Sunday, May 27, 2007

  • BENUA Nikolay Leontjevich (1813-98), the Russian architect. It is masterful imitated historical styles (frejlinskie at home in Petrodvorets, 1858; spirit of Baroque). Has constructed a number{series} of railroad stations (in Petrodvorets, 1855-57) where has played back Gothic forms of a hackberry in metalworks.
  • BOXES (frants. baignoire), than lie at theatre on both parties of front stalls at a level of the scene or is a little bit lower.
  • BENUE (Benue), the river in Cameroon and Nigeria, the left-handed in-leak{influx} of Niger. 1300 kms, the area of basin of 441 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water 3170 m3 / with. It is navigable from. Ibi, in a flush period - from Garua.
  • BENUE - KONGOLEZSKIE TONGUES, podsemja nigero-kongolezskih tongues.
  • BENKOV Paul Petrovich (1879-1949), the painter, the honored worker of arts of Uzbekistan (1939). The master of plein-air painting (" the Girl with dutarom ", 1947). Has played a major role in education of national artists in Tatarii and Uzbekistan.
  • BENJAN (Bunyan) John (1628-88), the English writer, the religious ecclesiast. In the allegorical novel " Traveling of the pilgrim " (1678-84) parasitism and korystoljubiju the maximum social layers is stood up to{countered;resisted} with virtues of simple people. In " Life and morses of Mr Bedmana " (1680) - the first mode{image} in the English literature of the bourgeois grabber.
  • BENJUK (Beniuc) Mihaj (r. 1907), the Romanian writer. The Revoljutsionno-romantic collection " Songs of perdition " (1938). The statement{confirmation} of new attitudes{relations} in lyrical collections " the Apple tree at a road " (1954), " the Night patrol " (1975.) Roman " Dull explosion " (1971) about communists of 40th.
  • "BEOVULF" (Beowulf), the ancient Anglo-Saxon epos. It is called named the protagonist, legendary king of the Scandinavian nation in the south of Sweden. In the basis{fundamentals} of a poem the national legends which are going back to 1-st floor. 6 century and informing echoes of historical events. A list nach. 10 century - in the British museum.
  • BEOLKO (Beolco) Angelo (scenic name Rudzante) (1502-42), the italian playwright and the actor. Has expanded capabilities t. n. A scientific comedy of Revitalization, having entered into it{her} dialects and features of a national household activities (comedy "Ankonitanka", "Cow", "Pjovana").
  • BEOTARHI, in Other. Greeces the maximum magistrates in Boeotia.
  • BEOTIJSKY the UNION, federation of the ancient greek states in Boeotia (range in Compare. Greeces) led by Thebes since 6 century up to n. e. In 4 century at Pelopide and Epaminonde - the largest political force in Greece. In 338 it dissolved, in 3-2 centuries it recovered{restored}, in 146 up to n. e. Has stopped existence after seizure of Greece by Rome.
  • BEPPU, city and a port in Japan, on about. Kyushu. 130 thousand inhabitants (1990). Nonferrous machine industry, a chemical and textile industry. Balneoklimatichesky a health resort; the centre of tourism. Research institutes of a volcanology, a balneology.
  • BAIRE (Baer) Pol (1833-86), the French doctor, the physiologist, the public figure. In 1882-86 - minister for enlightenment of France. Conducted probes on replanting organs and tissues from one animal to other and on a cross circulation. His{its} classical transactionses on physiology of respiration (1869) and to influence of a barometric pressure on an organism (1878) have been appreciated as basic for air and submerged medicine later. For the first time has studied hyperbaric oxygenation, symptoms of an oxygen poisoning.
  • BERARDIUSY, the same, that plavuny.
  • BERBANK (Burbank) Luther (1849-1926), the American selector. The writer of many grades of fruit, vegetable, field and decorative crops.
  • BERBEDZH (Burbage) Richard (ok. 1567-1619), the English actor. The representative of theatre of Renaissance. Friend U.Shakespeare who for Berbedzha has created roles of Hamlet, Otello, Makbeta, etc.
  • BERBERA, city and port in Somalia, on coast Adenos a hall. 65 thousand inhabitants (1981). Fishery. Cement plant.
  • BERBERINE, the alkaloid keeping in leaves of a barberry and other plants of different sets. A sulphate of a berberine - a cholagogue means.
  • BELYANIN Peter Nikolaevich (r. 1926), the Russian scientist in range of a machine industry, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1984). Transactionses on design automation of different production processes, robotics and nonrigid industrial systems. The lenin premium (1980), the State premium of the USSR (1986).
  • BELJANKI, a set of diurnal butterflies. Colour white, yellow, orange, rarely black. A wing - span up to 8 see. Ok. 500 kinds{views}. Are distributed widely. Caterpillars some beljanok (cabbage butterflies, cabbage - worms, pierid butterflies, etc.) damage agricultural crops. 15 kinds{views} are guarded.
  • BELJANKIN Gennady Ivanovich (r. 1927), the Russian architect, the national architect of the USSR (1987). The chief architect of Ekaterinburg (with 1973). The main{basic} activities in Ekaterinburg: a music hall "Cosmos" (1967), the Palace of youth (1973), etc.; monuments and monuments.
  • BELJANKIN Dmitry Stepanovich (1876-1953), the Russian petrographer, the founder of technical petrography, academician AN the USSR (1943). Led probes on Ural, Caucasus, etc. Studied synthetic technical stones (refractories, abradants, etc.).
  • BELJANSKY Alexander Aleksandrovich (1906-81), the statesman. In 1938-41 production manager of the Voronezh aircraft manufacturing plant, in 1942-55 director of aircraft manufacturing plants in Moscow and Kuibyshev effecting shturmoviki Ooze.
  • BELJAUSKAS (Bieliauskas) Alfonsas (r. 1923), the Lithuanian writer, the national writer of Lithuania (1983). Novels " we still shall meet, Vilma! " (1962), " the Kaunas novel " (1966), " Then in a rain " (1977), " Hangover times " (1981), " the Vilnius hills " (1986).
  • BEM (Boehm) Gottfried (r .1920), the german architect. Trained in Munich. Plotted church buildings, owner-occupied dwellings spirit of the medieval german architecture and using achievements of the off-the-shelf technologies (the Urban hall in Bensberge, 1963).
  • BEM (Bohm) Charles (1894-1981), the Austrian conductor. The chief Dresden (1934-43) and Austrian (1943-45, 1954-56) opera theatres. The large interpretive program of operas of V.A.Mozart, R.Strauss, R.Wagner.
  • BEMBA (bavemba, vavemba), people of group to a bow in a north of Zambia (3,1 million person) and in frontier areas of Zaire. An aggregate number over 3,72 million person (1992). Traditional convictions are saved, there are christians.
  • BEM-BAVERK (Bohm-Bawerk) Ejgen (1851-1914), the Austrian economist. Has acted with the substantiation of limiting{marginal} utility of the theory.
  • BEMBEL Andrey Onufrievich (1905-86), the Byelorussian sculptor, the national artist of Belarus (1955). Monumental a plastic, portraits, monuments, memorial band (a complex " Kurgan Glories ", in memory{remembrance} of the Soviet soldiers who have gorged in breakages for discharging of Belarus from german aggressors, bliz Minsk, 1969, with co-authors).
  • BEMBO (Bembo) Pjetro (1470-1547), the italian writer, the theorist of a literary language and style of Renaissance. " Reasoning in prose about national tongue " (1525), the dialogical tract about raised love " Azolanskie conversations " (1505).
  • BEME (Bohme) JAkob (1575-1624), the german philosopher - panteist. On a trade the cobbler. The mysticism and naturalistic philosophy Beme are penetrated naturally - dialektichekimi by ideas. Has rendered major influence on german romanticism.
  • BOEHMITE, mineral of subclass of oxyhydroxides, AlOOH. Light units of the bean-like form, less often the smallest crystals. Hardness 3,5-4, firmness ok. 3 g / sm3. By origin hypergenic. A main mineral of some bauxites.
  • FLAT (frants. bemol), in music - a mark enacting kickdown of any stage{step} zvukorjada on a demitint. Kickdown of a stage{step} on the whole tint means a take - flat.
  • BEN ALI Zin al-Abidin (r. 1936), the president of Tunis, the chairman of Democratic constitutional association since November 1987. The general (1979). In May 1986 - October 1987 Minister of Internal Affairs, in October 1987 prime minister.
  • BENAVA Abdurrauf (1913-87), the Afghani writer and the public figure. Anticolonial istoriko-publicistic activities; a cycle of educational verses " Sad speculations " (1957).
  • BENAVENTE-I-MARTINES (Benavente y Martinez) Hasinto (1866-1954), the spanish playwright. In plays " Known people " (1896), " Nutrition of wild animals " (1898) criticism of an aristocratic society combines{blends} with scorn for "crowd". In comedies " the Game of interests " (1907), " City cheerful and careless " (1916) - the sermon of intellectual perfecting. Entertainment comedies (" Don Huan was ", 1952; " the Pin in a mouth ", 1953, etc.). The Nobel Prize (1922).
  • BENARDOS Nikolay Nikolaevich (1842-1905), the Russian inventor, one of creators of an electric arc welding of metals. Has offered (1882, the patent 1885) a way of electrical arc welding of metals with the help of baked carbons; other ways of a weldment and soldering.
  • BENARES, city in India, see. Varanasi.
  • BELOBRODSKAJA CROP (in archeology), slavs and Hungarians in Center. To Europe 10-12 centuries. It is called on the burial for a seconds. Bielo-Brdo (in terrain former SFRJU). Burials with trupopolozhenijami, dressings, weapons.
  • BELS Alexander Aleksandrovich (1954-1978), the Russian sportsman (basketball), the deserved master of sport (1972). Center command "Spartak" (Leningrad; 1966-78). The champion of Olympic Games (1972; has made decisive victorious dush on the last sec of a final with a command the USA, including in a history as "golden"), the world (1974), Europe (1969 and 1971), the USSR (1975). The bronze prize-winner of Olympic Games (1976) and a world championship (1970).
  • BELS Alexander Fedorovich (1906-91), the Russian metallurgist, academician AN the USSR (1972), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1966). The main{basic} transactionses on metallurgy of lungs and special alloys. The lenin premium (1964), State premiums of the USSR (1943, 1946, 1949).
  • BELS Vasily Ivanovich (r. 1932), the Russian writer. In novels "Eves" (1972-87), " Year of great fracture " (1989-91) understanding of collectivization as national tradegii. In stories " Customary business " (1966), " Plotnitskie stories " (1968) - poetry and prose of the modern village life, a history of Russian village, art probe of national character. A cycle of comic miniatures " Buhtiny Vologda " (1969), " Lad. Sketches about a national aesthetics " (the separate issuing in 1982). The publicistic novel " All ahead " (1986). The state premium of the USSR (1981).
  • BELS (Below) George a background (1858-1927), the german historian. The main{basic} transactionses on an economic history of medieval Germany. The adherent t. n. A critical direction, retracted the leading part in a history to policy, the right.
  • BELS Grigory Akinfovich (1895-1965), the Russian actor, the national actor of the USSR (1956). On the scene with 1917. With 1945 at Yaroslavl theatre him{it}. Volkova. It was taken out in films: "Michurin" and "Roman - Korsakov" (title roles), etc. The State premium of the USSR (1949).
  • BELS Eugeny Alekseevich (1825-95), the Russian historian. Transactionses about Russian-German attitudes{relations} of 18 century, russko-turkish wars.
  • BELS Ivan Panfilovich (1893-1938), the commander of 1-st rank (1935). In 1919 commander-in-chief a troops of Turkestani republic. In 20-30-Õ commanding a troops of lines IN. It is repressed; it is rehabilitated posthumously.
  • BELS Nikolay Vasiljevich (1891-1982), kristallograf and the geochemist, academician AN the USSR (1953), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1969). Fundamental transactionses under the theory of a close packing of atoms in crystals, crystal chemistry of silikates, methods of decoding of structures of minerals; under guiding Belova the structure over 100 silikates and their analogs is made out. The lenin premium (1974), the State premium of the USSR (1952), the Golden medal him{it}. Lomonosov AN the USSR (1965).
  • BELOVA (Novikova) Elena Dmitrievna (r. 1947), Byelorussian sportsmenka (fencing), the deserved master of sport (1968). CHempionka Olympic Games in personal (1968) and command (1968, 1972, 1976) competitions, repeated chempionka the world and the USSR (in 1969-79).
