Sunday, April 8, 2007

  • The ATTENUATOR (from frants. attenuer - to slacken), the radio device (napr., by the way the waveguide or an electric circuit from resistors) for a undertension{undervoltage} or a signal power.
  • ATTERBERG (Atterberg) Kurt (1887-1974), the Swedish composer, the conductor, the musical - public figure. 5 operas, 4 ballets, 9 concordances spirit of the musical romanticism. Used national musical folklore.
  • The CERTIFICATE (from an armour. attestor - I testify).. 1) the document on the terminal of a mean educational institution, appropriation of an academic status... 2) the Document giving to the serviceman at transfers{translations} on a service, business trips, about satisfaction his{its} different kinds{views} of a ration, and also to the member of his{its} family on the right of obtaining of a part of his{its} ration.
  • CERTIFICATION (from an armour. attestatio - the certificate), definition of qualification of the worker, a product quality, jobs, a level of knowledge of pupils; the recall, the characteristics.
  • ATTIC (from grech. attikos - attic), a wall above crowning an architectonic structure a corbel, often decorated with reliefs and inscriptions. Routinely finishes a triumphal arc.
  • ATTIC Sevastijsky (mind{wit}. ok. 320), the Christian martyr - soldier damaged in the Sebasta in persecution of emperor Litsinija. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on November, 3 (16).
  • ATTIC, in an antiquity range in a southeast Compare. Greeces. In the modern Greece Attica - one of nomov (the centre - Athenes).
  • ATTILA (Attila) (? - 453), the leader gunnov with 434. Has headed devastating marchings in Vost. Roman empire (443, 447-448), Gallia (451), the Sowing. Italy (452). At Attile gunnsky the union of nations has reached{achieved} the best power.
  • ATTIS, in frigijskoj mythologies the god of the fertility, beloved goddesses Kibely. Corresponds{meets} to a Phoenician Adonis and babylonian Tammuzu.
  • ATTITJUD (frants. attitude), one of the main{basic} postures of classical dance at whom the crooked leg in an elbow is raised and retired.
  • ATTO... (from an armour. atten - eighteen), a prefix for education of the name of submultiple phisical unit, an equal 10-18 lobe initial{starting}. A contracted notation - and. An example: 1 ace = 10-18 seconds.
  • ATTON Nikopolsky (Armenian) (mind{wit}. ok. 319), one of a magpie of five Christian martyrs damaged in Nikopol Armenian in the persecution of emperor Litsinija. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 10 (23).
  • The ATTORNEY (English attorney), in the Great Britain the charge d'affaires, in the USA attorneys of districts, areas, cities - advisers of government bodies under matters of law, execute also functions of criminal prosecution and the charge on criminal cases.
  • The ATTORNEY - GENERAL, in the Great Britain the general counsel of government, executes also functions of procurator's supervision, judicial protection of financial interests of a corona; in the USA the main legal adviser of government, the representative of his{its} interests to court, etc. It is nominated as the president. Attorneys - generals are present in separate staffs.
  • ATTRACTANTS (from an armour. attraho - I attract to myself), the natural or synthetic substances involving animal, especially hexapods. Are applied as a bait to pests of agricultural plants.
  • AMUSEMENT (frants. attraction, characters. - an attraction).. 1) effective circus or variety number... 2) the Device for entertainment in places public guljany (a roundrobin, a big wheel, etc.).
  • ATUM, in egyptian mythology one of the most ancient gods, main demiurg in geliopolskoj a cosmogony, heading Great Enneadu, implementation of the vesper catching sun. Gradually cult Atuma drains with cult Ra.
  • ATUEJ (Hatuey), the American Indian leader who has headed extirpation against spanish conquerors to Haiti and Cuba. It incinerated by Spaniards on a boon (1515).
  • ATF, the reduced title adenozintrifosfata.
  • ATHARVAVEDA, one of four sacred indian books - ved, keeping spells and magic formulas.
  • ATHARVAN, in vedijskoj mythologies the sacrificer who first mined fire and has founded immolation to fire.
  • ATKOV Oleg Jurjevich (r. 1949), the Russian astronaut, a pilot - astronaut of the USSR (1984), the Hero of Soviet Union (1984), the doctor of medical sciences (1986). Flight on the spacecraft " Soyuz T-10,-11 " and orbital station " Salute - 7 " (February - October 1984). The state premium of the USSR (1989).
  • ATJA SUA, the chief of revolt in Cambodia in 1864-66 against king and the French colonialists. After depressing{supression} revolt it is banished.
  • AUBAKIROV Toktar Ongarbaevich (r. 1946), the Russian astronaut, a pilot - astronaut of the USSR (1991). The hero of Soviet Union (1988), the deserved pilot - verifier of the USSR (1990). Flight on " Soyuz TM-12,-13 " and an orbital complex "World" (October 1991). With 1993 general director of National space agency of Kazakhstan.
