Sunday, April 8, 2007

ATMOGEOHIMIJA, studies an atmospheric composition of the Earth and his{its} evolution during a geologic history.
ATMOSPHERE, off-system unit of pressure. Normal, or physical, an atmosphere (it is meant atm.) it is peer 101325 Pa - 1013,25 gPa - 760 mm of a mercurial pile - 10332 mm of water column - 1,0332 at; the technical atmosphere (at) is peer 1 kgf / sm2 - 735,56 mm of a mercurial pile - 104 mm of water column - 98066,5 Pa.
EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE (from grech. atmos - fallow and an orb), air medium around of the Earth, rotated together with it{her}; mass ok. 5,15•1015 t. Its{her} structure for a surface of the Earth: 78,1 % of nitrogen, 21 % of oxygen, 0,9 % of argon, in minor lobes of percent uklekislyj gas, hydrogen, helium, a neon and other gases. In the lower 20 kms (for a surface - from 3 % the water fallow is contained in tropics up to 2•10-5 % in Antarctica) which quantity with an altitude fast diminishes. At the altitude 20-25 kms the layer of ozone which protects living organisms on the Earth from harmful short-wave radiation is located. Above 100 kms will be grown with a lobe of light gases, and on very high altitudes helium and hydrogen prevail{dominate}; the part of molecules is decomposed to atoms and ions, derivating an ionosphere. Pressure and an atmospheric density of the Earth with an altitude diminish. Depending on distribution of temperature (rice). Earth's atmosphere section into a troposphere, a stratosphere, a mesosphere, a thermosphere, an exosphere. The Earth's atmosphere has an electric field. Non-uniformity{irregularity} of its{her} calefaction promotes general atmosphere circulation which influences weather and a climate of the Earth.
ATMOSPHERIC NOISES, the radio signals which are radiated at electric discharges in an atmosphere. Atmospheric noises prevent{stir} radio reception, especially over the range superlong and long waves.
The AERO-ACOUSTICS, studies an acoustic propagation in an atmosphere and investigates last acoustic methods.
The ATMOSPHERIC OPTIC, studies the optical phenomena originating at a light transmission in an atmosphere (a halo, a Mirage, etc.).
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE, pressure of free air on subjects located in a nem and on a surface. In each point of an atmosphere the atmospheric pressure is equal to weight of an overlying column of air; with an altitude diminishes. The mean atmospheric pressure is sea-level equivalent to mercury pressure an altitude in 760 mm or 1013,25 gPa.
ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY.. 1) the electrical phenomena in an atmosphere: air ionization, an electric field of an atmosphere, electric charges of clouds and a rainfall, current flows and categories{discharges} in an atmosphere and t. d... 2) the Section of atmospheric physics investigator these phenomena.
ATMOSPHERIC WAVEGUIDE, layer of air for a surface of the Earth which, wedging extending radiowaves, directs them along the Earth. The atmospheric waveguide will be derivated, if the temperature diminishes with an altitude more slowly, and the atmospheric humidity is faster, than in normal conditions. In an atmospheric waveguide distribution{propagation} of the meter and more short radiowaves which have left under a small angle to horizon is possible.
ATMOSPHERE of ASTERS, surface layers of asters in which the observable radiation spectrum of asters is formed. In an atmosphere of asters routinely secrete the enveloping layer - an extended corona (see. A solar corona), then a chromosphere and the photosphere located even more deeply.
ATMOSPHERE of PLANETS, the gaseous envelopes of planets rotated together with planets, disseminating and absorptive a sunlight. An atmosphere of planets of the Jove, Saturn, Neptune Venus and Mars - primarily from a carbonic gas will consist predominary of hydrogen, helium and methane. The Earth's atmosphere (N2, O2, Ar, CO2, etc.) has the composite structure.
ATMOFILNYE ELEMENTS, in geochemical grading elements of V.M.Goldshmidta - group of chemical elements (nitrogen, hydrogen, rare gases), sample for an Earth's atmosphere at which structure they are present by the way free atoms or molecules.
ATOLL, the coral structure, shaped the solid or chipped ring ambient a shallow-water lagoon. The grounding for an atoll the top of a submerged burning mountain ministers routinely. Are distributed in tropical latitudes of Quiet and Indian oceans.