  • BELOVEZHSKAJA the DENSE FOREST, a forest area in Belarus and Poland, on a watershed of Neman, Zap. Bug and Pripyat. A gross area over 150 thousand ga. In Belarus in terrain of the Brest and Grodno region. Since 13 century Belovezhskaja the Dense forest - a reserved place princely, after an imperial hunt; about 1940 reservation, about 1957 zapovedno-hunting, about 1991 national park Belarus. The area of 87,6 thousand ga. In terrain of Poland national park. Main guarded object - a bison. High-standing borons, grabovo-oak forests, alder forests.
  • BELOVO, city (with 1938) in the Russian Federation, the Kemerovo region, in Kuzbass, on r. Bachat. A depot. 92,3 thousand inhabitants (1992). Factories: zinc, "Kuzbassradio", litejno-mechanic. The enterprises mild and a dairy and meat industry. A state district power station. It is known with 1726.
  • BELOVODSKAJA HIERARCHY, old believe church for popovtsev. It is based in 70th of 19 century. The title from Belovodja. Had adherents in Siberia and Prikamye; after October revolution has broken up.
  • BELOVODE, legendary country of freedom in Russian national legends of 17-19 centuries. In opinion of old believers (see. Belovodskaja hierarchy), she was somewhere on the orient. A substantial pre-image - Buhtarminsky kr. On Altai.
  • BELOGLAZKI, a set of birds of order sparrow. Around of an eye a ring from white plumelets. 80 kinds{views}, predominary in subtropics and tropics of Eastern hemisphere, 2 kinds{views} in Primorski Krai and on Sakhalin. 4 kinds{views} and 3 subspecies in the Red Data Book of the International union of nature protection and natural resources.
  • BELOGLAZOVY, the Russian sportsmen (free-style wrestling), brothers: 1) Anatoly Alekseevich (r. 1956), the deserved master of sport (1977). The champion of Olympic Games (1980), the world (1977, 1978, 1982), Europe (1976), the champion of the USSR (1977-1982), 2) Sergey Alekseevich (r. 1956), the deserved master of sport (1980). The champion of Olympic Games (1980, 1988), the world (1979-87), Europe (1979-88), the USSR (1979-82).
  • WHITE-HEADED Nikolay Andreevich (1834-95), the Russian public figure, the doctor. The friend and biographer S.P.Botkin. With 1861 corrector of "Alloying basket". In 1883-90 actual editor - publisher of the newspaper "Common cause". The writer of memories.
  • BERRY, oil deposit in Saudi Arabia (Persian gulf oil-and-gas-bearing basin). It is open{discovered} in 1964. Deposits on depth of 2,2-2,3 kms. Beginning inventories 1055 million t. Firmness of petroleum of 0,876 g / sm3.
  • BURROWS (Burroughs) William (r. 1914), the American prose writer. One of leaders of motion bitnikov (see " Battered generation "), the writer of novels " Naked lunch " (1959), " the Machine of a ramollissement " (1961), " Cities of red nights " (1981), etc.
  • BERRUGETE (Berruguete), spanish artists: 1) Pedro (ok. 1450-1504), the painter. Combined medieval archaisms with knowledge of a perspective (cycles of patterns from life over. Thomas)... 2) Alonso (ok. 1486-1561), the sculptor, the architect, the painter, son Pedro. The representative of the spanish Renaissance. Ekspressivnye, increased - emotional sculptures ("Transfiguration", 1543-48).
  • BERSALERY (ital. bersagliere, from bersaglio - the target), scapes of an italian infantry (with 1836), specially trained in neat shooting and augmented flights; in 20 century become the basis{fundamentals} of formation samokatnyh and motorcycle parts.
  • BERSENEV Ivan Arhipovich (1762-89), the Russian graver, the thin master of a reproductive gravure a cutter.
  • BERSEN-BEKLEMISHEV Ivan Nikitich (?-1525), the son seignioral, the diplomat, the member of a grand-ducal duma at Ivan III and Vasily III. The chapter of opposition at a yard, opposed strengthening of autocracy. It is executed.
  • BERTALANFI (Bertalanffy) Ludwig a background (1901-72), the Austrian biologist - theorist. With 1949 in the USA and Canada. Has put forward first in the modern science the generalized systemic concept (" a general theory of systems "), which problems - development of the mathematical apparatus of the description of miscellaneous phylums of systems, establishment of an isomorphism of laws in different ranges of knowledge (" the General theory of systems ", 1968).
  • BERTELS Eugeny Eduardovich (1890-1957), the orientalist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1939). Transactionses on a history persian, Tadjik and of some Turkic literatures, probe sufizma and sufijskoj literatures, creativity Firdousi, Dzhami, Navoi, Bottoms. The state premium of the USSR (1948).
  • "BERTELSMAN", izdatelsko-polygraphic concern. Center in Gjuterslo (Germany). K.Bertelsmanom in 1824, publishing house with 1835 is based. In 1950-80 has aggregated over 100 polygraphic and other firms of country and foreign. Issues art, scientific, encyclopaedic (including "Leksikoteka" in 26 vol., with 1972), reference, educational and other literature, casettes and video discs. Distributes production primarily through a network{grid} of book and musical clubs.
  • BERTEN (Bertin) the Rose - tree (an ice-film. A name of Goosefoot ZHanna) (1744-1813), the court dressmaker of the French queen of the Mary - Antuanetty, received a nickname " minister for a mode ".
  • BERTILON (Bertijon) (Bertillon) the Gigolo (1853-1914), the French lawyer, the writer of system of methods of judicial identification (earlier sometimes called "bertiljonazh").
  • BERTINOV Albert Iosifovich (1906-87), the Russian scientist in range of electric machine industry, the honored worker of science and technique of RSFSR (1965), the founder of scientific school. In 1938 under his{its} guiding the first turboalternator in Europe with a hydrogen cooling is built. In 1945-47 headed activities on designing the first all-Union unified series of asynchronous motors by power up to 100 kw.
  • BERTLO (Bertelo) (Berthelot) Pierre Ezhen Marselen (1827-1907), the French chemist and the statesman, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1876). Transactionses on an organic chemistry, chemical kinetics, termo-and an agrochemistry, blasting explosives, a history of chemistry. Synthesized organic compounds of different classes, than has plotted a final defeat to submissions about "vital force". Has invented (1881) bomb calorimeter. Has entered concepts about ekzo-and heat-absorbing reactions. Minister for enlightenment (1886-87), Minister for Foreign Affairs (1895-96).
  • BERTHOLLET SALT, the same, that a potassium a chlorate.
  • BERTHOLLIDES, see. Daltonides and berthollides.
  • BERTOLUCHCHI (Bertolucci) Bernardo (r. 1941), the italian producer and the poet. Has tested{experienced} the strong influence of Items. Pazolini, having inherited from him{it} social krititsizm and ispovedalnost. Most the considerable films: "Conformist", 1970 (on A.Moravia); " the Last tango in Paris ", 1972; " the Twentieth eyelids ", 1976 (epicheskaja a panorama of italian life on stretch poluveka); " the Last emperor ", 1987; " Escaping beauty ", 1996.
  • BURTON (Burton) Richard Frensis (1821-1890), the English traveller. Together with Dzh. H.Speek in 1854-59 probeed Somalia, in 1858 has discovered an eskar. Tanganyika.
  • BURTON (Burton) Robert (1577-1640), the English writer - erudite, the writer encyclopaedic transactionses " Anatomy of a melancholia " (1621), becoming one of the brightest samples of an essayistics of epoch of Baroque.
  • BERDYANSK (in 1939-58 Osipenko), city (with 1835) on Ukraine, Zaporozhye region, a port on the Azov m. A depot. 135 thousand inhabitants (1991). Factories: "Azovkabel", "JUzhgidromash", "Azovselmash", etc.; manufacture of glass-fibre, hydrocarbon oils; flavoring, a light industry. Pedagogical institute. Study of local lore, art museums. Muddy and a climatic health resort. It is based in 1827.
  • BAIRE BOSK, an autumnal grade of a pear of the French origin. Fruits large, with thawing, very soft, incense pulp. Productivity up to 250-300 kg from a tree.
  • COAST, strip of interaction between a land and a water reservoir (a sea, lake, water reservoir) or between a land and a channel (the river, a temporary torrent).
  • BEREGINI, in vostochnoslavjanskoj mythologies of the goddess of a nature, olitsetvorjavshie wood and water physical agents.
  • The COASTAL DEFENCE, forces, a means of fleet and coastal strengthening for the defence of marine bases, ports, a shore and islands. Coast defense implements common efforts of a land forces, a VTR (Naval Forces), air force and a troops of air defence.
  • BEREGOVO, city (with 1946) on Ukraine, Zakarpatye region. A depot. 30,3 thousand inhabitants (1991). Furniture and wood-working combines; flavoring, a light industry; majolikovyj factory, etc. The Gothic church (15 century) Is known from 11 century.
  • COASTAL George Timofeevich (1921-1995), astronaut. A pilot - astronaut of the USSR (1968), the general - lieutenant of aircraft (1977), the participant of Great Domestic war, doubly the Hero of Soviet Union (1944, 1968), the candidate of the psychologic sciences, the deserved pilot - verifier of the USSR (1961). Flight on "Soyuz - 3" (October 1968). The chief of Center of preparation of astronauts him{it}. Gagarin in 1972-87. The state premium of the USSR (1981).
  • COASTAL BACKBONE (Coast Range), in the west of Canada and the USA. Ok. 1700 kms. An altitude up to 4042 m (. Uoddington). Coniferous forests. Icehouses, places descended up to a sea level.
  • BANK PROTECTED STRUCTURES, minister for protection of coasts of water reservoirs against blasting influence of waves, flows, head of water, ice, etc. Dike dams concern To bank protected structures, wave absorbers, gabions, cross groynes, dams, etc.
  • BEREZHANY, city (with 1939) on Ukraine, the Ternopol region. A depot. 17,7 thousand inhabitants (1991). A glass-works, furniture combine, a food-processing industry. It is known with 1375.
  • BEREZHKOV Nikolay Georgievich (1886-1956), the Russian historian, the doctor of historical sciences. Transactionses on a history of the Great principality of the Lithuanian 14-16 centuries, chronology of the Russian annals.
  • BIRCH, city (with 1940) in Belarus, the Brest region, bliz zh.-d. An item. A birch - Kartuskaja. 26,0 thousand inhabitants (1991). Motororemontnyj factory; metal-working, a food-processing industry; manufacture of a building materials. A historico-revolutionary museum.
  • BIRCH, stem of trees and bushes of a set of a birch family. Routinely secrete 120-140 (under other data, 65) kinds{views}, in moderate and cool belts of Boreal hemisphere and in mountains of subtropics. Forest forming and decorative breed. The greatest economic value have a birch povislaja, or warty, and white birch. Wood use in a cabinet-work, on hand-made articles; kidneys and leaves as a urinative, cholagogue means. 5 kinds{views} are guarded. See also the Karelian birch.
  • BEREZAN, city (with 1981) on Ukraine, the Kiev region. A depot. 15,2 thousand inhabitants (1991). A woollen-goods factory; manufacture of a building materials.
  • BEREZAN (in antique time - Borisfen), an island in Black m., at an orifice in Dneprovsky a firth, bliz Ochakov. On Berezani there were rasstreljany active participants of the Sevastopol revolt 1905: lieutenant P.P.Schmidt, mariners A.I.Gladkov, N.G.Antonenko, S.P.Chastnik.
  • "BEREZIL", the title (up to 1935) the Kharkov Ukrainian drama theatre.
  • BEJNEKS (Beineix) Jean - Jacque (r. 1946), the French film director. Has acquired popularity a debut pattern "Divine" (1982). Has delivered films: " moon in a gutter " (1983), " Betti Blju " (1986), "Otaku" (1994), etc.
  • BEIRA (Beira), city and a port in Mozambique, an administrative centre prov. Sofala. 292 thousand inhabitants (1989). An international airport. The alimentary, textile, metal-working enterprises.
