Thursday, May 24, 2007

  • GEOLOGIC INSTITUTE (GIN) the Russian Academy of Science, is built in 1930 in Leningrad as Institute of Geological Sciences (IGN), conducts a history from Mineral cabinet Kunstkamery. With 1934 in Moscow (the modern title with 1956). Probes on theoretical problems of a tectonics, lithology, a stratigraphy, a history of geology.
  • GEOLOGIC INSTITUTE All-Russia (VSEGEI) him. A.P.Karpinsky in Saint Petersburg. Conducts the beginning from Geologic committee. Up to 1939 called as Central research prospecting institute (TSNIGRI), it is based in 1931. Probes of problems metallogenii, a geologic structure and a geologic mapping of terrain of Russia.
  • GEOLOGIC COMMITTEE, establishment of Russia. It is based in 1882 in Saint Petersburg for organization of geological investigations, assistance to departments and the private companies in use of mineral oofs. After 1917 in structure VSNH. In 1929-30 it is reorganized. Scientific subdividings with 1931 become a research institute.
  • GEOLOGICAL RECORD (earth cross section), the graphics image of a geologic structure of district in a vertical plane.
  • GEOLOGIC LETOSCHISLENIE, the same, that geochronology.
  • GEOLOGY (from geo... And... logija), a complex of sciences about structure, a structure and histories of development of earth crust and the Earth. Headstreams of geology fall into an extreme antiquity and are connected to the first cramps on rocks, minerals and ores. The term "geology" was entered by Norwegian scientist M.P.Esholt (1657). In a do-it-yourself branch of natural sciences the geology was secured in 18 - nach. 19 centuries (U.Smith, A.G.Verner, Dzh. Getton, C.Lajel - abroad; M.V.Lomonosov, V.M.Severgin - in Russia). A quantum leap in a history of geology - its metamorphosis into a complex of sciences (kon. 19 - nach. 20 centuries) - It is connected to introduction of physico-chemical and mathematical methods of probes. The modern geology actuates: a stratigraphy, a tectonics, geodynamics, geological oceanography, areal geology, mineralogy, petrography, lithology and a geochemistry, the doctrine about the mineral wealths, an investigator structure, structure of earth crust. The geology is closely related with physical geography, geophysics (physics of the "solid" Earth), crystallography, paleontology, etc. The Special group is compounded by branches of applied value: hydrogeology, engineering geology, geokriologija, etc., and also the recent trends of geology engendered on joints with other natural sciences, - petrochemistry, a petrophysics, tektonofizika, etc.
  • GEOMAGNETISM, 1) a magnetic field of the Earth. 2) Section of geophysics in which the spatial distribution and time histories of a magnetic field of the Earth is studied, and also the bound from nymas geophysical processes in the Earth and its magnetosphere.
  • GEOMAGNETIC COORDINATES, latitude F and longitude?, locating a point above ground by consideration of the phenomena of a terrestrial magnetism. Latitude F - angular distance from geomagnetic equator (in a plane of geomagnetic meridian) up to a considered point; longitude? - a dihedral angle between planes of the geomagnetic meridian passing through the given point on a surface of the Earth, and the geomagnetic meridian passing through a geographycal pole.
  • GEOMETRIZATION of the DEPOSIT, complex of activities under the tax, systematizations, to mathematical machining and the graphics image of data about structural and quality features of a mineral deposit.
  • GEOMETRICAL ABSTRACTION, one of kinds of the abstract art, preferring to a composition, in which basis - a severe rhythmicity geometrical or (in a sculpture) stereometric figures. Its early versions (partly orfizm R.Delon and F.Kupki, and also K.S.Malevich suprematism and neoplastitsizm P.Mondriana) combine rationalism with romanticism, gravitating to construction of the "absolute" colourful - actuarial monumental numerals expressing mystical laws of cosmos. At the same time the geometrical abstraction has absorbed in itself and texnocratic fervor of constructivism. In second half of 20 century in such flows as the op-art and the postpicturesque abstraction, geometrical abstraction saves the " rationalistic mysticism ", even more closely approaching with diversiform dynamics of the modern life.
  • PLANE SYMMETRIC ISOMERISM, the same, that cis - trans-izomerija.
  • RAY OPTICS, section opticians in which the illumination in transparent mediums is considered on the basis of submission about a light ray as lines along which the light energy is distributed. Laws of ray optics are applied to calculations of construction of the plotting at a light transmission through optical systems.
  • GEOMETRICAL PROGRESSION, sequence of numbers from which each following is received from previous by multiplication to a dividend q, called as a denominator of a geometrical progression, napr., 2, 8, 32, 128..., q = 4.
  • GEOMETRICALLY INVARIABLE SYSTEM, in structural mechanics - system coherent among themselves bodies (napr., rod stock, discs) which change in shape is impossible without a strain of a material. All load-carrying structures of buildings and structures are geometrically invariable systems.
  • GEOMETRICAL CONSTRUCTIONS, the methods permitting under actuarially data to elements (to points, direct, to circles) to find (to construct) with the help beforehand the given means other elements, the bound with data some conditions. Constructions with the help of a divider and a ruler (secund, without divisions) are most known. In this connection the phylum of geometrical constructions have arisen classical problems of an antiquity: a quadrature the circle, a trisection of an angle and a gemination of a cube.
  • GEOMETRICAL STYLE in art, early (9-8 centuries up to n. e.) a stage of development of ancient greek art: a geometric pattern, the geometrized figures of people and animal in vazopisi, schematical bronze figurines.
  • GEOMETRIC LEVELLING, method of definition of excesses by a sighting a horizontal ray with the help of a level and readout of an altitude difference on rods. An accuracy of reading on rods of 1-2 mm (a technical levelling procedure) and up to 0,1 mm (precision levelling).
  • GEOMETRICAL TRANSFORMATION, one-to-one map direct, planes or the spaces on itself. Examples of geometrical transformation: a similarity, motion, an affinity.
  • GEOMETRICAL AVERAGE, value (a *), equal to the radical n-® degrees from product n datums (à1, à2..., àn):Ãåîìåòðè÷åñêîå mean of two figures and, b, equal, calls also as mean proportional between and and b.
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