Tuesday, May 29, 2007

  • BOGUSLAVSKAJA Zoja Borisovna (r. 1929), the Russian writer, the playwright, the critic. Critical activities: "Leonid Leonov" (1960), etc. In prose - acute social - moral conflicts of duties (books "... And tomorrow ", 1967, "Intermediarys", 1981, etc.). The play "Contact piece" (1979), etc.
  • BOGUSLAVSKY (Boguslawski) Vojtseh (1757-1829), the Polish producer, the playwright, the actor of a drama and operas (bass), the teacher. One of creators of Polish professional drama and musical theatres. Has delivered opera " the Imaginary miracle, or Krakovtsy and gortsy " to Stephanie (1794).
  • BOGUCHAR, city (with 1779) in the Russian Federation, the Voronezh region, on r. Boguchar, in 60 kms from zh.-d. An item. Kantemirovka. 8,7 thousand inhabitants (1992). Alimentary and other enterprises. It is based in 1717.
  • BOGUCHARSKY, Bazilevsky Bogucharsky (an ice-film. fam. And a name Jakovlev Vasily Jakovlevich) (1861-1915), the Russian historian. The publisher - editor of the log-book "was{Former}". Transactionses and publications of documents on a history of Russian public idea and revolutionary movement of 19 century.
  • BOGUSHEVICH Francis Kazimirovich (1840-1900), the Byelorussian poet. Collections of verses " the Pipe Byelorussian " (1891) and " the Bow Byelorussian " (1894).
  • BOGHEAD, the most clear version of organic slimes. The content of hydrogen of 8-12 %. Combustion heat of combustible mass of 33,5-37,7 MDZH/KG. Occurs{lies} by the way prolayers in layers of humic coals.
  • BAUD, unit of speed of signalling. It is determined as one unit element of a current for 1 seconds. It is called named Z.Bodo.
  • BODAIBO, city (with 1925) in the Russian Federation, Irkutsk region, landing stage on r. Vitim. 21,7 thousand inhabitants (1992.) Center zolotopromyshlennogo area. A food-processing industry. Bliz Bodaibo - Mamakanskaja a river plant. It is based in 1864.
  • BAUD (Bode) Iogann Elert (1747-1826), the german astronomer, foreign corresponding member (1785), the foreign honorary member (1794) Petersburg AN, the founder of " the Berlin astronomical year-book " (1776). One of writers of rule of thumb Titsiusa - Baud.
  • BODEL (Bodel) ZHean (ok. 1165-1210), the French poet and the playwright. The writer miraklja " the Game about Sacred Nikolay " (between 1199 and 1201), the fabliau, pastorelej (the medieval genre which is going back to antique bukolicheskoj poetry, see. Bukolika).
  • BODEN SEA (Bodensee), in the Prealpes, on border{limit} of Germany, Switzerland, Austria. 395 m are located at the altitude. The area 538 êì2, length of 63 kms, depth up to 252 m. Fills in tectonic a hollow, treated with an ancient icehouse. Through Boden sea Rhein weeps. Navigation, a ferry crossing. On coasts-. Konstants, Fridrihshafen (Germany), Bregenz (Austria), reservations.
  • BODENSHTEDT (Bodenstedt) Fridrih (1819-92), a german translator and the writer. The propagandist of the Russian literature (transfer{translation} of verses of A.S.Pushkin, A.V.Koltsov, A.A.Fet, etc.), eastern poetry. Has published the 2-languid issuing of verses of M.J.Lermontov in the transfers{translations} (1852).
  • BODENSHTEJN (Bodenstein) Maks (1871-1942), the german chemist. Has discovered (1913) photochemical reactions with a major photon yield that has laid foundation to submissions about chain processes. Has placed{installed} (1913) principle of fixed concentration of intermediate products of chemical changes in gases. Transactionses on a catalysis and chemical kinetics.
  • BAUD - SHARLEMAN Adolf Iosifovich (1826-1901), the Russian theatrical artist, the writer of a series of sketches of cool clothes{clothing} in the Old Russian style, often replicated in periodicals 1850-60-Õ.
  • BODLER (Baudelaire) Charles (1821-67), the French poet. The participant of Revolution 1848. The precursor of the French symbolism. In the collection " Flowers of evil " (1857) anarchist rebelliousness, melancholy on harmony combine{blend} with confession neodolimosti evil, estetizatsiej faults of a conurbation. Artistic - critical transactionses (t. n. Reports on interiors{cabins}, 1845 and 1846; the collection " Romantic art ", the issuing 1868).
  • BODMER (Bodmer) Iogann JAkob (1698-1783), the Swiss critic and the poet of Enlightenment. Overcoming educational rationalism, returned owing to feeling and fancy in art. Studied the German epos, national poetry.
  • The BOTTOMRY (from goll. bodemerij), in a civic right - the loan for consumption on the security of a vessel and freight.
  • BODNARSKY Bogdan Stepanovich (1874-1968), Russian knigoved, the bibliographer, the doctor of pedagogical sciences, the professor. In 1920-29 chairman of Russian bibliographic society at Moskovsk univesitete. The main{basic} transactionses " the Bibliography of the Russian bibliography " (t. 1-4, 1918-30). The editor of the log-book " Bibliographic informations " (1913-29).
  • BODO the APPARATUS, a printing apparatus of a multiplex telegraphy in which the text of the received cable is typed on a paper strip. Z.Bodo in 1874 is constructed. With kon. 1950th are driven out by start - stop teleprinters.
  • MAJOR DESERT Victoria (Great Victoria Desert), a sand desert in the south of Australia. 350 thousand êì2. A mean altitude of 150-300 m. Prevail{dominate} grjadovye sands (an altitude 10-30 ì), timbered sods of a cereal spinifeks. A rainfall from 125 up to 250 mm annually. National park Major desert Victoria.
  • " The MAJOR RUSSIAN ENCYCLOPEDIA ", scientific spravochno-encyclopaedic publishing house, Moscow. It is based in 1925 as joint-stock company " Soviet encyclopedia ". About 1930 State slovarno-encyclopaedic publishing house, in 1935-49 State institute (in 1944-49 State scientific institute) " the Soviet encyclopedia ", about 1949 State scientific publishing house (up to 1959 " the Major Soviet encyclopedia ", up to 1963 " the Soviet encyclopedia "), about 1963 publishing house of the same title (issued spravochno-encyclopaedic and up to 1974 linguistic reference works). The modern title with 1991. Issues generalpurpose and branch encyclopedias, encyclopaedic dictionarys on different ranges of science, technique and crop, regional, biographic and other reference works. In 1926-91 635 volumes of issuings in general circulation ok were published. 88,5 million copies.
  • MAJOR SOVIET ENCYCLOPEDIA (BSE), the generalpurpose encyclopaedic issuing which was going out in the USSR (publishing house " Soviet encyclopedia "). 1 issuing - 1926-47, 65 main{basic} volumes, a separate volume of the USSR, 65 thousand points, circulation of 50-80 thousand copies; managing editor O.J.Schmidt (up to 1941). 2 issuing - 1950-58, 50 main{basic} volumes, 51-st padding volume; ok. 100 thousand points, circulation of 250-300 thousand copies; the index{indicator} in 2 volumes. (1960); managing editor S.I.Vavilov (up to 1951), B.A.Vvedensky (with 1951). 3 issuing - 1969-78, 30 volumes; ok. 100 thousand points, circulation of 630 thousand copies; the alphabetic nominal index{indicator} in 1 volume. (1981); managing editor A.M.Prokhorov (with 1969); it is transferbed{translated} and issued in the USA, Greeces. Methodical experience BES utilised at preparation of the Small Soviet encyclopedia (3 issuings in 1928-60), other generalpurpose manuals, including. The one-volume Soviet encyclopaedic dictionary (4 issuings in 1979-91), the two-volume Major Encyclopaedic dictionary (1991), also promoted development of an encyclopaedic affair in country. In 1957-90 Year-book BSE was emitted.
  • MAJOR the HETH, the river on north-east. Zap. Siberia, the left-handed in-leak{influx} of Yenisei. 646 kms, the area of basin of 20,7 thousand êì2. In a bass. Major Heths - ok. 6 thousand lakes.
  • MAJOR CHUKOCHJA (Revum-Revu), the river on north-east of Yakutia. 758 kms, the area of basin of 19,8 thousand êì2. Flows on Kolyma nizm., the m runs in Vost.-Siberian. In the winter peremerzaet. In basin over 11,5 thousand lakes.
  • BOLSHEV Login Nikolaevich (1922-78), mathematician; corresponding member AN the USSR (1974). Transactionses on a theory of probabilities, mathematical statistics and their appendices.
  • BOLSHEVIK, an island arh. A sowing. The Earth (Krasnoyarsk kr.). 11,3 thousand êì2. An altitude up to 935 m. Ok. 30 % of terrain are coated{obtected} with icehouses; arctic desert.
  • BOLSHEVIKS, representatives of a political trend (fraction) to the Russian social-democratic working consignment (since April 1917 do-it-yourself political party), headed by V.I.Leninym (see. Communist party of Soviet Union). The concept bolsheviks has arisen on 2-nd cross-over of the Russian social-democratic working consignment (1903) after at elections to authorities of a consignment, adherents Lenina have gained the majority vote (from here - bolsheviks), their opponents - minority (mensheviki). In 1917-52 word bolsheviks entered{included} in the official title of a consignment - the Russian social-democratic working consignment (bolsheviks), Russian KP (bolsheviks), All-Union KP (bolsheviks). 19-th congress (1952) has decided to name her{it} KP Soviet Union
  • TUNDRA BOLSHEZEMELSKAJA, hilly morainal plain, within the limits of Nenets autonomous region and Republic Komi. An altitude up to 250 m. Mohovo-subshrub tundra and a forest - tundra. In tundra Bolshezemelskoj a large part of the Pechora coal basin; oil fields and gas.
  • BOLSHENOGIE HENS (weedy hens), a set of birds of order chicken. Legs are hardly developed. 12 kinds{views}, in Australia and on islands Quiet ok. Eggs instill in heaps of sand or decaying plants.
  • BOLSHEROGY a DEER, extinct artiodactyl mammalian. Cable cores in Pleistocene, in Eurasia. Horns up to 4 m in scope{span}. Residues bolsherogogo a deer often meet on paleolithic parking of the person.
  • MAJOR ANTILLES ISLANDS, western part arh. Antilles in West Indies.
  • MAJOR HIMALAYA, the greatest high (up to 8848 m, Chomolungma) a part of the Himalayas.
  • MAJOR SOENDA ISLES, main body Malayan arh., primarily in Indonesia. Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi actuates islands Sumatras, etc.
  • MAJOR HEMISPHERES of a brain, twin educations, consolidated a callous body in t. n. An end brain. The surface of major hemispheres is submitted{shown} by numerous major or small steep crinkles. Distinguish lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal, insular, occipital. The gray matter of a brain consisting of nervous cells - neurones, will derivate a bark of major hemispheres and subcortical a ganglion (clusters). White matter is derivated by the processes of neurones amounting conduction paths of a brain.
  • BOLSHINTSOV Manuel Vladislavovich (1902-1954), the Russian film writer. Scripts (with co-authors): "Peasants" (1935), " the Root of Moscow " (1944), etc.
  • MAJOR KIZI, lake in Khabarovsk kr. It is paired protokoj with r. Amur. At an average level 281 êì2, depth up to 4 m.
  • MAJOR BEAR LAKE (Grea Bea Lake), lake in northwest of Canada. 30,2 thousand êì2, depth up to 137 m. A drainage on r. B.Medvezhja. Navigation. Fishery. Ports: Port - radium, the Fort - franklin.
  • MAJOR LAKE NEVOLNICHE (Great Slaver Lake), lake in northwest of Canada. 28,6 thousand êì2, depth up to 150 m. Run rr. Nevolnichja, Hej, escapes r. Mackenzie. Navigation. Ports: the Fort - Rezoljushen, Yellowknife.
  • MAJOR BRINE LAKE (Great Salt Lake), drainless brine lake in the west the USA. Depending on quantity of a rainfall the area and a salinity vary: from 2500 up to 6000 êì2 and from 137 up to 300 ‰. An average depth of 4,5-7,5 m. Production cooking and glauberovoj salts. Large Salt Lake Citys, Ogden.
  • The BIFURCATION of the RIVERS, division of the river into 2 branches which hereinafter do not drain and will derivate do-it-yourself a mouth. The bifurcation of the rivers is possible{probable} at indistinctly expressed watersheds.
  • BIHAR, staff in India, predominary on plain of Ganges. 174 thousand êì2. The population 86,3 million person (1991). Adm. ts. - Patna.
  • BIHARI (Bihari) JAnosh (1764-1827), the Hungarian violinist, the composer. The gipsy. The virtuoso - improvisator, the chief of the Hungarian dancing orchestra, one of creators verbunkosha. Compositions for a violin (are based on the Hungarian national dances and songs). Melodies Bihari used L.Beethoven, F.List (thought much of his{its} game), P.Sarasate.
