Monday, May 14, 2007

  • BEN ALI Zin al-Abidin (r. 1936), the president of Tunis, the chairman of Democratic constitutional association since November 1987. The general (1979). In May 1986 - October 1987 Minister of Internal Affairs, in October 1987 prime minister.
  • BENAVA Abdurrauf (1913-87), the Afghani writer and the public figure. Anticolonial istoriko-publicistic activities; a cycle of educational verses " Sad speculations " (1957).
  • BENAVENTE-I-MARTINES (Benavente y Martinez) Hasinto (1866-1954), the spanish playwright. In plays " Known people " (1896), " Nutrition of wild animals " (1898) criticism of an aristocratic society combines with scorn for "crowd". In comedies " the Game of interests " (1907), " City cheerful and careless " (1916) - the sermon of intellectual perfecting. Entertainment comedies (" Don Huan was ", 1952; " the Pin in a mouth ", 1953, etc.). The Nobel Prize (1922).
  • BENARDOS Nikolay Nikolaevich (1842-1905), the Russian inventor, one of creators of an electric arc welding of metals. Has offered (1882, the patent 1885) a way of electrical arc welding of metals with the help of baked carbons; other ways of a weldment and soldering.
  • BENARES, city in India, see. Varanasi.
  • BENARESSKOE REVOLT 1781, antiEnglish in the indian principality Benares, vassal (with 1775) from the English East indian company. Has sparked naturally in connection with requisitions of English general - governor U.Hejstingsa. It was distributed also on Aud.
  • BENASERRAF (Benacerraf) Baruch (r. 1920), the American microbiologist, the immunologist. Was born in Venezuela, with 1939 in the USA. Activities under the genetic supervisory control of immunological organism responses. The Nobel Prize (1980, together with Z.Dosse and Dzh. D.Snellom).
  • BEN - BEN, in egyptian mythology in descriptions of creation of the world acts as an initial hill above the boundless water space. The sacred stone Ben - Ben in Heliopolis was a fetish to Ben and Ra.
  • BENVENIST (Benveniste) Emil (1902-76), French jazykoved. Transactionses on general and european linguistics, the Iranian tongue, a general semiology. Probeed structure indoevropejskogo the radical.
  • BENGASI, city and port in Libya, in a hall. A cider of Mediterranean m. of 446 thousand inhabitants (1988). An international airport. Metallurgical, electrotechnical, cement, a food-processing industry. University. It is based in 5 century up to n. e. As ancient greek colony Euesperidy (Gesperidy). The modern title - after arrival of arabs to 7 century. In 1517-1911 in Ottoman empire. In October 1911 it is occupied by an italian troops and has come in italian colony Libya. In 1912-42 marine base of Italy. In November 1942 - December 1951 it is occupied by the English troops. In December 1951 - August 1969 one of capitals of a kingdom of Libya. A mosque " Dzhami al-Kabir " (16 century).
  • BENGALINE (frants. bengaline), the silk diaphanous fine texture recalling to an organdy.
  • BENGAL, historical range in the south of Asia, in a bass. The lower flow of Ganges and delta of Ganges and Brahmaputra. From ancient times for terrains of Bengal there were different indian states. In 1757 it has been seized by the English colonialists and then it is transformed into one of provinces of the British India. In 1947 Zap. Bengal was part of India, Vost. Bengal - Pakistan. With 1971 Vost. Bengal - the state Bangladesh.
  • BENGALURU, city in India, see. Bangalore.
  • The BENGAL PLAIN, eastern part of Indo-Gangetic plain in India and Bangladesh, on the lower flow rr. Ganges and Brahmaputra.
  • The BENGAL BAY in Indian ok., between p-ovom Hindustan in the west and p-ovom Indochina and islands Andamanskimi and Nikobarskimi on the orient. 2191 thousand êì2. Depth up to 4519 m. Primary ports: Calcutta, Madras, Chittagong.
  • The BENGAL FIRE, pyrotechnic structure, which burning is accompanied by spreading of blazing sparks. It is routinely put on cuttings of a metal wire - the Bengal candles. It is called from the way of the signalling for the first time applied in Bengal (India) with the help of a combustion-mixture burning in bamboo tubes.
  • The BENGAL TONGUE (bengali), tongue of bengaleses. Falls into to indian group indoevropejskoj families of tongues. The official language Bangladesh and pieces. Zap. Bengal in India. The alphabet goes back to brahmi.
  • " The BENGAL REVITALIZATION ", flow in the indian art, 19-20 centuries which have arisen on a boundary under influence of growth of national-liberation motion. Artists of " the Bengal Revitalization " in the chapter with A.Tagore (1871-1951) aspired to create on the basis of traditions of an indian miniature new national art.
  • BENGALESES, people, the main population Bangladesh (over 109,5 million person). Live also in India (80 million person), Nepal, Bhutan, Singapore, etc. The Aggregate number 189,65 million person (1992). Tongue the Bengal. Believing in Bangladesh - basically moslems - sunnity, in India basically - induisty.
  • BENGUELA (Benguela), city and a port in Angola, an administrative centre prov. Benguela. 155 thousand inhabitants (1988). Rybopererabotka. Shipyard.
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