{basic} transactionses on political economy and statistics.
  • BABOON, the monkey of a stem of baboons. Length of a body ok. 75 sm, a tail ok. 60 see In Center. And Vost. To Africa.
  • BABUR Zahireddin Mohammed (1483-1530), the founder of the state of Great Moguls, descendant Timur. Originally the governor of destiny in Compare. Asia, then in Kabul. In 1526-27 has conquered a large part the Sowing. India. State borders Babura reached{extended;stretched} from Kabul up to Bengal. The autobiography " Baburname is in Russian issued... (1958), lyrical verses - "Lyrics" (1957).
  • BABURIN Michael Fedorovich (1907-84), the Russian sculptor, the national artist of the USSR (1978), the full member AH the USSR (1973). A monumental monument in commemoration of the 400-anniversary of apposition of Bashkiria to Russia in Ufa (1965), monumental and decoration, heavy compositions. The state premium of the USSR (1950).
  • BABAYEV Jury Nikolaevich (1928-86), Russian physics, corresponding member AN the USSR (1968); the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1962). Transactionses on a nuclear physics. The lenin premium (1959), the State premium of the USSR (1953).
  • BABAEVO, city (with 1925) in the Russian Federation, the Vologda region, on r. Kolp. A depot. 14,3 thousand inhabitants (1992). The enterprises of a railway transport; manufacture of a building materials; a food-processing industry.
  • BABAEVSKY Seeds Petrovich (r. 1909), the Russian writer. In novels " the Gentleman of the Golden Aster " (kn. 1-2, 1947-1948) and " Light above ground " (kn. 1-2, 1949-1950) - the varnishing plotting of post-war village. Novels "White light" (kn. 1-2, 1967-68), "Open space" (kn. 1-2, 1978-79). The state premium of the USSR (1949, 1950, 1951).
  • BABAKIN George Nikolaevich (1914-71), the Russian designer in range of a space technology, corresponding member AN the USSR (1970), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1970). Under guiding Babakina interplanetary space vehicles and "Moonmobile - 1" are built. The lenin premium (1966).
  • BABAKULOV Ahmad (r. 1931), the Tadjik singer (the drama tenor), the national actor of the USSR (1971). In 1954-56 and with 1966 at the Tadjik theatre of opera and ballet (in 1956-66 in the Tadjik philarmonic society).
  • BABANOVA Maria Ivanovna (1900-83), the Russian actress, the national actress of the USSR (1954). With 1920 at Theatre him{it}. Mejerholda, with 1927 at Theatre of Revolution (about 1954 Moscow theatre him{it}. Majakovskogo). In art Babanovoj touching sincerity, lyricism combined{blended} with ottochennostju, vyverennostju the scenic form. Having infrequent tone a high, clear ("crystal") voice, finely developed intonatsionno-melodic drawing of a role: Stella (" the Magnanimous cuckold " F.Krommelinka, 1922), Gog (" the Person with a portfolio " A.M.Fajko, 1928), Diana ("Dog in the manger" Lope de Vegi, 1937), Tanja ("Tanja" A.N.Arbuzova, 1939), the Wife (" All is over " E.Olbi, 1980), etc. Worked on a wireless. The state premium of the USSR (1941).
  • BABAHANOV Abdulla Babahanovich (r. 1910), the Uzbek architect, the national architect of the USSR (1970). The writer of architectonic parts of complexes Kattakurganskogo (1940-41) and Southern - Surkhan-Darya (the design 1964-67) water reservoirs, public buildings in Tashkent, Dushanbe and other cities Compare. Asia.
  • BABAHANJAN À., see Leo And.
  • SKULL CRACKER - JAGA, the character of Russian national fairy tales. Routinely represents itself as force hostile to the person, less often - the assistant of the hero.
  • BABAYAN Boris Artashesovich (r. 1933), the Russian scientist, corresponding member Russian AN (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1984). Transactionses on development of architectonic principles of construction of computer systems, software of a computer. The state premium of the USSR (1974).
  • BABBITS, antifriction alloys on basis{fundamentals} Sn, Pb, intended for a filling up of liners of bearings. Are called named American inventor A.Babbita (I. Babbitt; 1799-1862).
  • BABEZIOZY, invazionnye diseases of a large horned stock and ovets, called by Protozoa - babezijami, parasitizing in blood. Symptoms: a fever, a yellows.