  • BIHARTSY, group of peoples (majthiltsy, magahi, bhadzhpurtsy) in India (92,5 million person, pieces. Bihar) and adjacent areas of Nepal (3,64 million person), Bangladesh (1,45 million person) and Bhutan. An aggregate number 97,6 million person (1992). Tongues indoiranskoj branches. Believers - basically induisty.
  • "REPUBLIC BIHACHSKAJA", the title of terrain in Central and Zap. Bosnia, a part of Croatia and Dalmatia with the centre in. Bihach, the free Yugoslavian guerilla forces from fascist occupiers in June - September 1942. In 1943 it is seized by an occupying troops and kollaboratsionistskimi formations.
  • BEHAVIORISM (from English behaviour, bihevior - conduct), a master direction of the American psychology 1-st floor. 20 century. Considered{counted} as a subject of psychology not consciousness, and the conduct perceived as set{combination} propulsion and reducible to nymas of verbal and emotional answers (reactions) to influences (stimulants) of an environment. An ancestor of behaviorism - E.Torndajk, the program and the term are offered Dzh. Watson (1913). The greatest development has reached{achieved} in 20th; ideas and methods of behaviorism have been transferred in anthropology, sociology, the pedagogics, integrated in the USA in the capacity of " bihevioralnyh sciences ", i.e. investigator conduct. Neobiheviorizm 1930th (E.C.Tolmen, K.L.Hall), attempting to overcome limitation of basic concept of behaviorism " stimulant - reaction ", has entered into it{her} oposredstvujushchee a link - " intermediate variable " (different cognitive and incentive factors).
  • BIHOR (Bihor), a hills in Romania, in the Zap.-Romanian mountains. An altitude up to 1848 m (. Kukurbeta). Lost volcanoes, karst. Broad-leaved and coniferous forests.
  • BIHTER Michael Alekseevich (1881-1947), the Russian pianist and the conductor, the honored worker of arts of Russia (1938). Acted as the pianist - ansamblist, including from N.I.Zabeloj, F.I.Shaljapinym. In 1912-17 conductor of Theatre of the musical drama in Petrograd. The professor of the Leningrad conservatory (with 1933).
  • BITSADZE Andrey Vasiljevich (1916-94), the Russian mathematician, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1958), academician AN of Georgia (1969). Transactionses on a function theory, differential equations.
  • BICEPS (from an armour. biceps - two-headed), a two-headed muscle. The biceps of a shoulder{an arm} of the person incurvates an arm{a hand} in a ulnar joint and hoists in the shoulder, the biceps of a hip incurvates a shin in a knee joint.
  • BITSILLI Peter Mihajlovich (1879-1953), the Russian historian and the philosopher of crop, the literary critic. The Privat-senior lecturer of Novorossisk university in Odessa (with 1911), with 1920 in emigration, the professor of the Sofia university (1924-48). Transactionses on a history of medieval crop, a history of the Russian literature.
  • " WHIP BOJZ " (Beach Boys), the American group, is derivated in 1961. Structure: Bryan Wilson (a vocal, the bass - gear quadrant), Dennis Wilson (impact, a vocal), Charles Wilson (the gear quadrant, a vocal), Mike Lav (vocal), El Dzherdan (the bass - gear quadrant, a vocal). Music of group differs melody, harmony of a vocal. The debut album has hitted in the top twenty of America, and (" Surfing JU-ES-EJ ") has become the second "golden" on figure of the sold plates. Songs of group took the highest places in charts. The group has broken up in 1983 after Dennisa Wilson death.
  • BICHEM (Beecham) Thomas (1889-1961), the English conductor, the impresario, the composer. Conducted performances of " Russian seasons " in the London (1911, 1913), and also the largest English orchestras. Worked in the USA (1941-44). Orchestral suites, chamber compositions.
  • BICHERAHOVY, organizers of counter-revolution on Caucasus in 1918-19, brothers: 1) Lazarus Fedorovich (1882-1952), colonel Terskogo Cossack a troops. In 1918 has declared transition to the party of the Soviet authority, and then has discovered front to turkish interventionists. With 1919 emigrant... 2) George Fedorovich, the organizer of performance{statement} (1918) cossacks of Terek against the Soviet authority, (1878-1920), chapter Terskogo of Cossack - country advice{council}, and then Temporary national government Terskogo of an edge{a boundarouse}.
  • BICHER-STOU (Beecher-Stowe) Garriet (1811-96), the American writer. Novels " the Hut of the uncle of Thom " (1852), "Dred" (1856) - about inhumanity rabovladenija in America. Realism of the plotting combined with a Christian mentality.
  • BICHURIN Nikita JAkovlevich (in monasticism Iakinf) (1777-1853), Russian kitaeved, corresponding member Petersburg AN (1828.14 flying headed spiritual mission to Peking. A translator in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Russia. The main{basic} activities on a history and ethnographies mongolo-and tjurkojazychnyh peoples (on the Chinese sources), histories, crop and philosophy of China.
  • BISH-IIRDU, a mountain unit in Sev.-CHujskom hr. Altai. An altitude up to 4173 m. A glaciation (ok. 80 icehouses, more than 130 êì2; the largest icehouse - B.Maashej, length of 10 kms).
  • BOGATYRYOV Anatoly Vasiljevich (r. 1913), the Byelorussian composer, the national actor of Belarus (1968), the national actor of Russia (1981). One of creators of the Byelorussian opera (" In dense forests of Polesye ", 1939; " Durov Hope ", 1946). The state premium of the USSR (1941).
  • BOGACHYOV Irina Petrovna (r. 1939), the singer (mezzo-soprano), the national actress of the USSR (1976). With 1965 in Mariinsk (Leningrad) theatre of opera and ballet. 1-n the premium at International competition of vocalists in Rio de Janeiro (1967). The state premium of the USSR (1984).
  • BOGDAN I, first gospodar the independent Moldavian state (regulations in 1359-65), the leader of victorious antiHungarian popular uprising 1359.
  • BOGDAN III, Moldavian gospodar, the last governor of the independent Moldavian state (1504-17).
  • BOGDAN KHMELNITSKIY, see Khmelnitskiy B.M.
  • BOGDANOV (an ice-film. fam. Malinovsky) Alexander Aleksandrovich (1873-1928), the political figure, the doctor, the philosopher, the economist. The member of the Russian social-democratic working consignment in 1896-1909, a bolshevik, with 1905 member of the administrative board of group " Forwards ". The writer of Utopian novels " the Red aster ", "Engineer Menni". With 1918 ideologist Proletkulta. The main{basic} composition - " Overall organizational science " (t. 1-2, 1913-17). Has put forward idea of building of science about general principles of organization - tektologii, has anticipated some rules{situations;positions} of cybernetics. With 1926 organizer and the director of Institute of a blood transfusion; has perished, effecting on itself experience.
  • BOGDANOV Alexey Alekseevich (r. 1935), the biochemist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1994). Probes of structure of nucleoproteins (primarily ribosomes). Activities on a structure virus RNK and to the mechanism of assembly of virus particles. The state premium of the USSR (1986).
  • BOGDANOV Alexey Alekseevich (1907-71), the Russian geologist, the doctor of geologo-mineralogical sciences (1945), the honored worker of science of Russia (1967). The professor of the Moscow state university (with 1943). The main{basic} transactionses on areal geology and tectonics Priuralja, Carpathian mountains and Kazakhstan, and also a technique of a geologic mapping. The editor " Tectonic maps of the USSR " (1956) and " the International tectonic map of Europe " (1960).
  • BOGDANOV Anatoly Ivanovich (r. 1931), the Russian sportsman, the deserved master of sport (1952), the trainer. The champion of Olympic Games (1952, 1956), the world (1954), Europe (1955, 1959), the repeated champion of the USSR (in 1952-59) in different exercises of bullet shooting.
  • BOGDANOV Anatoly Petrovich (1834-96), the Russian zoologist and the anthropologist, one of osnovatelej anthropology in Russia, corresponding member Petersburg AN (1890). Transactionses on a craniology in Russia.
  • BOGDANOV Andrey Ivanovich (1696-1766), knigoved. Manuscript Bogdanova " Brief collection of books... " (1755) - the bibliographic canopy of the Russian book and the first history of Russian printing houses.
  • BOGDANOV Eugeny Ivanovich (1913-93), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (with 1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1981). Transactionses on development of placer deposits of mineral wealths.
  • BOGDANOV Elly Anatoljevich (1872-1931), the Russian zootechnician, one of founders of a zootechny in Russia. Probes on a feeding and cultivation agricultural animal.
  • BOGDANOV Michael Aleksandrovich (1914-1995), the artist of kino, the national artist of the USSR (1985), corresponding member AH (1973). Films (together with G.A.Mjasnikovym): " the Stone flower " (1946), "Michurin" (1949), "Communist" (1958), "War and peace" (1965-67).
  • BOGDANOV Nikita Alekseevich (r. 1931), the geologist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1990). The main{basic} transactionses on geology and material structure of a bottom of the World ocean.
  • BOGDANOV Seeds Ilyich (1894-1960), the commander, marshal of an armoured troops (1945), doubly the Hero of Soviet Union (1944, 1945). In Great Domestic war the commander of a tank division, a body; with 1943 commanding tank army. In 1948-53 commanding an armoured and mechanical troops, in 1954-56 chief of Military academy of an armoured troops.
  • BOGDANOV Sergey Vasiljevich (r. 1921), physics, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (with 1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1979). Transactionses on a solid-state physics, acousto-optics and an acoustoelectronics. The state premium of the USSR (1984).
  • SPOON - BAIT, synthetic bait for catching a predatory fish. A metal plate with one or several pegs and an aperture for lesy. Apply primarily in sporting fishery.
  • BLEST GHANA (Blest Gana) Alberto (1830-1920), the Chilean writer. A cycle of realistic novels " Arithmetic in love " (1860), " Martin Rivas " (1862), the historical novel " In epoch Rekonkisty " (1897), satirical novels.
  • NITIDULIDAE, 1) a superfamily of solitary wasps. Length of 5-15 mm. St. 2000 kinds{views}, are distributed widely. Many - parasites of bees, sawflies and other Hymenoptera... 2) the Set of bugs. Length of 1-6 mm, a body convex, shining. St. 2000 kinds{views}, are distributed widely. Some - rastitelnojadnye pests, napr. A rapeoil curculio; trupoedy.
  • " SHINING ISOLATION ", notation of foreign-policy course of the Great Britain in 2-nd floor. 19 century: failure{refusal} of sharing{participation} in the long-lived international unions, allowed to save liberty of action.
  • BLEPHARITIS (from grech. blepharon - eyelid), an inflammation of edges{boundarice} of eyelids: red discoloration, education of scales, jazvochek, an itch, fatigability of eyes. The causes: activity in a dusty room, a conjunctivitis and other diseases.
  • NICTITATING SPASM, spasm of a circular muscle of eyelids (showing in their clamping) predominary at defeats of a conjunctive and a cornea of an eye.
  • BLEHEN (Blechen) Charles (1798-1840), the german painter, a graver, the theatrical artist. Into romantic landscapes introduced{uptook} unpretentious household motives (" ZHelezoprokatnyj factory bliz Nejshtadt-Ebersvalde ", 1834).
  • BLIDA, city in a north of Algeria, an administrative centre vilaji Blida. 171 thousand inhabitants (1987). An alimentary, textile industry.
  • BLIE (Blier) Bertrand (r. 1939), the French producer. Started as dokumentalist spirit of a direction t. n. Sinema-believe (" Gitler? I do not know ", 1963). In 1973 has delivered a fiction film "Waltzing" in which actors Miu-Miu have become famous, to P.Devaer and Z.Depardje, built a collective portrait of pullet{young man} generation. For Blie it is characteristic stsetsificheskaja a mix of naturalism, the thin lyricism and mysticism ("Cold dishes", 1979; " too beautiful for thee ", 1989; " the Man of my life ", 1996, etc.).
  • The SHORT-RANGE ORIENT, terrain in the west Asia and north-east of Africa on which are located Egypt, Sudan, Israel, Jordan, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Consolidated Arab Emirates, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrein, Cyprus, Turkey.
  • The SHORT-RANGE ORDER, coherence in an arrangement of adjacent particles in substance, i.e. the order respected (as against the long-distance order) on the small distances comparable dimensioned of particles. Only the short-range order is characteristic for liquids and solid amorphous bodies, the long-distance order is inherent{intrinsic} in chrystals both short-range, and.
  • SHORT-RANGE DUMA, advice{council} of few close confidants of tsar (grand duke) in Russia 15 - nach. 18 centuries; in it is grey. 16 century actual government (Selected rad). In 2-nd floor. 17 century it is called as the Room duma or the Secret duma.