ATOM (from grech. atomos - indivisible), the ultimate particle of a chemical element keeping his{its} properties. At the centre of atom there is a positively charged nucleus in which all mass of atom is concentrated almost; the electrons which are generatrix electronic shells which dimensions (~10-8 sm) dimension atom around move. The stripped atom will consist of protons and neutrons. Figure of electrons in atom equally to figure of protons in a nucleus (the charge of all electrons of atom is peer to nuclear charge), figure of protons equally to a serial number of an element in a periodic system. Atoms can join or return electrons, becoming negatively or positively charged ions. Chemical properties of atoms are determined basically by figure of electrons in the outer shell; being bridged chemical, atoms will derivate molecules. The important characteristics of atom - his{its} internal energy which can accept only fixed (discrete) values conforming to stable states of atom, and variates only spasmodically by quantum transition. Capturing{absorbing;imbibing;occluding} a fixed bundle of energy, the atom passes in an exited state (on a higher level of power). From an exited state the atom, releasing a photon, can proceed{pass} in a condition with smaller power (to more low level of power). The level conforming to minimum power of atom, calls as the main{basic}, remaining - exited. Quantum transitions stipulate atomic spectrums of absorption and emitting, personal for atoms of all chemical elements.
ATOMISM (the nuclear doctrine, atomism), the doctrine about intermittent, an atomism of a matter. Up to kon. 19 century of atomism asserted{approved}, that the matter will consist of separate indivisible particles - atoms. From the point of view of the modern atomism electrons - "atoms" of an electricity, photons - "atoms" of light, etc. In a more comprehensive sense the atomism means a discretization of object, process, property (social atomism, logic atomism, etc.).
ATOMIC UNIT of MASS (and. e. M.), a mass unit used for expression of masses of microparticles. For 1 and. e. The m. adopt 1/12 part of mass of an isotope of carbon with mass number 12 (t. n. A carbon scale). 1 and. e. M. - 1,6605655 (86) ·10-27 kg.
ATOMIC WEIGHT, the mass of atom expressed in atomic units of mass. Atomic weight is less than sum of masses, components atom of particles (protons, neutrons, electrons), on the value stipulated by power of their interaction (see, napr., Defect of mass).
ATOMIC PHYSICS, section of physics in which are studied a structure and conditions of atoms. Has arisen in nach. 20 century. Up to kon. 19 century considered{counted} atom indivisible. After discovering a radioactivity (1896) and an electron (1897, Dzh. Dzh. Thomson) has become apparently, that atom - system of charged particles. In 1911 E.Rezerford has offered epicyclic atomic model (around of a heavy positively charged nucleus electrons are spun). The first quantum theory of atom on its{her} basis{fundamentals} has given in 1913 N.Bor; she has explained spectrums N and hydrogen-like atoms, but was not suit for atoms with figure of electrons? 2. The serial theory of atom is built later on the basis of a quantum mechanics. In 30-40-Х in an atomic physics actuated also sections, the bound with structure and properties of a nucleus, ultrarays, fundamental particles; afterwards they were secured{discharged} in do-it-yourself ranges of physics.
ATOMIC POWER STATION (atomic power station), power station on whom nuclear (nuclear) power will be converted to electrical. On atomic power station warmly, secreted in a nuclear reactor, the turboalternator is used for obtaining water fallow, gyrating. 1-n in the world of atomic power station moshchnnostju 5 MVt it has been started up in the USSR 27.6.1954 to Obninsk. The atomic power station compound{make} the basis{fundamentals} of nuclear power. Power of the largest operational multi-block atomic power stations (1989) over 9 GVt.
ATOMIC ENERGY, see. A nuclear energy
NUCLEAR WEAPONS, see. Automatic weapon.
ATOMIC KERNEL, see. A nucleus nuclear.
ATOMIC ENERGY INSTITUTE him{it}. I.V.Kurchatova, in 1992 is converted to the Russian centre of science " Kurchatovsky institute ".
ATOMIC RADIUSES, the performances permitting approximately to estimate interatomic (internuclear) distances in molecules and crystals. Are determined primarily from data of a x-ray structural analysis.
ATOMIC SPECTRUMS, optical spectrums of the loose or slightly associated atoms (monoatomic gases, steams{vapours}). Are stipulated by quantum transitions of atom. Atomic spectrums - ruled, will consist of separate spectrum lines which are defined by a fixed wavelength and for simple atoms are assorted in spectral series. Contain the information on a structure of atoms, are used also in spectral analysis.
ATOMIC CLOCKS, the same, that quantum hours.
ATOMIC NUMBER (serial number), Z, number of a chemical element in a periodic system of elements. It is peer to figure of protons an atomic kernel and determines chemical and the majority of physical properties of atom.
ATOMIC BOILER, the same, that a nuclear reactor.
NUCLEAR FLEET, set{combination} of civil courts and the ship of wars of different destination having in the capacity of of a main energy source nuclear power plants.
ATOM-POWERED SHIP, non-proprietary name of courts (above water and submerged) with a nuclear power plant. 1-st civil atom-powered ship - Soviet icebreaker " Ленин " (1959, the USSR).
ATON, in drevneegipetskoj mythologies the god of the sun. It was figured by the way a solar disc.
ATONALITY (from a - a negative prefix and chromaticity), in music - the term meaning absence of traditionally treated chromaticity in compositions of 20 century (failure{refusal} of a major and the minor, from konsonantnoj tonics, dodekafonija).