  • BABEK (ok. 798 or 800-838), the leader of antiArabian popular uprising in Azerbaijan and Zap. Iran (ok. 816-837). The son of a petty dealer. After a defeat of revolt it is executed.
  • BABEL Isaak Emmanuilovich (1894-1940), the Russian writer. Drama conflicts of duties of the Civil war in racy on tongue short stories of collections "Konarmija" (1926), " the Odessa stories " (1931); plays: "Lap" (1928), "Maria" (1935). It is repressed; it is rehabilitated posthumously.
  • BABENBERGI (Babenberger), a stem, with 976 markgrafy Bavarian Eastern marks, in 1156-1246 dukes of Austria, and in 1192-1246 - as well SHtirii.
  • BABENKO Konstantin Ivanovich (1919-87), the Russian mathematician and the mechanics, corresponding member AN the USSR (1976). Transactionses on aerohydromechanics, calculus mathematics, mathematical physics. The state premium of the USSR (1967).
  • BABESH (Babes) Victor (1854-1926), the Romanian microbiologist, the pathologist, the parasitologist. After L.Pasteur probeed a rabies. Has secured{discharged} a streptococcus at a scarlatina. One of founders of a serotherapy and vaccination.
  • BABESHKO Vladimir Andreevich (r. 1941), the scientist, corresponding member Russian AN (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1987). Transactionses on continuum mechanics, probeed dynamic blended problems and their appendices in geophysics, soundman.
  • The SLEEVE (a nem. Hulse, characters. - an environment), 1) the sleeve ammunition - a part ammunition battle pripasa, the thin-walled metal sleeve intended for a room of a propellant charge, ignition agents (the capsule barrel, a primer), etc. 2) the Sleeve of the cartridge of a small arms - extrasmall version of the sleeve ammunition. Together with a powder charge and reinforced in dultse sleeves a bullet compounds the unitary cartridge of a small arms. 3) Sleeves of the hunting cartridge are metal and cardboard, are filled in with a powder charge, gear (a fraction, a bullet) and wads. 4) the Removable dead flat established in a unit - crankcase of the piston thermal engines for reduction of wearing rubed and facilitation of repair.
  • HELMAND, the river in Afghanistan and Iran (lower reaches). 1150 kms, the area of basin ok. 500 thousand êì2. Starts in mountains of Hindu Kush. Ends in drainless hollow Sistan, nourishing an eskar. Hamun. Average discharge of water 400-500 m3 / with. It is used for an irrigation.
  • GILOM DE MASHO (Guillaume de Machaut) (ok. 1300-77), the French poet and the composer, the representative ars it is new. Lyrics. Allegorical poems (" the Book about really happened ", 1365, etc.). In pieces of music odnogolosie (the tradition of musical - poetic knightly art) combines with polyphonic methods.
  • GILOM from Konsha (frants. Guillaume de Conches, an armour. Guillelmus de Conchis) (ok. 1080 - ok. 1145), the French philosopher and grammatik, Christian platonik. Pupil Bernarda Shartrskogo, taught in SHartre.
  • GILOM from the Sent-cupid (Guillaume de Saint-Amour) (ok. 1202 - 1272), the French seminary student, the professor of the Parisian university. Has headed extirpation of "society" masters of university against Giljoma Overnskogo and begging religious orders - black friars and franciscans. Has been convicted and ejected from Paris (1257).
  • GILOM from SHampo (Guillaume de Champeaux) (ok. 1070 - 1121), the French seminary student, ritor and logik. With 1108 supervised over doctrinal school at founded him Sen-Viktorskom an abbey of canons - avgustintsev, with 1113 diocesan of. SHalon-sjur-Marn. The teacher, then the opponent of Abailard; in spore about universalijah held on to marginal realism.
  • GILOM Charles Eduar (1861-1938), Swiss physics. Probes on a metrology. Has created alloys Invar, elinvar. The Nobel Prize (1920).
  • GUILLOTINE (frants. guillotine), the instrument for beheading convicted for the execution, used in France during Great French revolution under the proposal of doctor Z.Gijotena (J. Guillotin). The guillotine will consist of two coherent above a girder of piles between which on gutters the curve heavy edge alights. Executed put to the grounding of a guillotine, alight from above an edge which instantly cuts off a head from a trunk.