  • SHORT-RANGE INTERACTION, submission, according to which interaction between bodies removed from each other implements with the help of intermediate joints (or mediums), relaying interaction from a point to a point with terminal velocity.
  • BLIZNAKOV George Manuilov (r. 1920), the Bulgarian chemist, the academician (1979) and the vice-president (1976-1977) Bulgarian AN, the foreign member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; foreign member AN the USSR with 1982). Probes on an oriented crystallization, steep clearing of substances, technologies of ceramic materials and to methods of deposition of covers{coatings} from them.
  • The TWINS, two or more descendants, born penecontemporaneous, for the person and those mammals which routinely bear to one baby. Didymuses are unioval (from one oosperm) and raznojajtsevye (from two and more eggs simultaneously embryonate). For the person the twin falls at 80-85 monocarpous stems, trojnja on 6-8 thousand, chetverni and pjaterni are very rare. Supervision{observations} above twins are used in genetics for the analysis of interaction of a heredity and an environment (a pair method).
  • TWINS (an armour. Gemini), zodiacal mia maid with two close located bright asters - Kastorom and Polluksom.
  • BLIZNITSA MAJOR, a tumulus of 4 century up to n. e. On Tamanskom p-ove. Burials sindskoj znati (a stone crypt with paintings, sarcophaguses, dressings, the weapons, ceramics, etc.).
  • NEAR-SIGHTEDNESS (myopia), defect of sight at which close subjects are well visible and it is bad - distant{remote}; outcome of heightened refracting{deflecting} force of optical medium of an eye (a cornea, a crystalline lens) or too major length of a shaft (at normal refracting{deflecting} force) an eyeball. At a near-sightedness included in eyes the parallel rays going from a distant{remote} subject, are going not on a retina (that is necessary for clear sight), and before her.
  • BLINDAGE (frants. blindage), a shore fortification by the way hollows in ground with walls and coated from a tree, steel concrete, steel, ground for protection against fire of the opponent and knocking effects of a nuclear explosion.
  • BLINNIKOV Sergey Kapitonovich (1901-1969), the Russian actor, the national actor of the USSR (1963). With 1922 in Moskovsk Art Academic Russian theatre. State premiums of the USSR (1949, 1951).
  • BOVE the Russian architect Has got hoarse Ivanovich (1784-1834). The representative of an empire style. The chief architect of the Commission for restoration of Moscow after a fire 1812. With the participation Bove the Red square (1815) is renovated, the Theatrical square with Major theatre (1821-24), Aleksandrovsky a garden (1820-22), the Triumphal arch (1827-34), 1-n Town hospital (1828-32) is built.
  • BOVERI (Boveri) Teodor (1862-1915), the german cytologist and the embryologist, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1906). Probeed changes of intracellular structures during a cell division, ripening of sexual cells, fertilization and a precocious development of a germ. Has put forward (together with K.Rablem) the theory " individualities of chromosomes " (has underlain the chromosome theory of a heredity).
  • BOVIN Alexander Evgenjevich (r. 1930), the Russian journalist - foreign affairs specialist, the diplomat. In 1972-91 political analyst of the newspaper of "Information". In 1991-97 - a salting in Israel. The state premium of the USSR.
  • BOVT Violetta Trofimovna (1927-1995), the actress of ballet, the national actress of the USSR (1970). In 1944-86 at the Musical theatre him{it}. Stanislavsky and Nemirovich - Danchenko.
  • BOVUAR (Beauvoir) Simon de (1908-86), the French writer. Wi Z.P.Sartra. In novel "Gostja" (1943) - ekzistentsialistskie ideas of absurdity of the world. Roman "Mandarins" (1954) about post-war life of France. The book about intellectual emancipation of women " the Second floor " (1949). The story " Charming a picture " (1966). The autobiographical trilogy (1958-63). Plays.
  • The GOD, in religious convictions a supernatural entity; in mythological submissions of polytheism each of gods has a supreme authority above any part of the world whole, in theism the one God posesses an absolute authority above the world ("omnipotence"). Faith in God - the basis{fundamentals} of any religion.
  • ALMS-HOUSE, in Russia up to 1917 asylum for aging and invalids. Figuratively, ironical - about any establishment, organization, where many stagnant and unfit people.
  • BOGAEVSKY Afrikan Petrovich (1872/73-1934), the Russian general - lieutenant (1918). In 1918-19 chairman of " the Don government "; since February 1919 ataman Signals Commands Don; with 1920 emigrant.
  • BOGAEVSKY Konstantin Fedorovich (1872-1943), the painter, the honored worker of arts of Russia (1933). 16-17 centuries stylized spirit of a classical "heroic" landscape kinds{views} Vost. Crimea, the decorative industrial landscapes ("Dneprostroj", 1930).
  • BOGAZ (the turki., characters. - a throat), the title of pass, a channel in Compare. Asia, Azerbaijan.
  • BOGAZKEJ (Bogazkoy), city bliz Ankara (Turkey), near which - residues Hattusasa; strengthening, palaces, Bogazkejsky archive.
  • BOGAZKEJSKY the ARCHIVE, is retrieved at-sight hettskoj capitals of. Hattusas (sovr. Bogazkej, Turkey) expedition of german scientist G.Vinklera in 1906. Documents: the imperial annals, chronicles, decrees, religious texts, etc. (over 15 thousand clay cuneiform "tablets") on hettskom, akkadskom and other tongues. Concern primarily to 14-13 centuries up to n. e.
  • RAIN CROP (from the persian. behar - spring), grounds in a zone of an irrigation farming on which agricultural crops cultivate without watering.
  • BOGARNE (Beauharnais) ZHozefina (1763-1814), the first wife (1796-1809) Napoleons I. was earlier married to general A.Bogarne (it is accused of change and in 1794 under the sentence of the Revolutionary tribunal is executed).
  • BOGARNE Ezhen (1781-1824), the French general, viceroy of Italy (1805-14), the side shoot of Napoleon I. In napoleonic wars commanded a body, in 1813-14 - a troops in Italy.
  • BOGATIKOV Oleg Alekseevich (r. 1934), the Russian scientist the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991). Transactionses on evolution magmatizma, metamorphism and rudoobrazovanija in a history of the Earth.
  • BOGATIKOV Jury Iosifovich (r. 1932), the crooner, the national actor of the USSR (1985). With 1974 soloist of the Crimean philarmonic society. The propagandist Soviet songs.
  • BOGATSKY Alexey Vsevolodovich (1929-83), Ukrainian of chemists - organics, academician AN USSR (1979). The main{basic} transactionses on dynamic stereochemistry, conformational analysis of heterocycles, chemistry physiologically active agents, chemistry of macrocycles. Together with employees has received (1974) and has inserted in manufacture (1978) first domestic tranquilizer - Phenazepamum. The state premium of the USSR (1980).
  • BOKAZH (frants. bocage - a grove), a cultural landscape - alternation{sequence} of small fields and meadows wood and fruticose strips (primarily in France).
  • BOKANHEL-I-UNSUETA (Bocangel y Unzueta) Gabriel (1608-58), the spanish poet. Collections of baroque sonnets and romances of "Poem" (1627), " Collection of verses " (1635).
  • BOKARIUS Nikolay Sergeevich (1869-1931), the judicial physician and the criminalist. The founder of the Ukrainian Institute of expert testimony in court.
  • BOKARO (Bokaro - Stil-Siti), city in India, pieces. Bihar. 351 thousand inhabitants (1991). State integrated iron-and-steel works (it is constructed with assistance of the USSR).
  • BOKY Boris Ivanovich (1873-1927), the scientist in range of mining science. The founder of an analytical design technique of mines. The main{basic} transactionses " the Practical course of art of mine " (a volume 1-3, 1914).
  • BOKY George Borisovich (r. 1909), the scientist kristallograf, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1958). Son B.I.Bokija. The main{basic} transactionses on crystal chemistry of minerals and histories of crystallography.
  • BOKKALINI (Boccalini) Trajano (1556-1613), the italian writer. The satirical plotting of political and literary life (" Informations from Parnassus ", 1612-13).
  • BOKKACHCHO (Boccaccio) Giovanni (1313-1375), the italian writer, the humanist of Early Revitalization. Poems on scenes of antique mythology, psychologic story "Fjammetta" (1343, it is published in 1472), pastorals, sonnets. In main product{creation} "Decameron" (1350-53, it is published in 1470) - the book of realistic short stories, proniknutyh humanistic ideas, spirit of latitudinarianizm and antiklerikalizma, neprijatiem ascetical moral, cheerful humour, - a polychromatic panorama of tempers of an italian society. A poem "Crow" (1354-55, it is published in 1487), the book " Life Dante Aligjeri " (ok. 1360, it is published in 1477).
  • BOKKERINI (Boccherini) Luigi (1743-1805), the italian composer and the violoncellist. Promoted development of kamerno-tool{kamerno-instrument} genres and the concordance. Concerts for a violoncello with an orchestra, ok. 30 concordances, tool{instrument} sonatas, bands, etc.
  • BOKLEVSKY Konstantin Petrovich (1862-1928), the Russian engineer - shipbuilder. In 1898 has offered to apply oil-engines of internal combustion on courts. Has introduced the investment in development teplohodostroenija. The organizer and decane (1902-23) first in Russia shipbuilding faculty of the St.-Petersburg polytechnic institute.
  • BOKL (Buckle) a Henry Thomas (1821-62), the English historian and the sociologist, the representative of geographycal school to sociology. The main{basic} transactionses " the History of a civilization in England " (1857-61; Russian transfer{translation} in 1861).
  • SIDES Ahmet Hamievich (r. 1924), the Ingush writer, the national writer of Checheno-Ingushetiya (1977). Novels " Sons Beki " (kn. 1-2, 1967-69), " Crimson zori " (1974), " the Aster among asters " (1978). Stories, stories.
  • SIDES Victor Fedorovich (r. 1914), the Russian poet. Develops folklore traditions: collections " Spring Viktorovna " (1961), " Three grasses " (1975), " In three walks from the nightingale " (1977). The book of prosaic miniatures " Above river Istermoj. A note of the poet " (1960). A cycle " Poetry hundred first verst " (1987).
  • SIDES Peter Ivanovich (1835-1915), the Russian political figure, the doctor. Friend N.G.Chernyshevskogo, I.M.Setchenov. It was involved on business "Velikorussa"; the member " the Earth and will " in 1860th.
  • LATERAL LINE, the sense bodys located on sides of a body and a head for Cyclostoma, fishes, larvas and some adult amphibian. Accept a direction and a speed of motion on the water, minister for orientation.
  • LATERAL BACKBONE, on B.Kavkaze. It is located in bridge Main, or Water-partite, hr. From boreal party. An altitude up to 5642 m (Elbrus). Alms, in a central part - a glaciation.
  • LATERAL the PLATE (splanchnotomes), twin diploblastica of a part of a lateral mesoderm for germs chord animal. From side plates serous coats, the smooth muscles, a mesenchyma, blood vessels, heart, a mesentery will be derivated.
  • The LIBRARY SCIENTIFIC him{it}. M. of the Bitter Moscow State University, in Moscow. It is based in 1756. In 1993 over 8,5 million unit hr. Will consist of a main library and branch libraries at faculties. The methodical centre of libraries of the Soviet high schools.
  • The LIBRARY TECHNOLOGICAL public, in Moscow. It is based in 1958. In 1993 ok. 30 million unit hr., including 12 million books. The methodical centre of a network{grid} of technical libraries of country.
  • The LIBRARY NATIONAL, in Paris. It is based in 1480 as the Royal library, with 1795 - National.
  • The LIBRARY PATENT - TECHNICAL All-Russia, in Moscow. It is based in 1896. In 1993 general fund over 100 million copies, including over 96 million descriptions of inventions, copyright certificates, patents and applications.
  • The LIBRARY PEDAGOGICAL scientific him{it}. K.D.Ushinskogo, in Moscow. It is based in 1925. In 19932 million unit hr.
  • The LIBRARY of a software to NATURAL SCIENCES of the RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (up to 1973 Sector of a network{grid} of special libraries of the Russian Academy of Science of the USSR), in Moscow. It is based in 1934. In 1993 over 14 million unit hr. The administrative and methodical centre of libraries physical and mathematical and natural-science a profile at establishments of the Russian Academy of Science in Moscow and on a rim.
  • The LIBRARY POLYTECHNIC central, in Moscow. It is based in 1864. In 1993 over 3 million unit hr., basically scientific and a technical publications. An affluent collection of Russian, Soviet and foreign log-books.
  • The LIBRARY of the RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, in Saint Petersburg. It is based in 1714 (with 1725 academic). The administrative and methodical centre of the St.-Petersburg network{grid} of the academic libraries. In 1993 over 17 million unit hr
  • The LIBRARY AGRICULTURAL scientific central the Russian Academy of agricultural sciences, in Moscow (branch in Saint Petersburg). It is based in 1930. In 1993 ok. 3,2 million unit hr. Infrequent issuings on an agriculture since 16 century. The methodical centre of agricultural libraries of country.
