Monday, May 14, 2007

  • BELORECHENSK, city (with 1958) in the Russian Federation, Krasnodar kr., on r. White. A railway junction. 52,6 thousand inhabitants (1992). The enterprises of a railway transport; chemical, alimentary and a woodworking industry.
  • BELOROSSOV Nikolay Danilovich (mind. 1907), the Russian church historian, the priest. Compositions on a history of the English church up to Reformatsii, etc.
  • BELARUS (Byelorussia), Republic of Byelorussia (Ðýñïóáëiêà Byelorussia). 207,6 thousand êì2. The population of 10353 thousand person (1993), urban 67 %; Byelorussians (7905 thousand person; 1989, census), Russian, Poles, ukraintsy, Jews, etc. In Belarus 6 ranges, 117 areas, 99 cities, 112 urban settlements (1989). The official language - Byelorussian. Capital - Minsk. A surface of Belarus flat. In a north - system of morainal patches, smenjajushchihsja to the south the Byelorussian patch (an altitude up to 345 ì); in the south - the Byelorussian Polesye. Deposits potassium, rock salts, petroleum, peat, etc. The Climate moderately continental. Mean temperatures of January from-4 °S on a southwest up to-8 °S on north-east, July from 17 °S in a north up to 19 °S in the south. A rainfall from 500 up to 700 mm annually. The main rivers - Dnepr, Pripyat, Berezina, Zap. Dvina, Neman. It is a lot of lakes (Naroch, Osvejskoe, etc.) . Water reservoirs (Vilejskoe, Zaslavskoe). Soils prevail sod-podzolic. St. 1/3 terrains of Belarus take mixed forests. In terrain of Belarus - part Belovezhskoj of the Dense forest, Berezinsky, Pripjatsky reservations. Ok. 1/4 terrains of Belarus - in a radioactive contamination zone as a result of emergency on Chernobyl atomic power station in 1986. In 10 - nach. 12 centuries in structure of the Kiev Russia were formed principalities Polotsk, Turovo-Pinskoe, etc. In 13-14 centuries of their terrain in structure of the Great principality Lithuanian, with 1569 - Speeches Pospolitoj. In 16 century formation of the Byelorussian nationality was finished. With kon. 18 century the Byelorussian grounds in structure of Russian empire. Country reform 1861 has accelerated development of a capitalism. In November 1917 in Belarus the Soviet authority is professed. In February - November 1918 large part of terrain has been occupied by the German troops. 1.1.1919 it is derivated Byelorussian SSR. Western Belarus under Riga agreement 1921 has departed to Poland. In 1922 Byelorussian SSR was part of the USSR. In November 1939 Western Belarus has reunited with Byelorussian SSR. In 1941 Belarus is occupied by a german troops. Byelorussian people has stirred to action with an enemy. 1108 guerilla orders and groups (over 374 thousand person) acted. The republic has lost more than 2,2 million person. In July 1944 it is free by the Soviet troops. In July of 1990 republics VS has accepted the Declaration on the state sovereignty Byelorussian SSR, in July 1991 - the Declaration on state independence. In 1994 the post prizidenta is established. In structure national the income (1992, %): an industry 44, an agriculture 29,3. Manufacture of the electric power 38,7 billion kvt.ch. (1991). Master industries: avto-and a tractor construction, machine-tool construction, an agricultural machine industry, radio electronics, the electrical engineer, instrumentation technologies; chemical and petrochemical: Potassium, phosphoric and nitrogenous fertilizers, synfils and filaments of a synthetic fiber, the splint; oil refining; mild. Are developed alimentary (meat, milk, maslosyrodelatelnaja, canning, etc.), A woodworking industry; conversion black, a powder metallurgy. Production of potassium salts (Soligorsk), petroleum (basically in a southeast of republic). The area of agricultural lands 9,3 million ga (1992). An area under crops of 6126 thousand ga, including grain 43 % (rozh, wheat, barley, an oat, a buckwheat). A total yield of a grain 5,9 million t (1992), a potato 8,0 million t Cultivate a flux - dolgunets, sugar-beet. A fruit growing, a vegetable raising. The area of drained grounds of 3229 thousand ga (1990). Main branches of animal husbandry - a dairy - beef cattle husbandry, a swine breeding, a poultry breeding. Operational length of railways of 5,75 thousand in km (1990), general purpose motorways of 48,9 thousand in km, including hard-surface 46,3 thousand in km. A pipeline transportation. Navigation across Pripyat, Dneprovsko-Bugskomu to the channel, Dnepr, Sozhu, Berezina. Monetary unit - the Byelorussian rouble.
  • The BYELORUSSIAN PATCH, in northwest of Belarus and in Poland. Ok. 500 kms. Will consist from Grodno, Volkovysskoj, Novogrudskoj, the Minsk high grounds. An altitude up to 345 m.
  • The BYELORUSSIAN KRESTJANSKO-WORKING BULK, mass revolutionary organization of Western Belarus in 1925-27.