  • BEIRUT, capital of Lebanon, port on Mediterranean m. 1,5 million inhabitants (1990, with suburbs). Mild, a food-processing industry. An international airport. Universities. Museums. It is known with 18 (or 15) century up to n. e. Under title Berit, Beruta. In the ellinistichesko-Roman season{term} - the large trading - craft centre. In 7 century it is included in Arabian halifat. In 14-15 centuries under an authority egyptian mamljukov. In 1516-1918 in structure of Ottoman empire. In 1920-43 adm. ts. Mandated France of Lebanon, with 1943 capital of independent Lebanon. The financial centre. Residues of Phoenician, Roman and byzantian constructions, mosques: Dzhami al-Omari (13 century), "Palace" (nach. 16 century).
  • BEJS-BALLOT (Buys Ballot) Hristofor Henrik Diderik (1817-90), the Netherlands meteorologist, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1887). One of organizers and the first director (with 1854) Meteorological institute in a Utrecht. In 1857 has empirically contacted between a wind direction and a baric gradient.
  • BASEBALL (English baseball), sporting ball game and the beaten, recalling laptu, on a site 175 h 125 m, in which 2 commands on 9 (North American baseball) or on 11 (the Welsh baseball) players each participate. Rhodinum of baseball - England; the modern game rules with 1845 (see also Softbol, Cricket). In International federation of baseball (IBF; 71 country (1991) is based in 1921). World championships with 1938. In the program of Olympic Games with 1992.
  • BEJSI (Basie) Kaunt (an ice-film. A name Bejsi William) (1904-84), the American jazz pianist. In 1930th has organized an orchestra which has massed the most sample qualities of a swing in the performance{fulfillment}. Has created a number{series} of original performing methods, having given a swing special dynamism and depth. Has put in pawn a fundamentals of styles of the modern jazz, afterwards developed by musicians bopa and kula. Has introduced new features to technique ansamblevogo playing music. Has created the whole direction within the framework of style a swing, the bound first of all with development of a Negro jazz.
  • BEJSI (Basie) Kaunt (an ice-film. A name Bejsi William) (1904-84), the American jazz pianist. In 1930th has organized an orchestra which has massed the most sample qualities of a swing in the performance{fulfillment}. Has created a number{series} of original performing methods, having given a swing special dynamism and depth. Has put in pawn a fundamentals of styles of the modern jazz, afterwards developed by musicians bopa and kula. Has introduced new features to technique ansamblevogo playing music. Has created the whole direction within the framework of style a swing, the bound first of all with development of a Negro jazz.
  • BEJSI (Basie) William (nickname Kaunt, Count) (1904-84), the American jazz pianist. The Negro. The representative of style "suing". Supervised over a jazz orchestra in Kansas City (with 1935), then in New York.
  • BASIC (BASIC; from initial characters of English words Beginners - for initial, All-purpose - generalpurpose, Symbolic - symbolical, Instruction - educational, Code - a code), the programming language oriented on education{learning} to the bases{fundamentals} of programming. It is used basically at programming on the private computer.
  • BEJSUGSKY the FIRTH, in the west lowlands Kubano-Priazovskoj. 272 êì2. Runs r. Bejsug. It is paired to the Azov m.
  • BEJT (arab)., a couplet in poetry of peoples Short-range and Compare. The orient, routinely contains a finished thought. From bejtov gazelles, kasydy, mesnevi, rubai and products{creations} of other genres of classical eastern poetry are compounded{made}. Verses can be rhymed (for phylum aa, ba, ca) and unrhymed.
  • BEJTEVEH (Buytewech) Willem (1591-1624), the Dutch painter and the schedule{chart}. One of creators of a genre art and a national landscape.
  • BEJTENZORG (Buitenzorg), the Dutch title of. Bogor in Indonesia.
  • BEJTS (Bates) Henry Uolter (1825-92), the English scientist. Transactionses on etnomofaune JUzh. America. For the first time has described the phenomena of a mimicry (1862).
  • BEJHAKI Abu-l-Fazl (995-1077), the Iranian historian. Transactionses on a history of Iran of 10-11 centuries.
  • BEJSHENALIEV SHukurbek (r. 1928), the Kirghiz writer. Novels " the Path{Route} fortunately " (kn. 1-2, 1957-62), " the Voice of successors " (1969), " the Steel feather " (1981); stories, plays about people of Kirghizia.
  • BEJSHENALIEVA Bjubjusara (1926-73), the Kirghiz actress of ballet, the national actress of the USSR (1958). With 1941 at the Kirghiz theatre of opera and ballet (Frunze).
  • BEK (trot race, bej) (the turki. - the master, mister; a synonym the arab. Emir), 1) a title znati in countries Short-range and Compare. The orient. For Turkic peoples Compare. Asia and Transcaucasia in Middle Ages and new time a title of the landowner... 2) In Turkey about 2-nd floor. 19 century up to 1934 form of the circulation... 3) In Tunis in 1705-1957 hereditary governor.
  • BEK Alexander Alfredovich (1902/03-72), the Russian writer. The story about heroic protection of Moscow in 1941 "highways Volokolamskoe" (1943-44), the novel " Life Berezhkova " (1956.) Roman " New destination " (it is published in 1986) about the moral problems generated by command system of steering in 1930-50-Õ. Roman " For other day " (it is uncompleted, published in 1989) about headstreams of a phenomenon stalinshchiny.
  • BEKABAD (up to 1964 Begovat), city (with 1945) in Uzbekistan, the Tashkent region, on r. Syr-Darya. A depot. 82,8 thousand inhabitants (1991). A metallurgical plant, manufacture of a building materials (cement combine, etc.); food industry enterprises.
  • BEKAR (frants. becarre) (musical), a mark cancelling increase or kickdown of any stage{step} zvukorjada on a demitint or on the whole tint.
  • SNIPES, stem of birds of a set of plover birds. Length up to 30 see 13 kinds{views}. Are distributed widely (except for Australia). Dwell{live} in crude and morasses. During current flights lateral control feathers emit peculiar notes. Object of a hunt. The Japanese snipe - in Russia is rare and is guarded.
  • BEK-BUDI, the title of Karshi in Uzbekistan in 1926-37.
  • BEKDASH, a urban settlement in Turkmenii, the Balkan region, a port on the Caspian m. Marine ferry crossing Bekdash - Baku. 7,3 thousand inhabitants (1991.) softwares "Karabogazsulfat".
  • BEKET (Becket) Thomas (1118-70), archbishop Kenterberijsky with 1162; the chancellor of England with 1155. The opponent policies Genriha II, directed on subordination of the English church of temporal power. It is killed under the order of king.
  • BEKET (Becket) Uelton (1902-69), the American architect. Has worked out a concept " complex{integrated} designing " (total design), providing a team work of architects, engineers, artists on a landscape at all stages of execution of the order.
  • BEKETOV Alexander Ivanovich (r. 1970), the Russian sportsman (fencing on swords). The deserved master of sport (1996). The champion of Olympic Games (1996) and Russia (1994) in personal offset.
  • BEKETOV Alexey Nikolaevich (1862-1941), the Ukrainian architect. Worked in Kharkov predominary in traditions Russian klassitsisticheskoj architectures: site development of a square. Teveleva (1898-1907), bodies of the Agricultural institute (1907-12), bank (1932).
  • BEKETOV Andrey Nikolaevich (1825-1902), the Russian botanik-evolutionist, one of founders of structural botany and phytogeography, the founder of scientific school, corresponding member (1891), the honorary member (1895) Petersburg AN. Studied regularities of a structure of vegetative organs of plants, problems of zonality of a plant cover and expediency in wildlife. The writer of the first Russian tutorial "Phytogeography" (1896).
  • BEKETOV Nikolay Nikolaevich (1827-1911), the Russian scientist, the founder of domestic school fizikohimikov, the academician Petersburg AN (1886). Brother Andrey Nikolaevicha Beketova. Has discovered a way of restoration of metals from their oxides, having put in pawn a fundamentals of aluminothermy. Has found replacement{expulsion} of metals from solutions of their salts hydrogen under pressure. Has organized first in Russia thermochemical laboratories.
  • BEKESHI (Bekesy) Djerd (George) (1899-1972), physics. By origin the Hungarian, with 1947 in the USA. Transactionses on a bioacoustics. Has discovered the physical mechanism of exaltation in an internal ear. The Nobel Prize (1961).
  • BEKESCSABA (Bekescsaba), city in a southeast of Hungary, an administrative centre medje Bekesh. 70 thousand inhabitants (1985). Machine-tool construction, an agricultural machine industry, textile, a food-processing industry.
  • BEKINGEM (Bakingem) (Buckingham) George Viljers (1592-1628), duke, a favorite and minister for the English kings of Jacob I and Charles I Stjuartov. It was condemned by parliamentary opposition and puritans as a main explorer absoljutistskoj policies. It is killed by the army officer.
  • BEKKARIA (Beccaria) CHezare (1738-94), the italian educator, the lawyer, the publicist. Ideas Bekkaria about necessity of a proportionality of punishment and a crime, etc. have played the important role in formation of democratic principles of a criminal law.
  • BEKKE (Becke) Fridrih (1855-1931), Austrian mineralog and the petrographer, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1912). Has developed an immersion method of measurement of refractive indexes of solid matters (method Bekke). Has placed{installed} the law of a sectorial structure of crystals (law Bekke).
  • BEKKENBAUER (Bechenbauer) Frants (r. 1945), the german sportsman and the trainer. It adjudicated by the best football player of Europe (1972, 1976). The world champion (1974) and Europe (1972), the owner of the Cup of european champions (1974, 1975, 1976). The trainer of a combined team of the Germany (1987-90) which have won a world championship 1990.
  • " TROT RACE TO I STAIN ", 16.9-15.10.1914, the title of three counter operations of the anglo-French and German armies during 1-st world war. Opponents "jumps{discontinuities}" advanced from r. Oise to Boreal m., in vain attempting to bypass the open flanks one another and when have reached{achieved} a shore, the item front was placed{installed}.
  • TROT RACE sporting, one of principal views of track and field: trot race the smooth (on a cap, highway), with interruptings - barriers (including stipl-chejz), cross-country, marathon.
  • TROT RACE rysistye, a kind{view} of horse tests.
  • CURSORIAL BIRDS, the same, that keelless birds.
  • BEGELDINOV Talgat JAkubekovich (r. 1922), doubly the Hero of Soviet Union (1944, 1945), the colonel (1975). In Great Domestic war in an attack aviation, the regiment commander; over 300 sorties.
  • RIVER HORSES, a set of cloven-hoofed animals of a section not ruminant. 2 kinds{views}, in Equatorial Africa. For the dace river horse (hippopotamus) the length of a body up to 4,5 m, weighs 2-3,2 (sometimes up to 4) t. The nanous river horse (the length of a body of 1,7-1,8 m, weighs up to 250-270 kg). It is rare. In the Red Data Book of the International union of nature protection and natural resources.
  • BEGETRIJA (isp. behetria), in medieval Spain (primarily in Castile and Leon) the free country community using self-management. Begetrii arose in season{term} Rekonkisty. Begetrii the right to elect was granted of the seigneur from among feudal lords; during war begetrii bore a military service.
  • BEGIN Menahem (1913-92), the prime minister of Israel in 1977-83. (1978) Camp - Devidskie has signed agreements and (1979) agreement with Egypt. Up to 1983 leader of the unit of consignments Likud (it is based in 1973) and the chairman of consignment Herut included in him{it} (is based in 1948). The Nobel Prize of the world (1978) - for the shares contributing " to comprehension and human contact pieces between Egypt and Israel ".
  • BEGINAZH (frants. beguinage) (begejnhof), in Belgium and Netherlands a settlement like a monastery, with keljami for lone women (widows and fatherlesses).
  • BEGICHEV Dmitry Nikitich (1786-1855), the Russian writer. Patterns of a nobiliary household activities in novels " Set Holmskih " (1832), "Olga" (1840), stories " Provincial scenes " (1840), etc.
  • BEGICHEV (Bigichev) Nikifor Alekseevich (1874-1927), the Russian seaman, the polar traveller. The participant of expedition E.V.Tollja in 1900-02, search of crew members of "Modes" in 1922. Has discovered 2 islands for escaping Hatangskogo a hall., called as his{its} name.
  • BEGICHEVA the MAJOR ISLAND, in m. Laptevyh, for escaping Hatangskogo a hall., in Yakutia. Ok. 1800 êì2. An altitude up to 201 m. Tundra vegetation. A craft of white foxes and reindeers. A lair of sea cows.
  • BEGLOPOPOVTSY, flow among popovtsev. Has arisen in kon. 17 century, actuated sketchy priests, otoshedshih from an official orthodox church. The basis{fundamentals} of communities was compounded{made} with the faces covered from imperial authorities. Nowadays the smallest group of old believers. With 1923 has archbishop (. Novozybkov). The official self-title - drevlepravoslavnaja church.