  • The LIBRARY THEATRICAL central, in Moscow. It is based in 1922. In 1993 ok. 2 million unit hr.
  • LIBRARY SCIENCE, the scientific discipline investigator the purposes, principles, the content, system and forms of public use by products{creations} of a seal{printing}. Sections of library science: general library science, a history of a library affair, library funds, library catalogues, organization of activity and the device of the library, activity with readers. See. The library.
  • BIBLIOFILSTVO (bibliofilija) (from grech. biblion - the book and philia - love), collecting of infrequent and valuable issuings, and also study of fundamental theory knigosobiratelstva.
  • BIBRAKTA (Bibrakte) (Bibracte), city and the cult centre of cecidiums (kon. 1-st thousand up to n. e. - 4 century n. e.), nowadays gorodishche Mon-Bevre for. Oten (France). Residues of strengthening, the bases it is dry-rot, instruments, coins, etc.
  • BIWA, the lake largest in Japan on about. Honshu. 716 êì2. Depth up to 86 m. A drainage on r. Jodo in a hall. Osaka Quiet ok. It is paired by channels with Osaka and Kyoto. Navigation. Tourism.
  • CAMP (bivouac) (a nem. Biwak, frants. bivouac) (ustar)., parking of a troops outside of occupied points for a lodging for the night or leisure time activities.
  • BIVEN (Bevan) Enjurin (1897-1960), the leader of the left-handed wing of the Labour party of the Great Britain (since 1930th). In 1945-51 Minister of Health, in 1951 minister for transactionses; has quitted for demission in a mark of the protest against a course of a labour government.
  • BIVERBRUK (Beaverbrook) William Maksuell (1879-1964), baron, the English newspaper magnate. In 1918 and 1940-45 in government.
  • TUSKS, non-proprietary name of excessively developed tooths (tusks or cutters of both maxillas) for some mammals (elephants, sea cows, wild boars, etc.). The instrument of an offence and protection. Routinely 1 or 2 pairs{vapours;couples}; will grow during all life. Are used for manufacturing different hand-made articles.
  • BIKIN, city (with 1938) in the Russian Federation, Khabarovsk kr., in a valley r. Bikin. A depot. 19,1 thousand inhabitants (1992). Wood-working, mild, a food-processing industry.
  • BIKIN, the river in mountains Sihote-Alinja, dextral in-leak{influx} of Ussuri. 560 kms, the area of basin of 22,3 thousand êì2.
  • BIKINI (Bikini), an atoll in Quiet ok., in arh. Marshall islands. Ok. 5 êì2. To 1946 and 1954 USA conducted to Bikini tests nuclear and a hydrogen weapon, the islands which have reduced in the considerable destruction.
  • BIKKENIN Nail Barievich (r. 1931), the philosopher and the journalist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1987). The managing editor of the log-book "Communist" (with 1987; with 1991 managing editor of the log-book " Loose thought "). Transactionses on social philosophy and political science.
  • BIKOL (self-title), people on Philippines (primarily on p-ove Bikol, on about. Luzon). 4,5 million person (1992). Tongue of the Indonesian branch. Believers - basically roman catholics.
  • BIKONSFILD (Beaconsfield) Á., see Dizraeli Á.
  • DRUM (from a nem. Buchse - a can, bank), a metal box in which sterilize and keep a sterile dressing material, an operational constant wear garment.
  • BIKSIO (Bixio) Dzhirolamo Nino (1821-1873), the italian democrat, spodvizhnik Dzh. Garibaldi.
  • BIKTEMIROV SHaukat Hasanovich (r. 1928), the tatar actor, the national actor of the USSR (1977). With 1949 at the Tatar theatre him{it}. Kamal (Kazan).
  • SAFETY FUSE, the same, that a blasting fuse.
  • BIKCHENTAEV Anver Gadeevich (1913-89), the Bashkir writer. Stories, stories, novels about a modernity " Swans remain on Ural " (1956), " I not sulju thee paradise " (1963), " the Spring similar to cry " (1981).
  • BILATERAL (from bi... And an armour. lateralis - lateral), double-end, bilateral, relating both (two) parties, parts something. Napr., the bilateral agreement, a bilateralism. Compare. Lateral.
  • BILASH Alexander Ivanovich (r. 1931), the Ukrainian composer, the national actor of the USSR (1990). Lyrical, patriotic songs; operas, operettas.
  • BILENKI (Bilenchi) Romano (r. 1909), the italian writer. The participant of movement of Resistance. Realistic novellistika; the novel " the Asylum Sacred Terezy " (1940), the anti-fascist novel " Stalingradskaja a button " (1972).
  • BIELEFELD (Bielefeld), city in Germany, ground the Sowing. Rhine - Vestfalija. 322,1 thousand inhabitants (1992). The textile centre (since 16 century), a machine industry, textile, a chemical industry. University.
  • BILIBIN Ivan Jakovlevich (1876-1942), the Russian schedule{chart} and the theatrical artist. The member of " the World of art ". Case histories to Russian fairy tales and bylinas in a decorative - actuarial ortamental manner, founded on a stylization of motives of Russian national and medieval art.
  • BILIBIN Jury Aleksandrovich (1901-52), the geologist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1946). Transactionses on metallogenii and to conditions of education of placer deposits of gold. The participant of discovering of gold-bearing areas on north-east of the USSR. The state premium of the USSR (1946).
  • BILIBINO, city (with 1993) in the Russian Federation, Chukchi and. About., at interflow rr. Karalveem and B.Kaperveem. 13,3 thousand inhabitants (1993). Production of gold, manufacture of a building materials, the alimentary enterprises. Atomic power station. It is called named J.A.Bilibina.
  • BILINGVIZM (from bi... And an armour. lingua - tongue) (dvujazychie), possession of two tongues.
  • ENGINEERING SYSTEM, set{combination} interdependent and interdependent biological and engineering systems or objects. Napr., the onboard engineering system of the spacecraft actuates a galley, units of regeneration of air and water, the device of power supply, a thermal control, sometimes a space greenhouse.
  • BIOTEHNIJA (from a biot... And grech. techne - skill, skill), section ohotovedenija. A primal problem biotehnii - development of measures on guarding{preservation} and increase of number of wildings, improvement of their productive qualities. Biotechnical activities carry out{conduct} in reservations, huntings.
  • BIOTECHNOLOGY, use of living organisms and biological processes in a commercial production. Microbialogic synthesis of ferments, vitamins, amino asids, antibiotics, etc. develops. Industrial obtaining other biologically active agents (hormone drugs, the connections challenging immunity, etc.) with the help of methods of genetic engineering and crop animal and plant cells Is long-range.
  • BIOTIN (vitamin H), water-soluble vitamin; a coenzyme participating in transport reactions CO2 to organic compounds, napr. At a biosynthesis of fatty acids. Kidneys, peas, a bean are most affluent a biotin a liver. In an organism animal and the person it is synthesized by a microflora of an intestines. Defect of a biotin invokes{produces} primarily defeats of a leather.
  • BIOTITE, porodoobrazujushchy a mineral from group of micas, K (Mg, Fe) 3 [AlSi3O10] (OH, F) 2. Black, brown, brown crystals, foliaceous units. Hardness 2,5 - 3,5; firmness 2,7 - 3,3 g / sm3; it is easily disjoined{split} on nonrigid leaflets. It is distributed in eruptive and metamorphic breeds; in pegmatitah there are crystals the area up to 7 m2.
  • BIOTOPE (from a biot... And grech. topos - a place), a plot of a surface (a dry matter or a water reservoir) with the of the same type ecological conditions, occupied in a fixed biocoenosis.
  • The BIOFUEL, organic materials (a dung, peat, etc.), secreting at decomposition is warm. Use for a heating of hotbets, a heated ground.
  • BIOFACTORY (biocombine), the enterprise producing biological preparations (vaccines, wheys, etc.) for diagnosis, prophylaxis of diseases and treatment of sick animals.
  • BIOPHYSICS, the science investigator the physical and physico-chemical phenomena in living organisms, structure and properties of biopolymers, influence of different physical factors on alive systems. The first attempts to apply physical ideas and methods to study of an organism (motion of blood, a sound perception and light, etc.) have been made in 17 century. Hereinafter milestones of development of biophysics are connected to study of "animal electricity" (L.Galvani), development physiological soundmen and opticians (G.Gelmgolts), mechanics and energetics of living organisms, ion (P.P.Lazarev) and membranous (J.Bernstein) the theory of exaltation. In it is grey. 20 century as do-it-yourself directions were secured{discharged} a radiobiology, a bioenergetics, photobiology, etc. On the other hand, biophysics actuate in a complex of the sciences called as a physico-chemical biology.
  • The BIOFILTER, the same, that the bacteria bed.
  • BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY of MICROORGANISMS INSTITUTE (IBFM) the Russian Academy of Science, is based in 1965 in Moscow, with 1966 in Pushchinskom a centre of science of the Russian Academy of Science (the Moscow region). Probes on biochemistry and physiologies of microorganisms, a molecular biology and bioorganic chemistry.
  • BIOCHEMISTRY INSTITUTE (INBI) him{it}. A.N.Baha of the Russian Academy of Science, is based in 1935 in Moscow. Probes on a metabolism and powers in living organisms, on technical biochemistry.
  • BIOCHEMICAL SOCIETY at the Russian Academy of Science. It is built in 1992 on the basis of the All-Union biochemical society (1958-91). Republican advice{council} - in Moscow. In 1993 over 4 thousand members.
  • The BIOCHEMISTRY, studies chemicals included in organisms, their structure, distribution, metamorphosises{transformations} and functions. The first cramps on biochemistry are connected to economic activities of the person (machining vegetative and raw animal material, use of different phylums of fermentation, etc.) And medicine. Principled value for development of biochemistry the first synthesis of natural substance - a urea (had F.Veler, 1828), undermined submissions about the "vital force" participating ostensibly in synthesis of different substances by an organism. Using achievements general, analytical and an organic chemistry, the biochemistry in 19 century was formed in do-it-yourself science. An introduction in biology of ideas and methods of physics and chemistry and tendency to explain such biological phenomena as a heredity, variability, a muscle contraction, etc., a structure and properties of biopolymers has reduced in it is grey. 20 century to secretion from biochemistry of a molecular biology. Requirements of a national economy for obtaining, a storage and machining of different kinds{views} of raw material have reduced in development of technical biochemistry. Alongside with a molecular biology, biophysics, bioorganic chemistry biochemistry actuate in a complex of sciences - a physico-chemical biology.
  • BIOCOENOSIS (from a biot... And grech. koinos - general) (coenosis), phytome, animal and the microorganisms populating the given plot dry or a water reservoir and defined by fixed attitudes{relations} among themselves and an adaptableness to environmental conditions (napr., a biocoenosis of lake, a wood).
  • BIOCOENOLOGY (from a biocoenosis and... logija), studies biocenoses.
  • BIOELECTRIC POTENTIAL, electric potentials in tissues and cells (primarily in cellular membranes) living organisms. Are connected to processes of exaltation and braking operation for animal and the person and an irritability for plants. Probes of bioelectric potential apply with the diagnostic purposes (an electrocardiography, an electroencephalography, etc.).
  • The BIOENERGETICS, studies mechanisms and regularities of transformation{conversion} of power during vital activity of organisms, power processes in ecumene.
  • BIPATRIDY (from bi... And grech. patris, a genitive epizooty patridos - fatherland, Rhodinum) (persons of dual nationality), in the international law the faces consisting simultaneously in citizenship of two or more states, i.e. having double allegiance.
  • BIPLANE (from bi... And an armour. planum - a plane), an airplane with 2 side panels, located one above other. It is applied restrictedly (basically to the educational purposes and a farm work). In 1930th it is extruded by a monoplane because of low-level high-speed capabilities.
  • BZNS, see. The Bulgarian agricultural national union.
  • BZYB, the river on Zap. Caucasus. 110 kms, the area of basin 1510 êì2. The m runs in Black. On a valley r. Bzyb - a motorway on an eskar. Ritsa.
  • BI... [an armour. bi - dvu (õ)-, from bis - doubly], the part of the composite words meaning: consisting of 2 parts, having 2 attributes, etc.
  • " BI DZHIZ " (Bee Gees), the australian pop group, is derivated in 1958. Structure: Robin Dzhibb (vocal), Barry Dzhibb (a vocal, the gear quadrant), Moris Dzhibb (a vocal, the gear quadrant), Vince Miluni (gear quadrant), Kolin Piterson (impact). There is popular more than thirty flying. The musical style of group is distinguished melodizm, with a characteristic vocal, harmonic combination of voices. Left in 1971 songs " Lonely Days " è " How Can You Mend A Broken Heart " have been sold in the USA in million circulations. The most popular songs " Too Much Heaven ", "Tragedy", " Love You Inside Out ". The group has with its full complement acted in a film " Club of lone hearts of sergeant Peppera ".