  • GILFERDING Alexander Fedorovich (1831-72), the Russian historian - Slavist, the specialist in folklore, the publicist - Slavophile, corresponding member Petersburg AN (1856). Has recorded 318 epic texts (" the Onega bylinas ", 1873). Transactionses on a history of austral slavs.
  • GILFERDING (Hilferding) (Hilferding) Rudolf (1877-1941), one of leaders of the Austrian and German social democracy and 2-nd Internatsionala, the theorist avstromarksizma. The main transactionses "Banking capital" (1910) - one of the first attempts of the marxist analysis of new tendencies in development of a capitalism kon. 19 - nach. 20 century. In 1923 and 1928-29 Minister of Finance in government of the Weimar republic.
  • GILJUJ, the river on the Far East, dextral in-leak of Zeya. 545 kms, the area of basin of 22,5 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water 208 m3 / with. Driveable.
  • GILJAZHEV Hakim (Lukman-Hakim Gabdrahmanovich Giljazev) (r. 1923), the Bashkir writer. Roman about post-war Bashkir village " Soldiers without run " (1965). In the collection of verses and poems " Magpies the sixth soldier " (1962) - memory of war; the book of lyrics " Fires above Agidelju " (1982). Verses for children.
  • GILJAZOV Ajaz Mirsaidovich (r. 1928), the tatar writer. Ostroproblemnye stories about a modernity " Three arshins of ground " (1963), " Love and hatred " (1976), " On Friday in the evening " (1980), " the Cock has taken off on a wattle fence " (1981.) Roman " Behind village fences of a meadow green " (1970). Stories. Plays.
  • GILJAKI, the obsolete title nivhov.
  • GILJAN, historical range in Iran. The nation dwelt in an antiquity gelov (ancestors of the modern giljantsev). In 16-17 centuries there were revolts against Sefevidov (1570-71, 1592, 1629).
  • GILJANTSY, people in Iran (historical range Giljan). 3,3 million person (1992). Tongue of the Iranian group. Believers - basically moslems - shiity.
  • GILJAROV Mercury Sergeevich (1912-85), the Russian zoologist, the creator of soil zoology, academician AN the USSR (1974). The main transactionses on evolution of arthropods, roles of Invertebrata in a soil formation, to regularities of a natural selection. The state premium of the USSR (1951, 1967, 1980).
  • GILJAROVSKY Vladimir Alekseevich (1853-1935), the Russian writer. Books of sketches about pre-revolutionary Russia, tempers and customs of aged Moscow: " Trushchobnye people " (1887), " Moscow and muscovites " (1926), " my wanderings " (1928), " People of theatre " (it is published 1941).
  • HIMALAYA, the highest range of a terrestrial globe, between plateau of Tibet (in a north) and Indo-Gangetic plain (in the south). Length over 2400 kms, width up to 350 kms. Among high crests - ok. 6000 m, a maxheight up to 8848 m, Chomolungma (Everest) - a peak level of the Earth. 11 tops more than 8 thousand in m. A climatic and natural boundary between deserts Center. Asia and tropical landscapes JUzh. Asia. A Himalaya raise above Indo-Gangetic plain 3 stages which are generatrix Sivalikskie mountains (Predgimalai), the Small and Major Himalaya. Crests of the alpine type, icehouses are characteristic for the Major Himalayas (over 33 thousand êì2). In a Himalaya main rivers JUzh rise. Asia - Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra. On austral downslopes bottom-up are replaced terai (silted jungle), evergreen tropical forests, deciduous and coniferous forests, bushes, meadows. Above 5000 m - landscapes gljatsialno-nivalnogo belts. On boreal downslopes - mountain steppes and semideserts. Mountaineering (primarily in Nepal).
  • GIZO (Guizot) Francois (1787-1874), the French historian, with 1847 head of government, svergnutogo Revolution 1848. Actually with 1840 supervised over all policy of the July monarchy. Transactionses predominary on a history of France.
  • GIZAS (Guise), the French aristocratic stem, a lateral branch of the Lotharingian ducal house. Main representatives: Francois Giz (1519-63) - has become famous for the defence of a Metz from a troops of emperor Charles V (1552), taking for Englishmen of Calais (1558), in an incipient period of Religious wars commanded a troops of roman catholics; Genrih Giza (1550-88), son Francois Giza, - one of organizers Varfolomeevskoj of night (1572), the chapter of the Roman catholic league, aspiring to depose Genriha III and to transmit a holy table to Giza. Has been killed under order Genriha III.
