Monday, May 14, 2007

  • WHITE LOTUS, see. Bajljantszjao.
  • WHITE BEAR, predatory mammalian sets of bears. The length 2-2,5 (up to 3) m, weighs up to 700-800 kg. The sample representative of an Arctic fauna: populates range of floe ices and a shore the Sowing. Ledovitogo ok. Wanders in the summer. Well floats and dives. The main nutrition - seals. Was threatened destructions, but with kon. 70th number are recovered. Wrangel island is specially guarded in reservation. In the Red Data Book of the International union of nature protection and natural resources.
  • WHITE NILE (Bahr-el-Abjad), the title r. Nile in Sudan, on a plot from a lockin r. An ale - Gazal up to a mouth of Light-blue Nile. 957 kms, the area of basin of 1059 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water for Khartum 808 m3 / with. Navigation.
  • WHITE LIGHT, the composite on a spectral distribution a thermal radiation triggering in human eye neutral sensation in colour attitude (see also Complementary colours).
  • WHITE VERSE, verse without rhymes. Often, especially in a poetic drama ("Boris Godunov" of A.S.Pushkin), - 5-ñòîïíûé jamb. Compare with a loose verse.
  • The WHITE NOISE, acoustic noise, which spectral components uniform on all range of audible frequencies (napr., hum of a cataract).
  • WHITE Grigory Georgievich (1906-38), the Russian writer. Popularity has received as one of writers of the book "Republic Shkid" (1927, together with L.Panteleevym) - about the adolescents - homeless children who have appeared in nursery colony. Books: "Lapti" (1929), "White Guard" (1930), " the Dwelling of cheerful beggars " (1933). It is repressed (1937).
  • BELBEK, the river in Crimea. 55 kms, the area of basin 505 êì2. The m runs in Black. Average discharge of water 1,8 m3 / with. In July - September routinely dries up. It is used for an irrigation.
  • BELVEDERE (ital. belvedere, characters. - a perfect kind), a tower, a deckhouse above the building (routinely circular in the plan); pavilion, bower on a raised place; the title of some palaces in Vatican, Vienna, Prague, Warsaw.
  • BELVEDERSKY the TORSE, a mottled sitting statue in Vatican; has a signature Apollonia Athenian (it is grey. 1 century up to n. e.). It has been open in 16 century.
  • The BELGIAN ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, literatures, arts, is based in 1772 in Brussels.
  • BELGIAN REVOLUTION 1830, revolution in a Belgian province of the Netherlands kingdom against the Dutch domination. Began on August, 25 in Brussels, in September almost all terrain of country has been free of the Dutch troops. Has reduced in education of the do-it-yourself Belgian state.
  • BELGIAN SOCIALIST PARTY (BSP), is based in 1885 (in 1885-1940 called as the Belgian working consignment). Managing figures in the miscellaneous seasons: E.Vandervelde, K.Gjuismans, P.A.Spaak. One of master consignments of 2-nd Internatsionala, then Socialist internatsionala. Leaders BSP with 1945 repeatedly headed governments. In 1978 it was divided into Socialist party (ex - fonskuju) and Socialist party (Flemish).
  • BELGIAN CONGO, colony (1908-60) Belgium in Africa (in terrain sovr. Zaire).
  • BELGIUM (frants. Belgique, flam. Belgie), the Kingdom Belgium (frants. Royaume de Belgique, flam. Koninkrijk Belgie), the state in Zap. To Europe, for Boreal m. of 30,5 thousand êì2. The population 10 million person (1993), Flemings (58 %) and vallony (32,5 %). A urban population of 96,5 % (1991). Official languages - Netherlands, French and german. The majority of believers - roman catholics. Belgium - federation in structure French, Flemish and germanojazychnogo Communities. Administrative territorial division: 9 provinces. Capital - Brussels. Belgium - the constitutional monarchy. The chief of state - king. The body of legislation - two-chamber parliament. A large part of terrain - the plain risen from a coast of Boreal m. up to Ardenness (an altitude up to 694 m. Botranzh). A climate moderate, marine. Mean temperatures of January from 3 °C on a shore up to-1 °C in Ardenness, July accordingly from 19 up to 14 °C. Rainfall from 700-900 on plains up to 1200-1500 mm (in mountains) annually. The main rivers - Schelde and Maas. Soils brown wood and podzol. Broad-leaved forests (ok. 19,7 % of terrain). Cultural landscapes prevail. Numerous wildlife reserves and natural parks (From - Fan, Kalmthaut, etc.). The title from belgov, zaseljavshih country in an antiquity. In 1 century up to n. e. It is conquered by Rome. In Middle Ages Belgian terrain (duchies Brabants, Luxembourg, county Flanders, etc.) - A part of Netherlands historical in which structure in 16 century have appeared under spanish domination. The Netherlands revolution of 16 century has ended in a defeat in terrain of Belgium. As a result of war for the Spanish patrimony Belgian terrains become possession Austrian Gabsburgov (1714). In 1815-30 in structure of the Netherlands kingdom. Belgian revolution 1830 has reduced in building the do-it-yourself Belgian state. In 1908 Belgium has acquired a colonial possession - Belgian Congo (the beginning of capture - 70th of 19 century, up to 1908 " private possession " Belgian king), in 1922 - the mandate for Ruanda - Urundi. In 19 century in Belgium extirpation between batchwise Roman catholic (with 1945 on its basis - the Social - Christian consignment) and Liberal (with 1961 Consignment of freedom has deployed and advance), since 90th the ethnic question (Flemish motion) has become aggravated. In 1885 the Belgian working consignment (with 1941 - Belgian socialist party) is based. In the season of 1-st world war the large part of terrain of Belgium has been occupied by the German troops. After 2-nd world war of government (predominary coalition) were headed alternately by socialists and demohristianami. Belgium - highly-developed industrial country with an intensive agriculture (ok. 40 % of an industrial output are exported). A lobe in a gross internal product (1990, %): an industry and construction 29,3, an agriculture 1,9. A coal mining. Manufacture of the electric power 70,8 billion in kw. Hours (1990), ok. 60 % - on atomic power station. The iron and steel industry, a machine industry (automobile, electrotechnical, manufacture of the equipment of weapons), chemical (plastics materials, synfils, rubber) and petrochemical, textile, a flavoring industry are developed. Almazogranilnoe business, trade in brilliants. Main branch of an agriculture - meat-and-milk animal husbandry. The main agricultural crops: Wheat, barley, sugar-beet, potato, vegetables. Length (1990, one thousand in km) railways 3,48, motorways 12,8. The tonnage of a marine merchant marine fleet 3,3 million register gross tons (1990). Main seaport - Antwerp. Export: the industrial equipment, automobiles, the chemical and pharmaceutical goods, black and non-ferrous metals, textile, jeweller diamonds. The main foreign trade partners: Germany, France, Netherlands, the Great Britain. Monetary unit - belgium franc.
  • EELPOUTS, a stem of fishes of order okuneobraznyh. Length of a body 3 kinds, 2 of them zhivorodjashchi are routine till 50-60 see. In coastal ocean waters of Europe from La Manche up to White m., Far East seas and a northwest part Atlantic ok.; in Baltic m. - object of a craft.
  • BELKANTO (ital. bel canto, characters. - perfect singing), vocal style (has arisen in Italy in 17 century), distinguished by melodiousness, ease, beauty of sounding, perfection kantileny, refinement, virtuosity of a coloratura.
  • BELMAN (Bellman) Charles Mikael (1740-1795), the Swedish poet. Drinking songs (collections of " Message Fredmana ", 1790, " Songs Fredmana ", 1791), developing folklore and democratic traditions, contain a realistic pattern of life of Stockholm.
  • CATARACT (leucoma), nonperishable cicatrical opacification of a cornea of an eye after damage, inflammatory or ulcerous process. The cataract located against a pupil, sinks sight (sometimes up to blindness).
  • BELMONDO (Belmondo) Jean Pol (r. 1933), the French actor. It was taken out in films: " On the last respiration ", "CHochara", " the Person from Rio ", "Monster", "Dazzling", "Professional" "Minion of fortune", etc.
  • The BELGOROD FEATURE, defensive line (Ahtyrka - Tambov) on austral border of Russian state in 17 century for protection from Crimean the tartar. Cities - strengths Belgorod, Voronezh, the Bench and other reinforced areas entered. With progression of borders of Russia on the south has lost value.
  • BELGRAD (Beograd) (Beograd), capital of Yugoslavia and Serbia. 1,6 million inhabitants (1991). A port on Danube, at a lockin of Sava. An international airport. A machine industry, chemical, textile, mild, wood-working, a food-processing industry. International fairs. Serbian AN, university. Under the Serbian title Belgrade is known from 9 century. In 1 century up to n. e. - 4 century n. e. At-sight Belgrade - Roman. Singidunum. In 1521-1806 under an authority of Turkey (in 1688-90, 1717-39, 1789-91 possessed Gabsburgi). With 1806 capital of the Serbian principality (from 1882 kingdoms). In 1813-30 under an authority of Ottoman empire. With 1918 capital of the Kingdom of Serbs, horvatov and Slovenes (with 1929 Yugoslavia). In 1942-92 capital of Federative National Republic Yugoslavia (with 1963 Socialist Federative Republic Yugoslavia). Residues of Roman, medieval Serbian and turkish strengthening. Mosques of 17 century, houses of 18-19 centuries. In 1950-80-Õ sooruzheny housing estates (the area Is new. Belgrade, etc.) .
  • The BELGRAD BATTLE, 14-22.7.1456, between the Hungarian and turkish troops under walls of Belgrade during extirpation of Hungary against turkish conquerors. Turks have sufferred a defeat that has delayed their progression to Hungary up to 1521.
  • The BELGRAD MIR [18 (29) .9.1739, Belgrade], has finished russko-turkish war 1735-39. Russias is reset Azov.
  • The BELGRAD UNIVERSITY, in Serbia, is based in 1863. In 1990 over 57 thousand students.
  • BELEBEJ, city (with 1781) in the Russian Federation, Bashkiria. A depot. 5,6 thousand inhabitants (1992). Factories: woodworking machines, "Autonormal"; a meat-packing factory, a dairy. A crude production. It is known with 1757.
  • BELEV, city in the Russian Federation, the Tula region, landing stage on r. Oka. A depot. 18,2 thousand inhabitants (1992). Factory of machines and devices for a railway transport; the alimentary enterprises. An artistic - study of local lore museum. It is known with 1147.
  • HENBANE, stem of one and biennial grasses of a set of a nightshade family. Ok. 20 kinds, in Eurasia, Africa and on the Canary islands. The henbane black is toxicant; a weed. An extract from leaves use in medicine (spasolytic, soothing).
  • BELENDZHER, ancient city in Dagestan. Till 8 century one of capitals Hazarskogo kaganata. In Belendzhere Russian merchants lived. There was at-sight the modern Buinaksk.
  • BLEACHING, the same, that potching.
  • BELET-TSERI, in akkadskoj mythologies the goddess - scribe in a kingdom dead.
  • BELETSKAJA Irina Petrovna (r. 1933), Russian chemists - organics, the academician Russian AN (1992). The main transactionses on electrophilic substitution in a number of organometallic compounds, chemistry of carbanions.
  • BELETSKY Alexander Ivanovich (1884-1961), the Ukrainian and Russian literary critic, academician AN of Ukraine (1939). AN the USSR (1958). Activities under Russian, Ukrainian, West-European, antique literatures, under the theory of the literature.
  • BELZ, city (with 1951) on Ukraine, the Lvov region. A depot. 2,5 thousand inhabitants (1991). The alimentary enterprises. It is known with 1030. Near to. Belz - production of mineral coal.
  • LEUCORRHEA, reinforced secretion of the secret quite often changed (krovjanistye, purulent leucorrhea), from women sexual organs. An attribute of inflammatory and other diseases of sexual organs.
  • BELIZE, city and port in the state Belize. 45 thousand inhabitants (1992). An international airport. Alimentary and a woodworking industry. Fishery.