  • BI SHEN, the Chinese inventor of the mobile font (11 century). In 1041-48 conducted experiences of printing from the form constituted of the mobile font, made of the burnt clay.
  • BIA (Bija), in the Grecian mythology the goddess - olitsetvorenie of a manual power and power, daughter Pallanta and Stiks, sister Niki. In time gigantomahii combated on the party of gods of Olympus. In tragedy Eshila " Prometej chained " - the performer of will Zevsa in punishment Prometeja.
  • BIANKA, the guide of Uranus, is open{discovered} from a side of a space vehicle "Voyager - 2" (the USA, 1986). Distance from Uranus ok. 60 thousand in km, a diameter ok. 50 kms.
  • BIANKI Vitaly Valentinovich (1894-1959), the Russian writer. Books for children about life of a nature: " the Wood newspaper on each year " (1928), " Wood were also fables " (1957).
  • BIARMIJA, in the Scandinavian sagas of 9-13 centuries country on marginal north-east of terrain Vost. Europe, affluent furs, silver, morzhovoj a bone.
  • BIARRITZ (Biarritz), city in France, on coast Biskajskogo a hall. 64 thousand inhabitants (1985). A climatic and balneal health resort.
  • BIARRITSKIE APPOINTMENTS, diplomatic meetings of Napoleon III and Bismarck in 1864 and 1865 in Biarritz as a result of which Bismarck had the grounding to count on neutrality of France in war planned by him{it} with Austria.
  • BIASUTTI (Biasutti) Renato (1878-1965), the italian anthropologist. Transactionses in range rasovedenija and ethnic anthropology of Europe.
  • BIATHLON (from bi... And grech. athlon - a contest{race}, extirpation), a winter kind{view} of sport, ski race with shooting from a rifle on fixed boundaries. In the International union of the modern pjatiborja and biathlon (UIPMB; it is based in 1948) over 70 countries (1991). In the program of winter Olympic Games with 1960, world championships with 1958.
  • BIAFO, an icehouse dendritovogo type on austral downslope Karakoruma. Ok. 68 kms, the area 620 êì2.
  • BIBERMAN Leonid Mihajlovich (r. 1915), a thermal physics, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1979). The main{basic} transactionses under the theory of radiation and radiation heat convection, a kinetics of low-temperature plasma.
  • BIBIENA, see. Galli-Bibbiena.
  • BIBIKOV Dmitry Gavrilovich (1792-1870), the Russian statesman, the general from infanterii (1848), general - aide-de-camp, (1845). With 1837 general - governor of Southwest provinces. Pursued{adopted} a policy of russifications of Ukraine. In 1846-47 has developed inventory rules. In 1852-55 Minister of Internal Affairs.
  • CONCRETE MIXER, the machine for a preparation of concrete from cement, sand, gravel, a broken stone and water their agitating{stirring} in a rotated drum capacity up to 1,6 m3. Productivity{output} of 5-120 m3 / ch.
  • BETPAK-GIVE (Bedpak-give, Boreal Hungry steppe), desert in Kazakhstan, from r. Sarysu in the west up to an eskar. Balkhash on the orient. Ok. 75 thousand êì2. A flat undulating plain. An altitude of 300-350 m (the greatest - Dzhambul, 974 ì). Pastures; the locuses of agriculture.
  • BETSON (Bateson) William, see Betson For.
  • BETTELHAJM (Bettelheim) Bruno (1903-91), the Austrian psychoanalyst. In 1938-39 encased in Dachau and Buhenvalde, with 1940 in emigration in the USA. Transactionses about psychologic consequences of a totalitarianism, emotional distresses for children (autism), etc.: " Symbolical wounds " (1954), " the Educated heart " (1960), "Survival" (1979).
  • BEETHOVEN (Beethoven) Ludwig van (1770-1827), the german composer, the pianist and the conductor. Cable cores in Vienna with 1792. In his{its} creativity have found reflectance of idea of Great French revolution. The representative of the austrian classical school. Has created geroiko-drama phylum simfonizma (3-n "Heroic", 1804, 5-n, 1808, 9-n, 1823, concordances; opera " Ôèäåëèî ", final edition 1814; overtures "Koriolan", 1807, "Egmont", 1810; a number{series} of tool{instrument} bands, sonatas, concerts). Full the deafness, comprehended{overtaken} Beethoven in midpoint a creative development, has not broken his{its} will. Serotinal{late} compositions differ philosophical character. 9 concordances, 5 concerts for a piano with an orchestra; 16 string quartets and other bands; tool{instrument} sonatas, including 32 for a piano, (among them t. n. "Pathetic", 1798, "Lunar", 1801, "Appassionata", 1805), 10 for a violin from a piano; "High mass" (1823).
  • BEHAIZM, a religious - political trend. Has arisen in Iraq in it is grey. 19 century after depressing{supression} babidskih revolts, then were distributed in the Near East, in Zap. To Europe and the USA, partly in Russia. Founder Mirza Husejn Ali Behaulla preached conciliation with shahskoj an authority. In the off-the-shelf time behaizm preaches ideas of denial of national states, connections of science and religion. The main centres - in the USA and Germany.
  • BEHAJM (Bem) (Boheim) Hans (?-1476), the german shepherd, the national ecclesiast in d. Niklashauzen (Franconia), the inspirer of country motion 1476 in Central Germany. It incinerated as the heretic.
  • BEHAJM (Behaim) Martin (1459-1507), the german geographer. In 1492 has created the first geographycal terrestrial globe which has mirrored geographycal submissions about a surface of the Earth before discovering It is new. Light.
  • BEHANZIN (Gbehanzin) (ok. 1851-1906), the governor of Dahomey (sovr. Benin) in 1890-94. Led persistent extirpation against the French colonialists.
  • BEHAR Mohammed Tagi (1886-1951), the Iranian poet, the scientist - philologist. The opponent of reaction and religionism. The collection " Prison compositions ", a poem " the Owl of war "; 3-languid "Stylistics".
  • BEHER (Becher) Iogann Ioahim (1635-82), the german chemist and the doctor. Has created the first chemical theory - the theory flogistona. Supervised (1669) at action of sulfuric acid on spirit of wine secretion of a combustible gas (ethylene).
  • BEHER (Becher) Iogannes Robert (1891-1958), the german writer and the statesman, Minister for crop of the German Democratic Republic (with 1954), the founder and president Kulturbunda (with 1945), the president of Academy of arts of the German Democratic Republic (1953-56). One of organizers of german anti-fascist literary motion. In 1933-45 in emigration. The anti-war novel "Lewisite" (1926). Poetic collections " the Researcher of happiness and seven sins " (1938), " the Walk of midpoint of eyelid " (1958), etc.; the novel "Farewell" (1940) on the autobiographical basis{fundamentals}. The tetralogy "Experiences" (1951-57) about problems of crop. The international Lenin premium (1952).
  • BEHZAD Kemaleddin (ok. 1455-1535/36), miniatjurist, the largest representative geratskoj schools of a miniature. The master of the dynamic multifigurate compositions, the refined colour constructions, indicative drawings.
  • BEHISTUNSKAJA the INSCRIPTION, trilingual (drevnepersidsky, elamsky and babylonian) the cuneiform text on rock Behistun (Bisutun), bliz Hamadan in Iran, cut under the order of tsar Darija I. Contains an exposition of events in the state Ahemenidov predominary in 522-519 up to n. e. It is read in 30-40-Õ by of 19 century (basically) English scientist G.K.Roulinsonom that has laid foundation to decoding of the cuneiform letter of many peoples Other. The orient.
  • BEKHTEREV Vladimir Mihajlovich (1857-1927), the Russian neurologist, the psychiatrist and the psychologist, the founder of scientific school. Fundamental transactionses on anatomy, physiologies and a pathology of nervous system. Probes of medical application of hypnosis, including at alkogolizme. Transactionses on sexual education, conduct of the child of early age, social psychology. Probeed the personality on the basis of complex{integrated} study of a brain by physiological, anatomic and psychologic methods. The founder of a reflexology. The organizer and the chief of Psychoneurological institute (1908; nowadays him{it}. Bekhterev) and Institute on study of a brain and mental activity (1918).
  • BEKHTEREV DISEASE, the same, that an ankylosing spondylarthritis. V.M.Behterevym in 1893 is described.
  • BEKHTEREV Natalia Petrovna (r. 1924), the physiologist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1981), the academician Russian AMN (1975). Grand daughter V.M.Bekhterev. Transactionses on physiology of mental activity, structurally functional organization and bioelectric activity of a brain in a pathology. The state premium of the USSR (1985).
  • BETS Vladimir Alekseevich (1834-94), the Russian anatomist and the histologist, one of founders of the doctrine about tsitoarhitektonike a cerebral cortex. Has described (1874) huge pyramidal cells (cell Betsa).
  • BETS Vladimir Alekseevich (1834-94), the Russian anatomist and the histologist, one of founders of the doctrine about tsitoarhitektonike a cerebral cortex. Has described (1874) huge pyramidal cells (cell Betsa).
  • MAJOR BARRIER REEF, patch of coral reefs and the islands extended on 2300 kms along a north-east shore of Australia; in boreal part width ok. 2 kms, in austral - 150 kms. The large part is underwater. Marine national park.
  • MAJOR BASIN (Great Basin), a mountains in Cordilleras the Sowing. America, in the west the USA. It is limited to Rocky mountains on the orient, Cascade range and hr. Sierra - Nevada in the west. In a relief combination short hrebtov (an altitude up to 3000 ì) and extensive which hollows of the bottom door 1200-2000 m (Death valley - on 85 m below a sea level) lay at the altitude. A large part of terrain besstochna. Landscapes of semideserts and deserts.
  • MAJOR EXPLOSION, on the modern submissions a condition of the extending Universe in past (ok. 13 billion flying back) when the mean firmness of the Universe in a huge number of times exceeded the modern. Because of expansion the mean firmness of the Universe diminishes with the course of time. Accordingly at removal in past the firmness will increase, down to the moment when classical submissions about the space and time become invalid (a cosmological singularity). This moment can be accepted for a time zero. As the season{term} of Major explosion conditionally call a time slice from 0 up to several honeycomb of secs. Right at the beginning of this season{term} the substance of the Universe has acquired titanic relative velocities (from here the title). Observable certificate of the season{term} of Major explosion now are relict radiance, values of concentrations of hydrogen, helium and some other light elements, distribution of heterogeneities in the Universe (napr., galaxies)
  • The MAJOR WATER-PARTITE BACKBONE (Great Dividing Range) (East - australian mountains), a range, is extended along eastern and southeast shore of Australia on 4 thousand in km. Northward from 28 °ju. sh. The altitude ok will consist of uplands, hollows and masses. 1000 m, to the south - from separate masses an altitude up to 2230 m (. Kostsjushko). In the Major water-partite crops rise rr. Murray and Darling. On eastern downslopes the wet defoliation - ever-green forests, in the west - lesosavanny, thrickets of xerothytic bushes.
  • MAJOR YENISEI (Bij-Hem), the river in the south of Siberia, in Tuva, dextral component of Yenisei. 605 kms, the area of basin of 56,8 thousand êì2. Escapes from an eskar. A kar - balyk. Average discharge of water 584 m3 / with. It is navigable on 285 kms. From a mouth.
  • MAJOR IK, the river on JUzh. Ural, dextral in-leak{influx} Sakmary. 341 kms, the area of basin 7670 êì2.
  • MAJOR IRGIZ, the river in Zavolzhje, the left-handed in-leak{influx} of Volga (runs into the Volgograd water reservoir). 675 kms, the area of basin of 24 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water in a lower reaches ok. 23 m3 / with. It is used for an irrigation.
  • MAJOR CAUCASUS, the range extended from west - northwest on an orient - southeast between Black and Caspian mm. Length more than 1100 kms, width up to 180 kms. In an axial part - Main, or Water-partite, and Lateral hrebty which are accompanied by many forward and cross hrebtami an altitude up to 4000 and 5000 m (the greatest of 5642 m, Elbrus). Major Caucasus divide on Zap. Caucasus (up to Elbrus), Central Caucasus (between Elbrus and Kazbek) and Vost. Caucasus (to the orient from Kazbek). The considerable modern glaciation (the area ok. 1430 êì2).
  • MAJOR CANYON (Grand Canyon), one of the deepest canyons in the world, to Colorado plateau, in the USA. It is produced r. Colorado in a strata of limestones, sandstones and slates. Length of 446 kms. Depth up to 1600 m (one of the deepest in the world). Width at a level of a surface of a plateau of 8-25 kms, bliz a bottom - less than 1 kms (on stray patches up to 120 ì). National park the Grandee - canyon. Tourism.