  • GIJMEN (Gillemen) (Guillemin) to the Erysipelas (r. 1924), the French physiologist. With 1953 in the USA. The main transactionses on secretion, making out of chemical structure and a biological potency of subthalamic rilizing-hormones. The Nobel Prize (1977, together with E.V.Shalli).
  • HICKORY, the same, that a hickory.
  • GIKSOSY, nomadic Asian nations, ok 1700 up to n. e. Seized Egypt. Having lodged in Delta, giksosy have based the capital Avaris. In nach. 16 century up to n. e. Domination giksosov has been liquidated by Egyptians.
  • GILAN Nikopolsky (Armenian) (mind. ok. 319), one of a magpie of five Christian martyrs damaged in Nikopol Armenian in the persecution of emperor Litsinija. Memory in the Orthodox church on July, 10 (23).
  • GILAS, in the Grecian mythology young man - oruzhenosets Gerakla and his guide in a marching of argonauts. In a lay time of the Slang for coasts Misii, impressed on the nymphs which have fallen in love in him on a bottom of a source. Gerakl, having abandoned argonauts, has departed on searches Gilasa.
  • GILBERT (Gilbert) (r. 1943) And GEORGE (George) (r. 1942), the English artists who have constituted peculiar creative "besfamilnyj" a tandem. Belong to figure of the famous avant-gardists of the last decades. From the extremity of 1960th worked in a manner bodi-arta, demonstrating itself to the public by the way " alive sculptures ", parodying appearance of " a mean Englishman ". Went to a photo - artu, creating compositions on themes of an authority, violence and love, close on spirit to video clips later.
  • GILBERT (Gilbert) Uolter (r. 1932), American biophysics. Activities on methods of establishment of primary structure DNK, the proteins regulating activity of genes. Has executed cloning of the gene ciphering synthesis of an insulin and his introduction in a genome of bacteria. The Nobel Prize (1980, together with F.Sengerom).
  • GILBERT of the ISLAND (Gilbert Islands), group of 16 coral atolls in a western part Quiet ok., in Micronesia. Is part of the state Kiribati. The area 264 êì2. The population ok. 52 thousand person (1980). On an atoll Tarawa-. Bairiki, capital of the state. Are called named English seafarer T.Gilbert.
  • GILGIT, the river in a north of India, in Kashmir, dextral in-leak of Indus. Ok. 450 kms, the area of basin of 26 thousand êì2. Weeps in spurs of a mountain of Hindu Kush and Karakoruma. Porozhista, it is non-navigable.
  • GILGUD (Gielgud) John Arthur (r. 1904), the English actor, the producer. With 1921 at theatres " Old Vicks ", Shakespearian memorial, etc. Popularity has received in productions of plays of U.Shakespeare, A.P.Chehova. Traditional methods of the English theatrics combines with K.S.Stanislavsky system components. It was taken out in films: " Assassination in eastern express train ", "agency of Providence", "Conductor", "Gundy", etc.
  • GILEVICH Nile Semenovich (r. 1931), the Byelorussian poet, the literary critic. Collections of lyrical verses " Foliage of a plantain " (1968), " Where that krinichenka " (1972), "Octaves" (1976), " Wash white day " (1980), the collection of plays " the Lodging for the night in a nest of a stork " (1980). Transactionses on a history of the Byelorussian poetry, folklore.
  • GILELS Emil Grigorjevich (1916-85), the Russian pianist, the national actor of the USSR (1954), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1976.) 1-n the premium at International competition of pianists of a name of E.Izai (Brussels, 1938), 2-n the premium at International competition of pianists (Vienna, 1936). The professor of the Moscow conservatory (with 1952). The lenin premium (1962), the State premium of the USSR (1946).
  • GILEMORFIZM (from grech. hyle - a matter and morphe - the form), the term which has arisen in kon. 19 century for notation going back to Aristotelju doctrines about the form and matters as philosophy of life.
  • GILENSON Boris Alekseevich (r. 1932), the Russian literary critic. The main orb of interests - the American literature of 19-20 centuries, the Russian-American literary communications. Books: " October in the literature the USA, 1917-1920 " (1968), " America Sinclair Ljuisa " (1972), " the American literature of 30th of XX century " (1974), " In searches of "other" America. From a history of the incentive literature the USA " (1987), etc.