  • BELIZE (Belize), the state in Central America, in eastern part p-ova Yucatan. 23 thousand êì2. The population of 204 thousand person (1993), primarily beliztsy (Negros and mulattoes, mongrels, Indians). A urban population ok. 47 % (1992). The official language - English. Among believers primarily protesters, are roman catholics. Capital - Belmopan. Enters into Commonwealth. The chief of state - queen of the Great Britain, introduced the general - governor. The body of legislation - two-chamber National assembly. The terrain Belize from an antiquity was populated by Indians, in nach. 16 century it is conquered by Spaniards and has become their colony. With 1862 colony of the Great Britain under the title Honduras British. In 1964 has received internal self-management. With 1973 country has become officially to call as Belize. In September 1981 independence of Belize is professed. A large part of terrain of Belize - low silted plain, on a southwest of mountain Majja (an altitude up to 1122 m, peak Victoria). Climate tropical trade-wind. Monthly mean temperatures 25-27 °C. A rainfall ok. 2000 mm annually. The main rivers: Rio-Ondo and Belize. Tropical forests (40 % of terrain) and savannahs. Belize - agrarian country. A lobe in a gross internal product (1992, %): an agriculture, fishery - 20,1, an industry 16,4. Manufacture of the electric power 124 One million kVtch (1992). Main cash crops - a cane, citrous. Timber loggings kampeshevogo a tree, red, a slash pine. A craft of lobsters. Length of motorways - 2,5 One thousand in km (1990). Export: a Saccharum - raw material, a treacle, citrous, a fish and marine products, forest products. The main foreign trade partners: the USA, the Great Britain, Canada. Foreign tourism. Monetary unit - dollar of Belize.
  • WHITEWASH, satins white for all kinds of paints and enamels, a staining of gum, plastics materials, papers. Are most distributed zinc (ZnO) and titanium (TiO) whitewash.
  • BERNAL (Bernal) John Desmond (1901-1971), English physics and the public figure, foreign member AN the USSR (1958). Transactionses on a X-ray structural analysis; probes of structure of metals, proteins, hormones, viruses, liquids. Activities on naukovedeniju. The president - initiator of Presidium of World Advice of the World (1959-65). The international Lenin premium (1953).
  • BERNANOS (Bernanos) George (1888-1948), the French writer, the publicist. In novels " Under the sun of the Satan " (1926), " the Diary of the village priest " (1936), "Mister Uin" (1940, it is published in 1943), etc., baring crisis " european showers " (unbelief, a spiritual bankruptcy, individualism), the criticism of a state of the art of the world is conducted from the point of view of religious - ethical (roman catholic) items.
  • BERNARD (Bernard) Klod (1813-78), the French physiologist and the pathologist, one of founders of experimental medicine and an endocrinology, the foreign member Petersburg AN (1860). Classical probes of function of a pancreatic gland and its role in digestion. Has discovered education of a glycogen in a liver. Transactionses on an innervation of vessels, endocrine glands, a carbohydrate metabolism, electrophysiologies. Has entered concept about an internal environment of an organism.
  • BERNARD (Bernhardt) Sarai (1844-1923), the French actress. In 1872-80 in " Komedi Fransez ", in 1898-1922 headed " Theatre of Sarai Bernard " (Paris). Tragedijnye and melodramatic roles in plays Gjugo, the Djuma-son, Rostana, etc.
  • BERNARD (Bernard) Zenon (1894-1942), chairman KP of Luxembourg in 1921-40, one of its organizers. After occupation of country by a german troops (1940) supervised in a underground over activity of Communist Party. It arrested gestapo, has died in prison.
  • BERNARD SHARTRSKY (mind. Up to 1130), the philosopher - sholast, the master and chancellor Shartrskoj of school. The higher brother Tjerri Shartrskogo. The primate of morals above learning (" without ethics there is no philosopher ") settled.
  • BERNARDEN DE SEN-PER (Bernardin de Saint-Pierre) Jacque Anri (1737-1814), the French writer. Russoistskie ideas in the novel " Pol and Virginia " (1788), a satiriko-philosophical story " the Indian hut " (1791), stories " Suratskaja a coffee house " (1791).
  • BERNARDIN SIENSKY (Bernardino da Siena) (1380-1444), the italian priest, the outlet box - franciscan. Has acquired popularity the sermons (with 1406) across all boreal and mean Italy with call-up to moral updating; the zealous champion of honoring of a name of Jesus.
  • BERNARDINES, see in an item. Cistercians.
  • BERNAT (Bernath) Aurel (1895-1982), the Hungarian painter and the schedule. The writer constrained on I blossom, emotional genre scenes, landscapes, wall paintings.
  • BERN - DZHONS (Burne-Jones) Edward (1833-1898), the English painter and risovalshchik. Prerafaelit. Resorting to a stylization of italian painting 15 century, wrote lyrical patterns on themes of medieval legends (" Love among debris ", 1893).
  • BERN (Borne) Ludwig (1786-1837), the german publicist and the literary critic. Struggled with feudal reaction, nationalism, filisterstvom (" Letters from Paris ", 1832-34; pamphlet "Mentsel-frantsuzoed", 1837); one of ideologists of " Pullet Germany ".
  • BERNEM Dzh., see Bernhem Dzh.
  • BERNES Mark Naumovich (1911-69), the Russian actor, the national actor of Russia (1965). It was taken out in films: "Fighters", " Two fighters ", " the Third impact ", etc. The Popular crooner, the propagandist of the modern songs. The state premium of the USSR (1951).
  • BERNET (Burnet) Frenk (1899-1985), the australian virologist and the immunologist. Has described the causal organism of a ku-fever. Transactionses on ecology of viruses. One of writers t. n. The klonalno-selection theory of immunity. Probeed mechanisms of autoimmune diseases. The Nobel Prize (1960, together with P.B.Medavarom).
  • To BEN, in egyptian mythology the god by the way herons, is known from geliopolskogo legends on creation of the world.
  • BENUA DE the SENT-PEST (Benoit de Sainte-Maure), the norman poet at a yard of the English king Genriha II, the writer of the poetic chronicle of Normandy and " Roman about Troy " (between 1180 and 1190), one of which sequences (about Troile and Kresside) has was a source of scenes for Dzh. Bokkachcho, Dzh. CHosera and U.Shakespeare.
  • BENUA Leonty Nikolaevich (1856-1928), the architect, the honored worker of arts of Russia (1927). Son N.L.Benua, brother A.N.Benua. Kept traditions of a classicism (a western body of Russian museum in Petrograd, 1914-16).
  • BENUA Nikolay Aleksandrovich (1901-88), the italian artist. The son and pupil A.N.Benua was born and has received education in Russia. From 1925 cable cores in Italy. Has issued opera performances of many theatres of the world (in 1936-71 was the director postanovochnoj parts of theatre of Ac the Rock), fruitfully prolonging traditions of " picturesque theatre " times of " the World of art ".
  • BENUA Nikolay Leontjevich (1813-98), the Russian architect. It is masterful imitated historical styles (frejlinskie at home in Petrodvorets, 1858; spirit of Baroque). Has constructed a number of railroad stations (in Petrodvorets, 1855-57) where has played back Gothic forms of a hackberry in metalworks.
  • BOXES (frants. baignoire), than lie at theatre on both parties of front stalls at a level of the scene or is a little bit lower.
  • BENUE (Benue), the river in Cameroon and Nigeria, the left-handed in-leak of Niger. 1300 kms, the area of basin of 441 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water 3170 m3 / with. It is navigable from. Ibi, in a flush period - from Garua.
  • BENUE - KONGOLEZSKIE TONGUES, podsemja nigero-kongolezskih tongues.
  • BENKOV Paul Petrovich (1879-1949), the painter, the honored worker of arts of Uzbekistan (1939). The master of plein-air painting (" the Girl with dutarom ", 1947). Has played a major role in education of national artists in Tatarii and Uzbekistan.
  • BENJAN (Bunyan) John (1628-88), the English writer, the religious ecclesiast. In the allegorical novel " Traveling of the pilgrim " (1678-84) parasitism and korystoljubiju the maximum social layers is stood up to with virtues of simple people. In " Life and morses of Mr Bedmana " (1680) - the first mode in the English literature of the bourgeois grabber.
  • BENJUK (Beniuc) Mihaj (r. 1907), the Romanian writer. The Revoljutsionno-romantic collection " Songs of perdition " (1938). The statement of new attitudes in lyrical collections " the Apple tree at a road " (1954), " the Night patrol " (1975.) Roman " Dull explosion " (1971) about communists of 40th.
  • "BEOVULF" (Beowulf), the ancient Anglo-Saxon epos. It is called named the protagonist, legendary king of the Scandinavian nation in the south of Sweden. In the basis of a poem the national legends which are going back to 1-st floor. 6 century and informing echoes of historical events. A list nach. 10 century - in the British museum.
  • BEOLKO (Beolco) Angelo (scenic name Rudzante) (1502-42), the italian playwright and the actor. Has expanded capabilities t. n. A scientific comedy of Revitalization, having entered into it dialects and features of a national household activities (comedy "Ankonitanka", "Cow", "Pjovana").
  • BEOTARHI, in Other. Greeces the maximum magistrates in Boeotia.
  • BEOTIJSKY the UNION, federation of the ancient greek states in Boeotia (range in Compare. Greeces) led by Thebes since 6 century up to n. e. In 4 century at Pelopide and Epaminonde - the largest political force in Greece. In 338 it dissolved, in 3-2 centuries it recovered, in 146 up to n. e. Has stopped existence after seizure of Greece by Rome.
  • BEPPU, city and a port in Japan, on about. Kyushu. 130 thousand inhabitants (1990). Nonferrous machine industry, a chemical and textile industry. Balneoklimatichesky a health resort; the centre of tourism. Research institutes of a volcanology, a balneology.
  • BAIRE (Baer) Pol (1833-86), the French doctor, the physiologist, the public figure. In 1882-86 - minister for enlightenment of France. Conducted probes on replanting organs and tissues from one animal to other and on a cross circulation. His classical transactionses on physiology of respiration (1869) and to influence of a barometric pressure on an organism (1878) have been appreciated as basic for air and submerged medicine later. For the first time has studied hyperbaric oxygenation, symptoms of an oxygen poisoning.
  • BENET (Benet) Huan (1927-93), the spanish writer. Extremely topical social - critical novels "Tomb" (1971), " the Saul before Samuel " (1980), " In twilight " (1989).
  • BENEFIT PERFORMANCE (frants. benefice - profit, favour), 1) (ustar). Performance, the tax from which acted for the benefit of one or several actors, and also other workers of theatre... 2) Theatrical submission in honour of one of his participants.
  • The BENEFICE (from an armour. beneficium - benefaction), in the season of an early Middle Ages in Zap. To Europe land possession, which king (or any other large feudal lord) in life interest to the vassal on conditions of performance military or an executive department favoured. Gradually turned into feudal. In a latin church the benefice - the profitable position or the ground area received as compensation by the churchman.
  • BENESH (Benes) Edward (1884-1948), the statesman of Czechoslovakia. In 1918-35 Minister for Foreign Affairs, in 1935-38 president, during 2-nd world war the president in emigration (with 1940), in 1946-48 president of Czechoslovakia.
  • BENESHEVICH Vladimir Nikolaevich (1874-1938), the historian, the lawyer, corresponding member AN the USSR (1925; corresponding member Russian AN with 1924). Transactionses under the byzantian right. It is repressed; it is rehabilitated posthumously.
  • BENZALDEHYDE (benzole aldehyde), C6H5CHO, a colourless liquid with an odor of a bitter almond, têèï 179 °C. Odorous substance in perfumery and a food-processing industry; raw material in manufacture of dyes and odorous substances.
  • BENZALCOHOL, C6H5CH2OH, a colourless liquid with a pleasant odor, têèï 205 °C; it is contained in a free state and by the way esters in essential oils and natural balms. Odorous substance in perfumery, raw material in manufacture of odorous substances, the solvent.
  • BENZILHLORID, C6H5CH2Cl, a colourless liquid with a sharp irritant odor, têèï 179,3 °C. Apply primarily to obtaining benzalcohol, ethers of a benzoic acid, and also dyes.
  • PETROL (frants. benzine), a mix of light hydrocarbon with têèï 30-205 °C; a diaphanous liquid, firmness of 0,70-0,78 g / sm3. Receive primarily distillation or cracking of petroleum. Fuel for carburettor avto-both aircraft engines; extragent and the solvent for fats, pitches, rubbers. See also Synthetic liquid fuel.
  • BENZOILPEROKSID, (C6H5COO) 2, colourless crystals, tïë 106-108 °S (with decomposition). The initiator of a free-radical polymerization in manufacture of polymers, hardener of the polyester resinss, the curing agent, a whitener of fats, oils. Vzryvchat.
