Wednesday, May 16, 2007

  • BOMBARDA (frants. bombarde), one of the first artillery pieces used at osade and the defence of strengths in 14-16 centuries.
  • BOMBARDIR (a nem. Bombardier), in Russian army and on fleet originally the soldier or the mariner maintained bombardirskie the instruments (howitzers, mortiry, unicorns); since 19 century a rank in the army artillery, matching to the corporal in other service arms.
  • BOMBER, the combat aircraft intended for a defeat of terraneous and marine objects of the opponent by charges and missiles. Are sectioned on front (tactical), long-distance (strategic) and deck (ship).
  • BOMBARDIRSKY the SHIP, a sailing combat ship kon. 17 - nach. 19 centuries. Had up to 20 guns or 2-4 mortiry. It was applied to firing bayshore strengths.
  • BOMBARDIRY, a subfamily of bugs of a set of carabids. Length of 5-20 mm. St. 500 kinds, are distributed widely. Sheltering, bombardiry vybryzgivajut a caustic liquid which in air turns to fallow, as though blasting out (from here the title). Larvas bombardirov - parasites of cocoons of other bugs.
  • BOMBAY (Major Bombay), city, one of the main economic centres of India, administrative centre pieces. Maharashtra. 9,9 million inhabitants (1991). A port on the Arabian m. (freight turnover ok. 30 million t.). An international airport. The large centre of cotton industry. A machine industry and metal working, petrochemical, chemical, mild, alimentary, a woodworking industry, motion picture industry. University. Near to Bombay - atomic power station Tarapur. The largest centre national-liberation and working-class movement. It is known from 16 century.
  • The BOMBAY UNIVERSITY, India, is based in 1857. In 1990 over 570 thousand students.
  • BOMBELLI (Bombelli) Raffaele (ok .1526-72), italian mathematician and the engineer. In "Algebra" (1572) for the first time regularly developed the theory of complex numbers.
  • MORTAR, 1) the instrument of short-range crocked eggs (templet from 20 up to 152 mm), similar on the device on a mortar, but as against him was charged from treasury. It was applied in 1-¯ world war... 2) the Ship mortar - antisubmarine weapon of surface ships for shooting by depth charges on submersibles.
  • The BAUME (Baume) Antoine (1728-1804), the French chemist, the pharmacist and the technologist. Has invented (1708) areometer called as his name. Has organized (1770) manufacture of muriate of ammonia (chloride of an ammonium). Has introduced improvements to manufacture of porcelain. In books " Elements of a theoretical and practical pharmaceutics " (1762) and " Experimental and regular chemistry " (t. 1-3, 1773) it is detailed cramps on chemistry of the extremity of 18 century from an item of the theory flogistona are stated.
  • BOMON (Beaumont) William (1785-1853), the American doctor and the physiologist, one of the first physiologists in the USA. For the first time has conducted (with 1822) regular probes on a stomach of the person for which as a result of a wound not healing fistula was formed. Outcomes of probes has extended in fundamental transactionses " Experiments and supervision above a gastric juice and physiology of digestion " (1833).
  • BEAUMONT (Beaumont), city in the south the USA, pieces. Texas, seaport (freight turnover ok. 50 million t annually) on r. Neches. 114 thousand inhabitants (1990), with suburbs of 360 thousand inhabitants). Oil refining and a petrochemical industry. Shipbuilding. University.
  • BOMA (Bomu), an oil deposit in Nigeria (gulf of Guinea oil-and-gas-bearing basin). It is open in 1958. Deposits on depth of 1,9-2,3 kms. Beginning inventories of petroleum ok. 75 million t.
  • BONDS, the former title Annaba, in Algeria.
  • BOND DEA (an armour. Bona Dea - the kind goddess), in Roman mythology the goddess of fertility, goddess - mother which name was known only dedicated, was identified with JUnonoj, Gekatoj. The holiday in its honour, surrounded with a secret, managed in Rome in the beginning of December, on a nem there could be only women.
  • BONAVENTURA (Bonaventura) (sobstv. Giovanni Fidantsa, Fidanza) (1221-74), the philosopher - mistik, the representative avgustinovskogo platonizma; the chapter of franciscan order, a cardinal bird. Has been consecrated a saint (1482), to figure 10 of the greatest teachers of Christian church (1587). Taught at the Parisian university. The main composition - " the Guidebook showers to the God ".
  • BONALD (Bonald) Lui Gabriel Ambruaz (1754-1840), the French philosopher, the political figure and the publicist. In the main composition " the Theory of a political and religious authority in a civil society " (1796) from clerical items argued against with philosophy of the French Enlightenment; shadowed idea of a heavenly origin of a monarchy. Views Bonalda have received the title traditsionalizma.
  • BONAPARTISM, initial notation of dictatorship of Napoleon Bonaparte and Lui Napoleon, manoeuvring between social groups; combined demagogy with policy of approach to democracy and revolutionary movement. In a more comprehensive sense - the dictatorship manoeuvring between social groups in conditions of unstable social balance.
  • BONAPARTISTY, adherents of restoration in France Bonaparte dynasties after fall of the First empire (1814) and the Second empire (1870). Promoted Lui Bonaparte coming to power (Napoleon III).
  • BONAPARTES (Bonaparte), a dynasty of the French emperors in 1804-14, 1815 (Napoleon I) and in 1852-1870 (Napoleon III). In board of Napoleon I in the chapter conquered France or the states derivated by him had been put representatives of a stem of Bonapartes (Zhozef Bonaparte - in 1806-08 Neapolitan king, in 1808-13 king of Spain; Lui Bonaparte - in 1806-10 king of Holland; Zherom Bonaparte - in 1807-13 king of Westphalia, etc.).
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