Thursday, May 24, 2007

  • GEOSYSTEM (geographycal system), integrated flock of interdependent, interacting components of a geographical envelope (napr., a geographycal landscape, a territorial-production complex).
  • GEOTECTONICS, the same, that a tectonics.
  • GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT, the heat power-station conversing internal heat of the Earth (power of hot steam-and-water sources) in electrical power. In Russia 1-n geothermal power plant (Pauzhetskaja) 5 MVt is started up by power in 1966 on Kamchatka; to 1980 its power it is finished up to 11 MVt. Geothermal power plants are present in the USA, New Zealand, Italy, Iceland, Japan.
  • GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES, reserves of depth heat of the Earth. Distinguish hydrogeothermal (thermal waters) and petrogeotermalnye (the dry rocks heated up to 350 °S and more) resources.
  • GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT, interval of depth of earth crust in meters on which the temperature is increased on 1 °S. Oscillates depending on depth and site from 5 up to 150 m (in limits, available to direct measurement).
  • GEOTERMAL GRADIENT, value on which the temperature of rocks in earth crust with increase of stratification depth at each of 100 m is increased. On the average value of a geotermal gradient is approximately peer 3 °S.
  • GEOTHERMIE (geothermics) (from geo... And grech. therme - it is warm), the section of geophysics investigator a thermal condition and a thermal history of the Earth. Geothermal probes are used at the solution of problems of a tectonics, investigation of mineral wealths, and also for the industrial and household purposes (napr., for industrial heating).
  • GEOTROPISM (from geo... And a tropism), growth motions of organs of plants under force effect of earth gravitation. The geotropism stipulates a vertical direction of axial organs of plants - a main stem up (negative geotropism), a main root downwards (positive geotropism).
  • GEOPHYSICS, complex of the sciences, probing physical methods a structure of the Earth, its physical properties and the processes descending in its environments. Accordingly in geophysics secrete physics t. n. The solid Earth (seismology, a geomagnetism, a gravimetry, prospecting geophysics, etc.), hydrophysics and atmospheric physics. Geophysical investigations are used in the weather forecast, and also at assimilation power and a source of raw materials of the Earth.
  • GEOPHYTES (from geo... And grech. phyton - a plant), perennial plants for which kidneys of resumption latent in soil. Napr., bulbous plants (an onions, a tulip), rhizomatous (a lily, an asparagus, many cereals and sedges) and klubnelukovichnye (saffron, etc.), klubnenosnye (a potato, etc.). Geophytes - a prevailing life-form in rainless steppes.
  • GEOPHONE (from geo... And... A background), the receiver of the sound waves extending in high layers of earth crust. It is used at a seismic survey.
  • GEOCHEMISTRY AND the ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY INSTITUTE him. V.I.Vernadsky (GEOCHI) of the Russian Academy of Science, built in 1947 in Moscow (laboratory with 1928). Probes under physico-chemical theories of geological processes, forecasting of mineral wealths, geochemical processes, space chemistry and comparative planetology, development of methods of definition and division of elements, etc.
  • GEOCHEMICAL ANOMALY, plot of earth crust (or surfaces of the Earth), distinguished essentially heightened concentrations of any chemical elements or their connections as contrasted to background values and regularly located concerning clumps of mineral wealths (an ore body, a petroleum or gas deposit, etc.).
  • GEOCHEMICAL PROVINCE, plot of earth crust with the heightened or under content of any chemical elements in rocks (as contrasted to a clarke). Character of a geochemical province is taken into account at planning and realization of geochemical searches.
  • GEOCHEMICAL FILMING, drawing up of geochemical maps on the basis of geochemical testing terrain on fixed system; density of a sampling at geochemical filming depends on its detail (the given scale).
  • GEOCHEMICAL EPOCH, the stage of a geologic history defined by accumulation in rocks of any chemical element or an element block and predominary by deposit formation of these elements of fixed type and structure (napr., iron-ore epoch in a Pre-Cambrian with broad development of stratas of ferruginous quartzite).
  • GEOCHEMICAL BARRIERS, zones of sharp reduction of migratory ability of any chemical elements; process is accompanied by their deposition from a solution and results in originating their heightened concentration, including workable deposits. Depending on factors of an ore deposition distinguish: physico-chemical, mechanic, biogeochemical barriers. Geochemical barriers play the important role in exogenic processes rudoobrazovanija.
  • GEOCHEMICAL SEARCHES, methods of searches of mineral wealths, are based on detection of heightened (abnormal) concentrations of chemical elements in a lithosphere, a hydrosphere, an atmosphere and ecumene near to deposits of mineral wealths.
  • GEOCHEMICAL CYCLES, serial numbers of geochemical processes in which chemical elements migrate, participate in different physico-chemical metamorphosises with education of minerals, undergo changes of isotope structure and return in a reference state. Geochemical cycles in earth crust actuate magmatic, postmagmatic, hypergenic, sedimental and metamorphic processes.
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