  • HYLEA (from grech. hyle - a wood), ever-green forests of humid tropics. Differ density, a multi-stage arrangement; it is a lot of plants of sets of a pineappele family, aroidnyh, kinds of lianes. Are distributed in Center. And JUzh. To America, Center. To Africa and JUgo-Vost. Asia. Hyleas are reduced under plantations of a quinic and coffee tree, a coconut palm, rubber plants.
  • GILMAN (Gilman) Alfred (r. 1941), the American pharmacologist. Has placed together with M.Rodbellom the molecular mechanism of a communication of information in an organism - between cells and inside cells. As together with M.Rodbellom has discovered the proteins - intermediarys connecting guanozintrifosfat (t. n. G-proteins), also has straightened out their role in molecular mechanisms of originating of some communicable diseases (a cholera, kokljush, etc.). The Nobel Prize (1994, together with M.Rodbellom).
  • GILMORE (Gilmore) Mary (1865-1962), the australian poetess. Lyrical verses on love and home life, verses on people of transactionses and extirpation for the social justice. Collections " Passion heart " (1918), " the Feral swan " (1930), " For Rhodinum Australia " (1945).
  • GILOZOIZM (from grech. hyle - a matter and zoe - life), philosophical doctrine about overall odushevlennosti matters; the term is entered into 17 century. R.Kedvortom. Gilozoizm it is characteristic for early ancient greek philosophy (ionijskaja school, Empedokl), partly stoicism, for naturalistic philosophy of Renaissance (B.Telezio, Dzh. Bruno, T.Paracelsus), of some the French materialists of 18 century, including. D.Didro, F.Schelling physiophilosophical school, etc.
  • GILREJ (Dzhilrej) (Gillray) James (1757-1815), the English schedule. Rude - grotesque, sometimes the colored caricatures on the English aristocracy, Napoleon I, etc.
  • GILFORD (Guilford) Dzhoj the Floor (r. 1897), the American psychologist. Has developed methods of a factor analysis of the intelligence, widely used in the USA in 1950-60-Õ for diagnosis of creative capabilities of engineers and science officers.
  • GILBERT, unit of a magnetic potential difference in C.G.S. to a system of units (symmetrical) and C.G.S.M. It is called named U.Gilberta. It is meant Gb. 1 Gb = 0,796 And.
  • GILBERT (Hilbert) (Hilbert) David (1862-1943), german mathematician, foreign corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1922) and foreign honorary member AN the USSR (1934). Conviction is characteristic for creativity of Hilbert in unity of mathematical science, in unity of mathematics and natural sciences. Transactionses of Hilbert have rendered major influence on development of many sections of mathematics in which he worked (the theory of invariants, the theory of algebraic numbers, the groundings of mathematics, a mathematical logic, a calculus of variations, differential and integral equations, a number theory, mathematical physics).
  • GILBERT (Gilbert) (Gilbert) William (1544-1603), English physics and the doctor. In transactionses " About a magnet, magnetic bodies and about a major magnet - the Earth " (1600) for the first time has in succession considered the magnetic and many electrical phenomena.
  • GILVIK (Gijevik) (Guillevic) Ezhen (r. 1907), the French poet. The participant of movement of Resistance. Tragical attitude, antibourgeois fervor in collections " From water and clay " (1942), "Writ of execution" (1947), " Taste of the world " (1951). Philosophical meditation about time and a debt of the person in collections "Together" (1966), " the Duct. Poems. 1965-1975 " (1979), " the Layer pad of a line " (1987).
  • GILGAMESH, polulegendarnyj the governor Uruk in Sumer (27-26 centuries up to n. e.). In shumerskih epicheskih songs of 3-rd thousand up to n. e. And a major poem kon. 3-rd - nach. 2-nd thousand up to n. e. Friendship Gilgamesha with feral person Enkidu, wanderings Gilgamesha in searches of secret of immortality is described. The legend about Gilgameshe was distributed also for hettov, hurritov, etc.
  • GILDEBRAND, see. Grigory VII.
  • GILDEBRAND À., see Hildebrand And.
  • GILDEBRAND (Hildebrand) (Hildebrand) Bruno (1812-78), the german economist and statisticians, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1872). One of osnovatelej historical school in political economy.