  • BENZOILHLORID, C6H5COCL, a colourless liquid fuming on air, têèï 197,2 °C. Pairs benzoilhlorida invoke a lacrimation. Apply in manufacture benzoilperoksida, indigoide dyes, pharmaceuticals.
  • BENZOIC ACID, C6H5COOH, colourless crystals, tïë 122,4 °C. Apply in manufacture of dyes, medicinal and odorous substances, in medicine as an outside means of antimicrobic and antifungal action; Sodium benzoatum - an expectorant, conserving agent of foodstuffs.
  • BENZOLE ALDEHYDE, the same, that benzaldehyde.
  • BENZOLE, colourless liquid, têèï 80,1 °C. It will be derivated at a coal carbonization and at a chemical processing (napr., reforming) oil fractions. Apply to obtaining aniline, a phenol, styrol, caprolactam, blasting explosives, insecticides and a lot of other; use as the solvent, napr. Fats.
  • BENZOPIREN (benzpiren), light yellow crystals, tïë 180 °S. It is contained in coal tar, a tobacco smoke, air of conurbations, soil. It will be derivated at pyrolysis of acetylene, styrol, tetralin. Kantserogenen.
  • QUINONE, golden yellow crystals; tïë 116 °C. Raw material in manufacture of a hydroquinone, dyes; an oxidant and hardening substance.
  • BENI (Beni), the river in Bolivia, in system of Amazon. Ok. 1500 kms, the area of basin of 266 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water 6200 m3 / with. It is navigable from. Rurrenabake up to cataracts Esperansa.
  • The BENELUX COUNTRIES, the economic union of Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg. The agreement for the union is signed in 1958, the beginnings to act in 1960. A residence of authorities - Brussels.
  • BENIN, the state existing in an austral part of Nigeria. Bloom in 13-17 centuries. In steering alongside with tsar the important role was played by the largest dignitaries. The considerable development was reached with servitude. To kon. 19 century the terrain of Benin is seized by the English colonialists and Nigeria is included hereinafter in colony.
  • The BERLIN CONFERENCE 1884-85, international conference of 14 states (the Great Britain, Germany, Russia, France, the USA, Belgium, Portugal, etc.) on the African problems. Congo (basically terrain sovr. Zaire) it has been formally declared by "independent state" led by Belgian king Leopoldom II.
  • BERLIN 16.4-8.5.1945 OPERATION, during Great Domestic war. The Soviet troops of 1-st and 2-nd Byelorussian and 1-st Ukrainian of fronts (Marshals of Soviet Union G.K.Zhukov, K.K.Rokossovsky, I.S.Konev) have broken through the defence of a german troops on rr. Oder, Naas and Zelovskih altitudes, large groupings of a german troops in Berlin and jugo-to the east of Berlin have enclosed, and then in persistent breakages liquidated them. On April, 30 the Soviet troops have taken possession of storm rejhstagom; on May, 2 residues of the Berlin garrison capitulated. On May, 8 representatives of the German command have signed act of unconditional surrender of armed forces of fascist Germany in Berlin.
  • The BERLIN STATE MUSEUMS, one of the largest museum complexes in the world. It is based in 1830. Actuate National passageway, Picture passageway, Peredneaziatsky a museum, the Museum of moslem faith, the Egyptian museum, Antique collection, New national passageway, the Ethnographic museum, etc.
  • The BERLIN CONGRESS 1878, is called for revision of conditions the Dignity - Stefanskogo of the world 1878 under the initiative of the Great Britain and Austria-Hungary acting against intensifying of items of Russia on the Balkans. Other participants: Germany, France, Italy and Turkey. The Russian government which has appeared in a diplomatic isolation has made concessions. The Berlin tract is signed.
  • The BERLIN PACT 1940 about the military union between main participants Antikominternovskogo of the pact - Germany, Italy and Japan; it is encased on September, 27. Governments of some other states dependent on Germany later have joined.
  • The BERLIN TRACT, is encased by 13.7.1878 mandatory powers - participants of the Berlin congress. Has confirmed independence of Montenegro, Serbia and Romania. A sowing. Bulgaria has become the independent state, JUzh. Bulgaria (Vost. Rumelija) has remained under an authority of the turkish anthurus, having received an administrative autonomy. To Russia the mouth of Danube, strength Kars, Ardagan, Batum with districts have departed. Austria-Hungary occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  • The BERLIN UNIVERSITY, Gumboldtovsky university, is based in 1809. In 1990 ok. 18 thousand students.
  • BERLIOZ (Berlioz) Hector (1803-69), the French composer, the conductor. The member of Institute of France (1856). The creator of the romantic program concordance. The innovator in range of the musical form, harmony, instrumentation. Aspired to staging a symphonic genre, to monumentalism of vokalno-tool style, to a sans serif pointing of modes. " The fancy concordance " (1830), " the Mourning - triumphal concordance " (1840), opera - dilogija " Trojans " (1859), the Requiem mass (1837), etc. Alongside with R.Wagner the creator of new school of conducting. The tract " the Conductor of an orchestra " (1856). "Memoirs" (t. 1-2, 1860).
  • BERLIHINGEN (Berlichingen) Gets (Gottfried) a background (1480-1562), the german knight, the participant of Country war 1524-26. Commanded large country order in Franconia; before decisive battle in May 1525 has betraid peasants.
  • BERLUSKONI (Berlusconi) Silvio (r. 1936), the prime minister of Italy in May - December 1994. The large businessman, the leader built by him in January of 1994 associations " Forwards, Italy ", included in the unit of dextral forces.
  • BERM (polsk. berma), a horizontal site between dip-slopes of terraces of a nonoperating pit wall. Distinguish transport, preservative and safety benches.
  • BERMAMYT, a plateau Rocky hr. B.Kavkaza, in 35 kms to a southwest from Kislovodsk. The main plateau - Major Bermamyt an altitude up to 2591 m, Small Bermamyt an altitude up to 2643 m. Karst is developed.
  • BERMAN Michael Mihajlovich (1908-76), the Russian engineer - stankostroitel and the organizer of manufacture, the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1976). The main transactionses are connected to building manufacture and development of new technique - hydraulic copying-turning semi-automatic machines, unique automatic transfer lines. The lenin premium (1959).
  • BERMEHO (Bermejo) (Vermeho) (Vermejo) Bartolome (worked 1474-95 or later), the spanish painter. One of the first spanish masters of the beginnings to paint in oils. Wrote in a manner of the modern Netherlands painting ("Pjeta", the Cathedral church in Barcelona, 1490).
  • BERMUDIAN ISLANDS (Bermuda), in Atlantic ok., bliz the Sowing. America. Possession of the Great Britain. In total ok. 150 islands. 53,3 êì2. The population of 61,0 thousand person. (1990). An altitude up to 79 m. Adm. ts. - Hamilton (about. Bermuda).
  • " BERMUDIAN TRIANGLE ", area Atlantic ok. Between islands Bermudian, Puerto Rico and p-ovom Florida, distinguished by a close conditions for navigation.
  • BERN (a nem. Bern, frants. Berne), capital (with 1848) Switzerland, an administrative centre of the canton Bern, on r. Aare. 134 thousand inhabitants (1990, with suburbs ok. 300 thousand inhabitants). An international airport. Machine-building, himiko-pharmaceutical, alimentary, a printing industry. University. Museums art, historical, alpine. It is based in 1191. In 1353 has come in the Swiss Confederated states. Medieval Strengthening (15 century), Gothic cathedral Sankt-Vintsents (1421-1588), a town hall (1406-17).
  • BERNADETTA SUBIRU (Bernadette Soubirous), in baptism Maria Bernarda (1844-79), sacred Roman catholic tservi, the daughter of the miller from Lourdes (France), international pilgrimage becoming a mestome after the phenomena to her in 1858 ladies Mary in a cave near Lourdes (obshchekatolicheskoe celebration with 1907). Memory in the Latin church on April, 16.
  • BERNADOT (Bernadotte) Jean Batist (1763-1844), marshal of France (1804). The participant of revolutionary and napoleonic wars. In 1810 it is dismissed by Napoleon and it is selected the successor of the Swedish holy table. In 1813 commanding the Swedish troops in war against France. In 1818-44 Swedish king Charles XIV JUhan, the founder of dynasty Bernadotov.
  • WHITE GRAMPUS, an aquatic mammal of a set delfinovyh. The length up to 6 m, weighs up to 2 t. In boreal seas. Object of a restricted craft (a skin and fat).
  • WHITE GRAMPUS, the highest top of Altai, in Katunskom hr. 2 tops (an extreme wave height 4506 ì). Icehouses Katunsky, Berelsky, Mensu, etc. (a gross area of a glaciation ok. 700 êì2).
  • BELUSHI (Belushi) John (1949-82), the American actor. The brother of actor James Belushi. Before arrival to kino it was taken out in television comedy serials and show. The Blues " (1980) was removed in several films, including in cult film " Brothers.
  • BELFAST (Belfast), main city and a port the Sowing. Ireland (Great Britain), on Irish m. of 304 thousand inhabitants (1986). A machine industry (large shipbuilding), a light industry. University. It is known from 12 century. After a partition of Ireland (1921 one of the centres of the conflict on religious soil in the Sowing. Ireland.
  • BELSHEVITSA (Belsebica) (an ice-film. fam. Elsberga, Elsberga) Vizma (r. 1931), the Latvian poetess. Collections of lyrical verses " Warmly earth " (1959), " Verses about solovjinom an infarct " (1969), " the April rain " (1978), " Patterns starnika " (1985). Stories (the collection " the Trouble in the dwelling ", 1984).
  • WHITE, the title (from colour of a banner of adherents of king during the French revolution) opponents of the Soviet authority, distributed in Russia within the Civil war.
  • WHITE GVELFY, see in an item. Gvelfy and gibelliny.
  • WHITE LANDS, grounds of feudal lords in a rural zone and cities of Russia 14-17 centuries free in part or completely from national taxes.
  • WHITE KALMYKS, the Russian title in 17 century of nomad tribes in steppes on r. Ob. The modern teleuty and ancestors of altaians.
  • WHITE DWARFS, very dense hot asters of mesh sizes from a degenerate gas. Mean firmness 108 - 109 kg / m3, radius some thousand kilometres, surface temperature of tens thousand K.Belye karliki - a final stage of sidereal evolution after exhaustion of thermonuclear energy sources if the mass of an aster is less ~ than 1,4 masses of the Sun.
  • WHITE OILS, the colourless diaphanous hydrocarbon oils received by catalytic hydrogenation of oil fractions or clearing of oil distillates by concentrated sulfuric acid or trioksidom of sulfur and a bleaching earth. 2 types of white oils are known: perfumery and vaseline medical.
  • WHITE, city in the Russian Federation, the Tver region, on r. Obsha. 15,3 thousand inhabitants (1992). A flax primary treating plant. It is known with 1359.
  • WHITE CITY, historical area in a central part of Moscow. The title in 16-17 centuries on white lands were here. The fortification with towers and a gate around of White city is constructed by F.S.Konem in 1585-93 (it is disassembled in 18 century).
  • BOLETUS MUSHROOM (mushroom), boletus of the order agarikovyh. A cap from above brown, from below spongy, white, chartreuse, a diameter routinely up to 20 sm (sometimes up to 50 sm). A leg tag, white with netted drawing. In deciduous, conifers and mixed forests primarily Boreal hemisphere. Contains a lot of protein, weighs from several grammes up to 300-400 g (occasionally up to 4 kg). The best mushroom for ring-shaped crackers.
  • WHITE CRANE, the same, that sterh.
  • WHITE STONE, the title of. Pajde in Estonia in Russian annals.
  • BELJAEV Alexander Romanovich (1884-1942), the Russian writer. Sci-fi products: " the Head of professor Douelja " (1925), "Person - amphibia" (1928), " Aster KETS " (1936), etc.
  • BELJAEV Anatoly Ivanovich (1906-67), the Russian metallurgist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1960). The main tr. On metallurgy of light metals, semiconductive materials.
  • BELJAEV Vasily Nikolaevich (1902/03-67), the Russian cameraman and the producer. Documentaries: " Line Mannergejma " (1941), "CHernomortsy" (1942), " National avengers " (1943), etc. Together with M.I.Romm - "Vladimir Iljich Lenin" (1948). State premiums of the USSR (1941, 1943, 1946, 1949, 1951).
  • BELJAEV Victor Mihajlovich (1888-1968), the Russian musicologist, the doctor of art criticism (1944). The main transactionses on a history of music of the Orient. The professor of the Moscow conservatory (with 1944).