  • BEGLJAROV Sergey Nikitovich (1898-1949), the Turkmen artist, the honored worker of arts Turkmenii (1939). The writer of satirical drawings (a series " Phylums of aged Ashkhabad ", 20th), portraits - phylums ("Turkmenki", 1928), genre and theme cloths, landscapes.
  • BEGONIA, stem of grasses, bushes or subshrubs of a set of a begonia family. Ok. 900 kinds{views}, in tropics and subtropics (except for Australia). Many kinds{views} cultivate in rooms, gardens.
  • " ESCAPE BEHAVIOR FROM MONEY ", in the seasons{terms} of acute inflation tendency of holders of depreciated folding money to save of them by buying up of the goods, movable and a real estate. Results in a strain of consumer demand (the goods are purchased not for consumption, and for insurance upon money deprecation) and to intensifying of inflation.
  • DROSHKY, set of birds of order rzhankoobraznyh. 10 kinds{views}, in deserts of Africa and JUgo-Zap. Asia, on about. Sri Lanka, in Australia; 1 kind{view} in JUzh. Turkmenii.
  • CHASERS (kollerganged bowls), a breaker by crushing and scuffings the rollers rolled in a bottom of a cast-iron bowl; sometimes - also for amalgamation (napr., auric ores).
  • TRAVELING WAVE, wave, which at distribution{propagation} to medium tolerates power (as against a standing wave), napr. An elastic wave in a rod, a pile of gas, a liquid, an electromagnetic wave along a range line, in the waveguide.
  • TROUBLE the MOST EXCELLENT (Bede, Beda, Baeda Venerabilis) (672 or 673 - ok. 735), Anglo-Saxon letopisets, the outlet box; the writer " the Church history of people anglov " - the most valuable source on a history of England of 7-8 centuries.
  • BERKOVSKY Nahum Jakovlevich (1901-72), the literary critic. The main{basic} transactionses on a history of the foreign literature and theatre, a history and the theory of romanticism, international relations of the Russian literature.
  • GOLDEN EAGLE, predatory bird of a set hawk. Length up to 90 see In Eurasia, the Sowing. To America, the Sowing. To Africa. Can long stew; production suffices on ground. It is used as a trap bird. It is guarded.
  • BERLAGE (Berlage) Hendrik Petrjus (1856-1934), the Netherlands architect. Aspired{tried} to a rationality, singleness and geometrical strictness of a composition (Exchange in Amsterdam, 1897-1903; the Municipal museum in Hague, 1916-35).
  • BERLAD, city and range in 11-13 centuries in a lower reaches of Danube (nowadays. Byrlad in Romania). Raznoplemennoe the population, fugitives from a press from Russian principalities - berladniki. A political dependence from the Kiev Russia, Galitskogo principalities; sometimes do-it-yourself knjazja.
  • BERLANGA (Berlanga) Luis Garsija (r. 1921), the spanish scripter and the producer. In the bright satirical form ridiculed orders and tempers of Spain in the season{term} of board Ex ("Executioner", 1963; " the National gun ", 1978; " National property ", 1981, etc.).
  • BERLEZE (Berlese) Antonio (1863-1927), the italian zoologist. Transactionses on biology and anatomy of hexapods (including harmful shchitovok and diptera), mites and the lowest terraneous arthropods. One of osnovatelej a bioassay technique of a pest control of agricultural plants. The writer of a hypothesis about an origin of a metamorphosis for hexapods.
  • BERLI Adolf Ogastes
  • BERLI (Berle) Adolf Ogastes (1895-1971), the American economist and the lawyer. One of creators of " administrative revolution " theories.
  • BERLIN (Berlin), capital of Germany. It is located at a lockin r. SHpre in r. Havel, on the shipping canals connecting{linking} Berlin with rr. Elba and Oder. The area ok. 890 êì2. The population 4,3 million person in 1939, ok. 2,8 million person in 1945, 3,3 million person in 1949, 3,5 million person in 1992. With 1990 do-it-yourself administrative unit. International airports SHenefeld, Tempelhof and Tegel. Underground railway. Main industries - a machine industry (electrotechnical, electronic, instrumentation technologies, general and transport), himiko-pharmacological (manufacture of medicines and products, the thin organic synthesis), polygraphic, textile, sewing, flavoring. As the city Berlin has arisen in 1-st floor. 13 century. With 1486 capital of Brandenburg (then Prussia), with 1871 - Germany. Berlin - the largest industrial, cultural and a centre of science of Germany, one of the main centres German revolutionary and working-class movement (Revolution 1848-49, November revolutions 1918, etc.) . On a final stage of Great Domestic war in Europe the Soviet troops 2.5.1945 have completely taken possession of city (see. The Berlin operation). After rout of fascist Germany the terrain of Berlin separated into zones of occupation of the USSR, the USA, the Great Britain and France. The western mandatory powers have conducted elections to urban parliament (in 1948). In eastern part 7.10.1949 the German Democratic Republic and Berlin has been professed is declared by capital of the German Democratic Republic. In 1961 under the recommendation of meeting of country leaders - participants of the Warsaw agreement was sooruzhena " the Berlin wall " (system of defensive structures between the German Democratic Republic and Zap. Berlin a general expansion of 162 kms, including 45 kms in urban matrix) actually for the arrest of mass out flux of the population of the German Democratic Republic to the West. As a result of political vicissitudes in the German Democratic Republic (November - December 1989) in 1990 wall has been demounted. After apposition of the German Democratic Republic to Federative Republic of Germany 3.10.1990 status of federal capital in consolidated Germany has transfered from Bonn to Berlin. Universities. Theatres: opera, " Komishe operas ", " Berliner band ", etc. The Berlin state museums, the Museum of a german history, study of local lore, etc. Zoological gardens. Gothic churches of 13-14 centuries, baroque and klassitsisticheskie bands of 17-19 centuries. Games XI The Olympic (1936).
  • BERLIN Alexander Aleksandrovich (r. 1940), the Russian scientist, corresponding member Russian AN (1994). Probes in range of chemistry and physics vysokomoljarnyh connections and composites.
  • BERLIN Alfred Anisimovich (1912-78), the Russian chemist. The honored worker of science and technique of Russia (1978). Transactionses on chemistry and polymer technologies. Has created scientific fundamentalses of obtaining and a foam moulding. Has developed ways of obtaining of oligomers and polymeric materials on their basis{fundamentals}. The state premium of the USSR (1949).
  • BERLIN (Berlin) Isajja (r. 1909), the English thinker, the historian of european political and ethical idea of New time. The native of Russia. Transfers{translations} of the Russian literature, memory on O.Haksli, A.A.Ahmatovoj, B.L.Pasternake. Books " Four sketches about freedom " (1969), " Russian thinkers " (1978), " Concepts and grades. Philosophical sketches " (1978), " Against the stream. Sketches on a history of ideas " (1979), " Personal impressions " (1980).
  • BERLINGUER (Berlinguer) Enriko (1922-1984), the secretary general of Italian Communist Party (IKP) with 1972. In 1943-45 participant of movement of Resistance. In 1950-56 secretary general of Italian federation of communist youth.
  • " BERLINER BAND " (Berliner Ensemble), german drama theatre. It is based in 1949 in Berlin by B.Brecht and E.Vejgel as theatre of an anti-fascist and antimilitarist directivity. Actuates in repertoir of product{creation} german and foreign (including Russian) dramatic art.
  • The BERLIN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, one of main centres of science of Germany up to 1945. Conducts a history from the Brandenburg science foundation (it is based in 1700; the president - G.Lejbnits), with 1744 Berlin royal AN; later the Berlin royal academy of sciences and literatures, Prussian AN. It is recreated in 1946 (in 1949-89 - AN the German Democratic Republic).
  • The BERLIN CONFERENCE 1884-85, international conference of 14 states (the Great Britain, Germany, Russia, France, the USA, Belgium, Portugal, etc.) on the African problems. Congo (basically terrain sovr. Zaire) it has been formally declared by "independent state" led by Belgian king Leopoldom II.
  • BERLIN 16.4-8.5.1945 OPERATION, during Great Domestic war. The Soviet troops of 1-st and 2-nd Byelorussian and 1-st Ukrainian of fronts (Marshals of Soviet Union G.K.Zhukov, K.K.Rokossovsky, I.S.Konev) have broken through the defence of a german troops on rr. Oder, Naas and Zelovskih altitudes, large groupings of a german troops in Berlin and jugo-to the east of Berlin have enclosed, and then in persistent breakages liquidated them. On April, 30 the Soviet troops have taken possession of storm rejhstagom; on May, 2 residues of the Berlin garrison capitulated. On May, 8 representatives of the German command have signed act of unconditional surrender of armed forces of fascist Germany in Berlin.
  • The BERLIN STATE MUSEUMS, one of the largest museum complexes in the world. It is based in 1830. Actuate National passageway, Picture passageway, Peredneaziatsky a museum, the Museum of moslem faith, the Egyptian museum, Antique collection, New national passageway, the Ethnographic museum, etc.
  • The BERLIN CONGRESS 1878, is called for revision of conditions the Dignity - Stefanskogo of the world 1878 under the initiative of the Great Britain and Austria-Hungary acting against intensifying of items of Russia on the Balkans. Other participants: Germany, France, Italy and Turkey. The Russian government which has appeared in a diplomatic isolation has made concessions. The Berlin tract is signed.
  • TROUBLE Leonid Ignatjevich (1920-76), doubly the Hero of Soviet Union (1944, 1945), the general - lieutenant of the aircraft (1972), the deserved military pilot of the USSR (1971). In Great Domestic war in an attack aviation, the mate of the regiment commander; over 200 sorties.
  • BEDAUJE TONGUE (bedzha tongue), tongue of people bedzha. Falls into kushitskoj branches afrazijskih tongues. Unwritten.
  • BEDEKER (Baedeker) Charles (1801-59), the german publisher. Has based in 1827 in Koblenz publishing house of guidebooks on different countries. Word "Bedeker" has become the title of guidebooks which prolongs to issue firm " K.Bedeker " (with 1958 in Freiburg, Germany; in 80th has come in publishing group " Ëàíãåíøåéäò ").
  • BEDZHA (bedauje), people of group kushitov on north-east of Sudan (ok. 1,75 million person) and in adjacent areas of Ethiopia and Egypt. General chisl. 1,85 million person (1992). Tongue bedauje. On religion moslems - sunnity.
  • BEDZHAIJA (Bougie), city in a north of Algeria, an administrative centre vilaji Bedzhaija. 124 thousand inhabitants (1987). A port (export of petroleum and iron oxide). A termination of oil pipelines from deposits in Sahara. The flavoring, cement enterprises.
  • BEDIL Mirza Abdulkadir (1644-1720 or 1721), persojazychnyj the poet of India. The main{basic} products{creations}: " Talisman amazement " (1669), the filosofsko-didactic composition the "Knowledge" (1711-12) including a romantic poem " Komde and Modan ". The creator meaningly complicated, t. n. Indian style.
  • BEDLAM (English bedlam, from Bethlehem - Bethlehem, city in Judea), 1) originally hospital him{it}. Maria Vifleemskoj, then the dwelling for mad in the London... 2) (Peren.) a madhouse; chaos, a confusion.
  • BADLAND (English badland) (bad grounds), slozhnoraschlenennyj the relief of arid and semidesert areas consisting of hardly branching gullies and fine-bored izzubrennyh of watersheds (napr., eastern foot of Rocky mountains in the USA, epines of piedmonts Compare. Asia).
  • BEDNODEMJANOVSK (up to 1925 Spassk), city (with 1779) in the Russian Federation, the Penza region, in 32 kms from zh.-d. Item Zubova the Glade. 8,3 thousand inhabitants (1991). An oil - mill, manufacture of art ceramics. It is called named D.Bednogo.
  • " POOR ART " (ital. arte povera), the term which the italian criticism of 1960th has marked out a direction, close to conceptual art and minimalism (his{its} most known representatives to Italy-ß. Kunellis and M.Merts). Expressly miserable, "poor" subjects and numerals only hint at art idea, giving last a mysterious innuendo. Installations in spirit of " poor art " often assimilate to ruins that pulls together it{him} with arheologizmom.