  • GILDEBRAND-GILDEBRANDSON (Hildebrand-Hildebrandson) (Hildebrand-Hildebrandsson) Gugo (1838-1925), the Swedish meteorologist, foreign corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1917; foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN with 1907). Probeed general atmosphere circulation, the form and motion of clouds, etc.
  • GILDEJSKIE SCHOOLS, the initial and heightened schools forming in cities Zap. Europe in 13-14 centuries merchant guilds. In 15-16 centuries, having drained with shop schools, went in management of urban controls.
  • GILDENSHTEDT (Gjuldenshtedt) Iogann Antonovich (1745-81), the Russian scientist and the traveller, the academician Petersburg AN (1771). By origin the German; with 1768 in Russia. The participant of expeditions AN 1768-74. The writer of the diaries keeping an extensive geographycal, biological and ethnographic material across Caucasus and Ukraine.
  • GILDESGEJMSKY KLAD, 69 Roman silver vessels with relief plotting, other antique things retrieved in 1868 for. Gildesgejm (Hildesheim, Hildesheim, Germany).
  • GUILDS (from a nem. Gilde - corporation), in Zap. To Europe in the season of an early Middle Ages different associations - aid-giving behaviors, religious, political; in 12-15 centuries of corporation of merchants (in England also handicraftsmen, operations), shadowing interests of the members, dobivavshiesja legal and customs privileges. In Russia guilds existed in 18 century - 1917 as class associations of merchants. Privileged gildejskoe the merchant class was divided (with 1775) on the dimensions of the capital into three guilds.
  • GILEN (Giljen Cambrics) (Guillen Batista) Nicolas (1902-89), the cuban poet. Lyrics Giljena which has mirrored his anti-fascist and antimilitarist views, is close to cuban folklore. Collections " Songs for soldiers and sony for tourists " (1937), " Spain. A poem about four griefs and one hope " (1937), " All mine " (1964), " the Major menagerie " (1967). Publicistic books " Sketchy prose. 1929-1972 " (t. 1-3, 1975-1976). The international Lenin premium (1954).
  • GILEN (Guillen) Horhe (1893-1984), the spanish poet. The representative t. n. " Generations 1927 years ". With 1938 in emigration in the USA. The verses developing neoklassicheskie the tendencies (collections of "Canticle", 1925, it was supplemented down to 1950; "Maremagnum", 1957; " At the altitude circumstances ", 1963). Transactionses on a history and poetics of the spanish literature.
  • HYDROCEPHALUS (from gidro... And grech. kephale - a head) (a dropsy of a brain), increase of quantity of a neurolymph in a head cavity because of excessive production or difficulty of out flux. Arises primarily after prenatal, generic traumas, an encephalitis and other diseases of a brain: a volumetric gain of a skull, an arrest of development, head pains and so forth.
  • HYDROCLONE (from gidro... And grech. kyklon - rotated), the apparatus for division in an aqueous medium through centrifugal forces of grains of minerals and other particles distinguished on firmness. It is applied as the qualifier, a separator and a thickener.
  • HYDRAULIC CYLINDER (from gidro... And the cylinder), a volumetric hydraulic motor in which the driven member (bucket) as a result of hydrostatic head of a liquid reciprocates.
  • HYDROEXTRUSION (from gidro... And compare - eyelids. An armour. extrusio - replacement) (hydrostatic pressing), plastic metal working at which the preparation placed at the selfcontained container, is extruded through a die mouth by influence on it high-pressure liquids (0,5-3 GPa). It is applied to obtaining metallurgical semifinished items (a strand, rods and profiles from trudnodeformiruemyh and refractory metals) or preparations of component parts (boring bits, taps, etc.).
  • HYDRAULIC ELEVATOR (from gidro... And an elevator), a jet type pump for rise and conveyances on the pipe line of liquids and slurries on distance up to several honeycomb of meters.
  • WATERPOWER PLANT (river plant), the power station conversing a mechanical energy of water deluge in electrical power by means of hydraulic turbines, presenting rotation electricity generators. Power of the largest waterpower plants up to several GVt (napr., the Krasnoyarsk river plant - 6 GVt).
  • HYDRAS, order gidroidnyh. Length up to 3 see 10 kinds, are eurysynusic in fresh water reservoirs. Are multiplied by a sexual way and a budding. Are capable to regeneration.