  • AUVERS (Auwers) Arthur (1838-1915), the german astronomer, the foreign honorary member Petersburg AN (1904). Transactionses on an astrometry. Has placed{installed} fundamental system of sidereal rules{situations;positions} and has constituted 1-st fundamental check list of asters (1879).
  • AUGRABIS (Aughrabies), a cataract on r. Orange, in the republic of South Africa. An altitude of 146 m.
  • AUGSBURG (Augsburg), city in the south of Germany, ground Bavaria, in piedmonts of the Alpes. 260 thousand inhabitants (1989). The arcaded textile centre; a machine industry. It is based in 15 up to n. e. In 15-16 centuries one of the main trade and financial centres of Europe. A Romansko-Gothic cathedral (11-15 centuries), a town hall (nach. 17 century).
  • AUGSBURGSKAJA LEAGUE 1686, the union encased in Augsburg by Holland, emperor of " Sacred Roman empire ", Spain, Sweden, Bavaria, Pfaltsem, Saxony with the purpose to suspend seizures of territory of France in Zap. To Europe. Augsburgskaja the league which in 1689 England has joined, waged war in 1688-97 with France (see. Pfaltsskoe the patrimony), completed Risvikskim the world 1697.
  • AUGSBURGSKY RELIGIOUS MIR 1555, between German Protestant knjazjami and emperor Charles V. Has finished a number{series} of wars between roman catholics and protesters. Has placed{installed} the right of princes to define{determine} religion of the citizens (by a principle: " whose country, that and belief "), has recognized a lutheranism as official religion (alongside with a catholicism). Promoted an accretion of power of princes.
  • AUGSBURGSKOE CONFESSION, an exposition of the bases{fundamentals} of the lutheranism, constituted by F.Melanhtonom (1530).
  • AUD, historical range in India (the modern pieces. Uttar Pradesh). In 18 - nach. 19 centuries. Aud - one of the considerable indian principalities awakely struggling against expansion of the English East indian company; it has been seized by her{it} in 1856.
  • AUD (Oud) Peter (1890-1963), the Dutch architect. The leader Dutch funktsionalizma and groups " Styles ". Designs of complex{integrated} grading and site development of working residential districts in Rotterdam.
  • AUDERSKAJA (Auderska) Halina (r. 1904), the Polish writer. Plays; novels: " Revenge of an alerter " (t. 1-2, 1980) - about anti-fascist extirpation; historical - " Queen of Bonn " (1983), psychologic - " To kill pavor " (1985).

  • AUDIENCE (from an armour. audientia - hearing), a formal reception for a face occupying a high post{station}.
  • AUDIOVISUAL (from an armour. audio - I hear also visual), founded on simultaneous perception ear and sight (napr., audiovisual training tools: movies, telecasts).
  • AUDIOLOGY (from an armour. audio - I hear and... logija), the doctrine about ear.
  • AUDIOMETER (from an armour. audio - I hear and... metrija).. 1) the device for definition of sensory acuity... 2) the Electronic device for a chronometry of inclusion of the television receiver with the purpose of calculation of a rating of drives (it is connected with the consent of the master of the television receiver).
  • AUDIOMETRY (from an armour. audio - I hear and... metrija), measurement of sensory acuity by definition of the least accepted sound intensity. Carry out{conduct} with the help of an audiometer.
  • AUDIOCARD (from an armour. audio-I hear and frants. plateau - a plate, a disc), the special device of a computer for a sound reproduction (music, speech, hums).
  • AUDITION (from an armour. audire - to hear), listening of the sounded texts for training their perception and comprehension on ear (primarily in educational process).
  • The AUDITOR, in Russian empire the position in military - judicial tribunals.
  • AUDITORS (from an armour. auditor - the listener), separate persons or the special companies, authorized a finance body or engaged by the enterprise, firm to inspect his{its} reporting and a financial position. Auditors state also an assessment{evaluation} of reputed operations, degrees of their hazard, efficacyy, etc. In the majority of countries the reporting, affirmed auditors, is subject to the mandatory publication. In the Russian Federation in 1991 the auditor service is built. The legislation establishes{sets}, in what events necessarily the conclusion of auditors.
  • AUDUMLA, in the Scandinavian mythology the cow which has arisen from hoarfrost of the World abyss. The milk rivers which flowed from its{her} udder have reared Imira, the grandparent ineistyh giants.
  • AUESKI DISEASE (Aujesky's disease), acute virus disease of pigs, a large horned stock, ovets, she-goats and sarcophagous. Symptoms: a defeat of central nervous system, the strong itch (except for pigs); a high lethality.
