Sunday, May 27, 2007

  • BETA-SPECTROSCOPY, see. Nuclear spectroscopy.
  • BETA-RAY THERAPY, medical application of beta-particles; a kind{view} of radial therapy.
  • BETATRON, a cyclic accelerator of electrons in whom electrons are gear uped by the vortical electric field induced by a variable magnetic field. Routinely power of electrons in a betatron is not higher 100 MeV.
  • BETA-PARTICLES, electrons and the positrons released at beta decay.
  • BETGER (Bottger) Iogann Fridrih (1682-1719), the german alchemist. The main{basic} transactionses are connected to search of components of porcelain mass and their optimal ratio. Has received in 1705-07 its{her} first samples on the basis of which manufacture of Dresden china has been organized. In 1707 has prepared first in Europe solid white porcelain, has developed technology of his{its} manufacture and in 1710 has organized in Mejsene (Saxony) a manufactory releasing world famous mejsensky the porcelain.
  • To BETA (Bethe) Hans Albrecht (r. 1906), the physics - theorist. In 1933 has emigrated from Germany, with 1935 in the USA. Fundamental transactionses on a quantum mechanics, a nuclear physics, a quantum theory of a solid, an astrophysics. Has indicated the most probable cycles of thermonuclear reactions in asters. The participant of building first an atomic bomb. The Nobel Prize (1967). A golden medal him{it}. Lomonosov AN the USSR (1990).
  • The BETEL NUT, a mix of spicy leaves of pepper the betel nut - a bush of a set of a pepper family (diluted in tropical Asia) with a shards of seeds of a palm a betel palm and a small amount of a lime. Use as a cud; excites nervuju system.
  • BETELGEJZE, a Orion, an aster of null stellar magnitude, a red supergiant with radius, to equal 850 radiuses of the Sun.
  • BETEHTIN Anatoly Georgievich (1897-1962), the Russian geologist and mineralog, academician AN the USSR (1953). The main{basic} transactionses on rudoobrazovaniju and mineragrafii. Has developed the theory of education of manganese ores. Probeed a problem of hydrothermal solutions. The lenin premium (1958), the State premium of the USSR (1947).
  • BETI (Beti) Mongo (r. 1932), kamerunsky the writer. Writes in French. Anticolonial novels " Severe city " (1955), " the Wonderful recovery of king " (1958), " Remember Rubena " and " Perpetju and a habit to travail " (both 1974).
  • BETIKA (Baetica), a Roman province in the south of Spain, derivated ok. 15-12 up to n. e.; the title from r. Betis (sovr. Guadalquivir). Economically the most developed and romanizovannaja a province in Spain. In nach. 5 century the terrain Betiki is conquered by vandals.
  • BETLEJKA, the same, that batlejka.
  • BETLEN Ishtvan (1874-1946), columns, in 1921-31 chairman of Council of Ministers of Hungary. Has concluded agreement (1927) for friendship with fascist Italy. Within 2-nd world war adviser M.Horti.
  • BETHLEHEM (Bethlehem), city on north-east the USA, pieces. Pennsylvania. 71,4 thousand inhabitants, about Allentown and suburbs of 650 thousand inhabitants (1990.) Center of iron and steel industry (headquarter " Bethlehem Steel "), metal-working, cement, etc. an industry. University.
  • " BETHLEHEM STEEL " (Bethlehem Steel), the metallurgical company the USA. It is based in 1904. Issues the industrial equipment and military technique, gets{procures} iron and a manganese ore. Sales volume 5,5 billion dol., a net profit 403 million dol., smelting become 11,7 million t, figure occupied 32,9 thousand person (kon. 1980th).
  • BETLINGK (Bohtlingk) Otton Nikolaevich (1815-1904), the german and Russian philologist - indolog, the academician (1855), the honorary member (1894) Petersburg AN. The main{basic} transactionses - " the Sanskrit dictionary " (a known baking plate the title " the Major Petersburg dictionary ", t. 1-7, 1855-75; together with R.Rotom). Has emited old indian grammar Panini (1839-40). For the first time has applied a comparative-historical method to study of Turkic tongues.
  • BETMAN-GOLVEG (Bethmann Hollweg) Teobald (1856-1921), German rejhskantsler and the Prussian minister - president in 1909-17; in 1905-07 Minister of Internal Affairs of Prussia, in 1907-09 imperial Minister of Internal Affairs and the deputy rejhskantslera.
  • CONCRETE (frants. beton), one of the major building timbers, received as a result of induration of a dense mix of a binder, water, fillers and in some events of additives. On a volume weight betons are sectioned on special heavy, heavy, light and special light. By the form a binder betons are: cement, silicate, gypseous, asphalt concretes, polimerbetony, etc. As required distinguish betons routine (for industrial and civil buildings), hydrotechnical, road, heat-insulating, the decorative, special destination (chemical-resistant, heat resisting, for a nuclear shielding, etc.). The main{basic} quality index of concrete - a compressive strength on which the quality class is established{set}.
  • BETONOPOLIMER, receive impregnation of a hardened concrete by monomers or sirups with their consequent polymerization. Has heightened toughness, morozo-and wear-resistance. It is applied to an encasing of engineering structures in hydroconstruction, a road construction, etc.
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