  • HYENAS, a set of mammals of a carnivora. 4 kinds, in Africa, Forward, Mean and JUgo-Zap. Asia. 1 kind - a streaky hyena (length of a body ok. 1 m, a tail ok. 30 sm) in Transcaucasia and Compare. Asia. Number is reduced in connection with reduction feral ungulate which corpses of a hyena primarily eat. A brown hyena and a streaky hyena - in the Red Data Book of the International union of nature protection and natural resources (MSOP).
  • GIEN (Gjujen) (Guyenne), historical range on a southwest of France. Till 13 century called predominary as Aquitania. In 1154-1453 basically under an authority of England; in 1453 it is reunified with France. Up to 1790 had the status of a province (Gien and Gascony).
  • GIEN AND GASCONY (Gjujen and Gascony) (Guyenne et Gascogne), historical range on a southwest of France, in a bass. r. Garonne. Actuates departments: Gironde, Landes, Lo and Garonne, ZHer, Pyrenees Upper, Averon, Lo (in part Pyrenees Atlantich., Arjezh, Garonne Upper, Tarn and Garonne, Dordogne). 67,6 thousand êì2. The population 3,5 million person (1982). Main city - Bordeaux.
  • GIERAKONPOL, see. Ierakonpol.
  • GIERODULY, see. Ieroduly.
  • GIZHDUVAN, city (with 1972) in Uzbekistan (Bukhara region), in 17 kms from zh.-d. An item. Kyzyltepa. 32,3 thousand inhabitants (1991). A ginnery. It is known from 8 century Medrese Ulugbeka (1433).
  • GIZHIGINSKAJA the LIP, an interior a hall. SHelihova in Ohotskom m. Length of 148 kms, width for an orifice up to 260 kms, in a north - 30-40 kms, depth of 88 m.
  • GIZA, city in Egypt, bliz Cairo, an administrative centre muhafazy Giza. 1,9 million inhabitants (1986). Tobacco, machine-building, including radio, an industry. Tourism. Band of pyramids of pharaons Heopsa, Hefrena and Mikerina (3 thousand up to n. e.).
  • GIZATULLIN Hamid Nurislamovich (r. 1932), the Russian economist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991). Transactionses in range of the theory and a methodology of regional economy.
  • To GIZA Ivan Ivanovich (Iogann Emmanuel Ferdinand) (1781-1821), the Russian chemist and the pharmacist, corresponding member Petersburg AN (1809). By origin the German. The main transactionses under the physico-chemical analysis fresh and mineral waters. The writer of the tutorial " Overall chemistry for studying and pupils " (hours 1-5, 1813-17).
  • GIZEL Innokenty (ok. 1600-83), the figure of the Ukrainian crop, the historian. Rector Kievo-Mogiljanskoj of board, with 1656 archimandrite Kievo-Pecherskoj laurels. The negotiator 1654 about recombination of Ukraine with Russia. Probable maker " Ñèíîïñèñà " (" Kiev sinopsisa ").
  • GIZZAT (Gizzatov) Tazi Kajumovich (1895-1955), the tatar playwright and the actor. A comedy " Nice epoch " (1936); plays on the modern themes (" the Sacred assignment ", 1944; " the Victim of egoism ", is put 1950, 2-n edition 1954).
  • GIZZATULLINA-VOLGA Sahibzhamal (1892-1974), the tatar actress, the producer, deserved actress Tatarii (1926). The first tatar actress. With 1907 in first tatar professional troupe "Sajjar". In 1912 has organized troupe "Nur". Worked in Ufa, Izhevsk, Kazan.
  • HYDROPONICS (from gidro... And grech. ponos - activity), a propagation (vegetable, flower, berrylike, etc.) without soil. Roots become stronger in gravel, a moss, sand and the other solid substrate (where water with dissolved nutrients in her files), are dipped in a nutrient solution or, being in air medium, periodically by this solution are spraied.
  • HYDRAULIC DRIVE, the same, that a hydraulic drive.
  • The HYDRODESIGN of a name of S.J.Zhuka, the All-Russia association (up to 1991 design and survey and a research institute), it is based in 1936 in Moscow. Designing of shipping canals and hydropower structures. Among activities of institute - designs of waterpower plants Volga (Russian Federation) and Dneprovskogo (Ukraine) of cascades, Brotherly, Krasnoyarsk and Sajano-SHushenskoj in the Russian Federation, Altitude Asuanskoj dams in Egypt, Evfratskogo a hydrocomplex in Syria, etc.