  • MAJOR KINEL, the river in Zavolzhje, dextral in-leak{influx} of Samara (a bass. Volga). 437 kms, the area of basin of 15,2 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water 33 m3 / with.
  • MAJOR KREMLIN PALACE, palace in Moskovsk the Kremlin (1839-49, architect K.A.Ton). Up to 1917 Moscow residence of the Russian emperors and a place of ceremonial methods. After 1917 Major Kremlin palace - a site of negotiations of a different stem of cross-overs, sessions, meetings, methods, nursery novogorodnih holidays.
  • GREAT CIRCLE, circle (and also his{its} circle), receiving at section of a sphere a plane passing through his{its} centre.
  • MAJOR MENDERES (Buyuk Menderes), the river in the west Turkey. 380 kms, the area of basin of 23,9 thousand êì2. The tableland starts on Anatolian, runs in Egejskoe m., derivating delta. Average discharge of water ok. 90 m3 / with. In the lower flow the race course is wavy-grained, therefore the ancient greek title Major Menderesa - the Meander has become a synonym of river bends.
  • MAJOR NEFUD, desert in a north Arabian p-ova; see. Nefud.
  • MAJOR JELLY DROPS, the river in Vost. Siberia, dextral in-leak{influx} of Lena. 460 kms, the area of basin of 29,6 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water 360 m3 / with. Full of rapids. In a lower reaches driveable.
  • MAJOR PES (an armour. Canis Major), mia maid of Austral hemisphere in which there is a Sirius, the brightest aster in the root. In middle latitudes of the Russian Federation the mia maid is visible in the winter.
  • MAJOR PIT, the river in west Vost. Siberia, dextral in-leak{influx} of Yenisei. 415 kms, the area of basin of 21,7 thousand êì2. Driveable. It is navigable from landing stage Brjanka.
  • MAJOR SALYM, the river in Zap. Siberia, the left-handed in-leak{influx} of Ob. 583 kms, the area of basin of 18,1 thousand êì2.
  • MAJOR SYMPHONIC ORCHESTRA GOSTELERADIO, him{it}. P.I.Chajkovskogo, academic, is based in 1930. Conductors headed: A.I.Orlov, N.S.Golovanov, A.V.Gauk, G.N.Rozhdestvensky. The main conductor and the artistic administrator - V.I.Fedoseyev. (with 1974).
  • BOLTSMAN (Boltzmann) Ludwig (1844-1906), Austrian physics, one of osnovatelej a statistical physics and a physical kinetics, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1899). Has introduced the distribution function called as his{its} name, and the main{basic} rate equation of gases. Has given (1872) statistical validity of the second law of thermodynamics. Has introduced one of laws of a heat radiation (the law of the Stefan - Boltzmann).
  • BOLTSMANA the STATIONARY VALUE, a physical constant k, equal to attitude{relation} of generalpurpose gas constant R to Avogadro number NA: k = R/NA = 1,3807.10-23 Dzh/K. It is called named L.Boltsmana.
  • BOLTSMANA STATISTICS, a statistical method of the description of ideal gas in a condition of a thermodynamic equilibrium for the particles driving under laws of classical mechanics.
  • BOLSHAKOV Vladimir Nikolaevich (r. 1934), the Russian ecologist, teriolog, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1987). Probes in range population and evolutionary ecology of mammals.
  • BOLSHAKOV Gennady Fedorovich (1932-89), the Russian chemist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1981). The main{basic} transactionses are dedicated development of high-energy liquid fuels, fuel dopes, quick tests of an automatic check of quality of petroleum.
  • BOLSHAKOV Cyril Andreevich (r. 1906), the Russian chemist - neorganik, one of osnovatelej the Soviet industry of infrequent elements, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1958). The main{basic} transactionses on the physico-chemical bases{fundamentals} of extraction and clearing rare earth and trace elements. State premiums of the USSR (1941, 1953).
  • The MAJOR GUILD, the privileged class association of large merchants and landholders (preim. Germans) in it is grey. 14-19 centuries in cities of Baltic (Thalline, Riga, Tartu, etc.).
  • MAJOR VALLEY (Great Valley), system of longitudinal valleys, disjointed short hrebtami (an altitude up to 1500 ì) in JUzh. Appalachian mountains (USA). Length of 950 kms. Width of 40-60 kms. An affluent farming area (wheat, corn; a large horned stock).
  • MAJOR ZASECHNAJA FEATURE, a defensive line on austral surburb of Russian state in 16 century from Ryazan up to Tula. In 17 century it is substituted by the Belgorod feature.
  • MAJOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT (LARGE-SCALE INTEGRATED CIRCUIT), integrated circuit with a large-scale of integration (the figure of elements in her reaches 104), used in electronic package as functionly concluded unit of devices of computer facilities, automatics, a measurement technology, etc.
  • " The MAJOR CHINESE ENCYCLOPEDIA "; publishing house, Peking. It is based in 1978. Issues the like generalpurpose encyclopedia constructed by a theme principle (with 1979; to nach. 90th have quitted ok. 40 volumes from scheduled 80), other reference and popular scientific literature. Has emited in transfer{translation} on the Chinese tongue " the Soviet encyclopaedic dictionary " (1987). Branch in shanghai.
  • MAJOR LIAHVI, the river in Georgia, the left-handed in-leak{influx} of the Hen. 115 kms, the area of basin 2311 êì2. Average discharge of water 26 m3 / with. Driveable.
  • MAJOR SHE-BEAR (an armour. Ursa Major), mia maid of Boreal hemisphere in which secrete group of 7 asters - the Major ladle; the mean aster of the handle of a ladle calls Mitsar, near to her weak aster Alkor is located.
  • MAJOR OPERA, 1) multievent opera... 2) the Opera genre which has been usual in France in 20th of 19 century; differs monumentalism, dramatic nature, heroic fervor, romantic beauty, decorative effect, use of a major orchestra and chorus, inclusion of ballet numbers. Major operas formed primarily on historical scenes. The most outstanding representative of major opera - Dzh. Mejerber.
  • MAJOR HORDE, the tatar state in 1433-1502 in the Sowing. Black Sea Coast and N.Povolzhje. It was secured{discharged} from Golden Horde. It is routed Crimean hanstvom.
  • MAJOR PANDA, the same, that a giant panda.
  • MAJOR SAND DESERT (Great Sandy Desert), in northwest of Australia. 360 thousand êì2. A mean altitude of 400-500 m. Prevail{dominate} grjadovye sands (a mean altitude of patches up to 15 ì), disjointed glinisto-saline plains. One of the most hot places of mainland (mean summer temperature up to 30 °C). A rainfall from 200 up to 450 mm annually. Derninnyj a cereal spinifeks, acacias and stunted eucalyptuses. National park Rudalp-River.
  • BOLOHOVO, city (with 1943) in the Russian Federation, the Tula region, bliz zh.-d. An item. Prisady. 12 thousand inhabitants (1992). Machine works; a food-processing industry.
  • GROUND BOLOHOVSKAJA, old russian historical range (12-13 centuries) in verhovjah r. JUzh. Bug and a bass. rr. Goryn, Sluch, the Red grouse (nowadays terrain of Khmelnitskiy region). In 13 century it was separated from the Kiev principality, has recognized an authority the mongolo-tartar, then it is adjoined to the Galitsko-Volynsk principality.
  • BOLSTAD (Bulstad) (Bolstad) Ejvin (1905-79), the Norwegian writer. The anti-fascist play "Patriots" (1939), social novels "Speculator" (1947), " the Red begonia " (1947), " the Tango of mors " (1967), " the Black mass " (1970), stories.
  • BOLT (from nizhnenem. bolt), a fastener, routinely a rod with the 6-faced or square head and a thread for screwing on of a nut.
  • BOLT (Bolt) Robert (r. 1924), the English playwright. Historical dramas " the Person for any pore " (1960), " Long live queen, vivat! " (1971) in spirit of " a new wave ". In a philosophical drama " Tender Jack " (1965) - B.Brecht influence.
  • BOLTVUD (Boltwood) Bertram Borden (1870-1927), American fizikohimik. The main{basic} transactionses in range of a radiochemistry. Has proved (1903), that radium is a decay product of uranium. Has placed{installed} (1905), that uranic minerals always contain lead and has correctly assumed, that he can be an end - product of a radioactive decay of uranium. Has offered (1907) by quantity of lead in ore and on a known disintegration rate of uranium to determine age of geologic breeds. Has discovered (1907) ionium - a natural radioisotope of thorium.
  • BOLTIN Ivan Nikitich (1735-92), the Russian historian, the statesman, the member of military board. The first publisher of Vast{Voluminous} edition of " the Russian truth ". Transactionses on historical geography, a source study, an old russian history.
  • BOLTINSKY Vasily Nikolaevich (1903/04-77), engineers - mechanics, academician VASHNIL (1956), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1974). Transactionses under the theory of tractor engines, mashinno-tractor units. State premiums of the USSR (1952, 1976).
  • BOLTON (Bolton) Elmer the Kaiser (1886-1968), American chemists - organics. In 1915-51 the Du Pont de Nemur " worked in concern ". Transactionses on chemistry of dyes and high-molecular compounds. One of organizers of an industry of synthetic dyes in the USA. Has secured{discharged} pigments of a geranium, a pink sage and a red common chrysanthemum and has defined{determined} their structure. Participat in development of industrial methods of obtaining of duprene rubber and polyamides.
  • BOLHOV, city in the Russian Federation, the Oryol region on r. Nugr, in 50 kms from zh.-d. An item. Mtsensk. 13,1 thousand inhabitants (1992). Furniture combine, the alimentary enterprises. A study of local lore museum. It is known from 13 century.
  • BOLHOVITINOV Victor Fedorovich (1899-1970), the Russian aircraft designer, the general - major-inzhener (1943). The designer of a heavy bomber DB - AND, a fighter with coaxial screws, etc.
  • BOLHOVITINOV Evfimy Alekseevich (in monasticism - Eugeny) (1767-1837), the Russian historian, arheograf, the bibliographer. With 1822 metropolitan Kiev. Historical, istoriko-study of local lore and biobibliographic transactionses.
  • BOLHOVITINOV Nikolay Nikolaevich (r. 1930), the historian, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1992). The main{basic} transactionses on a history the USA, to international attitudes{relations} and foreign policy of Russia of 18-19 centuries, historiography.
  • BOLCH (Balch) Emili Green (1867-1961) American economist, the professor (1913). One of organizers of motion for social reforms in the USA. Aktivistka Women international league for the world and freedom, built in 1919. Transactionses on problems of emigration and racism. In the book " our fellow citizens - slavs " (1910), has refuted views about racial inferiority of slavs on which requests about limitation of immigration in the USA representatives of slavonic peoples rested. The Nobel Prize of the world (1946, together with D.Mottom).
  • PAIN, the psychophysiological organism response originating at the strong irritation of sensing nerve terminations, incorporated in organs and tissues. One of the most early symptoms of some diseases.
  • HOSPITAL, establishment for hospitalization, permanent supervision{observation}, and also isolation (in an event of zymotic and some other diseases) ill.
  • BOLZANO (Bolzano), city in the Sowing. Italy, in eastern Alpes, an administrative centre prov. Bolzano. 100,4 thousand inhabitants (1991). A traffic centre on ways to Brenner pass. The electrometallurgy treating{processing}, a light industry.
  • BOLZANO (Bolzano) Bernard (1781-1848), the Czech mathematician and the philosopher. Opposed psychologism in logic; to trues of logic attributed theoretical objective existence. Has exerted influence E.Gusserlja. Has entered a number{series} of the important concepts of a calculus, was precursor G.Kantora in probe of infinite set.
  • BOLNISI (up to 1921 seconds. Ekaterinofeld, in 1921-43 seconds. Luxembourg), city (with 1967) in Georgia. A depot. 11,6 thousand inhabitants (1991). The alimentary enterprises, a clothing factory. Theatre. A study of local lore museum.
  • BOLNISSKY ZION, a temple (478-493) bliz. Bolnisi. Majestic 3-íåôíàÿ a basil, 2 lines of piles are paired by arcs, on small caps carved geometrical patterns.
  • BOLOGOE, city (with 1926) in the Russian Federation, the Tver region. A railway junction. 35,9 thousand inhabitants (1992). Factories: "Strommashina", reinforcing, etc.; furniture factory.
  • The BOLOMETER (from grech. bole - a ray and... Meter), the device for measurements of power of electromagnetic radiation (primarily ultrared), founded on change of electrical resistance of a temperature sensor as a result of absorption of power of gauged radiance by him{it}.
  • The BOLOMETRIC STELLAR MAGNITUDE adopted in astronomy the characteristics of a torrent of electromagnetic radiation from space object in all a range of lengths of waves; the bolometric correction is peer to visual stellar magnitude a plus. The correction (always nonpositive) is calculated theoretically with engaging data of extra-terrestrial astronomy.