  • BELJAEV Vladimir Pavlovich (1909-90), the Russian writer. The trilogy " Aged strength " (a part 1-3, 1937-51), the story " who is not afraid of lightnings " (1970). The state premium of the USSR (1952).
  • BELJAEV Dmitry Konstantinovich (1917-85), the Russian biologist, academician AN the USSR (1972). The main transactionses on genetics and animal breedings, on influence of physical factors and domestications on their reproductive function.
  • BELJAEV Eugeny Aleksandrovich (1895-1964), the Russian orientalist, the doctor of historical sciences (1962). Transactionses on a history of moslem faith, a medieval history of Arabian countries.
  • BELJAEV Eugeny Mihajlovich (1926-94), the Russian singer (the lyrical tenor), the national actor of the USSR (1967). With 1955 soloist of Band songs and dancings of the Soviet army by him. Aleksandrova, with 1980-Ðîñêîíöåðòà. The state premium of the USSR (1978).
  • BELJAEV Ivan Dmitrievich (1810-73), the Russian historian, the Slavophile. The professor of the Moscow university (with 1852). Transactionses on a history of Russian peasantry, the right, military science, the annals. Has collected a collection of old russian manuscripts.
  • BELJAEV Mitrofan Petrovich (1836-1903/04), the Russian patron of art, a lumberman, notoizdatel. Has founded Glinkinskie premiums (1884). Has based musical publishing house " M.P.Beljaev in Leipzig " (1885). Has organized shared " Russian musical concerts " (1885-1918). On musicales in dwelling Beljaeva there was an association of composers - t. n. Beljaevsky a circle.
  • BELJAEV Nikolay Ivanovich (1877-1920), the Russian metallurgist. One of osnovatelej manufactures of alloy steels in Russia; supervised over construction of the first domestic metallurgical plant "Electrostal".
  • BELJAEV Nikolay Mihajlovich (1890-1944), the Russian scientist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1939). Transactionses under the failure theory (resistance of rod stock, plastic deformations), technologies of concrete, etc.
  • BELJAEV Nikolay Timofeevich (1878-1955), a metallurgist, one of creators of the scientific bases of a steelmaking affair. Was born and worked in Russia. With 1915 - in England, with 1930 - in France. Basic researches on crystallization, structure and properties of steel. Has created a number of new marks of steels.
  • BELJAEV Paul Ivanovich (1925-70), the Russian astronaut, a pilot - astronaut of the USSR (1965), the colonel, the Hero of Soviet Union (1965). Flight on "Rise - 2" (March 1965).
  • BELJAEV Spartak Timurovich (r. 1923), Russian physics, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1968). The main transactionses on plasma physics, a quantum theory of many particles, a nuclear physics.
  • BELJAEV Jury Viktorovich (r. 1947), the Russian actor. The actor of the Moscow theatre on Taganke. Áåëÿåâà game is distinguished with rigid drawing of a role. Among theatrical activities: Shuisky ("Boris Godunov" of A.S.Pushkin), Korovjev (" the Master and Margarita " on M.A.Bulgakov), Unknown (" the Dwelling on Embankment " on J.V.Trifonovu), etc. It was taken out in films: V.F.Aristov "Powder", K.G.Shakhnazarov "Regicide", " the Play for the passenger ", "Servant" V.J.Abdrashitova, etc. The State premium of Russia (1991).
  • BELJAEVKA, city (with 1979) on Ukraine, the Odessa region, on coast an eskar. White. 14 thousand inhabitants (1991). A flavoring industry, factory " Ñòðîéäåòàëü ".
  • BELJAEVY, decembrists, brothers: Alexander Petrovich (1803-87) and Peter Petrovich (1804-64), warrant officers. Participants of revolt on December, 14 1825. Are convicted on 12 flying of penal servitude. With 1827 in Nerchinskih mines, with 1833 on a settlement in Minusinsk, with 1839 private soldiers in army on Caucasus. Alexander Petrovich - the writer of memories.
  • BAILEY (Baily) Frensis (1774-1844), the English astronomer. For the first time has described (1836) occurrence of bright points on an edge of a lunar disc in the beginning and the extremity of a full phase of solar eclipse (" Bailey are legible "), originating when the sun light passes between mountains on an edge of a lunar disc.
  • BEJLISA BUSINESS, costs (Kiev, 1913) above Jew M.Bejlisom on false charge in ceremonial assassination of the Russian boy. It is organized by imperial government and chernosotentsami. Has called the protest of forward sociability in Russia and abroad; the jury trial has justified Bejlisa.
  • BEJLISS (Bayliss) William Meddok (1860-1924), the English physiologist, the member of the London royal society (1903), his president in 1913-15. Transactionses on general physiology and physiologies of digestion. In 1902 together with E.G.Starlingom has discovered a secretin (they have entered the term "hormone" into science). Activities on the physico-chemical bases of enzymosis, an adsorption. In 1906 together with A.Garden has based " Biochemical Journal ". The writer capital transactionses " the Fundamentals of general physiology " (1915, in Russian transfer - " Introduction in general physiology ", 1927).
  • BEJL (Bayle) Pierre (1647-1706), the French publicist and the philosopher, the early representative of Enlightenment; from items of scepticism denied a capability of the rational substantiation of religious tenets, asserted independence of moral of religion. The main product - " the Historical and critical dictionary " (t. 1-2, 1695-97) - has exerted influence development of european latitudinarianizm.
  • BEJLSHTEJN Feodor Fedorovich (1838-1906), ðoññèéñêèé chemists - organics, the academician Petersburg AN (1886). Transactionses on aromatic compounds. Under guiding Bejlshtejna (1881-1906) multivolume manual on organic compounds has been issued. About 1951 manual wearing name Bejlshtejna, it is emited in Germany.
  • BEJNEKS (Beineix) Jean - Jacque (r. 1946), the French film director. Has acquired popularity a debut pattern "Divine" (1982). Has delivered films: " moon in a gutter " (1983), " Betti Blju " (1986), "Otaku" (1994), etc.
  • BEIRA (Beira), city and a port in Mozambique, an administrative centre prov. Sofala. 292 thousand inhabitants (1989). An international airport. The alimentary, textile, metal-working enterprises.
  • BEIRUT, capital of Lebanon, port on Mediterranean m. 1,5 million inhabitants (1990, with suburbs). Mild, a food-processing industry. An international airport. Universities. Museums. It is known with 18 (or 15) century up to n. e. Under title Berit, Beruta. In the ellinistichesko-Roman season - the large trading - craft centre. In 7 century it is included in Arabian halifat. In 14-15 centuries under an authority egyptian mamljukov. In 1516-1918 in structure of Ottoman empire. In 1920-43 adm. ts. Mandated France of Lebanon, with 1943 capital of independent Lebanon. The financial centre. Residues of Phoenician, Roman and byzantian constructions, mosques: Dzhami al-Omari (13 century), "Palace" (nach. 16 century).
  • BEJS-BALLOT (Buys Ballot) Hristofor Henrik Diderik (1817-90), the Netherlands meteorologist, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1887). One of organizers and the first director (with 1854) Meteorological institute in a Utrecht. In 1857 has empirically contacted between a wind direction and a baric gradient.
  • BASEBALL (English baseball), sporting ball game and the beaten, recalling laptu, on a site 175 h 125 m, in which 2 commands on 9 (North American baseball) or on 11 (the Welsh baseball) players each participate. Rhodinum of baseball - England; the modern game rules with 1845 (see also Softbol, Cricket). In International federation of baseball (IBF; 71 country (1991) is based in 1921). World championships with 1938. In the program of Olympic Games with 1992.
  • BEJSI (Basie) Kaunt (an ice-film. A name Bejsi William) (1904-84), the American jazz pianist. In 1930th has organized an orchestra which has massed the most sample qualities of a swing in the performance. Has created a number of original performing methods, having given a swing special dynamism and depth. Has put in pawn a fundamentals of styles of the modern jazz, afterwards developed by musicians bopa and kula. Has introduced new features to technique ansamblevogo playing music. Has created the whole direction within the framework of style a swing, the bound first of all with development of a Negro jazz.
  • BEJSI (Basie) Kaunt (an ice-film. A name Bejsi William) (1904-84), the American jazz pianist. In 1930th has organized an orchestra which has massed the most sample qualities of a swing in the performance. Has created a number of original performing methods, having given a swing special dynamism and depth. Has put in pawn a fundamentals of styles of the modern jazz, afterwards developed by musicians bopa and kula. Has introduced new features to technique ansamblevogo playing music. Has created the whole direction within the framework of style a swing, the bound first of all with development of a Negro jazz.
  • BEJSI (Basie) William (nickname Kaunt, Count) (1904-84), the American jazz pianist. The Negro. The representative of style "suing". Supervised over a jazz orchestra in Kansas City (with 1935), then in New York.
  • BASIC (BASIC; from initial characters of English words Beginners - for initial, All-purpose - generalpurpose, Symbolic - symbolical, Instruction - educational, Code - a code), the programming language oriented on education to the bases of programming. It is used basically at programming on the private computer.
  • BEJSUGSKY the FIRTH, in the west lowlands Kubano-Priazovskoj. 272 êì2. Runs r. Bejsug. It is paired to the Azov m.
  • BEJT (arab)., a couplet in poetry of peoples Short-range and Compare. The orient, routinely contains a finished thought. From bejtov gazelles, kasydy, mesnevi, rubai and products of other genres of classical eastern poetry are compounded. Verses can be rhymed (for phylum aa, ba, ca) and unrhymed.
  • BEJTEVEH (Buytewech) Willem (1591-1624), the Dutch painter and the schedule. One of creators of a genre art and a national landscape.
  • BEJTENZORG (Buitenzorg), the Dutch title of. Bogor in Indonesia.
  • THICKENED MUST (turets)., uparennyj juice of a grape. Use in I peep.
  • BEK-NAZAROV (Beknazarjan) Amo (Ambartsum) Ivanovich (1892-1965), the Armenian film director, the actor, the national actor of Armenia (1935). Acted in pre-revolutionary kino. Worked on film studioes of Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan. Has delivered films: "Namus" (1926), "Pepo" (1935), "Zangezur" (1938), "David - Bek" (1944), etc. The State premium of the USSR (1941).
  • BEKOVICH-CHERKASSK (Devlet-Kizden-Murza) Alexander (?-1717), kabardian prince. In 1717 has headed Russian expedition (ok. 5 t. Hours) to Khiva. It is perfidiously killed under the order of Khivan khan.
  • BACON (English bacon), a meat product prepared from half carcasses of pork, received from a thorough revision of pigs of a bacon fattening. Distinguish a bacon salinous and smoked.
  • BACON FATTENING, kind of a fattening of the pigs, used for obtaining soft with meat fat. Pigs of early breeds are suitable for a bacon fattening.
  • BEKTASHI, 1) dervishsky order, founded in Turkey Hadzhi Bektashi in 15 century. It is officially closed in 1826. There was in Turkey up to 1925, then a centre in Albania. 2) the Member of order Bektashi.
  • It is WHITE IV (Bela) (1206-70), king of the Hungarian kingdom with 1235. From dynasty Arpadov. Having sufferred a defeat from the mongolo-tartar (1241), ran; after their maintenance (1242) has strengthened an economy and defensive capability of country. Has given (1267) number of privileges to small-sized and mean nobility. Wared against Venice because of dalmatinskih cities (1243-44), with the Czech king Przhemyslom II because of Austria and SHtirii (1253-54, 1260).
  • BELAZURI (ok. 820-892), the Arabian historian. Compositions on a political history, economy Arabian halifata, including Compare. Asia and Caucasus.
  • "BELARUSFILM", film studio of feature films. It is organized in 1924, with 1928 in Leningrad, with 1939 in Minsk. Up to 1946 - " the Soviet Byelorussia ". Among films: " Kastus Kalinovsky " (1928), " On fire born " (1930), "Konstantin Zaslonov" (1949), " Hours have stayed at midnight " (1959), "republic Rudobelskaja" (1972), " Time of its sons " (1976), " Kultpohod in theatre " (1983), " the Mark of a trouble " (1987), "Branch" (1988), " to Birds side panels not in burden " (1989).
  • BELASITSA, a mountain ridge on border of the modern Bulgaria, Yugoslavia and Greece; 29.7.1014 on boreal downslopes Belasitsy, in a valley r. Strumitsa, a troops of the byzantian emperor Vasily II have divided the Bulgarian army; by 14 thousand captured bolgar have been blinded.