  • HYDROSALPINX (from gidro... And grech. salpinx - a pipe), inflammatory disease of a parent pipe with a clump in its lumen of a serum.
  • SEAPLANE (hydroplane), airplane for take-off from water and planting to it. Distinguish a flying boat (the body is in the form of boats; ensures take-off, planting and maintenance of a seaplane on water), an amphibia (with a wheeled undercarriage for dry-land touchdown) and a floatplane (instead of sprockets floats are established).
  • SLURRY, mechanical mixture of particles of loose or ground solid rocks with water by development by their means of a hydro-mechanization.
  • HYDROSTAT (from gidro... And... stat), the apparatus for submerged probes and activities; alights on a cable from vessel - base. In the chamber of a hydrostat (orbicular or a cylindricity) air revitalization systems, research instrumentation, the earphone, etc. are placed crew (1-3 persons). Hydrostats have devices for fixation on object of activities, positioners, propellers. A driving depth up to 300 m.
  • HYDROSTATICS (from gidro... And a statics), section of hydromechanics in which balance of liquids and influence of reposing liquids on bodies submersed in them and on the surfaces limiting a liquid is studied.
  • The HYDROSTATIC PARADOX, weight of a liquid, juicy in a vessel, can differ from the force of pressure rendered by her on a bottom of a vessel. So, in vessels extending up force of pressure on a bottom is less than weight of a liquid, and in cotracting - it is more. In a cylindrical vessel both forces are equal. The hydrostatic paradox that, that as hydrostatic pressure r always normally to vascular walls, force of pressure on slope walls has a vertical component ð1 which indemnifies weight redundant against the cylinder of 1 volume of a liquid in a vessel 3 and weight of the missing volume of a liquid in a vessel 2 speaks. The hydrostatic paradox is found by B.Paskalem (1654).
  • HYDROSTATIC PRESSING, the same, that a hydroextrusion.
  • HYDROSPHERE (from gidro... And an orb), set of all water objects of a terrestrial globe: oceans, seas, the rivers, lakes, water reservoirs, bogs, underground waters, icehouses and a snow mantle. Often a hydrosphere imply only oceans and starving.
  • HYDROTAXIS, see in an item. Taxises.
  • HYDROTHERAPY (from gidro... And therapy), the same, that a water treatment.
  • HYDROTHERMAL DEPOSITS (from gidro... And grech. therme - it is warm), the deposits of mineral wealths which are generatrix at a deposition of substances, dissolved in circulating in entrails of the Earth hot salting waters (at the temperature of from 700-600 °S till 50-20 °S).
  • HYDROTHERMAL SYNTHESIS, obtaining of crystals of inorganic matters (napr., SiO2, phosphates) in the conditions modelling processes of education of minerals in an earth interior. It is based on abilities of water and water solutions at heats (up to 500 °S) and pressure (it is routine 10-80 MPa) to solve substances, practically insoluble in a usual terms, - some oxides, silikates, sulphides, etc. In similar conditions cultivate also large single crystals (napr., quartz crystals in mass up to 50 kg).
  • HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (from gidro... And technique), branch of science and the technique, engaging study of water resources, their use for needs of a national economy and extirpation with devastating effect of waters with the help of special (hydrotechnical) structures, devices and the equipment.
  • HYDRAULIC ENGINEERINGS INSTITUTE All-Russia (VNIIG) him. B.E.Vedeneyev, it is based in 1921 in Petrograd. Probes and developments in range of hydrotechnical constructions.
  • HYDROTECHNICAL CONSTRUCTIONS, intended for use of water resources, and also for extirpation with destructive action of water physical agent. Distinguish hydrotechnical constructions: water-supported (dams, dams, etc.), vodoprovodjashchie (channels, pipe lines, tunnels, etc.), reguljatsionnye (the groynes enclosuring shafts, etc.), water-intaking, water-overflow, special (buildings of waterpower plants, sluices, boat lifts, etc.). Often hydrotechnical constructions integrate in a unified complex - a hydraulic project.
  • The HYDRAULIC CONCRETE, is applied to construction of the structures permanently located in water or periodically contacting with aqueous medium; a version of a concrete of high specific weight. It is defined by high rust resistance, water tightness, frost resistance.