  • LAP DOG, breed of small-sized long-wool lap - dogs. The title from Bologna in Italy.
  • BOLOGNA SCHOOL of italian painting of the season{term} of Baroque with the centre in Bologna. Artists of Bologna school (br. Karrachchi, Domenikino, Gverchino) created altarnye patterns, frescos on the religious and mythological themes noted by high crop of a composition and drawing, idealization of modes{images}, eclectic drawing of formal achievements of great masters of 16 century.
  • The BOLOGNA UNIVERSITY, Italy, the oldest in Europe, is based in 11 century. In 1991 - ok. 60 thousand students.
  • BOLON, lake in Khabarovsk kr., in a bottom land of Amur to which it is bridged protokoj (ok. 9 kms). 338 êì2. Depth up to 4 m.
  • BOLOGNA (Bologna), city in the Sowing. Italy, an administrative centre prov. Bologna and region. Emilija-Romagna, on r. Reno. 412 thousand inhabitants (1991). The major traffic centre; it is paired by a shipping canal with r. On. A machine industry, iron and steel industry, alimentary, chemical, textile, mild, a printing industry. The national centre of nuclear probes. University. (since 11 century, the oldest in Europe). National pinakoteka, museums the Dignity - Stefano, the Dignity - Dominiko, etc. With kon. 6 century up to n. e. Bologna (Felsina) - the centre etruskov. The title from bojev, seized her{it} in it is grey. 4 century up to n. e. In Middle Ages it was glorified by school of the right. A complex of Romanesque churches the Dignity - Stefano (11-13 centuries), slope houses - towers (11-12 centuries), Gothic palaces (13-15 centuries), church the Dignity - Petronio (14-17 centuries, the Renaissance sculptural gantry, 1425-38, JAkopo della Kvercha). Palaces in style of the Renaissance (Bevilakva, 15 century) and Baroque.
  • WATER STARWORTS Peter Grigorjevich (r. 1930), the Russian sportsman (track and field), the deserved master of sport (1959). The champion of Olympic Games (1960), Europe (1962) in trot race on 10000 m, the repeated champion of the USSR (in 1957-64) in trot race on 5000 and 10000 m.
  • PALUDOUS, city (with 1943) in the Russian Federation, Novosibirsk region. A depot. 20,2 thousand inhabitants (1992). The sewing, alimentary enterprises.
  • BOG SOILS, are formed in conditions of the long-lived or permanent overmoistening under moisture-loving vegetation basically in a forest zone of moderate belts. Peat and peaty gley (after drying cultivate agricultural crops, extract peat). The USA, and also in Brazil, Argentina, Indonesia are distributed in the Russian Federation, Belarus, on Ukraine, in Canada, etc.
  • COYPU, the same, that a nutria.
  • The MARSH GAS, is secreted from a bottom of lentic water reservoirs. A main component - methane; contains minor quantities of a carbonic gas and nitrogen.
  • BALT CYPRESS, the same, that taksodium.
  • The BOG, exuberantly humidified plot of a surface, overgrown moisture-loving plants. In a bog routinely there is an accumulation of not decomposed plant residues and a peat formation. Basically in Boreal hemisphere; a gross area ok. 350 million ga.
  • "BOG", the nickname given by contemporaries to group of deputies, making the majority in the Convent in the season{term} of the Great French revolution which are not having the program, in extirpation of political groups of the strongest rising on the party. Representatives: E.Z.Sjejes, P.Barras.
  • BOLERO (isp. bolero), spanish twin dance. The musical dimension 3/4. Rate moderate. It is accompanied by the gear quadrant, a drum and castanets, singing dancing. The genre of a bolero has found reflectance in creativity of many composers (M.Ravel, etc.).
  • BOLESLAV I (Boleslaw) Valiant (967-1025), prince Polish with 992, king with 1025. From dynasty Pjastov. Has aggregated Polish grounds, has founded in Gniezno an archepiscopacy, in 1018 has temporarily trapped chervenskie cities.
  • BOLESLAV III Krivoustyj (1085-1138), prince Polish with 1102. From dynasty Pjastov. Has reunited with Poland Vost. (1116) and Zap. (1123) Pomorze, etc. In 1138 has divided{separated} country into destinies between synovjami.
  • BOLESLAVETS (Boleslawiec), city on a southwest of Poland. 44 thousand inhabitants (1990). Chemical, glass, a food-processing industry. A museum and a monument to M.I.Kutuzov died in Boleslavtse.
  • BOLEHOV, city (with 1940) on Ukraine, Ivano-Frankovsk region. A depot. 11,1 thousand inhabitants (1991). Lesokombinat, a tannery, etc. The Study of local lore museum. It is known from 14 century.
  • PAINS (Bolig) (Baulig) Anri (1877-1962), the French geographer. Transactionses on physical geography, geomorphology, regional geography.
  • BOLIBRUH Andrey Andreevich (r. 1950), mathematician, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1994). Transactionses on differential equations.
  • BOLIVAR (Bolivar), group of oil deposits in Venezuela (an oil-and-gas-bearing bass. Maracaibo). Actuates deposits Laguniljas, Tia-Huana, Bochakero, etc. Are open{discovered} in 1917. Deposits on depth of 160-4500 m. Total beginning inventories 4,3 billion t. Firmness of petroleum of 0,82-1,0 g / sm3.
  • BOLIVAR, staff in a southeast of Venezuela. 238 thousand êì2. The population of 969 thousand person (1990). Adm. ts. - Ciudad Bolivar.
  • BOLIVAR (Bolivar) Simon (1783-1830), the chief of extirpation for independence of spanish colonys in JUzh. To America. Has released of spanish domination Venezuela, It is new. Granada (sovr. Columbia and Panama), prov. Quito (sovr. Ecuador), in 1819-30 president of Great Columbia built in terrain of these countries. In 1824 has released Peru and the BOLIVAR, the Bolivar - i-Palasjos (Bolivar y Palacios) Simon (a full name Simon Hose Antonio) (on July, 24 1783, Caracas - on December, 17 1830, Santa Marta, Columbia), one of chiefs of War for independence of spanish colonys in America, military and the statesman of South America, where is known as the Deliverer (with 1813 it has leaded derivated on terrain of the Upper Peru of the Republic Bolivia (1825) called on his{its} name. A national congress of Venezuela it is professed (1813) Deliverer.). Early godyRodilsja in notable creole family of a basque origin. Has early deprived parents. On education and formation of world outlook of the Bolivar major influence was rendered by his{its} teacher and the higher friend, outstanding educator S.Rodriges. A youth has conducted in Europe (1799-1806, Spain, France, Italy) where early married, but soon ovdovel. On August, 15 1805 on hill Monte-Sakro in Rome, at the presence of Rodriguez, has sworn to struggle for discharging of South America of a colonial yoke. Venezuelan respublikaPrinjal active sharing{participation} in overthrow of spanish domination in Venezuela (April 1810) and professing by its{her} independent republic (1811). After rout last a spanish troops, in 1812 it was justified in New Granada (nowadays Columbia), and in the beginning 1813 has returned home. In August 1813 his{its} troops have taken Caracas; the Venezuelan republic has been built 2-n led by the Bolivar. However, not having decided to conduct reforms in interests of national bottoms, he has failed to get their support and in 1814 has sufferred a defeat. Enforced to search for a shelter on Jamaica, in September 1815 has published there the post card where expressed confidence in fast discharging spanish America. Education of Columbia Having realized at last necessity of discharging of slaves and solutions of other social problems, the Bolivar has convinced the president of Haiti A.Petiona to render rebels the military help and in December 1816 has landed on a shore of Venezuela. Cancellation of servitude (1816) and issued in 1817 decree about vesting soldiers of a liberation army by ground have allowed him to expand a social base. After successful actions in Venezuela his{its} troops in 1819 have released New Granada. In December 1819 he has been selected the president professed by the National congress in Angosture (nowadays Ciudad Bolivar) republics of Columbia where Venezuela and New Granada have come. In 1822 kolumbijtsy have expelled spanish forces from a province of Quito (nowadays Ecuador) which has joined Columbia. Discharging of South America In July 1822 Bolivar has met in Guayaquil with X. de the Dignity - Martinom, which army has already released a part of Peru, but has failed to agree from nymas upon combined actions. After demission the Dignity - Martina (on September, 20 1822) he in 1823 has directed the Colombian parts to Peru, and in 1824 (on August, 6 at Junin and on December, 9 on plain Ajakucho) the last spanish forces on the American continent have been routed. The bolivar, in February of 1824 Perus becoming by the dictator, has headed and built in 1825 in terrain of the Upper Peru the republic Bolivia called so in his{its} honour. Disintegration Colombian federatsiiStremjas to association of the ispano-American states, the Bolivar has called a congress of their representatives (1826) in Panama, but has not achieved success. After the terminal of liberation war in his{its} balance weight tsentralistskoj to policy in locale centrifugal tendencies have amplified. As a result of separative performances{statements} the Bolivar has deprived an authority in Peru and Bolivia (1827-30). In the beginning 1830 he has retired and has soon died. Bolivariana In Latin America a name of the Bolivar very popularly. It is perpetuated in titles of the state, provinces, cities, streets, monetary units, with the help of numerous monuments. Biographic sketches, pieces of art, historical transactionses are dedicated him. With 1822 valid girlfriend and sputnitsej life of the Bolivar, despite of all falsities of his{its} destiny, the native of Quito kreolka Manuela Saens was unseparable. Ñî÷èíåíèÿ:Èçáðàííûå products{creations}. Ì., 1983. Ñartas del Libertador. Caracas, 1929-1959. V. 1-12. Obras completas. La Habana, 1950. V. 1-3. Decretos del Libertador. Caracas, 1961. V. 1-3. Escritos del Libertador. Caracas, 1964-1983. T. 1-16. Literatura:Lavretskij I. R. A bolivar. 3 izd. Ì., 1981. Simon the Bolivar: a history and a modernity. Ì., 1985. Masur G. Simon Bolivar. Albuquerque, 1948. Madariaqa S. de. Bolivar. Mexico; Buenos Aires, 1953. V. 1-2. Mijares A. El Libertador. Caracas, 1969. Bolivar y Europa en las cronicas, el pensamiento politico y la historioqrafia. Caracas, 1986-1995. V. 1-3. M.S.Alperovich
  • The BOLIVIAN MOUNTAINS, major, eastern part TSentralnoandijskogo of a mountains within the limits of Bolivia.
  • BOLIVIJTSY, people, the main{basic} population of Bolivia (2,53 million person). Live also in Argentina (150 thousand person), Brazil, the USA, Peru and Chile. An aggregate number 3,2 million person (1992). Basically ispano-American Indian mongrels. Speak in Spanish and guarani. On religion roman catholics.
  • HEMLOCK (omegas), stem of biennial grasses of a set umbrella. 4 kinds{views}, in Eurasia and Africa. On wood skirts as weedy about housing accommodation and in crops the hemlock spotty is usual; all plant, especially fruits, is toxicant for the person and animal.
  • BOLID, major and extremely bright meteor.
  • BALL (Ball) John (?-1381), the English national ecclesiast, the ideologist of heresy lollardov, one of leaders of revolt of Uota Tyler 1381. It is executed.
  • BOLLAND (Bolland) Gerardus (1854-1922), the Netherlands philosopher, the chapter Dutch neogegeljanstva (" Society Bolland " with 1922). Interpreted philosophy Gegelja in religious spirit and considered her{it} as logic completion kantianstva.
  • BOLLAND (Bolland) Jean (1596-1665), the scientist the jesuit, laid foundation to the monumental critical issuing zhity sacred - Acta sanctorum (1-n hours has quitted in Antwerp in 1643), continuing till now. By name Bollanda his{its} publishers call bollandistami.
  • The BULGARIAN CRISIS 1885-87, exacerbation and breakage (1886) russko-Bulgarian attitudes{relations} in connection with antiRussian policy of government of S.Stambolova after overthrow of prince Alexander Battenberga. Support by Austria, the Great Britain and Germany Ferdinand Koburgskogo on the Bulgarian holy table promoted the Russian-French rendezvous{approach}.
  • The BULGARIAN NATIONAL BANK, issuing, credit and a financial settlements centre of Bulgaria. It is based in 1947. Executes also international payments.
  • The BULGARIAN FOLK THEATRE him{it}. Ivan Vazova, drama, it is based in Sofia in 1904.
  • The BULGARIAN REVOLUTIONARY CENTRAL COMMITTEE, in 1869 (1870?)-1876 organization (V.Levsky, L.Karavelov, H.Botev, etc.), supervising national-liberation extirpation of Bulgarian people against a turkish yoke.
  • The BULGARIAN TONGUE, the official language of Bulgaria, falls into to slavonic tongues (juzhnoslavjanskaja group), included in indoevropejskuju family of tongues. The schedule{chart} slavonic (on the basis of cyrillics).