  • BEDNORTS (Bednorz) Johannes George (r. 1950), german physics. Transactionses on high-temperature conductivity{conductance}. The Nobel Prize (for discovering of new supercnductors; 1987, together with K.A.Mjullerom).
  • "POOR", the daily newspaper of Central Committee VKP (á) for peasants (in the Civil war - and krasnoarmejtsev), Moscow, 27.3.1918 - 31.1.1931. Has drained with the newspaper " Socialist agriculture ".
  • POOR Demjan (an ice-film. A name and fam. Eph. It is scarlet. Pridvorov) (1883-1945), the Russian writer. It was typed in bolshevistskih newspapers "Aster" è "Truth". Satirical verses popular in the Civil war, poetic feuilletons, a fable, songs; epicheskie poems " About ground, about will, about a working lobe " (1917), "Principal street" (1922). Signatures to " Windows of TASS ".
  • " POOR KONRAD " (a nem. " Armer Konrad "), the secret union which has headed antifeudal revolt of peasants and town-dwellers in 1514 in Wurttemberg (JUgo-Zap. Germany), largest of preceding to the Country war 1524-26, severely suppressed{quenched}.
  • PIMPINELLA, stem of grasses of a set umbrella. Ok. 150 kinds{views}, in Eurasia and Africa, some kinds in America. The pimpinella kamnelomkovyj are eurysynusic; his{its} pullet{young man} leaves use in I peep (by the way salads), roots use as seasoning, fruits - as spicery; there are feed kinds{views}, honey plants.
  • FEMUR, the upper department rear extremities for terraneous vertebrates (a leg - for the person) from a hip joint up to patellar. A skeleton of a hip - a femur. For arthropods a femur - 3-rd or 4-th from the grounding a mobile joint of a leg.
  • BEDUINY (from the arab. badauin - inhabitants of deserts), nomadic arabs - breeders (predominary verbljudovody) Forward{Front} Asia and the Sowing. Africa. In the european literature beduinami call also polukochevyh the arabs aligning cattle breeding with agriculture.
  • BEDE (Bedier) ZHozef (1864-1938), the French philologist - medievist. The writer of transposition of the medieval novel " Tristan and Izolda " (1900).
  • BEZHAR (Bejart) Moris (an ice-film. fam. Berzhe, Berger) (r. 1927), the French ballet dancer, the choreographer, the teacher. One of the largest figures of a choreographic art of 20 century. In 1953 together with Z.Loranom has based in Paris troupe "Ballet" of the Aster " (existed{breathed} up to 1957). In 1957-60 has headed troupe " Ballet theatre of Paris ". In 1960-87 in Brussels has organized troupe " Ballet of XX eyelid " ("Bolero" on M.Ravel music, 1960; " the Ninth concordance " on L.Beethoven music, 1964; I.F.Stravinsky "Parsley", 1977, etc.). In 1987-92 has based troupe " Ballet Bezhara in Lausanne ". Put ballets in troupes of miscellaneous countries. Aspiring in dance to express complexity of a spiritual life of modern society, renovated dancing lexicon.
  • BEZHEVETS Alexander Savvich (r. 1929), the pilot - verifier, the Hero of Soviet Union (1975). Has conducted tests from above 70 phylums and updatings of airplanes.
  • EVIL SPIRITS Oleg Vladimirovich (r. 1933), the Russian mathematician, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1990). Transactionses on a function theory. The state premium of the USSR (1977).
  • ADACTYLOUS Ivan (?-1718), the hetman of the Ukrainian rebels 1658-59 battling together with Russian troops against the adherent Polish shljahty I.Vygovskogo.
  • NON-FLAME BLASTING, firing method with use of special cartridges (napr., a cardox, erdoks), keeping highly compressed non-flammable or plamegasjashchy gas. It is applied to breaking ground of rocks in shafts, gas-hazardous and a dust.
  • CHARGE-FREE MUSICAL SCHOOL, musical - educational organization (1862-1917). It is based in Saint Petersburg G.J.Lomakinym (its{her} director up to 1868) and M.A.Balakirevym (the director in 1868-1873 and 1881-1908). Afterwards her{it} headed N.A.Rimskij-Korsakov, S.M.Lyapunov.
  • STERILITY, disability of a mature organism to beget. For the person sterile it is considered spoilage at which pregnancy does not occur during 2 flying of sexual life without application of a means of contraception. The causes of a sterility: absence of alive spermatozoons in a seed, anomalies of a structure and inflammatory diseases of sexual organs (napr., an endometritis, an adnexitis), endokrinopatii, etc.
  • INVERTEBRATA, animal, not having a backbone: Protozoa, sponges, Coelenterata, sea-worms, mollusks, arthropods, Echinodermata, etc.; approximately 3/4 kinds{views} of all animal.
  • ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION, the reproduction of organisms defined by absence of sexual process and descending without sharing{participation} of sexual cells. Implements by a schizogony, in the form of a vegetative reproduction, and also with the help of professional educations - spores, etc. The Asexual reproduction routinely alternates with a sexual reproduction.
  • BESPOPOVTSY, one of flows staroobrjadchestva. Deny priests and a number{series} of ordinances. Is present it is a little bit explanatory{sensible} (pomortsy, fedoseevtsy, filippovtsy, netovshchina, etc.).
  • POINTLESS ART, see. The abstract art.
  • BESPROZVANNYJ Israel Moiseevich (1884-1954), Russian metalloved. Transactionses are developmental theories of cutting of metal. Has offered (1951) method of definition of steadfastness of a cutting tool, has placed{installed} rational parameters of the cutting end. The state premium of the USSR (1944).
  • BESSARABIA, historical range between rr. Dnestr and Prut (nowadays a main body of terrain of Moldova and an austral part of the Odessa region). In 10-11 centuries in the Kiev Russia, then in the Galitsko-Volynsk principality. Since 14 century in the Moldavian principality, with nach. 16 century under an authority of Turkey. With 1812 in Russian empire. In 1918-40 in structure of Romania.
  • BESSARABOV Igor Viktorovich (1919-93), the Russian film director, the operator, the national actor of Russia (1982). Has delivered films: " Children of our eyelid " (1972), " the Story about the communist " (1976, together with A.S.Kochetkovym), " the Refractory position to be the revolutionary " (1982), etc. The Lenin premium (1978), the State premium of the USSR (1951).
  • BESSARABOVA Natalia Ivanovna (1895-1981), the Russian artist - keramist. Promoted revitalization gzhelskoj ceramics and skopinskoj ceramics, creating on the basis of traditions ware and a sculpture from porcelain, majolicas, terra-cotta.
  • BESSEL (Bessel) Fridrih Wilhelm (1784-1846), the german astronomer and the geodesist, the foreign honorary member Petersburg AN (1814). Has created the theory and methods of the count tool{instrument} and personal errors at astronomical supervision{observations}, one of first has measured a sidereal paralax (1838), has defined{determined} elements of an earth spheroid which used ok. 100 flying. Probeed the functions called as his{its} name.
  • BESSEL an EQUATION, a special kind{view} a differential equation in which result many physical and technical problems in cylindrical axials. Solutions of a Bessel of an equation call as cylindrical functions, which particular case - cylindrical functionses.
  • The BESSEMER (Bessemer) a Henry (1813-98), the English inventor. Has created (the patent 1856) a converter way of an iron conversion in steel, t. n. An acid Bessemer process.
  • ACID BESSEMER PROCESS, repartition of hot metal (with minor content P and S) in steel without a cart of heat - air flushing (sometimes oxygen-rich) in the vessel. In 2-nd floor. 20 century it is extruded by an oxygen-steelmaking process.
  • BESSER Villibald Gotlibovich (1784-1842), Russian botanik, corresponding member Petersburg AN (1835). The native of Switzerland, with 1809 in Russia. Transactionses on floristics and a taxonomist of plants.
  • FISHING WITHOUT NETS, production of a fish, founded on its{her} reaction to action of different stimuluses: to a current flow, light, chemical reactants (napr., on light in water the fry is going a dense shoal, and her{it} pump out the pompe).
  • BESSLITKOVAJA ROLLING, obtaining of metal rods, tapes or preparations by a charging hot-metal in a spacing between horizontal mill rolls rotated in the miscellaneous parties.
  • BETA-SPECTROSCOPY, see. Nuclear spectroscopy.
  • BETA-RAY THERAPY, medical application of beta-particles; a kind{view} of radial therapy.
  • BETATRON, a cyclic accelerator of electrons in whom electrons are gear uped by the vortical electric field induced by a variable magnetic field. Routinely power of electrons in a betatron is not higher 100 MeV.
  • BETA-PARTICLES, electrons and the positrons released at beta decay.
  • BETGER (Bottger) Iogann Fridrih (1682-1719), the german alchemist. The main{basic} transactionses are connected to search of components of porcelain mass and their optimal ratio. Has received in 1705-07 its{her} first samples on the basis of which manufacture of Dresden china has been organized. In 1707 has prepared first in Europe solid white porcelain, has developed technology of his{its} manufacture and in 1710 has organized in Mejsene (Saxony) a manufactory releasing world famous mejsensky the porcelain.
  • To BETA (Bethe) Hans Albrecht (r. 1906), the physics - theorist. In 1933 has emigrated from Germany, with 1935 in the USA. Fundamental transactionses on a quantum mechanics, a nuclear physics, a quantum theory of a solid, an astrophysics. Has indicated the most probable cycles of thermonuclear reactions in asters. The participant of building first an atomic bomb. The Nobel Prize (1967). A golden medal him{it}. Lomonosov AN the USSR (1990).
  • The BETEL NUT, a mix of spicy leaves of pepper the betel nut - a bush of a set of a pepper family (diluted in tropical Asia) with a shards of seeds of a palm a betel palm and a small amount of a lime. Use as a cud; excites nervuju system.
  • BETELGEJZE, a Orion, an aster of null stellar magnitude, a red supergiant with radius, to equal 850 radiuses of the Sun.
  • BETEHTIN Anatoly Georgievich (1897-1962), the Russian geologist and mineralog, academician AN the USSR (1953). The main{basic} transactionses on rudoobrazovaniju and mineragrafii. Has developed the theory of education of manganese ores. Probeed a problem of hydrothermal solutions. The lenin premium (1958), the State premium of the USSR (1947).
  • BETI (Beti) Mongo (r. 1932), kamerunsky the writer. Writes in French. Anticolonial novels " Severe city " (1955), " the Wonderful recovery of king " (1958), " Remember Rubena " and " Perpetju and a habit to travail " (both 1974).
  • BETIKA (Baetica), a Roman province in the south of Spain, derivated ok. 15-12 up to n. e.; the title from r. Betis (sovr. Guadalquivir). Economically the most developed and romanizovannaja a province in Spain. In nach. 5 century the terrain Betiki is conquered by vandals.
  • BETLEJKA, the same, that batlejka.
  • BETLEN Ishtvan (1874-1946), columns, in 1921-31 chairman of Council of Ministers of Hungary. Has concluded agreement (1927) for friendship with fascist Italy. Within 2-nd world war adviser M.Horti.
  • BETHLEHEM (Bethlehem), city on north-east the USA, pieces. Pennsylvania. 71,4 thousand inhabitants, about Allentown and suburbs of 650 thousand inhabitants (1990.) Center of iron and steel industry (headquarter " Bethlehem Steel "), metal-working, cement, etc. an industry. University.
  • " BETHLEHEM STEEL " (Bethlehem Steel), the metallurgical company the USA. It is based in 1904. Issues the industrial equipment and military technique, gets{procures} iron and a manganese ore. Sales volume 5,5 billion dol., a net profit 403 million dol., smelting become 11,7 million t, figure occupied 32,9 thousand person (kon. 1980th).
  • BETLINGK (Bohtlingk) Otton Nikolaevich (1815-1904), the german and Russian philologist - indolog, the academician (1855), the honorary member (1894) Petersburg AN. The main{basic} transactionses - " the Sanskrit dictionary " (a known baking plate the title " the Major Petersburg dictionary ", t. 1-7, 1855-75; together with R.Rotom). Has emited old indian grammar Panini (1839-40). For the first time has applied a comparative-historical method to study of Turkic tongues.
  • BETMAN-GOLVEG (Bethmann Hollweg) Teobald (1856-1921), German rejhskantsler and the Prussian minister - president in 1909-17; in 1905-07 Minister of Internal Affairs of Prussia, in 1907-09 imperial Minister of Internal Affairs and the deputy rejhskantslera.