  • BELAUNDE TERRI (Belaunde Terry) Fernando (r. 1912), the president of Peru in 1963-68 and 1980-85. The founder (1956) and the leader of a consignment National action.
  • BELASHOVA Ekaterina Fedorovna (1906-71), the sculptor, the national artist of the USSR (1963), corresponding member AH the USSR (1964). Products of a heavy sculpture ("Unsubdued", 1957; " A.S.Pushkin. 1837 year ", 1964). The state premium of the USSR (1967).
  • WHITE, the river on JUzh. Ural and in Preduralje, the left-handed in-leak of Kama. 1430 kms, the area of basin of 142 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water 970 m3 / with. Main inflow - Ufa, Dema. It is navigable from Ufa.
  • WHITE, the river on the Sowing. Caucasus, the left-handed in-leak of Kuban. 273 kms, the area of basin 5990 êì2. On White - 2 river plants.
  • FALSE ACACIA, plant from a stem a black locust.
  • WHITE VEZHA, see. Sarkel.
  • WHITE Galina Andreevna (r. 1931), the Russian critic, the literary critic. The professor of the Russian state humanitarian university. The main activities are dedicated the literature and criticism of 20th of 20 century, the modern literary process. Books: " Regularities of style development of the Soviet prose of the twentieth years " (1977), " Filosofsko-ethical problems of the modern literature " (1982), etc.
  • WHITE GUARDS, the informal name of the military formations struggling within the Civil war against the Soviet authority. The origin of the term is connected to traditional symbolics of a white as colours of adherents of " the legal law order ". The basis of White guards - officers of former imperial army; a guiding - military tops (M.V.Alekseev, P.N.Vrangel, A.I.Denikin, A.V.Kolchak, L.G.Kornilov, E.K.Miller, N.N.Judenich).
  • WHITE MOUNTAIN, mountain in Czechoslovakia, bliz Prague. On the White mountain 8.11.1620 during Thirty-year war the impersko-Bavarian troops of Roman catholic league have divided the Czech troops then Czechia has lost independence.
  • BERGELSON David Rafailovich (1884-1952), the jewish writer (Russia). Psychologic novels " After all " (1913), "Withdrawal" (1920) about destinies of the jewish intelligency. Roman " On Dnepr " (the book 1-2, 1932-40) about life of Jews in Russia in nach. 20 century, before Revolution 1905-07. It is repressed; it is rehabilitated posthumously.
  • BERGELSON Lion Davidovich (r. 1918), the chemist and the biochemist, corresponding member Russian AN (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1968). Son D.R.Bergelsona. Transactionses on chemistry of biopolymers and physiologically active to connections, stereochemistry and conformational analysis. Probe of a biological membrane. The state premium of the USSR (1985).
  • BERGIUS (Bergius) Fridrih (1884-1949), the german chemist - technologist. Has developed (1913) way of obtaining of fluid engine fuel destructive hydrogenation of coal and heavy oils (berginizatsija). The Nobel Prize (1931, together with K.Boshem).
  • BERGMAN (Bergmann) Gustav (1878-1955), the german therapist. Clinically and experimentally has developed the doctrine about the functional pathology.
  • BERGMAN (Bergman) Ingmar (r. 1918), the Swedish film director. Films: " Evening of fools " (1953), " the Seventh seal ", " the Strawberry glade " (both 1957), "Face" (1958), "Silence" (1963), " the Autumnal sonata " (1978), " Fanni and Alexander " (1983), etc. Develops a theme of tragical loneliness of the person in the modern society. Put performances at drama and opera theatres.
  • BERGMAN (Bergmann) Ernest (1836-1907), the german surgeon. One of creators of an asepsis. Transactionses on surgery of a skull and a brain.
  • BERGMAN (Bergman) JAlmar (1883-1931), the Swedish writer. Social - psychologic novels " Markurelly from Vadchepinga " (1919), " the Grandmother and God the God " (1921), " the Clown the Yak " (1930), chamber dramas, comedies.
  • BERGSTREM (Bergstrom) Sune (r. 1916), the Swedish biochemist, foreign member AN the USSR (1976), AMN the USSR (1982). The main transactionses on chemistry and biochemistry of Prostaglandinums. The Nobel Prize (1982, together with B.Samuelsonom and Dzh. R.Vayne).
  • BERGSHTRIHI (indexes of a downslope), short primes on horizontals of the topographic map, directing a direction down-hill.
  • REEDS (Byrd) Ð., see Byrd R.
  • REEDS (Byrd) William (ok. 1543-1623), the English composer, the organist, verdzhinelist, notoizdatel. The creator of the English madrigal. Imaginations, variations, dances for verdzhinela and violy, masses, psalmy, etc.
  • REEDS CHarlz (Charles Nikolaevich) (1766-1843), the Russian engineer, the businessman, the shipowner. The native of Scotland, with 1786 in Russia. First in Russia in 1805-06 has designed and has constructed in Petersburg the cast-iron bridge " on arches ". Has constructed ship shipyard, has based (1815) shipping company on Neva. Supervised over manufacturing and installation of lattices, bas-reliefs, sculptures, flashlights, blankings, etc. metal load-carrying structures and elements. On his first in Russia a mechanic foundry in Petersburg (it is based in 1792) bas-reliefs Aleksandrovskoj of a column, structural members of a frontispice and dome Isaakievskogo of a cathedral are made, etc. Has produced and has placed superstructures of all flying bridges of Petersburg.
  • BERDANKA, a singly charged rifle of system of American inventor H.Berdana, improved in 60th of 19 century the Russian engineers A.P.Gorlovym and K.I.Guniusom. In the inventory the Russian army in 1868-91.
  • REEDS (an ice-film. A name and fam. Berdimurat Kargabaev) (1827-1900), the Karakalpak poet. Lyrical, satirical, didactic verses, historical poems, an antidespotic poem - fairy tale "Tsar - petty tyrant".
  • BERDZHESS (Burgess) Anthony (1917-93), the English writer. The satirical novel " the Right on the answer " (1960); " black Utopias " " News of end of the world " (1982) and "1985 (1978). A theme of the antihero - in novels " the Clockwork common orange " (1962) and " the Will to the clockwork world " (1974), and also in U.Shakespeare parody "counterbiographies" (1964) and Dzh. Keats (1977). The writer of pieces of music.
  • BERDZENISHVILI Merab Isidorovich (r. 1929), the Georgian sculptor, the national artist of the USSR (1987), corresponding member AH (1988). Monumental, plastic indicative monument in honour of the 30-anniversary of Victory in Marneuli (1975), the decorative sculpture ("Medea", Pitsunda). The state premium of the USSR (1976).
  • BELLADONNA, perennial herbaceous plant of a stem a belladonna of a set of a nightshade family. An altitude of 0,6-2 m. Will grow in Central and JUzh. To Europe, M.Azii, on Caucasus, in Crimea and Carpathian mountains; in crop as medicinal. The antispasmodic is applied as soothing. It is toxicant. The belladonna contains an atropine dilating pupils, and consequently women in Other. Rome used her as " a means of beauty ". From here the title a belladonna (ital. belladonna - perfect lady).
  • BELLARMINO (Bellarmino) Roberto Franchesko Romolo (1542-1621), the roman catholic seminary student, the jesuit, a cardinal bird (with 1599); the figure of Counter-reformation. The main composition - " Reasoning on questions at issue of Christian belief against heretics of our time " (1581-93). Memory in the Latin church on September, 17.
  • BELLEROFONT, in the Grecian mythology the hero who has conquered trehglavoe a monster the Chimera, overcome amazons, etc. on winged horse Pegase tamed by him.
  • FICTION (from frants. belles lettres - fiction), 1) art prose... 2) In 20 century also mass literary production bytopisatelskogo, entertainment character as opposed to products of high art.
  • BELLI (Belli) Dzhuzeppe Dzhoakkino (1791-1863), the italian poet. Ok. 2 thousand satirical sonnets (" Roman sonnets ", the issuing 1886-89) have reflected national submissions about religion, histories, meaning of the life; love lyrics.
  • The BELLINI, family of italian painters of the venetian school: JAkopo (ok. 1400-70), to architectonic drawings Gothic conditionality is peculiar. His sons: Dzhentile (ok. 1429-1507), in portraits, multifigurate narrative compositions has embodied life of Venice (" the Procession on a square. A dignity - Marko ", 1496); Giovanni (ok. 1430-1516), has created classically clear patterns on religious and mythological themes, remarkable harmony of colour, poetry of landscape motives (" the Madonna delji Alberetti ", 1487), portraits (" Dozh Loredan ", ok. 1502).
  • The BELLINI (Bellini) Vinchentso (1801-35), the italian composer. The representative of a romantic direction, promoted development of art belkanto. Operas " Ñîìíàìáóëà ", "Norm" (both 1831), "Puritans" (1835), etc.
  • BELLINSGAUZEN, the first Russian polar station (with 1968) for coasts Zap. Antarctica on about. King - George (Waterloo), in arh. JUzh. Islands Shetlendskie. It is called named F.F.Bellinsgauzena.
  • BELLINSGAUZENA the HOLLOW, a submerged hollow in a southeast Quiet ok., between continental slopes of Antarctica, JUzh. America and JUzh.-pacific, Vost.-pacific and Chilean raisings. Depth up to 5399 m. It is called named F.F.Bellinsgauzena.
  • BELLINSGAUZENA the PEST (Marginal sea) Quiet ok., for coasts of Antarctica, between p-ovami Antarctic and Thurston. 487 thousand êì2. Depth up to 4115 m. A salinity of 33,5 ‰. Large islands - Peter I and the Earth Alexander I. A large part of year it is coated with floe ices and icebergs. It is called named F.F.Bellinsgauzena.
  • BELL - LANKASTERSKAJA SYSTEM, the same, that the relative education.
  • BELLO (Belleau) Remi (1528-77), the French poet. The representative of a circle of "Pleiad". Transfers from Anakreonta, transpositions of the Bible ("Petitions", are published in 1610). Latin burlesknaja a poem " the Poetic word about war of huguenots " (1574), the collection of verses of "Pastoral" (kn. 1-2, 1565-72), the book of allegorical verses " Love and new metamorphosises of precious stones " (1575).
  • BELLOVAKI, one of nations belgov in terrain the Sowing. Gallia.
  • BELLOK (Belloc) Joseph Pierre Hiler (Ilari) (1870-1953), the English political figure and the writer - roman catholic, close to G.K.Chesterton. In verses developed poetics of a nonsense (" the Book about zverjatah for the poor guys ", 1896). The writer of books of an essay " about anything " (1908), " About all " (1909), " about something " (1910), Cromwell biographies, Robespjera, Napoleon, etc.
  • BELLOKKO (Bellocchio) Marko (r. 1939), the italian film director. Debuted as the spokesman of moods of mutinous youth of 1960th (" Kulaks in a pouch ", 1965), having generated a wave t. n. " Kino kontestatsii ". Hereinafter worked in a race course of italian political kino (" About assassination - on the front page ", 1976). Films Bellokkjo of 1980th it is penetrating proniknuty Freudian motives (" Jump in vacuum ", 1980).
  • BELLONA, in Roman mythology the goddess of war. It was figured with a sword or a whip, often at the centre of battle, on a chariot.
  • BELLOTTO (Bellotto) Bernardo (1720-80), the italian painter, the etcher. The representative of the venetian school. The master veduty - documentary precise architectonic landscape (kinds of Venice, Dresden, Warsaw).
  • BELLOU (Bellow) Sol (r. 1915), the American writer. Novels: "Gerzag" (1964), " the Planet of Mr Sammlera " (1969). Belief in cultural wealth both cultural traditions and simultaneously sober realization of antagonisms of the modern civilization. Scepticism in the novel " Humboldt Gift " (1975) - about intellectual America. The collection " the Trickster and other stories " (1984) about "perpetually" themes of life, mors and redemption. The Nobel Prize (1976).
  • BELLOUZ (Bellows) George (1882-1925), the American painter. Has created a diverse and dramatic pattern of life of cities USA ("Dockers", 1912).
  • BELORECHENSK, city (with 1958) in the Russian Federation, Krasnodar kr., on r. White. A railway junction. 52,6 thousand inhabitants (1992). The enterprises of a railway transport; chemical, alimentary and a woodworking industry.