  • The BULGARIAN HOME GUARD, volunteer formation from bolgar in Russian army during russko-turkish war 1877-78 (all up to 15 thousand person; Russian general N.G.Stoletov) headed. Participat in breakages near Stara Zagora, on SHipke and at SHejnovo.
  • The BULGARIAN TELEGRAPHIC AGENCY, is based in 1898, Sofia.
  • BOLGARY, people, the main{basic} population of Bulgaria (7,85 million person). Live also on Ukraine (234 thousand person), Moldova (88 thousand person), the Russian Federation (32,8 thousand person) and other countries. An aggregate number 8,45 million person (1992). Tongue Bulgarian. Believers - basically orthodox, a part moslems - sunnity.
  • BOLGARY VOLZHSKO-KAMSKIE, see Bulgary Volzhsko-Kamskie.
  • BOLGRAD, city on Ukraine, the Odessa region, bliz zh.-d. An item. Bolgrad. 18,2 thousand inhabitants (1991). The flavoring enterprises, a clothing factory, mechanical-repair factory., etc. The Istoriko-study of local lore museum. It is based in 1821.
  • BOLDZHER (Bolger) James Brendan, (r. 1935), the prime minister of New Zealand with 1990. In 1975-84 and with 1990 on different portfolios. With 1986 leader of the National consignment Is new. Zealand.
  • BOLDINO (Major Boldino), village in the south of the Nizhniy Novgorod region, in 39 kms from zh.-d. An item. Uzhovka. 4,4 thousand inhabitants (1989). Boldino - former Nizhniy Novgorod manor Pushkinyh. A.S.Pushkin has conducted in Boldino three autumns, including well-known Boldinskuju autumn 1830. Museum - reservation Pushkin (with 1949), a museum " Votchinnaja office Pushkinyh ". Annual holidays of poetry.
  • BALDWIN (Baldwin) James Arthur (1924-1987), the Negro writer the USA. Lyrical prose with ekzistentsialistskimi motives about love as escape behavior from conformism and overcoming of loneliness (novels " Go, broadcast from a mountain ", 1953, " Other country ", 1962, " Say, for a long time l the train ", 1968, " Above the head " has left, 1979). Publicistic books (" Tomorrow - a fire ", 1963), an essayistics (" the Price of the ticket ", 1985), plays.
  • BALDWIN Stenli (1867-1947), the prime minister of the Great Britain in 1923-24, 1924-1929, 1935-37; the conservator. Baldwin government has suppressed a general strike 1926, has broken off diplomatic relations from the USSR (1927).
  • BOLDYREV Alexander Nikolaevich (r. 1909), the Russian orientalist, the Doctor of Philology. Transactionses are dedicated the Tadjik folklore, a history of the Tadjik and persian literatures, probes of the persian and Tadjik manuscripts.
  • BOLDYREV Vasily Nikolaevich (1873-1946), the Russian physiologist, the professor (1912). With 1918 in emigration in Japan, with 1922 in the USA. Transactionses on physiology of digestion and the maximum nervous activity. Has described an automatism of activity of a digestive tract (on an example of a dog). Has placed{installed} the fact and conditions zabrasyvanija in a stomach of contents of a duodenum.
  • BOLDYREV Vladimir Vjacheslavovich (r. 1927), the chemist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991). Transactionses on study of influence of physico-chemical factors on chemical changes in a solid phase.
  • BOLEJN (Boleyn) Anna (ok. 1507-36), the second wife of the English king Genriha VIII. Divorce Genriha with Ekaterina Aragonskoj and a marriage on Bolejn (1533), not adjudicated by a papal yard, have served as a halter for a breakage with a dad and realization Reformatsii in England. It is executed under the charge in matrimonial incorrectness{infidelity}.
  • BOKONBAEV Dzhoomart (1910-44), the Kirghiz poet. Collections of lyrical verses and poems, texts the musical of dramas "Toktogul" and " the Golden girl " (both 1939), opera librettoes.
  • SIDE-VEINED, a subtype of the most primitive seashells. For the majority - it is mobile the jointed shell. Nervous system from 2 fallow of longitudinal trunks (two - lateral). 3 modern of a class: dinoflagellata, solenogastry, kaudofoveaty. In all marginal seas from a litoral up to an abyss.
  • FRESH-WATER SHRIMPS (raznonogie Crustacea), order of Invertebrata of subclass of the maximum Crustacea. Length 0,5-28 see. Float edgewise. Ok. 4,5 thousand kinds{views}. Are distributed widely, in seas and fresh water reservoirs. Minister nutrition to many food fishes, seals, whales and some birds. Are part krilja.
  • BOX (from English box - a box, a box), in medicine - a room for isolation of seriously ill patients, ill contagions, etc.
  • BOX (English box, characters. - impact), combat sport, kulachnyj crocked eggs on special regulations, in special mild gloves. Rhodinum of the modern box - England (16-17 centuries). In International association of amateur box (AIBA; it is based in 1946) 156 countries (1991). In the program of Olympic Games with 1904, world championships with 1974, Europe with 1924.
  • BOKSBURG (Boksburg), city in the republic of South Africa. 111 thousand inhabitants (1985). One of the centres zolotouransoderzhashchego a bass. Witwatersrand.
  • BOKSBURG (Boksburg), city in the republic of South Africa. 111 thousand inhabitants (1985). One of the centres zolotouransoderzhashchego a bass. Witwatersrand.
  • BOXING REVOLT, see. Ihetuanskoe revolt.
  • BOKSITOGORSK, city (with 1950) in the Russian Federation, the Leningrad region. A depot. 21,7 thousand inhabitants (1991). Aluminous, biochemical factories. Bliz Boksitogorska - production of bauxites.
  • BAUXITES, aluminium the ore, consisting basically from oxyhydroxides of aluminium (28-80 %) and gland (gibbsita, a boehmite and a diaspore, a hydrogoethite, etc.). Primarily sedimental. Harmful impurity - SiO2. Firmness of 1800-3100 kg / m3. Raw material for obtaining aluminium, and also paints, abradants, refractories. Main getting{procuring} foreign countries - Australia, Jamaica, Surinam, Guyana.
  • BOKSHAJ Joseph Iosifovich (1891-1975), the Ukrainian painter, the national artist of the USSR (1963), corresponding member AH the USSR (1958). One of osnovatelej the first art school in Zakarpatje (1927). Soft landscapes on colour, conversations, portraits, still-lifes: " the Market in Uzhgorod " (1927), " Nevichansky the clasp " (1970).
  • BOLA (from isp. bola - a sphere), propellant weapons of Indians of steppes Juzh. America, used in a horse hunt, - one or several spheres (from a stone, later - from metal), attached to belts; at a dush belts entangle legs or a neck animal.
  • BOLANSKY PASS, in Pakistan, on the joint of mountains Mekran and Sulejmanovyh. An altitude of 1792 m. The railway and the highways master from Pakistan to border{limit} with Afghanistan.
  • BOLGAR (Bulgar), medieval (10-15 centuries) city, in 10-12 centuries capital Bulgarii Volzhsko-Kamskoj. Residues ok. Seconds Bolgary Tatarii. Inhabited, craft and commercial quarters, mosques, baths, mausoleums and so forth.
  • BULGARIA, Republic Bulgaria, (Republic Blgarija), the state in the south of Europe, on Balkan p-ove, is washed against by Black m. of 110,9 thousand êì2. The population 8,47 million person (1993), basically bolgary; Turks, the gipsy live also, etc. The Urban population of 67 % (1993). The official language - Bulgarian. The majority of believers - orthodox, is moslems - sunnity. Administrative territorial division: 9 ranges (up to 1987 - 28 districts). Capital - Sofia. The chief of state - the president. The body of legislation - unicameral public assembly. A large part of country - mountain hrebty Stara Planina, the Sredna-mountain, Rila Planina with Musala (a peak level Balkan p-ova, 2925 ì), Pirin, Rhodope. In a north - plain Nizhnedunajskaja, at the centre - Kazanlykskaja a hollow, to the south - extensive Verhnefrakijskaja nizm. A climate moderate, in the south transient{berthing} to Mediterranean. On plains mean temperatures of January from? 2 up to 2 °C, July up to 25 °C. Rainfall annually from 450 mm on plains up to 1300 mm in mountains. The large rivers - Danube, Maritsa. Woods (ok. 1/3 terrains) predominary deciduous. National parks: Vitasha, Golden sands, Ropotamo, Steneto, etc. The Most ancient population - frakijtsy. By 1 century n. e. The terrain of Bulgaria is conquered by Rome, in 395 was part Vost. Roman (Byzantian) empire. In nach. 7 century here settle slavonic nations. In 681 has developed t. n. The first Bulgarian kingdom (in 1018-1187 under an authority of Byzantium), in 1187-1396 existed{breathed} the Second Bulgarian kingdom. In kon. 14 century. Bulgaria is conquered by Ottoman empire. Bulgarian people struggled against a turkish yoke (motion gajdukov, April revolt 1876, etc.) . Bulgaria after a defeat of Turkey in war with Russia 1877-78 is free. With 1879 Bulgaria - the principality (the vassal of Turkey), with 1908 an independent kingdom. In 1891 the Bulgarian social-democratic party is based. Bulgaria participat in the Balkan wars 1912-13. In 1-st world war has acted (with 1915) on the party of Germany. On Nejiskomu to the peace treaty 1919 has lost the considerable terrains, an output to Egejskomu m. September revolt 1923 has been severely suppressed{quenched} by the government which has come to an authority after tumble (June 1923). In March 1941 Bulgaria has been involved in the Berlin pact 1940, a troops of Germany are entered on the Bulgarian terrain. The organizer of armed anti-fascist extirpation was the Communist Party. In 1942 the Domestic front is built led by the communists, organizational consolidated association of patriotic forces. After the introduction of the Soviet Army on terrain of Bulgaria, a monarchic mode was will overthrow. On September, 9 1944 the first government of Domestic front is built. On September, 15 1946 Bulgaria is professed by national republic. In June 1990 at elections to the Public assembly, taking place on the multi-party basis{fundamentals}, has conquered the Bulgarian socialist party (about 1990 new title of Communist Party), in December the coalition government generated{formed}. In October 1991 on parliamentary elections victory the coalition of motions and organizations has gained Soyuz of democratic forces (it is based in December 1989) .Bolgarija - industrial - agrarian country. A lobe in a gross internal product, 1992, %: an industry and construction 46,6, village and a forestry 10,4. Production of brown coal 30,3 million t (1992). Manufacture of the electric power 35,6 billion kVt·ch (1992). Are most developed a machine industry (manufacture of electric wire rope hoists and electrocars, tractors, farm machines, a computer, rigs) and a flavoring industry (tobacco, plodokonservnaja). Black and nonferrous machine industry. Chemical and petrochemical, a woodworking industry. In an agriculture the plant growing prevails{dominates}. Manufacture of a grain and pulse crops (6,7 million t in 1992, primarily wheat, corn), tobacco, vegetables, fruits, a grape, efirnomaslichnyh crops (1 place in the world on manufacture and export of a rose oil). Meat - sherstnoe animal husbandry (a large horned stock, sheeps, pigs). Fishery. Length (1992, one thousand in km) railways 6,6, motorways 36,9. Navigation across Danube. The tonnage of a marine merchant marine fleet ok. 2 million register gross tons (1992). Primary ports: Varna, Burgas. Marine ferry communication{connection} Varna - Ilyichevsk (Ukraine). Health resorts of international value Golden Sands, Albena, the Solar Shore. Export: machine-building, electrotechnical, chemical production, plastics materials, vegetables, fruits, wine, tobacco items. Ok. 1/2 foreign trade turnovers fall at countries Zap. Europe. Foreign tourism (over 1 million. The person annually). Monetary unit - a lion.
  • BULGARIA VOLZHSKO-KAMSKAJA, see Bulgarija Volzhsko-Kamskaja.
  • The BULGARIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, conducts a history with 1869; it is reorganized in 1949. Is in Sofia. In 1991 over 50 academies, over 80 corresponding members, over 90 foreign members; 10 exploratory and training centers (integrate scientific research institute and laboratories AN and the Sofia university and other a scientific institute).
  • BULGARIAN LEGIJA, military connections of the Bulgarian emigrants (1-n Bulgarian legija - ok. 500 person in 1861-62; 2-n - ok. 200 person in 1867-68), it is built in Belgrade with a goal of the struggle for discharging of Bulgaria of an osmanli yoke. Dissolved by the Serbian government.
  • The BULGARIAN BACILLUS, kind{view} of lactic asid bacteria. It is applied to a leavening of milk which fast curdles under action of the Bulgarian bacillus at t 45-50 °C.
  • BULGARIAN AGRICULTURAL NATIONAL UNION (BZNS), is based in 1899. Outstanding figures - A.Stambolijsky, G.Trajkov, etc.