  • The BYELORUSSIAN OPERATION, 23.6-29.81944, during Great Domestic war. The Soviet troops of 1-st Baltic, 3-rd, and 1-st Byelorussian fronts (general I.H.Bagramjan, general - colonel I.D.Chernjahovsky, general G.F.Zaharov, general K.K.Rokossovsky) at support the guerrilla have broken through 2-nd on many epines the defence of a german army group "Center" (general - field marshal E.Bush, then V.Model), have enclosed and liquidated large groupings of the opponent in areas of Vitebsk, Bobruisk, Vilnius, Brest and to the east of Minsk, have released terrain of Belarus and its capital Minsk (on July, 3), a considerable proportion of Lithuania and its capital Vilnius (on July, 13), eastern areas of Poland and have quitted on rr. Narev, Vistula and to borders Vost. Prussia.
  • BYELORUSSIAN RAD, a public authority in Belarus (July 1917 - January 1919, Minsk). In March 1918 has formed government of the Byelorussian national republic and has declared about branch of Belarus from Russia. Has come into contact piece with Ukrainian Central glad. After January 1919 acted outside republic. In October 1925 it is declared about self-dissolution rads.
  • The BYELORUSSIAN AGRICULTURAL ACADEMY, higher educational establishment, in of the Hill of the Mogilyov region, it is based in 1840. Plots experts on an agrochemistry and a pedology, agronomy, a farm mechanization, a hydromelioration, mechanization of a reclamative work, an agricultural economics, etc. In 1991 over 10 thousand students.
  • BYELORUSSIAN SOVIET ENCYCLOPEDIA (BelSE), the first generalpurpose encyclopedia in the Byelorussian tongue. The managing editor - P.Brovka. It is exhausted by Main edition BelSE (about 1981 publishing house BelSe him. P.Brovki) in 1969-75 in 12 t. (12-th - is dedicated Byelorussian SSR; there is a reference volume). Has become the basis for the brief encyclopedia " Byelorussian SSR " (1978-82; in 5 t., in the Byelorussian and Russian tongues) and of some other issuings.
  • BYELORUSSIAN SOCIAL-DEMOCRATIC WORKING CONSIGNMENT (BSDRP), is based in September by 1917 part of the left-handed wing of the Byelorussian socialist bulk from structure of its Petrograd organization. Bordered on to bolsheviks. In April 1918 members BSDRP have come in Russian KP (á).
  • BYELORUSSIAN SOCIALIST BULK (BSG), the political party with 1902. In 1907 samoraspustilas. Has revived after February 1917. The program: a national autonomy, the municipalization of ground. Organizations BSG - in Petrograd, Moscow, Kiev, Saratov, Kazan, Tambov, Odessa, Helsinki. Central organs - " Free Byelorussia ", "Bulk". Sustained the Providing government, Byelorussian to rad. In the summer 1918 has broken up. A part of members have accepted the Soviet authority.
  • The BYELORUSSIAN MAJOR OPERA AND BALLET THEATRE, is open in Minsk in 1933, with 1964 academic. Performances in the Byelorussian and Russian tongues.
  • The BYELORUSSIAN POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, Minsk, is based in 1933. Plots experts on a machine industry, instrumentation technologies and robotic systems, power system, architectonic construction, etc. In 1991 ok. 24 thousand students.
  • The BYELORUSSIAN THEATRE him. JAkuba Kolasa, drama, it is based in Vitebsk in 1926 (Byelorussian 2-nd state theatre).
  • The BYELORUSSIAN THEATRE him. JAnki Kupaly, drama, it is based in Minsk in 1920, with 1955 academic.
  • The BYELORUSSIAN UNIVERSITY, Minsk, is based in 1921. Plots experts on physical and mathematical, chemical, biological, geographycal, historical, legal, philological sciences, an electronics engineering, journalism, etc. In 1991 ok. 17 thousand students.
  • The BYELORUSSIAN TONGUE, falls into to slavonic tongues (east - slavonic group), included in indoevropejskuju family of tongues. The official language of Belarus. Writing on the basis of cyrillics (Russian type).
  • The BELORUSSKO-LITHUANIAN ANNALS, are constituted in the Great principality Lithuanian in 15-16 centuries. It is known 3 annalistic canopies: the Annals 1446, the Chronicle of the Great principality Lithuanian and ZHomojtskogo, Chronicle Byhovtsa.
  • BYELORUSSIANS, people, the main population of Belarus (over 7,9 million person, 1992). Live also in the Russian Federation (1206 thousand person), on Ukraine (440 thousand person), in Kazakhstan (182 thousand person), Latvia (120 thousand person), Lithuania (63 thousand person), Uzbekistan (63 thousand person), Estonia (27,7 thousand person). In Poland ok. 300 thousand person. An aggregate number 10,38 million person (1992). Tongue Byelorussian. Believing Byelorussians basically orthodox, are roman catholics.
  • BELORYBITSA, a migratory fish of a set sigovyh. 2 subspecies: belorybitsa and nelma. Belorybitsa in length up to 110 sm, weighs up to 20 kg, dwells in the Caspian m., for reproduction enters into Volga and Ural. Valuable object of a craft and cultivation.
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