  • CONCRETE (frants. beton), one of the major building timbers, received as a result of induration of a dense mix of a binder, water, fillers and in some events of additives. On a volume weight betons are sectioned on special heavy, heavy, light and special light. By the form a binder betons are: cement, silicate, gypseous, asphalt concretes, polimerbetony, etc. As required distinguish betons routine (for industrial and civil buildings), hydrotechnical, road, heat-insulating, the decorative, special destination (chemical-resistant, heat resisting, for a nuclear shielding, etc.). The main{basic} quality index of concrete - a compressive strength on which the quality class is established{set}.
  • BETONOPOLIMER, receive impregnation of a hardened concrete by monomers or sirups with their consequent polymerization. Has heightened toughness, morozo-and wear-resistance. It is applied to an encasing of engineering structures in hydroconstruction, a road construction, etc.
  • BESTUZHEV Alexander Feodosjevich (1761-1810), the Russian educator - democrat, the ammunition officer. Father of decembrists Bestuzhevyh. In 1798 together with I.P.Pninym emitted " the St.-Petersburg log-book ". The writer of the tract about education.
  • BESTUZHEV - RJUMIN Alexey Petrovich (1693-1766), columns, the Russian statesman and the diplomat, general - field marshal (1762). In 1740-41 cabinet - minister, in 1744-58 chancellor. With 1762 pervoprisutstvujushchy in the Senate.
  • BESTUZHEV - RJUMIN Konstantin Nikolaevich (1829-1897), the Russian historian, the academician Petersburg AN (1890). In 1878-82 headed the Petersburg Maximum women courses (called as his{its} name). Transactionses on Russian history, historiography.
  • BESTUZHEV - RJUMIN Mihail Pavlovich (1801-1826), the decembrist, the second lieutenant. The member of the Austral society, the republican. One of chiefs Vasilkovskoj of justice and revolt Chernigov a shelf. It is hung up.
  • BESTUZHEV - RJUMIN Mihail Petrovich (1688-1760), columns, the Russian diplomat. With 1720 minister - resident, a salting in a number{series} of european countries.
  • BESTUZHEVSKIE COURSES, see in an item. The maximum women courses.
  • BESTUZHEVY, decembrists, members of Boreal society, participants of revolt on December, 14 1825, brothers: 1) Alexander Aleksandrovich (Marlinsky) (1797-1837), the shtabs-captain, the writer. A copublisher of the almanac "North star". It is sentenced to 20 years of penal servitude, with 1829 private soldier in army on Caucasus. It is killed in fight. Romantic verses and stories ("Frigate" Hope "", Ammalat-bek "). See a portrait... 2) Michael Aleksandrovich (1800-71), the shtabs-captain. It is sentenced to 20 years of penal servitude, with 1826 in SHlisselburgskoj strengths, Nerchinskih mines, in 1839-56 on a settlement in Selenginske. The writer of "Notes"... 3) Nikolay Aleksandrovich (1791-1855), the captain - lieutenant. The member of the Supreme duma of Boreal society, the republican. It is sentenced to transportation for life, with 1826 in SHlisselburgskoj strengths, Nerchinskih mines, with 1839 on a settlement in Selenginske. The aquarellist - portraitist. The historian of the Russian fleet, the economist, the writer... 4) Peter Aleksandrovich (1808-40), the warrant officer. Razzhalovan in soldiers. In 1826-29 in army on Caucasus.
  • ANURANS, order amphibian. A body short, broad; the tail during a metamorphosis peters. Both pairs{vapours;couples} of extremities are well developed, rear is longer forward{front} and minister for pryganja. 256 stems, ok. 3500 kinds{views}, are distributed widely. The majority is multiplied in water; a larva - a tadpole. Toads concern to anurans, toads, frogs true, etc. 22 kinds{views} in the Red Data Book of International Soyuz of nature protection (MSOP) pipy, chesnochnitsy.
  • BESHOZJAJNOE PROPERTY, in a civic right - property which proprietor is unknown.
  • THRIFTLESS - CONTENTS PROPERTY, in a civic right - property inhereing to the citizen of which the proprietor does not care owing to what it is collapseed. As a rule, the law provides withdrawal judicially some kinds{views} of thriftless - contents of property (a residential building, cultural values).
  • The SHUTTLELESS RIG, loom in which the filling is introduced between filaments of a fundamentals not the shuttle, and rapiers, a metal tape, an air or the drip water jet. Due to increase of speed of charting of a filling will essentially increase productivity{output} of shuttleless rigs as contrasted to shuttle rigs.
  • BESCHELJUSTNYE, superclass of primitive water vertebrates. Maxillas and twin extremities miss. Actuates many minerals of the form and the modern class of Cyclostoma.
  • ACRANIA, class chord. Length up to 7,5 see. The head department is not isolated, the skull misses. The body and some internals are segmented. 13 kinds{views}, including lancelets, in seas Atlantic and Quiet ok.
  • EVIL SPIRITS, in old slavic mythology evil spirits; in Christian submissions the same that draw.
  • BETAS (Beth) Evert Willem (1908-64), the Netherlands philosopher and logik. Has put forward idea about necessity of synthesis of logic, the groundings of mathematics, a history of exact sciences and psychologies of intellection. In logic has developed a method of semantic (analytical) tables, semantics intuitsionistskoj logic, etc.
  • BETA (?), the second character of the Grecian alphabet.
  • BETAKI Vasily Pavlovich (r. 1930), the Russian poet. With 1973 in emigration in France. The unique book published in the USSR - " the Earth flame " (1965). In the poetry noted ekspressivnoj by figurativeness and diversity, - patterns of a nature, urban landscapes, echoes of historical and modern, political events. Collections of verses and poems: " Short circuit{Closing} of time " (1974), " Europe - an island " (1981), " the Fifth rider " (1985). The collection of an essay " Russian poetry for 30 flying " (1987).
  • BETANKUR (Betancourt) Romulo (1908-81), the president of Venezuela in 1945-48 and 1959-64; in 1941 has based a consignment Democratic action and was one of its{her} leaders.
  • BETA DECAY (b-disintegration), the spontaneous transformation of nucleus attending with emitting (or absorption) an electron and an antineutrino or positron and a neutrino. Phylums of beta decay are known: electronic disintegration (metamorphosis{transformation} of a neutron into a proton), positron disintegration (a proton in a neutron) and electron capture. At electronic beta decay nuclear charge increases on 1, at positron - decreases on 1; mass number does not vary (see. A radioactivity).
  • The KETRONE, gauge meter of power (energy spectrum) of electrons and positrons, including beta-particles.
  • EVERLASTINGS (immortelles), plants of several stems of a set of a thistle family (an everlasting, gelipterum, an immortelle, etc.), the form keeping at drying-out and colour. Are used in dry winter bouquets.
  • BESSMERTNOVA Natalia Igorevna (r. 1941), the actress of ballet, the national actress of the USSR (1976). In 1961-88 at Major theatre. The classical dancer of the liriko-romantic plan. The performer main consignments in ballets "ZHizel" of A.Adana, " Swan lake " P.I.Chajkovskogo, " the Legend of love " A.D.Melikova, "Spartak" A.I.Hachaturjana, " Ivan Terrible " and " Romeo and Dzhuljetta " S.S.Prokofjeva, etc. The Lenin premium (1986), the State premium of the USSR (1977).
  • UNCONSCIOUS, set{combination} of mental processes, not introduced in consciousness of the subject. In a number{series} of psychologic theories - a special orb mental, qualitatively distinct from consciousness. In irratsionalisticheskoj " philosophy unconscious " E.Gartmana - the generalpurpose basis{fundamentals} of life. One of central concepts of Z.Freud psychoanalysis and other flows of depth psychology; in " analytical psychology " K.G.Junga alongside with personal unconscious is secreted collective unconscious.
  • BESSON (Besson) the Hatch (r .1959), the French film director. Besson hallmark distinguish combination of a bizarre scene and refined vizualnosti. The success was brought to him with films: "Underground" (1985), " the Light-blue abyss " (1988), "Nikita" (1990), "Leon" (1994).
  • SLEEPLESSNESS, later zasypanie, early waking, a discontinuity of night dream, reduction of his{its} depth.
  • BESSONOV Anatoly Alekseevich (1892-1983), the Russian designer of aero-engines. Under his{its} guiding manufacture of some original reciprocating engines is based. It is repressed, in 1931-33 was in the conclusion where worked in Special office OGPU.
  • BESSOJUZIE (asindeton), construction of the proposal at which homogeneous parts or parts of a compound proposition are bound without the help of the unions.
  • The STIPULATED FACTS, in a civic right and process - do not challenge the circumstances important for the given affair, which parties and of which regularity the court does not doubt.
  • DISINTERESTED PERSONS, category{discharge} sacred, glorified in the Orthodox church for the unselfishness, gratuitous ministering to people. Doctors Kosma and Damian, living in Rome (mind{wit} are especially honored as disinterested persons. In kon. 3 century).
  • DRAINLESS RANGE, range of an internal drainage, part dry, denuded communications{connections} through river systems with ocean. The rivers áåcñòî÷íîé ranges run into inland seas, lakes or are lost in sands. The most extensive áåcñòî÷íûå ranges - in Africa and Asia (napr., Aralo-Caspian).
  • The CLOSED LAKE, has no surface runoff or underground water drainage in adjacent drainage basins. The discharge of water descends at the expense of vaporization.
  • BESSTRUZHKOVYJ the ANALYSIS, execute non-destructive a sample. A solution for the analysis receive deposition on a surface of a sample several a dropping of the reagent solving investigated material. Apply in metallurgy, criminalistics, archeology, jeweller business.
  • PROGRESSIVE TRANSMISSION, the mechanism for a smooth variation of a rotary speed of a main shaft in transport machines, rigs, devices. Are mechanic (including friction), electrical and hydraulic. Mechanic progressive transmissions call also as variators.
  • The LONG-WELDED RAILS of the railway, will consist of the welded rails which are generatrix vines in length of 150-950 m. Sinks hum and wearing of rolling stock.
  • BESSJAZHKOVYE, order entognatnyh hexapods. Length of 0,5-2 mm. Horns (tendrils) miss. St. 200 kinds{views}. Conduct a latent mode of life.
  • BEST (persian)., in Iran the founded right of asylum on arcaded custom in terrain of some sacred and emergency places (mosques, tombs, since 19 century - rooms of foreign embassies and other establishments using exterritoriality).
  • BESTEMJANOVA Natalia Filimonovna (r. 1960), Russian sportsmenka (figure skating), the deserved master of sport (1984). CHempionka Olympic Games (1988), the world (1985-88), Europe (1983, 1985-88), the USSR (1982, 1983, 1987).
  • BESTER, a fish received{obtained} by artificial hybridization of a beluga and a sterlet in the USSR in 1952. Length of 50-80 sm (up to 1,8 ì), mass of 3-5 kg (up to 30 kg). Object sadkovogo cultivations.
  • BESTIARIES (from an armour. bestia - a beast), 1) in Other. Rome fighters with feral{natural} beasts on a circus ring.. 2) Medieval collections of points about substantial and fancy animal; are accompanied by allegorical interpretations.
  • The BEST SELLER (English best seller), the bought most up book issued in major circulations.
  • "CONVERSATION", one of the first associations zemskih figures (Moscow, 1899-1905). Discussed zemskie and political problems. Through the newspaper "Right" and other liberal issuings propagandized idea of constitutionalism.
  • " CONVERSATION of FANS{AMATEURS} of the RUSSIAN WORD ", literary society in Saint Petersburg in 1811-16 led by G.R.Derzhavinym and A.S.Shishkovym. The majority of members (S.A.Shirinskij-Shihmatov, A.S.Hvostov, D.I.Hvostov, A.A.Shahovskoj, etc.) from items of defence attorneys of a classicism and old church slavonic tongue opposed new literary directions and the reform of a literary language initiated by N.M.Karamzinym. N.I.Gnedich and I.A.Krylov, entered{included} in a society, national democratic traditions of the Russian literature settled.
  • BOWERBIRDS of the BIRD (shalashniki), a set of birds of order sparrow. Length 23-35 see 17 kinds{views}, in Australia, It is new. To Guinea and on contiguous islands. Uttering mating-calls samtsy build of branches bower for pairing, stud a site before her shells, colours and other bright subjects.
  • BESIKI (an ice-film. A name and fam. Vissarion Zaharjevich Gabashvili) (1750-91), the Georgian poet and the political figure. Love lyrics, patriotic ode "Aspindza" (1770).