  • BELOROSSOV Nikolay Danilovich (mind. 1907), the Russian church historian, the priest. Compositions on a history of the English church up to Reformatsii, etc.
  • BELARUS (Byelorussia), Republic of Byelorussia (Ðýñïóáëiêà Byelorussia). 207,6 thousand êì2. The population of 10353 thousand person (1993), urban 67 %; Byelorussians (7905 thousand person; 1989, census), Russian, Poles, ukraintsy, Jews, etc. In Belarus 6 ranges, 117 areas, 99 cities, 112 urban settlements (1989). The official language - Byelorussian. Capital - Minsk. A surface of Belarus flat. In a north - system of morainal patches, smenjajushchihsja to the south the Byelorussian patch (an altitude up to 345 ì); in the south - the Byelorussian Polesye. Deposits potassium, rock salts, petroleum, peat, etc. The Climate moderately continental. Mean temperatures of January from-4 °S on a southwest up to-8 °S on north-east, July from 17 °S in a north up to 19 °S in the south. A rainfall from 500 up to 700 mm annually. The main rivers - Dnepr, Pripyat, Berezina, Zap. Dvina, Neman. It is a lot of lakes (Naroch, Osvejskoe, etc.) . Water reservoirs (Vilejskoe, Zaslavskoe). Soils prevail sod-podzolic. St. 1/3 terrains of Belarus take mixed forests. In terrain of Belarus - part Belovezhskoj of the Dense forest, Berezinsky, Pripjatsky reservations. Ok. 1/4 terrains of Belarus - in a radioactive contamination zone as a result of emergency on Chernobyl atomic power station in 1986. In 10 - nach. 12 centuries in structure of the Kiev Russia were formed principalities Polotsk, Turovo-Pinskoe, etc. In 13-14 centuries of their terrain in structure of the Great principality Lithuanian, with 1569 - Speeches Pospolitoj. In 16 century formation of the Byelorussian nationality was finished. With kon. 18 century the Byelorussian grounds in structure of Russian empire. Country reform 1861 has accelerated development of a capitalism. In November 1917 in Belarus the Soviet authority is professed. In February - November 1918 large part of terrain has been occupied by the German troops. 1.1.1919 it is derivated Byelorussian SSR. Western Belarus under Riga agreement 1921 has departed to Poland. In 1922 Byelorussian SSR was part of the USSR. In November 1939 Western Belarus has reunited with Byelorussian SSR. In 1941 Belarus is occupied by a german troops. Byelorussian people has stirred to action with an enemy. 1108 guerilla orders and groups (over 374 thousand person) acted. The republic has lost more than 2,2 million person. In July 1944 it is free by the Soviet troops. In July of 1990 republics VS has accepted the Declaration on the state sovereignty Byelorussian SSR, in July 1991 - the Declaration on state independence. In 1994 the post prizidenta is established. In structure national the income (1992, %): an industry 44, an agriculture 29,3. Manufacture of the electric power 38,7 billion kvt.ch. (1991). Master industries: avto-and a tractor construction, machine-tool construction, an agricultural machine industry, radio electronics, the electrical engineer, instrumentation technologies; chemical and petrochemical: Potassium, phosphoric and nitrogenous fertilizers, synfils and filaments of a synthetic fiber, the splint; oil refining; mild. Are developed alimentary (meat, milk, maslosyrodelatelnaja, canning, etc.), A woodworking industry; conversion black, a powder metallurgy. Production of potassium salts (Soligorsk), petroleum (basically in a southeast of republic). The area of agricultural lands 9,3 million ga (1992). An area under crops of 6126 thousand ga, including grain 43 % (rozh, wheat, barley, an oat, a buckwheat). A total yield of a grain 5,9 million t (1992), a potato 8,0 million t Cultivate a flux - dolgunets, sugar-beet. A fruit growing, a vegetable raising. The area of drained grounds of 3229 thousand ga (1990). Main branches of animal husbandry - a dairy - beef cattle husbandry, a swine breeding, a poultry breeding. Operational length of railways of 5,75 thousand in km (1990), general purpose motorways of 48,9 thousand in km, including hard-surface 46,3 thousand in km. A pipeline transportation. Navigation across Pripyat, Dneprovsko-Bugskomu to the channel, Dnepr, Sozhu, Berezina. Monetary unit - the Byelorussian rouble.
  • The BYELORUSSIAN PATCH, in northwest of Belarus and in Poland. Ok. 500 kms. Will consist from Grodno, Volkovysskoj, Novogrudskoj, the Minsk high grounds. An altitude up to 345 m.
  • The BYELORUSSIAN KRESTJANSKO-WORKING BULK, mass revolutionary organization of Western Belarus in 1925-27.
  • The BYELORUSSIAN OPERATION, 23.6-29.81944, during Great Domestic war. The Soviet troops of 1-st Baltic, 3-rd, and 1-st Byelorussian fronts (general I.H.Bagramjan, general - colonel I.D.Chernjahovsky, general G.F.Zaharov, general K.K.Rokossovsky) at support the guerrilla have broken through 2-nd on many epines the defence of a german army group "Center" (general - field marshal E.Bush, then V.Model), have enclosed and liquidated large groupings of the opponent in areas of Vitebsk, Bobruisk, Vilnius, Brest and to the east of Minsk, have released terrain of Belarus and its capital Minsk (on July, 3), a considerable proportion of Lithuania and its capital Vilnius (on July, 13), eastern areas of Poland and have quitted on rr. Narev, Vistula and to borders Vost. Prussia.
  • BYELORUSSIAN RAD, a public authority in Belarus (July 1917 - January 1919, Minsk). In March 1918 has formed government of the Byelorussian national republic and has declared about branch of Belarus from Russia. Has come into contact piece with Ukrainian Central glad. After January 1919 acted outside republic. In October 1925 it is declared about self-dissolution rads.
  • The BYELORUSSIAN AGRICULTURAL ACADEMY, higher educational establishment, in of the Hill of the Mogilyov region, it is based in 1840. Plots experts on an agrochemistry and a pedology, agronomy, a farm mechanization, a hydromelioration, mechanization of a reclamative work, an agricultural economics, etc. In 1991 over 10 thousand students.
  • BYELORUSSIAN SOVIET ENCYCLOPEDIA (BelSE), the first generalpurpose encyclopedia in the Byelorussian tongue. The managing editor - P.Brovka. It is exhausted by Main edition BelSE (about 1981 publishing house BelSe him. P.Brovki) in 1969-75 in 12 t. (12-th - is dedicated Byelorussian SSR; there is a reference volume). Has become the basis for the brief encyclopedia " Byelorussian SSR " (1978-82; in 5 t., in the Byelorussian and Russian tongues) and of some other issuings.
  • BYELORUSSIAN SOCIAL-DEMOCRATIC WORKING CONSIGNMENT (BSDRP), is based in September by 1917 part of the left-handed wing of the Byelorussian socialist bulk from structure of its Petrograd organization. Bordered on to bolsheviks. In April 1918 members BSDRP have come in Russian KP (á).
  • BYELORUSSIAN SOCIALIST BULK (BSG), the political party with 1902. In 1907 samoraspustilas. Has revived after February 1917. The program: a national autonomy, the municipalization of ground. Organizations BSG - in Petrograd, Moscow, Kiev, Saratov, Kazan, Tambov, Odessa, Helsinki. Central organs - " Free Byelorussia ", "Bulk". Sustained the Providing government, Byelorussian to rad. In the summer 1918 has broken up. A part of members have accepted the Soviet authority.
  • The BYELORUSSIAN MAJOR OPERA AND BALLET THEATRE, is open in Minsk in 1933, with 1964 academic. Performances in the Byelorussian and Russian tongues.
  • The BYELORUSSIAN POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, Minsk, is based in 1933. Plots experts on a machine industry, instrumentation technologies and robotic systems, power system, architectonic construction, etc. In 1991 ok. 24 thousand students.
  • The BYELORUSSIAN THEATRE him. JAkuba Kolasa, drama, it is based in Vitebsk in 1926 (Byelorussian 2-nd state theatre).
  • The BYELORUSSIAN THEATRE him. JAnki Kupaly, drama, it is based in Minsk in 1920, with 1955 academic.
  • The BYELORUSSIAN UNIVERSITY, Minsk, is based in 1921. Plots experts on physical and mathematical, chemical, biological, geographycal, historical, legal, philological sciences, an electronics engineering, journalism, etc. In 1991 ok. 17 thousand students.
  • The BYELORUSSIAN TONGUE, falls into to slavonic tongues (east - slavonic group), included in indoevropejskuju family of tongues. The official language of Belarus. Writing on the basis of cyrillics (Russian type).
  • The BELORUSSKO-LITHUANIAN ANNALS, are constituted in the Great principality Lithuanian in 15-16 centuries. It is known 3 annalistic canopies: the Annals 1446, the Chronicle of the Great principality Lithuanian and ZHomojtskogo, Chronicle Byhovtsa.
  • BYELORUSSIANS, people, the main population of Belarus (over 7,9 million person, 1992). Live also in the Russian Federation (1206 thousand person), on Ukraine (440 thousand person), in Kazakhstan (182 thousand person), Latvia (120 thousand person), Lithuania (63 thousand person), Uzbekistan (63 thousand person), Estonia (27,7 thousand person). In Poland ok. 300 thousand person. An aggregate number 10,38 million person (1992). Tongue Byelorussian. Believing Byelorussians basically orthodox, are roman catholics.
  • BELORYBITSA, a migratory fish of a set sigovyh. 2 subspecies: belorybitsa and nelma. Belorybitsa in length up to 110 sm, weighs up to 20 kg, dwells in the Caspian m., for reproduction enters into Volga and Ural. Valuable object of a craft and cultivation.
  • BEN ALI Zin al-Abidin (r. 1936), the president of Tunis, the chairman of Democratic constitutional association since November 1987. The general (1979). In May 1986 - October 1987 Minister of Internal Affairs, in October 1987 prime minister.
  • BENAVA Abdurrauf (1913-87), the Afghani writer and the public figure. Anticolonial istoriko-publicistic activities; a cycle of educational verses " Sad speculations " (1957).
  • BENAVENTE-I-MARTINES (Benavente y Martinez) Hasinto (1866-1954), the spanish playwright. In plays " Known people " (1896), " Nutrition of wild animals " (1898) criticism of an aristocratic society combines with scorn for "crowd". In comedies " the Game of interests " (1907), " City cheerful and careless " (1916) - the sermon of intellectual perfecting. Entertainment comedies (" Don Huan was ", 1952; " the Pin in a mouth ", 1953, etc.). The Nobel Prize (1922).
  • BENARDOS Nikolay Nikolaevich (1842-1905), the Russian inventor, one of creators of an electric arc welding of metals. Has offered (1882, the patent 1885) a way of electrical arc welding of metals with the help of baked carbons; other ways of a weldment and soldering.
  • BENARES, city in India, see. Varanasi.
  • BENARESSKOE REVOLT 1781, antiEnglish in the indian principality Benares, vassal (with 1775) from the English East indian company. Has sparked naturally in connection with requisitions of English general - governor U.Hejstingsa. It was distributed also on Aud.
  • BENASERRAF (Benacerraf) Baruch (r. 1920), the American microbiologist, the immunologist. Was born in Venezuela, with 1939 in the USA. Activities under the genetic supervisory control of immunological organism responses. The Nobel Prize (1980, together with Z.Dosse and Dzh. D.Snellom).
  • BEN - BEN, in egyptian mythology in descriptions of creation of the world acts as an initial hill above the boundless water space. The sacred stone Ben - Ben in Heliopolis was a fetish to Ben and Ra.
  • BENVENIST (Benveniste) Emil (1902-76), French jazykoved. Transactionses on general and european linguistics, the Iranian tongue, a general semiology. Probeed structure indoevropejskogo the radical.
  • BENGASI, city and port in Libya, in a hall. A cider of Mediterranean m. of 446 thousand inhabitants (1988). An international airport. Metallurgical, electrotechnical, cement, a food-processing industry. University. It is based in 5 century up to n. e. As ancient greek colony Euesperidy (Gesperidy). The modern title - after arrival of arabs to 7 century. In 1517-1911 in Ottoman empire. In October 1911 it is occupied by an italian troops and has come in italian colony Libya. In 1912-42 marine base of Italy. In November 1942 - December 1951 it is occupied by the English troops. In December 1951 - August 1969 one of capitals of a kingdom of Libya. A mosque " Dzhami al-Kabir " (16 century).
