Thursday, May 24, 2007

  • GIBBONS (gibbonovye), a set of monkeys of order of primates. Anteriors very much the lengthy (up to 2 m in scope). 2 stems: true gibbons and srostnopalye gibbons, or siamangi (sometimes them integrate in one stem). For true gibbons length of a body up to 64 sm; 6 kinds, in JUzh. China, Indochina, on islands Sumatras, Java, Kalimantan. Live on trees. Some kinds under threat peterings; 4 kinds of gibbons in Red Data Book MSOP.
  • GIBBS (Gibbs) James (1682-1754), the English architect. The representative of a classicism (Ðýäêëèôôà library in Oxford, 1737-49).
  • GIBBS Dzhozajja Uillard (1839-1903), the American physics - theorist, one of creators of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Has developed the theory of thermodynamic potentials, has discovered the general condition of balance of heterogeneous systems - a rule of phases, has introduced equations of Gibbs - Helmholtz, the Gibbs - Djugema, the adsorptive equation of Gibbs. Has placed the fundamental law of a statistical physics - Gibbs canonical distribution. Has offered the graphics image of a condition of a ternary system (a triangle of Gibbs). Has put in pawn a fundamentals of thermodynamics of surface phenomena and electrochemical processes. Has entered concept of an adsorption.
  • GIBBS the RULE of PHASES in thermodynamics: the figure equilibriumly co-existing in any phase set cannot be more figures of components generatrix these phase a plus, as a rule, 2. It is established Dzh. U.Gibbsom in 1873-76.
  • GIBBS DISTRIBUTION canonical, a probability distribution of different conditions of macroscopic system with stationary values in volume and a dividend of the particles, located in balance with an environment of the given temperature; if the system can exchange particles with medium the Gibbs canonical distribution calls major canonical. For a unerthed system fairly Gibbs distribution microcanonical according to which all microstates of system with the given power are equiprobable. It is called named unblocking this distribution Dzh. U.Gibbsa.
  • GIBBS POWER (a Gibbs thermodynamic potential, a loose enthalpy), one of potentials of a thermodynamic system. It is meant G, it is determined by a difference between enthalpy H and product of entropy S on thermodynamic temperature T: G = H - T·S. The isothermal equilibrium process without costs of external forces can weep spontaneously only in a direction of decreasing of power of Gibbs up to achievement of its minimum to which the thermodynamic equilibrium state of system answers. It is called by name Dzh. U.Gibbsa.
  • GIBBSIT, a mineral of subclass of oxyhydroxides, Al (OH) 3. Hardness 2,5-3; firmness ok. 2,4 g / sm3. Basically hypergenic. A main mineral of some bauxites.
  • GIBELLINY, see in an item. Gvelfy and gibelliny.
  • WINTER SLEEP SYNTHETIC (from an armour. hibernatio - a hibernatation) (a steep neuroplegia), artificially called condition of delayed vital activity of the organism, recalling a hibernatation animal. It is reached by application of the antipsychotic and other pharmaceuticals which are blocking out mechanisms of neuroendocrinal reactions (at surgical operations, a shock, etc.).
  • GIBERTI (Ghiberti) Lorentso (ok. 1381-1455), the italian sculptor and the jeweller. The representative of the Florentine school of early Revitalization. In bronze reliefs of boreal (1404-24) and eastern (1425-52) doors of a baptistery in Florence has addressed to experience of an ancient art, achievements to ranges of a linear perspective.
  • GIBIL (Girra, Girru), in shumero-akkadskoj mythologies the god of fire.
  • HIBISCUS, stem of plants of a set malvovyh. Evergreen or deciduous trees and bushes, perennial and annual grasses. Ok. 300 kinds, primarily in tropics and subtropics. Major economic value the kenaf, and a hibiscus edible, or an okra have a hibiscus konoplevyj, or. Many kinds are decorative.
  • NONRIGID FILAMENT, in structural mechanics - a nonrigid element with negligiblely small t. n. The flexural stiffness, capable to work only on a stretching. Cables and suspension wires of flying bridges, elements of suspension constructions, wires of power lines and other are considered at calculation as a nonrigid filament.
  • The FLEXIBLE SHAFT, the bank with the form of a center line changed in the space. Apply in power drives, napr., in drives of servo-mechanisms of a hand tool.
  • GIBRALTAR (Gibraltar), possession of the Great Britain in the south Pirenejskogo p-ova, for the Gibraltar prol., from Spain it is unbound by a neutral region. 6,5 êì2. The population of 29,1 thousand person (1993). The official language - English. A rock (an altitude 425 ì) and the sandy isthmus bridging her with an island. Gibraltar - possession of the Great Britain with 1713. Rights to Gibraltar are challenged by Spain. Anglo-spanish agreement 1980 (has come into force in 1985) actuates regulations about equality of rights gibraltartsev in Spain and Spaniards in Gibraltar, their loose removal. In 1985 the border between Gibraltar and Spain is open. The economy is connected primarily to service of marine and air-force bases of the Great Britain, a transit port, and also foreign tourists. The enterprises mild and a food-processing industry. A ship repair.
  • The GIBRALTAR CHANNEL (Estrecho de Gibraltar), between austral tip Pirenejskogo p-ova and a northwest part of Africa; bridges Atlantic ok. And Mediterranean m. Length of 59 kms, width of 14-44 kms, a critical depth on a fairway of 53 m. On boreal coast - ports Gibraltar and Algeciras, on austral - Tangier.
  • HYBRID (from an armour. hibrida - a cross), an organism received as a result of a crossing of generically discriminating parental forms (kinds, breeds, lines, etc.).
  • HYBRIDIZATION, crossing of heterogeneous organisms in hereditary attitude. One of the major factors of evolution of biologic forms in a nature. Apply to obtaining economic valuable forms animal and plants. The crossing of individuals of the same kind (a different subspecies, grades, breeds or lines) calls as an intraspecific hybridization, and different kinds or stems - a remote hybridization.
  • The HYBRID COMPUTING SYSTEM, complex from several computers or computing circuits (analog and digital), consolidated a unified guidance system. Apply at simulation of the composite systems, to optimisation of automatic control systems, the solution of nonlinear partial equations, etc.
  • HYBRID SEEDS, will be derivated as a result of a crossing of miscellaneous grades, lines, kinds and stems of plants. Plants from hybrid seeds of 1-st generation more adapted to growing conditions and are more fruitful (see. A heterosis), than from seeds of initial parental forms. Use at cultivation of corn, sugar-beet, a cucumber, a tomato, etc.
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