  • CAPLESS FIRING, firing method at which initiation of a main charge implements by means of a blasting fuse without a primer - detonator. It is applied in chamber and blasthole charges.
  • BESKIDS, boreal strip of Carpathian mountains in Poland and Czechoslovakia. Will consist of several isolated masses (an altitude up to 1725 m. Babja). A beech family and coniferous forests, subalpine meadows. Are disjointed on Zap. And Vost. Beskids.
  • KEELLESS BIRDS (cursorial birds), group of the birds which are not capable of flight. Pectoral muscles are weakly developed, the fin misses, feathers on side panels mild. Legs the strong. Well run. 4 orders: ostriches, nandu, kazuary, kivi. Compare. Carinate birds.
  • BESKOV Konstantin Ivanovich (r. 1920), the Russian sportsman and the trainer (football), the deserved master of the sport (1948), the deserved trainer of the USSR (1968). The champion (1945, 1949) and the owner of the Cup of the USSR (1953). The trainer of a combined team of the USSR (1955, 1963-64, 1981-82).
  • PEAKLESS CAP, uniform headgear (cap without a visor) the soldier, mariners, some junior commanders, pupils of naval academies of some armies and fleet. In the Russian army and fleet with 1811. In 1872 in the Russian fleet on peakless caps have been entered lentochki on which the name of the ship{spacecraft} or number of naval crew were meant; nowadays on lentochkah the title of fleet or a naval academy is underlined.
  • INFINITE DECIMAL FRACTION, decimal fraction which record after a comma contains infinite quantity of digits.
  • INFINITE INDUCTION, breeding of the general expression (judgment) from infinite population of the parcels{sendings} comprehensive all his{its} particular cases. Plays the important role in the groundings of mathematics (see. Induction).
  • INDEFINITELY MAJOR, variable Y, revertive to infinitesimal value X, that is Y = 1/X.
  • INFINITESIMAL, the variable which during change becomes (on absolute value) and at the further change remains less than any beforehand the given positive number, i.e. has a limit zero. In a calculus the important role is played with limits of attitudes{relations} of infinitesimal values (see. Differential calculus) and limits of the sums of infinitesimal values when the figure of summands beyond all bounds will increase (see. An integral calculus).
  • INFINITESIMAL, the variable which during change becomes (on absolute value) and at the further change remains less than any beforehand the given positive number, i.e. has a limit zero. In a calculus the important role is played with limits of attitudes{relations} of infinitesimal values (see. Differential calculus) and limits of the sums of infinitesimal values when the figure of summands beyond all bounds will increase (see. An integral calculus).
  • INFINITE PRODUCT, product{creation} of infinite figure of multiplicands, i.e. expression of a kind{view}:
  • INFINITE SERIES, see. A number{series}.
  • CONTACTLESS INSTRUMENTATION, electrotechnical and electronic devices, in which switching{commutation} of electric circuits (their short circuit{closing}, disconnection, switching{changeover}), and also transformation{conversion} of a current or pressure{voltage;stress} implement without a mechanic breakage of circuits.
  • The GREAT AUK exterminated (in 19 century) not volant bird of a set of auks. Length up to 70 see. Dwelt{lived} on Atlantic a shore of Europe and the Sowing. America.
  • WINGLESS, the same, that kivi.
  • BESLAN, city (with 1950) in the Russian Federation, the Sowing. Ossetia. A railway junction. 32,3 thousand inhabitants (1991). Corn combine; factories: electromechanical, "Autospecial equipment".
  • BURTON (Burton) Tim (r .1958), the American film director and the scripter. After several a flying of activity in U.Disney studio of the beginnings to take out films self-contained. His{its} films are as much as possible approximate to comics and cartoon films. Most the considerable are films: "Bitldzhjus" (1988), "Betmen" (1989), " Edward - arms - shears " (1990), " Betmen returns " (1992). Has removed a feature-length cartoon film " the Nightmare before Christmas " (1993).
  • BERTRAND (Bertrand) Aloizijus (1807-41), the French poet - romantik. His{its} book of medieval stylizations " Gaspar from Darkness " (it is issued in 1842) lays for headstreams French " poems in prose ".
  • BERTRAND (Bertrand) Gabriel Emil (1867-1962), the French biochemist, foreign corresponding member AN the USSR (1925; foreign corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science with 1924). Transactionses on enzymology. Has developed the quantitative methods of definition of Saccharums (1906) and microelements in plants and for animal.
  • BERTRAND DE BORN (Bertran de Born) (ok. 1140 - ok. 1215), the Provencal troubadour. Participat in feudal civil strifes, having described them in verses (it was saved more than 40); glorified military exploits.
  • BERTRAND Zhozef Lui Francois (1822-1900), the French mathematician, foreign corresponding member (1859) and the foreign honorary member (1896) Petersburg AN. Transactionses on a calculus, group theories.
  • BERTRAND Marseilles (1847-1907), the French geologist, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1899). First has stated thought of overthrust sheets in the Alpes, has developed submissions about the main{basic} epoch of a ripple mark and periodicity tectonic motions.
  • BERTRANDITE, mineral, Be4 [Si2O7] (OH) 2. White, colourless crystals, units. Hardness 6-7; firmness ok. 2,6 g / sm3. By origin hydrothermal. Ore of beryllium.
  • BERTE-DELAGARD Alexander Lvovich (1842-1920), the Russian numismatist and the historian. Transactionses about antique and medieval antiquities of austral terrain USSR.
  • BERULAVA Huta Mihajlovich (r. 1924), the Georgian poet. Poems " Russian heart " (1950), " Kolhetskaja a legend " (1943-55), " Stormy silence " (1981). Collections of verses " Snow day " (1973), " Native names. Memories " (1979), " in Each spring " (1984).
  • BERUNI, Biruni (up to 1958 SHabbaz), city (with 1962) in Uzbekistan, Kara-Kalpak, in 20 kms from zh.-d. An item. Urgench. 39,5 thousand inhabitants (1990). A ginnery; hlopkoprjadilnaja, hlopkotkatskaja factories and other enterprises. It is renamed into honour Biruni.
  • Boleslav (1892-1956), the president and the chairman of presidium of the Council of state (1947-52), the chairman of Council of Ministers TAKE (Bierut) (1952-54) Polands. The chairman (December 1948 - March 1954), 1-st secretary (since March 1954) a Central Committee of the Polish consolidated working consignment.
  • BERHEM (Berchem) Nicolas (1620-83), the Netherlands painter and the etcher. Italian landscapes with pastoral motives.
  • BERHTESGADEN (Berchtesgaden), gornoklimatichesky a health resort in a southeast of Germany, to the south from Salzburg (Austria). Center of winter sport.
  • BERTSELIUS (Berzelius) Jens JAkob (1779-1848), the Swedish chemist and mineralog, the foreign honorary member Petersburg AN (1820). Has discovered cerium (1803), selenium (1817), thorium (1828). Has created (1812-19) electrochemical theory of chemical affinity, on its{her} basis{fundamentals} has constructed grading elements, connections and minerals. Has defined{determined} (1807-18) atomic weight of 45 elements, has entered (1814) modern chemical symbols of elements. Has offered the term "catalysis".
  • BERCH (Birch) Arthur (r. 1915), australian chemists - organics, the foreign member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; foreign member AN the USSR c 1976). Has developed a method of restoration of aromatic compounds alkali metals in a luquid ammonia at the presence of donors of protons (reaction Bercha).
  • BERSH, a fish of a set okunevyh. The length of 25-45 sm, weighs from 250 g up to 1,4 kg. Primarily in water reservoirs a bass. The Caspian, Black and Azov seas. Object of a craft.
  • BERSHAD, city (with 1966) on Ukraine, Vinnitsa region. A depot. 14,2 thousand inhabitants (1990). Electrotechnical factory, the alimentary enterprises. A study of local lore museum. It is known with 1459.
  • BERSHE (Berchet) Giovanni (1783-1851), the italian poet, one of founders of italian romanticism, the participant of movement karbonariev. Poems and poems proniknuty motives of national-liberation extirpation: " Fugitives from Pargi " (1823), " Fancy dreams " (1829), "Parga" (1848); critiques.
  • BERSHTEJN Inna Abramovna (r. 1919), the Russian critic, the literary critic, the Doctor of Philology. In a centre of attention - a history of the Czech literature, development of a genre of the novel in the literature of 20 century. Books: " the Modern Czech literature " (1961), " Adventures of gallant soldier Shvejka " Jaroslava Gashek " (1971), " the Epos of updating of life: the novel in the literature of socialist countries 60-70-Õ " (1982), etc.
  • BERYNDA Pamva (50-70-Ñ of 16 century - 1632), the figure of the Ukrainian crop, the poet, a translator. The dictionary " the Lexicon slavenorossky and names explanation " (1627; ok. 7 thousand words), panegyrical and spiritual verses.
  • BERNINI (Bernini) Lorentso (1598-1680), the italian architect and the sculptor. The representative of Baroque. Architectonic products{creations} strike regional{spatial} scope{span}, splendor a decora, dynamics{changes} of forms, perspective and luminous effects (a collonnade of the area of a cathedral over. Peter in Rome, 1657-63). Precipitancy of motion, combination of a religious airs with ekzaltirovannoj sensitivity (" Apollo and Dafna ", 1622-25 are inherent{intrinsic} in sculpture Bernini; " Ecstasy over. Terezy ", 1644-52).
  • BURNS Robert (1759-96), the Scottish poet. Has created original poetry in which has glorified transactionses, people and freedom, selfless both self-denying love and friendship. Satirical antichurch poems " Two shepherds " (1784), " the Pray svjatoshi Villi " (1785), the collection " the Poems written predominary on the Scottish dialect " (1786), a patriotic hymn " Bruce - to Scots ", a cantata " Cheerful beggars ", civil and love lyrics (poems " the Tree of freedom ", " John the Barleycorn ", etc.), drinking songs. Has collected and has preformed to the issuing of product{creation} of the Scottish poetic and musical folklore with which his{its} poetry is closely related.
  • BURNSIDE (Burnside) William (1852-1927), the English mathematician. The main{basic} transactionses on mathematical physics, theories of probabilities, algebra. Has entered (1891) into algebra of group of linear fractional transformations{conversions} complex{integrated} variable. Has published in 1897 monography in which has stated the abstract group theory.
  • BERN INTERNATSIONAL, it is based in 1919 right-centrist leaders broken with nach. 1-st world war Internatsionala of 2-nd. Integrated social-democratic parties of Austria, the Great Britain, Germany, Italy, France, etc. In February 1921 some social-democratic parties have quitted from Bern internatsionala and have formed centrist " Internatsional 2 1/2-® ", aggregated in May 1923 with Bern internatsionalom in the Socialist worker internatsional.
  • BERNSON (Berenson) (Berenson) Bernard (1865-1959), the American historian of art. The master atributsii; for the first time has defined{determined} stylistic features of schools of painting of italian Revitalization and creativity of many artists.
  • BERNSTEIN (Bernstein) Leonard (1918-90), the American conductor, the pianist and the composer. Conducted many orchestras, in 1958-69 main conductor of the New York philharmonic orchestra. The first initiator of many compositions of the modern American composers, including natural music. Ballets, concordances, musicals (" Vestsajdskaja a history ", 1957, etc.), music for kino, etc.
  • BERNOULLI (Bernoulli), the family of the Swiss scientists given of outstanding mathematicians.
  • BERNOULLI (Bernoulli) Iogann (1667-1748), the foreign honorary member Petersburg AN (1725), brother Jakoba of Bernoulli. Transactionses on infinitesimal calculus and a calculus of variations.
  • BERNOULLI the THEOREM, one of limiting{marginal} theorems of a theory of probabilities; the elementary event of law of large numbers, falls into to distribution of frequency deviations of occurrence{appearance} of some random event from his{its} probability at independent tests. J.Bernulli (it is published in 1713) is established{installed}.
  • BERNOULLI the EQUATION, binds speed and a stream pressure of a theoretical incompressible liquid at steadied flow. Bernoulli an equation expresses an energy conservation law of a driving liquid. It is widely applied in hydraulics and technical hydrodynamics. It is introduced by D.Bernulli in 1738.