ATONIA (from grech. atonia - a release phenomenon), in medicine - loss of a normal tonus of muscles of a skeleton and an internals (napr., an intestines) at an exhausting, nervous and other diseases. Can be inborn.
ATRATO (Atrato), the river in northwest of Columbia. 664 kms, the area of basin 36 t. км2. Average discharge of water ok. 2500 m3 / with. It is navigable from Quibdo.
ATRAHASIS (akkadsk. Superior wisdom), in akkadskoj mythologies the hero of the myth about a deluge, the constructing ship{spacecraft} under the title " ladja, keeping life " and becoming the grandparent of a new generation of people on ground.
ATRESIA (from a - a negative prefix and grech. tresis - an aperture), inborn absence (malformation) or zarashchenie (owing to a trauma, an inflammation, etc.) any natural foramen, the channel (napr., an esophagus).
ATREJ, in the Grecian mythology tsar of Mycenae, father of heroes of Trojan war Agamemnona and Menelaus.
ATREK, the river in Iran and Turkmenii. 669 kms, the area of a mountain part of basin 27,3 t. км2. Average discharge of water for urban settlement Kizyl-Atrek 9,2 m3 / with. Water reaches the Caspian m. only in a flood, in the rest of the time is disassembled on an irrigation. Main in-leak{influx} - Sumbar.
ATRI, vedijsky a wise man - rishi, one of mythical writers "Rigvedy".
ATTRIBUTE (from an armour. attribuo - I give, I allocate).. 1) necessary, essential, integral property of object (napr., attribute of a matter in philosophy - motion)... 2) In linguistics - the same, that definition.
ATRIBUTSIJA (from an armour. attributio - an attribution), establishment of the writer, time and a place of building of a piece of art. Rests on the analysis of style, ikonografii, a scene, technique, on outcomes physical and analyses, etc.
ATRY (an armour. atrium), the closed aula in midpoint drevnerimskogo home units where there were remaining rooms. At the centre the basin (impluvium), above nymas an aperture (kompljuvy) for a drainage of a rain water was.
ATROPATENA, rannerabovladelcheskoe the state in JUzh. Azerbaijan in 4 century up to n. e. - 7 century n. e., the centre zoroastrizma. Capital-. Gazaka. Struggled against Selevkidov and Roman empire. It is conquered Arabian halifatom.
ATROPINE, the alkaloid keeping in plants of a set of a nightshade family (a belladonna, a henbane, a datura, etc.). It is used in medicine primarily as a cholinolytic means. Takes out spasms of bronchuses, dilates a pupil, etc.
ATROPOS (Atropa), in the Grecian mythology one of Mojr, a cutting filament of human life.
ATROPHY (from grech. atropheo - I starve, chahnu).. 1) reduction of the dimensions of an organ or a tissue with violation{disturbance} (arrest) of their function; there can be general (cachexia) and aboriginal; physiological (napr., an atrophy of sex glands at ageing) and pathological... 2) Figuratively - an obtusion, loss of any feeling.
ATROSHCHENKO Vasily Ivanovich (r. 1906), the Ukrainian chemist, academician AN of Ukraine (1972), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1971). The main{basic} transactionses in range of a kinetics of catalytic and absorptive processes, technologies of a bound nitrogen. The state premium of the USSR (1969).
ATTALEJA, a stem of palms. Ok. 20 kinds{views}, in tropics of America. From axils Brazilian attalei get{procure} piassavu. The solid environment of seeds of other kinds{views} goes on turning items. Some attalei cultivate in greenhouses.
ATTALIDY, a dynasty of governors of Pergamum in 283-133 up to n. e.
ATTAR Farid-ad-din, the persian and Tadjik poet - sufy of 12 century (see. Sufizm). A poem " Conversation of birds " (ok. 1175), lyrical verses; the anthology " the Biography of sheikhs ".
The ATTACHE (frants. attache, characters. - attached), the diplomatic rank, one of junior diplomatic positions. In diplomatic representations are present the attache military, marine, air-force, trade, on crop, a seal{printing} (press attache), etc.
ATTENBORO (Attenborough) Richard (r. 1923), the English film actor and the producer. Debuted as the actor in N.Kouarda and D.Lina's film "... In which we minister " (1942). Has removed some anti-war films; in 1982 has realized{sold} the dream - has delivered a biographic pattern "Gundy" (8 premiums "Oscar"). In 1996 picturized G.Villarda's documentary book and Dzh. Najdzhela " Heminguej in love and on war ".
ATTENUATION (from an armour. attenuatio - reduction), synthetic nonperishable slackening of a virulence of the pathogenic microorganism keeping ability to invoke{produce} immunity. It is used at manufacturing alive vaccines against a tuberculosis, a smallpox, etc.



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1 comment:

Anonymous said...

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