  • BENGALINE (frants. bengaline), the silk diaphanous fine texture recalling to an organdy.
  • BENGAL, historical range in the south of Asia, in a bass. The lower flow of Ganges and delta of Ganges and Brahmaputra. From ancient times for terrains of Bengal there were different indian states. In 1757 it has been seized by the English colonialists and then it is transformed into one of provinces of the British India. In 1947 Zap. Bengal was part of India, Vost. Bengal - Pakistan. With 1971 Vost. Bengal - the state Bangladesh.
  • BENGALURU, city in India, see. Bangalore.
  • The BENGAL PLAIN, eastern part of Indo-Gangetic plain in India and Bangladesh, on the lower flow rr. Ganges and Brahmaputra.
  • The BENGAL BAY in Indian ok., between p-ovom Hindustan in the west and p-ovom Indochina and islands Andamanskimi and Nikobarskimi on the orient. 2191 thousand êì2. Depth up to 4519 m. Primary ports: Calcutta, Madras, Chittagong.
  • The BENGAL FIRE, pyrotechnic structure, which burning is accompanied by spreading of blazing sparks. It is routinely put on cuttings of a metal wire - the Bengal candles. It is called from the way of the signalling for the first time applied in Bengal (India) with the help of a combustion-mixture burning in bamboo tubes.
  • The BENGAL TONGUE (bengali), tongue of bengaleses. Falls into to indian group indoevropejskoj families of tongues. The official language Bangladesh and pieces. Zap. Bengal in India. The alphabet goes back to brahmi.
  • " The BENGAL REVITALIZATION ", flow in the indian art, 19-20 centuries which have arisen on a boundary under influence of growth of national-liberation motion. Artists of " the Bengal Revitalization " in the chapter with A.Tagore (1871-1951) aspired to create on the basis of traditions of an indian miniature new national art.
  • BENGALESES, people, the main population Bangladesh (over 109,5 million person). Live also in India (80 million person), Nepal, Bhutan, Singapore, etc. The Aggregate number 189,65 million person (1992). Tongue the Bengal. Believing in Bangladesh - basically moslems - sunnity, in India basically - induisty.
  • BENGUELA (Benguela), city and a port in Angola, an administrative centre prov. Benguela. 155 thousand inhabitants (1988). Rybopererabotka. Shipyard.
  • BELL (Boll) Genrih (1917-85), the german writer. In novels " Where thee were, Adam? (1951), " the unified word " (1953), " the Pool in half tenth " (1959), " Eyes of the clown " (1963), stories " Bread early a flying " (1955) Also has not said, stories a sharpness of an ethical problematics (moral opposition to public evil), backed by roman catholic orientation Bellja, depth of the psychologic analysis, lyricism combine with sharp, occasionally venomous social criticism, including anti-fascist and anti-war (the novel about historical destinies of post-war Germany " the Formation portrait with lady ", 1971, with elements of a block type). Political novels " Lost honour Katariny Blum... (1974), " Women inshore Rhein " (1985). The Nobel Prize (1972).
  • BELOBORODOV Alexander Georgievich (1891-1938), the political figure. The chairman of executive committee Ural oblsoveta in 1918; has signed the solution of Advice on shooting Nikolay II and his families. In 1923-27 narkom internal affairs of RSFSR. It is repressed; it is rehabilitated posthumously.
  • BELOBORODOV Afanasy Pavlantjevich (1903-90), the general (1963), doubly the Hero of Soviet Union (1944, 1945). In Great Domestic war the commander of a rifle division and a body, with 1944 commanding army. In 1957-63 chief of Headquarters of staff of the Ministry of Defence. In 1963-68 commanding a troops Moscow IN.
  • BELOBORODOV Ivan Naumovich (? - 1774), spodvizhnik and the nearest adviser E.I.Pugacheva, the retired soldier. Has headed revolt at factories of Ural, has played a large role at taking Kazan. It is executed.
  • BELOBOCHKA (a dace dolphin), an aquatic mammal of a set delfinovyh. Length up to 2,6 m. A spin and fins dark, sides grey with white epines. In warm and moderate waters, including in Black m.; the craft is forbidden.
  • BELOBRODSKAJA CROP (in archeology), slavs and Hungarians in Center. To Europe 10-12 centuries. It is called on the burial for a seconds. Bielo-Brdo (in terrain former SFRJU). Burials with trupopolozhenijami, dressings, weapons.
  • BELS Alexander Aleksandrovich (1954-1978), the Russian sportsman (basketball), the deserved master of sport (1972). Center command "Spartak" (Leningrad; 1966-78). The champion of Olympic Games (1972; has made decisive victorious dush on the last sec of a final with a command the USA, including in a history as "golden"), the world (1974), Europe (1969 and 1971), the USSR (1975). The bronze prize-winner of Olympic Games (1976) and a world championship (1970).
  • BELS Alexander Fedorovich (1906-91), the Russian metallurgist, academician AN the USSR (1972), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1966). The main transactionses on metallurgy of lungs and special alloys. The lenin premium (1964), State premiums of the USSR (1943, 1946, 1949).
  • BELS Vasily Ivanovich (r. 1932), the Russian writer. In novels "Eves" (1972-87), " Year of great fracture " (1989-91) understanding of collectivization as national tradegii. In stories " Customary business " (1966), " Plotnitskie stories " (1968) - poetry and prose of the modern village life, a history of Russian village, art probe of national character. A cycle of comic miniatures " Buhtiny Vologda " (1969), " Lad. Sketches about a national aesthetics " (the separate issuing in 1982). The publicistic novel " All ahead " (1986). The state premium of the USSR (1981).
  • BELS (Below) George a background (1858-1927), the german historian. The main transactionses on an economic history of medieval Germany. The adherent t. n. A critical direction, retracted the leading part in a history to policy, the right.
  • BELS Grigory Akinfovich (1895-1965), the Russian actor, the national actor of the USSR (1956). On the scene with 1917. With 1945 at Yaroslavl theatre him. Volkova. It was taken out in films: "Michurin" and "Roman - Korsakov" (title roles), etc. The State premium of the USSR (1949).
  • BELS Eugeny Alekseevich (1825-95), the Russian historian. Transactionses about Russian-German attitudes of 18 century, russko-turkish wars.
  • BELS Ivan Panfilovich (1893-1938), the commander of 1-st rank (1935). In 1919 commander-in-chief a troops of Turkestani republic. In 20-30-Õ commanding a troops of lines IN. It is repressed; it is rehabilitated posthumously.
  • BELS Nikolay Vasiljevich (1891-1982), kristallograf and the geochemist, academician AN the USSR (1953), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1969). Fundamental transactionses under the theory of a close packing of atoms in crystals, crystal chemistry of silikates, methods of decoding of structures of minerals; under guiding Belova the structure over 100 silikates and their analogs is made out. The lenin premium (1974), the State premium of the USSR (1952), the Golden medal him. Lomonosov AN the USSR (1965).
  • BELOVA (Novikova) Elena Dmitrievna (r. 1947), Byelorussian sportsmenka (fencing), the deserved master of sport (1968). CHempionka Olympic Games in personal (1968) and command (1968, 1972, 1976) competitions, repeated chempionka the world and the USSR (in 1969-79).
  • BELOVEZHSKAJA the DENSE FOREST, a forest area in Belarus and Poland, on a watershed of Neman, Zap. Bug and Pripyat. A gross area over 150 thousand ga. In Belarus in terrain of the Brest and Grodno region. Since 13 century Belovezhskaja the Dense forest - a reserved place princely, after an imperial hunt; about 1940 reservation, about 1957 zapovedno-hunting, about 1991 national park Belarus. The area of 87,6 thousand ga. In terrain of Poland national park. Main guarded object - a bison. High-standing borons, grabovo-oak forests, alder forests.
  • BELOVO, city (with 1938) in the Russian Federation, the Kemerovo region, in Kuzbass, on r. Bachat. A depot. 92,3 thousand inhabitants (1992). Factories: zinc, "Kuzbassradio", litejno-mechanic. The enterprises mild and a dairy and meat industry. A state district power station. It is known with 1726.
  • BELOVODSKAJA HIERARCHY, old believe church for popovtsev. It is based in 70th of 19 century. The title from Belovodja. Had adherents in Siberia and Prikamye; after October revolution has broken up.
  • BELOKANY, city (with 1968) in Azerbaijan. A depot. 8,0 thousand inhabitants (1991). Tabachno-fermentative, canning factories; a woodworking industry.
  • BELOKONSKY Ivan Petrovich (1855-1931), the Russian publicist, zemsky statisticians. The participant narodnicheskogo motions. In 1880-86 in the Siberian reference. Transactionses on a history of a zemstvo and zemskogo motions, memories " the Tribute of time ".
  • BELOKRINITSKAJA HIERARCHY, the main old believe church for popovtsev. There was in 1840th in Belokrinitskom a monastery (Bukovina). With it is grey. 19 century in Moscow. Archbishop Moscow and all Russia heads.
  • LEUCAEMIA, see. A leukosis.
  • BELOKRYLKOVYE, the same, that alejrodidovye.
  • CALLA (calla), stem of perennial herbaceous plants of a set aronnikovyh. 1 kind - a calla paludous, in moderate and subtropical belts of Eurasia and the Sowing. America; will grow almost everywhere on coasts of water reservoirs, bogs, on sphagnum splavinah. It is toxicant. Under the title "calla" in greenhouses and hothouses cultivate some kinds of a stem zantedeshija from JUzh. Africa.
  • BELOKURIKHA, city (with 1982) in the Russian Federation, Altay kr., in 75 kms from zh.-d. An item. Biisk. 15,7 thousand inhabitants (1992). A balneal health resort on the basis thermal radon waters.
  • BELOKUROV Vladimir Vjacheslavovich (1904-73), the Russian actor, the national actor of the USSR (1965). On the scene with 1918. With 1936 in Moskovsk Art Academic theatre. It was taken out in films: "Valery Tchkalov" (title role), etc. The Professor of GITIS and VGIKa (with 1946). The state premium of the USSR (1951).
  • BELOKUROV Sergey Alekseevich (1862-1918), the Russian historian, arheograf, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1917; Petersburg AN with 1903). Transactionses and publications of documents on a history of Russia of 15-17 centuries.
  • BELOMORSK, city (with 1938) in the Russian Federation, Karelia, a port on White m. (Onega bay), for an orifice in the Belomorsko-Baltic channel. A railway junction. 19,1 thousand inhabitants (1992). Fish, a woodworking industry. Shipyard. Tourism. A museum, " Belomorskie petroglify ".
  • BELOMORSKAJA the MILITARY FLOTILLA, is built in Russia in March 1920, in April is converted to Naval forces of Boreal m. It again generated in structure of Boreal fleet in August 1941 for protection of communications in White m., eastern part Barentseva in m. and in Arctic regions. During Great Domestic war has supplied wiring over 2500 transports.
  • The BELOMORSKO-BALTIC STRAIN, enters in evropeoidnuju strain. Light eyes and a hair, mezo-or brahikefalija, short naze, mean growth are characteristic. It is distributed on north-east of Europe from eastern and austral shore of Baltic m. up to Ural (boreal groups Russian, Byelorussians, Lithuanians, Latvians, karelians, vepsy, a part of Komi).
  • BELOMYSHECHNAJA DISEASE, an acute contagion of young plants agricultural animal (is more often than calfs and lambs): disbolism and a defeat ("poblednenie") muscles.
  • BELONOVSKY George Dmitrievich (1875-1950), the Russian microbiologist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1929). The main transactionses on a medical bacteriology, an epidemiology and problems of immunity.
  • BELOOZERO, old russian city for headstreams r. Sheksna from White an eskar. Residues it is dry-rot, workshops, forges, etc. About Belozersky 1238 centre of the principality. In 1352 has been transferred on a place of the modern. Belozersk.
  • BELOOZERSK, city (with 1970) in Belarus, the Brest region, in 19 kms from zh.-d. Item Bronnaja the Mountain. 11,4 thousand inhabitants (1991). Berezovskaja a state district power station. Energomehanichesky factory. A software of a fishery.
  • BELOPOLE, city on Ukraine, the Sumy region. A depot. 19,6 thousand inhabitants (1991). Machine-building, syrodelatelnyj factories. It is based in 1672.
  • BELOPOLSKY Aristarch Apollonovich (1854-1934), the Russian astronomer, academician AN the USSR (1925; the academician Petersburg AN with 1903, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science with 1917). One of pioneers of an astrospectroscopy; probes of the Jove, rings of Saturn, the Sun, variable and double star, many definitions of radial velocities of asters have made.