  • BERNHARD (Bernhard) Thomas (1931-89), the Austrian writer. Grotesque - satirical plays (" the Holiday for Boris ", 1970, etc.) and novels ("Icy cold", 1963, "Insanity", 1967, "Proof", 1975, " Aged masters ", 1985, "Cutoff", 1986). In the play " Before an output on pension " (1979) and memoirs - anti-fascist moods.
  • BERNHEM (Bernem) (Burnham) James (1905-87), the American sociologist, one of writers of the theory of administrative revolution on which the authority in the modern society passes to a new class control (the maximum engineers, managers). The critic of marxism and socialism.
  • BERNSTEIN Nikolay Aleksandrovich (1896-1966), Russian nejro-and psihofiziolog, corresponding member AMN (1946). Bernstein probes on physiology of motion - the theoretical basis{fundamentals} of the modern biomechanics, his{its} some ideas have anticipated a number{series} of rules{situations;positions} of cybernetics. The writer of the book " About construction of motions " (1941). The state premium of the USSR (1948).
  • BERNSTEIN Sergey Natanovich (1880-1968), mathematician, academician AN the USSR (1929) and AN Ukraine (1925). The main{basic} transactionses under the theory of differential equations (conditions of analyticity of solutions), function theories (an approaching of functions by polynomials), theories of probabilities (an axiomatics, limiting{marginal} theorems). The state premium of the USSR (1942).
  • BERNSTEIN (Bernstein) Feliks (1878-1956), german mathematician. The founder and in 1921-34 director of Institute of mathematical statistics of the Goettingen university. In 1934-48 worked in the USA, then has returned to Germany. Transactionses on a number theory, flocks, trigonometric numbers{series}, integral equations. First has proved in 1897 equivalence theorems of a set theory. One of first has placed{installed} applied{economic} value of a set theory, was engaged in application of mathematical methods to problems of different ranges of knowledge.
  • BERNSTEIN (Bernstein) Edward (1850-1932), one of leaders of the German social democracy and 2-nd Internatsionala, the ideologist of reformism. Participat in development of the Gothic program. In 2-nd floor. 90th, referring to natural probe of tendencies of social development, has acted with criticism of fundamental theory of marxism as obsolete. Bernstein denied the scientific substantiation of socialism, including his{its} ethical ideal, the doctrine about inevitability of crash of a capitalism, about revolution and dictatorship of proletariat, has put forward the program of reforms of a capitalism (" the Ultimate goal - anything, motion - all ").
  • BEROS (grech.; vavilon. Belrushu) (ok. 350-280 up to n. e.), the babylonian historian, the sacrificer of a temple of god Marduka. The writer of a history of Babylonia (in the Grecian tongue), fractional information from which have reached in compositions of antique and byzantian historians.
  • BERRY (Berry), historical range in central France, in a bass. r. SHer (a bass. Loire). In terrain Berry - departments Sher, Endr, in part Alje. 14,3 thousand êì2. 550 thousand inhabitants. Main city - Burzh.
  • BERNARD (Bernhardt) Sarai (1844-1923), the French actress. In 1872-80 in " Komedi Fransez ", in 1898-1922 headed " Theatre of Sarai Bernard " (Paris). Tragedijnye and melodramatic roles in plays Gjugo, the Djuma-son, Rostana, etc.
  • BERNARD (Bernard) Zenon (1894-1942), chairman KP of Luxembourg in 1921-40, one of its{her} organizers. After occupation of country by a german troops (1940) supervised in a underground over activity of Communist Party. It arrested gestapo, has died in prison.
  • BERNARD SHARTRSKY (mind{wit}. Up to 1130), the philosopher - sholast, the master and chancellor Shartrskoj of school. The higher brother Tjerri Shartrskogo. The primate of morals above learning (" without ethics there is no philosopher ") settled.
  • BERNARDEN DE SEN-PER (Bernardin de Saint-Pierre) Jacque Anri (1737-1814), the French writer. Russoistskie ideas in the novel " Pol and Virginia " (1788), a satiriko-philosophical story " the Indian hut " (1791), stories " Suratskaja a coffee house " (1791).
  • BERNARDIN SIENSKY (Bernardino da Siena) (1380-1444), the italian priest, the outlet box - franciscan. Has acquired popularity the sermons (with 1406) across all boreal and mean Italy with call-up to moral updating; the zealous champion of honoring of a name of Jesus.
  • BERNARDINES, see in an item. Cistercians.
  • BERNAT (Bernath) Aurel (1895-1982), the Hungarian painter and the schedule{chart}. The writer constrained on I blossom, emotional genre scenes, landscapes, wall paintings.
  • BERN - DZHONS (Burne-Jones) Edward (1833-1898), the English painter and risovalshchik. Prerafaelit. Resorting to a stylization of italian painting 15 century, wrote lyrical patterns on themes of medieval legends (" Love among debris ", 1893).
  • BERN (Borne) Ludwig (1786-1837), the german publicist and the literary critic. Struggled with feudal reaction, nationalism, filisterstvom (" Letters from Paris ", 1832-34; pamphlet "Mentsel-frantsuzoed", 1837); one of ideologists of " Pullet{Young man} Germany ".
  • BERNEM Dzh., see Bernhem Dzh.
  • BERNES Mark Naumovich (1911-69), the Russian actor, the national actor of Russia (1965). It was taken out in films: "Fighters", " Two fighters ", " the Third impact ", etc. The Popular crooner, the propagandist of the modern songs. The state premium of the USSR (1951).
  • BERNET (Burnet) Frenk (1899-1985), the australian virologist and the immunologist. Has described the causal organism of a ku-fever. Transactionses on ecology of viruses. One of writers t. n. The klonalno-selection theory of immunity. Probeed mechanisms of autoimmune diseases. The Nobel Prize (1960, together with P.B.Medavarom).
  • BERNETT (Burnett) Frensis Eliza (1849-1924), the American writer. Moralizing prose about children: the novel " Small lord Fauntleroj " (1886), the story " Small princess " (1905).
  • BERNI (Berni) Antonio (1905-81), the Argentina painter. In 30th one of founders of social art of " new realism " in Argentina (" Midnight above the world ").
  • BERNI (Berni) Franchesko (ok. 1497-1535), the italian poet - satirist, vysmeivavshy in sonnets of hypocrites, dads, tyrants; the creator of a parody genre "bernesko"; political judgments Berni are expressed in poem Bojardo processed by him{it} " In love Roland ".
  • BERNI (Burney) CHarlz (1726-1814), the English historian of music, the organist, the composer. Development of the musical art connected to other parties of art and public life. The main{basic} transactionses " the Overall history of music " (1776-89). Cantatas, tool{instrument} products{creations}, etc.
  • BERNINA (Bernina), the highest (up to 4049 ì) a hills in Eastern Alpes.
  • The BERLIN PACT 1940 about the military union between main participants Antikominternovskogo of the pact - Germany, Italy and Japan; it is encased on September, 27. Governments of some other states dependent on Germany later have joined.
  • The BERLIN TRACT, is encased by 13.7.1878 mandatory powers - participants of the Berlin congress. Has confirmed independence of Montenegro, Serbia and Romania. A sowing. Bulgaria has become the independent{autonomous} state, JUzh. Bulgaria (Vost. Rumelija) has remained under an authority of the turkish anthurus, having received an administrative autonomy. To Russia the mouth of Danube, strength Kars, Ardagan, Batum with districts have departed. Austria-Hungary occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  • The BERLIN UNIVERSITY, Gumboldtovsky university, is based in 1809. In 1990 ok. 18 thousand students.
  • BERLIOZ (Berlioz) Hector (1803-69), the French composer, the conductor. The member of Institute of France (1856). The creator of the romantic program concordance. The innovator in range of the musical form, harmony, instrumentation. Aspired{tried} to staging a symphonic genre, to monumentalism of vokalno-tool{vokalno-instrument} style, to a sans serif pointing of modes{images}. " The fancy concordance " (1830), " the Mourning - triumphal concordance " (1840), opera - dilogija " Trojans " (1859), the Requiem mass (1837), etc. Alongside with R.Wagner the creator of new school of conducting. The tract " the Conductor of an orchestra " (1856). "Memoirs" (t. 1-2, 1860).
  • BERLIHINGEN (Berlichingen) Gets (Gottfried) a background (1480-1562), the german knight, the participant of Country war 1524-26. Commanded large country order in Franconia; before decisive battle in May 1525 has betraid peasants.
  • BERLUSKONI (Berlusconi) Silvio (r. 1936), the prime minister of Italy in May - December 1994. The large businessman, the leader built by him{it} in January of 1994 associations " Forwards, Italy ", included in the unit of dextral forces.
  • BERM (polsk. berma), a horizontal site between dip-slopes of terraces of a nonoperating pit wall. Distinguish transport, preservative and safety benches.
  • BERMAMYT, a plateau Rocky hr. B.Kavkaza, in 35 kms to a southwest from Kislovodsk. The main{basic} plateau - Major Bermamyt an altitude up to 2591 m, Small Bermamyt an altitude up to 2643 m. Karst is developed.
  • BERMAN Michael Mihajlovich (1908-76), the Russian engineer - stankostroitel and the organizer of manufacture, the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1976). The main{basic} transactionses are connected to building manufacture and development of new technique - hydraulic copying-turning semi-automatic machines, unique automatic transfer lines. The lenin premium (1959).
  • BERMEHO (Bermejo) (Vermeho) (Vermejo) Bartolome (worked 1474-95 or later), the spanish painter. One of the first spanish masters of the beginnings to paint in oils. Wrote in a manner of the modern Netherlands painting ("Pjeta", the Cathedral church in Barcelona, 1490).
  • BERMUDIAN ISLANDS (Bermuda), in Atlantic ok., bliz the Sowing. America. Possession of the Great Britain. In total ok. 150 islands. 53,3 êì2. The population of 61,0 thousand person. (1990). An altitude up to 79 m. Adm. ts. - Hamilton (about. Bermuda).
  • " BERMUDIAN TRIANGLE ", area Atlantic ok. Between islands Bermudian, Puerto Rico and p-ovom Florida, distinguished by a close conditions for navigation.
  • BERN (a nem. Bern, frants. Berne), capital (with 1848) Switzerland, an administrative centre of the canton Bern, on r. Aare. 134 thousand inhabitants (1990, with suburbs ok. 300 thousand inhabitants). An international airport. Machine-building, himiko-pharmaceutical, alimentary, a printing industry. University. Museums art, historical, alpine. It is based in 1191. In 1353 has come in the Swiss Confederated states. Medieval Strengthening (15 century), Gothic cathedral Sankt-Vintsents (1421-1588), a town hall (1406-17).
  • BERNADETTA SUBIRU (Bernadette Soubirous), in baptism Maria Bernarda (1844-79), sacred Roman catholic tservi, the daughter of the miller from Lourdes (France), international pilgrimage becoming a mestome after the phenomena to her in 1858 ladies Mary in a cave near Lourdes (obshchekatolicheskoe celebration with 1907). Memory{remembrance} in the Latin church on April, 16.
  • BERNADOT (Bernadotte) Jean Batist (1763-1844), marshal of France (1804). The participant of revolutionary and napoleonic wars. In 1810 it is dismissed by Napoleon and it is selected the successor of the Swedish holy table. In 1813 commanding the Swedish troops in war against France. In 1818-44 Swedish king Charles XIV JUhan, the founder of dynasty Bernadotov.
  • BERNAL (Bernal) John Desmond (1901-1971), English physics and the public figure, foreign member AN the USSR (1958). Transactionses on a X-ray structural analysis; probes of structure of metals, proteins, hormones, viruses, liquids. Activities on naukovedeniju. The president - initiator of Presidium of World Advice{Council} of the World (1959-65). The international Lenin premium (1953).
  • BERNANOS (Bernanos) George (1888-1948), the French writer, the publicist. In novels " Under the sun of the Satan " (1926), " the Diary of the village priest " (1936), "Mister Uin" (1940, it is published in 1943), etc., baring crisis " european showers " (unbelief, a spiritual bankruptcy, individualism), the criticism of a state of the art of the world is conducted from the point of view of religious - ethical (roman catholic) items.
  • BERNARD (Bernard) Klod (1813-78), the French physiologist and the pathologist, one of founders of experimental medicine and an endocrinology, the foreign member Petersburg AN (1860). Classical probes of function of a pancreatic gland and its{her} role in digestion. Has discovered education of a glycogen in a liver. Transactionses on an innervation of vessels, endocrine glands, a carbohydrate metabolism, electrophysiologies. Has entered concept about an internal environment of an organism.