  • BELOPOLSKY Jacob Borisovich (1916-93), the Russian architect, the national architect of the USSR (1988), the full member AH (1983). One of master architects on renovation and site development of Moscow (Southwest r-n, a circus, University of friendship of peoples him. P.Lumumby; 60-70-Ñ). An architectonic part of a monument to soldiers of the Soviet Army in Treptov-park in Berlin (1946-49) and on Mamayev a tumulus in Volgograd (1963-67). The lenin premium (1970), the State premium of the USSR (1950). The state premium of the Russian Federation (1994, posthumously).
  • BELORETSK, city (with 1923, before a seconds Beloretsky Factory) in the Russian Federation, Bashkiria, on r. White. A depot. 73,8 thousand inhabitants (1992). Integrated iron-and-steel works, factory " Metal worker ", etc. It is known with 1762.
  • BATSARA-BABANEURSKY RESERVATION, see. Ahmetsky reservation.
  • BATSBIJSKY TONGUE, see. Nahskie tongues.
  • BACILLUS (from an armour. bacillum - a bacillus), rhabdoid bacteria. In fine-bored sense of a bacillus - a stem of the Gram-positive rhabdoid bacteria which are generatrix intracellular spores. The majority of bacillus - saprophytes. Some bacillus invoke diseases animal and the person, napr. A Siberian plague, a tetanus.
  • BACHER (Buher) (Bucher) Uolter Herman (1888-1965), the American geologist. The writer of the pulsation hypothesis reputing alternation a history of the Earth of the overall seasons of squeeze and a stretching.
  • BACHINSKY Kshishtof Kamil (1921-44), the Polish poet. Has perished in fight during the Warsaw revolt 1944. Books of lyrics " Immured by an echo ", " Two loves " (both 1940), " Selected verses " (1942, in a underground, a baking plate psevd. JAn the Bull). The inheritance published completely only in 1960th, has rendered major influence on Polish poetry, having made a mode of the writer legendary.
  • BACHICHCHA (Baciccia), a nickname of italian painter Giovanni Battista Gaulli (1639-1709).
  • BACHO (Baczo) Peter (r. 1928), the Hungarian continuity writer and the producer. The analytical view on a real combines for Bacho with skilful use of popular genres of a comedy (" Boiled water on a bald head ", 1972), a musical (" Ardent girls ", 1974), a detective (" the Swede missing without a message ", 1981), etc.
  • TOWER CRANE, the luffing crane used primarily in construction and having a high tower, swinging boom and hoisting winch. Are fixed and movable. The tower of a movable crane rests on leading wheel or caterpillar carriages which move on a railway or by the ground. Carrying capacity of movable tower cranes up to 100 t, fixed up to 400 t, a lifting height up to 150 m, a flying out of a boom up to 50 m.
  • BASHILOV Ivan Jakovlevich (1892-1953), the Russian chemist - technologist and a metallurgist. Transactionses on chemistry and a chemical technology of rare metals. One of organizers of building first in the USSR radium factory, has received (1921, together with V.G.Hlopinym) the first domestic radium preparations. Has developed technology of a refining of platinum. The state premium of the USSR (1948).
  • BASHILOV Seeds Sergeevich (1741-70), the Russian historian, arheograf. About 1765 translator Petersburg AN. The participant of issuing Nikonovskoj of the annals, the Litigant 1550, etc.
  • BASHINDZHAGJAN Gevork Zaharovich (1857-1925), the Armenian painter. Kinds of Caucasus proniknuty epicheskim feeling of a nature (" Alazanskaja a valley ", 1902; "Ararat", 1912).
  • BASHIROV Gumer Bashirovich (r. 1901), the tatar writer. Roman "Honour" (1948) about the tatar collective farm within Great Domestic war; the novel about a modernity of " Seven keys Altynbike " (kn. 1-2, 1977-78, in Russian transfer - " Seven springs "); the autobiographical story " the Darling edge - green washing a cradle " (1967). The state premium of the USSR (1951).
  • BASHKADYKLAR (Bashgedikler) (Basgedikler), settlement in Turkey, to the east of Kars. During the Crimean war 1853-56 at Bashkadyklar Russian troops of general V.O.Bebutova 19.11.1853 have divided a turkish troops receding to Kars and have paid them in escape behavior.
  • BASHKIN Matvej Semenovich, the Russian freethinker is grey. 16 century, the clerk. Has acted against official church, ikonopochitanija, and also holopstva. It is convicted by a church cathedral 1553 as the heretic, it is ground in Volokolamsky a monastery.
  • BASHKIRIA (Bashkortostan), Republic Bashkortostan, in the Russian Federation. 143,6 thousand êì2. The population of 4008 thousand person (1992), urban 65 %; Bashkirs (864 thousand person; 1989, census), Russian, tartars, etc. 54 areas, 17 cities, 45 urban settlements (1991). Capital - Ufa. A western part of Bashkiria flat, eastern - mountainous (Ural). A climate continental. Mean temperatures of January from-14 up to-17 °C, July - 16-20 °C. A rainfall of 300-600 mm annually. The main rivers - White, Ufa. With a wood it is coated more than 40 % of terrain. In Bashkiria - the Bashkir reservation. The first mentions of Bashkirs fall into 9-10 centuries. In 13 century the terrain of Bashkiria is seized by mongolo-tartars. In 1557 Bashkirs have voluntarily was naturalized Russian citizenship. National - krepostnichesky a press the Bashkir in Country war 1773-75 has called the Bashkir revolts of 17-18 centuries, sharing. In 1917 the Soviet authority is established. In 1918 under an authority of the White Guard Ufa directory. On March, 23 1919 it is derivated Bashkir Independent SSR in structure of RSFSR. In February 1992 the new title - Republic Bashkortostan is accepted. Oil producing, oil refining and a petrochemical industry, a machine industry (petroinstrumentation, chemical processing equipment, rigs, motors, the electrical engineer) and metal working, iron and steel industry, manufacture of a building materials, wood-working, mild, a food-processing industry. A coal mining, iron and copper-zinc ores, etc. Bashkiria - a large farming area. Crops grain (wheat, rozh, an oat, barley), technical crops (sugar-beet, sunflower). A potato growing, a vegetable raising, a fruit growing. A dairy - beef cattle husbandry and a meat - wool production. A poultry breeding. Beekeeping. The network of pipe lines is built: Tuimazy - Ufa, Ishimbay - Ufa, etc. Navigation on rr. White and Ufa.
  • BASHKIRS Andrey Nikolaevich (1903-82), the Russian chemist - technologist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1958). Transactionses on petrochemical processing, chemistry and a fuel engineering.
  • BASHKIRO-MESHCHERJAKSKOE ARMY, in Russia in 1798-1865, in terrain Orenburg, Samara and Vjatskoj lips., for phylum of the Cossack troops.
  • The BASHKIR RESERVATION, in Bashkiria, in a bend r. White. It is based in 1930. The area 49609 ga. 2 isolated plots: Uzjansky (2 parts - Uraltau and JUzh. A crack) and Pribelsky. Sosnovo-broad-leaved and sosnovo-birch forests. Places developed dry steppes with a feather grass. The moose, a brown bear, a maral, a roe deer, a lag bolt, etc. The bee Is studied and gets divorced feral Bashkir bortevaja. Kapova a cave.
  • BEKESCSABA (Bekescsaba), city in a southeast of Hungary, an administrative centre medje Bekesh. 70 thousand inhabitants (1985). Machine-tool construction, an agricultural machine industry, textile, a food-processing industry.
  • BEKINGEM (Bakingem) (Buckingham) George Viljers (1592-1628), duke, a favorite and minister for the English kings of Jacob I and Charles I Stjuartov. It was condemned by parliamentary opposition and puritans as a main explorer absoljutistskoj policies. It is killed by the army officer.
  • BEKKARIA (Beccaria) CHezare (1738-94), the italian educator, the lawyer, the publicist. Ideas Bekkaria about necessity of a proportionality of punishment and a crime, etc. have played the important role in formation of democratic principles of a criminal law.
  • BEKKE (Becke) Fridrih (1855-1931), Austrian mineralog and the petrographer, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1912). Has developed an immersion method of measurement of refractive indexes of solid matters (method Bekke). Has placed the law of a sectorial structure of crystals (law Bekke).
  • BEKKENBAUER (Bechenbauer) Frants (r. 1945), the german sportsman and the trainer. It adjudicated by the best football player of Europe (1972, 1976). The world champion (1974) and Europe (1972), the owner of the Cup of european champions (1974, 1975, 1976). The trainer of a combined team of the Germany (1987-90) which have won a world championship 1990.
  • BEKKER (Becker) Boris (r. 1968), the german sportsman (tennis). The world champion (1989), the winner of the open championships the USA (1989) and Australia (1991), the Wimbledon tournament (1985, 1986, 1989) in solitary category. The champion of Olympic Games (1992) in twin category. In structure of a command of Germany the winner of the Cup of Davis (team championship of the world 1988 and 1989).
  • BEKKER (Becker) the Fire (r. 1930), the American economist. One of writers of the theory of the human capital (formation of a labour). Economic analysis of social themes (family attitudes, criminality, discrimination, etc.). The Nobel Prize (1992).
  • BEKKER (Becquer) Gustavo Adolfo (1836-70), the spanish writer. The representative of romanticism. The collection of lyrics and short stories " Verses and legends " (it is issued in 1871).
  • BEKKER (Becker) Jacque (1906-60), the French film director. Films: " Antoine and Antoinette " (1946), " the Golden helmet " (1952), " do not touch production " (1954), " Monparnas, 19 " (1957), "Hole" (1960).
  • BEKKER Charles Genrih (1876-1933), the german historian of moslem faith, foreign corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1924). The founder (1910) and the managing editor of the log-book "Moslem faith". In 1921 and 1925-30 minister for crop of Prussia.
  • BEKKER (Becker) the Whip (1893-1974), the danish writer. Anti-war verses, realistic antibourgeois novels "Daily bread" (1932), "Maryanna" (1956), "Dwelling" (1961).
  • BECQUEREL, SI unit of activity of radioisotopes, is called named A.A.Bekkerelja, meant Bk. 1 Bk corresponds to 1 disintegration per second.
  • BECQUEREL (Becquerel), French ôèçèêè:.. 1) Antoine Sezar (1788-1878), transactionses on fosfo-and fluorescences, to a thermoelectricity and dr... 2) Alexander Edmon (1820-91), son Antoine Sezara, basic transactionses on a phosphorescence... 3) Antoine Anri (1852-1908), son Alexander Edmona, has discovered (1896) natural radioactivity of salts of uranium. The Nobel Prize (1903, together with P.Kjuri and M.Sklodovskoj-Kjuri).
  • BEKKET (Beckett) Semjuel (1906-89), the irish playwright. Wrote in the French and English tongues. One of founders of nonsense of a drama (" Pending Godo ", 1952; " the End of the game ", 1957). In novels "Molloj" (1951), " Malon dies " (1951), "Not called" (1953) - traditions of the literature of " a torrent of consciousness ". In the play "Catastrophe" (1982) has acted against depressing freedom of the artist. The Nobel Prize (1969).
  • BEKKROSS (English backcross), the same, that a resiprocal crossing.
  • BEKLEMISHEV Vladimir Aleksandrovich (1861-1920), the Russian sculptor. Combined pozdneakademicheskie traditions with features, close to art peredvizhnikov (" Rural love ", 1896).
  • BEKLEMISHEV Vladimir Nikolaevich (1890-1962), the Russian zoologist, the founder of scientific school of parasitologists and medical entomologists, the writer of the doctrine about malarial landscapes, academician AMN (1945). Transactionses on a comparative anatomy of Invertebrata, a biocoenology, comparative and evolutionary parasitology. The state premium of the USSR (1944, 1952).
  • BEKLIN (Bocklin) Arnold (1827-1901), the Swiss painter. The representative of symbolism and style "modernist style". In fancy scenes combined mystical symbolics with naturalistic certainty (" the Island dead ", 1880).
  • BECKMANN Jacob Nikolaevich (1836-63), the Ukrainian revolutionary - the six-gang foreman, one of organizers and the chief of the Harkovsko-Kiev secret society in 1856-60 and sunday schools in Kiev in 1859. With 1862 member " the Earth and will ". Has died in the reference.