  • AUZINSH Imants (r. 1937), the Latvian poet. Books of lyrics " Sad optimism " (1968), "Lasting" (1972), " the Note of a hearth " (1976), " the Far voice " (1981), " This ground, thy kiss and a red light in the furnace " (1987).
  • AUITA (Aouita) Said (r. 1959), the Moroccan sportsman (track and field). The champion of Olympic Games (1984) and the world (1987) in trot race on 5000 m. The bronze prize-winner of Olympic Games (1988) in trot race on 800 m. The repeated champion of the world.
  • AUXINS, group of hormones of plants. Adjust{regulate} at miscellaneous stages of life of a plant his{its} growth, a differentiation of organs, growth responses on light and gravity. On a chemical nature - derivative an indol. The main{basic} representative - indole acetic acid.
  • AUXOTROPHS (from grech. auxo - I cultivate, I increase and trophe - nutrition, a feed), the microorganisms which have lost ability to synthesize one substances, necessary for their growth (an amino asid, vitamin or other). Without add-on in a substrate of this substance auxotrophs will not grow. Compare. Prototrophs.
  • SPOTTED LAUREL (golden tree), stem of plants of a set of a dogwood family. 3 kinds{views}, in Vost. Asia and a Himalaya. The bush a spotted laurel Japanese is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant; including on Black Sea a shore.
  • AUCTION (from an armour. auctio - public sale), a way of sale of the goods, at which (or his{its} samples) previously exhibit the goods for inspection. In the form of auction the real estate is sold also, the forced sale of property of insolvent debtors implements, etc. Routinely at auction the launching{starting} price is established{set}.
  • AUKSHTAJTIJA (Aukstaitija), ancient historical range in a southeast part of Lithuania. Populated aukshtajty. Since 13 century a main body of terrain of the Great principality Lithuanian.
  • AUKSHTAJTY, the group of Baltic nations secured{discharged} in 1-st thousand n. e. In terrain of Lithuania, nowadays ethnographic group of the Lithuanians living primarily in a southeast part of Lithuania.
  • VILLAGE (turki)., settlement (in past nomadic, nowadays nonmigratory) for peoples Compare. Asia; mountain settlement on the Sowing. Caucasus.
  • AULIE-ATA, the title Dzhambul in Kazakhstan up to 1936.
  • AUN the DIGNITY (1915-47), the national hero of Burma. In 1945 has headed revolt against Japanese occupiers, in 1945-47 supervised over extirpation for independence. It is killed by terrorists.
  • AUN DIGNITY SU CHZHI (r. 1945), the secretary general of a consignment National league for democracy in 1988-92, one of leaders of democratic opposition in Myanma. Daughter Aun of the Dignity. The Nobel Prize of the world (1991).
  • AURA (from grech. aura - winnowing).. 1) a development showers and spirit of the person; in the mystical literature it is described as the irradiant oval appearance visible only at super-sensitive perception ambient all body of the person, in fine arts - an aureola, a halation (napr., in ikonografii Transfigurations, etc.)... 2) Direct forerunners of an epileptic attack; peculiar short-lived visual, acoustical, emotional and other sensations and experiences.
  • AURANGABAD, city in India, pieces. Maharashtra. 573 thousand inhabitants (1991). Cotton and silk manufacture.
  • AURANGZEB (1618-1707), governor Mogolskoj of empire in India with 1658. In war for a holy table has deleted the brothers - rivals, has arrested the father. Has finished seizure of Deccan and JUzh. India. Pursued{chased;ran} hindus.
  • ORPIMENT (from an armour. aurum - gold and pigmentum - a paint), a mineral of a class of sulphides As2S3. Yellow-green or lemon yellow crystals, impregnations. Hardness 1,5-2; firmness of 3,5 g / sm3. Meets primarily in the cold hydrothermal deposits. Raw material for obtaining arsenic connections.
  • AUSAN, the state in JUzh. Arabias in 1-st thousand up to n. e. In 3 century up to n. e. The terrain Ausana was part of the states Kataban and Saba.
  • AUSGEJRSSON (Asgeirsson) Ausgejr (1894-1972), the president of Iceland in 1952-68. In 1931-34 Minister of Finance, in 1932-34 prime minister.
  • AUSEKLIS (Auseklis) (an ice-film. A name and fam. Mikelis Krogzemis, Krogzemis) (1850-79), the Latvian poet. Acute satyrs on german barons and clergy. Poeticized a patriarchal household activities.
  • AUSCULTATION (from an armour. auscultatio - an auscultation), medical research technique, an auscultation (directly, i.e. an ear, or with the help steto-or a phonendoscope) the acoustical phenomena primarily in lungs, heart.
  • AUSPITSII (an armour., a unit of hours auspicium, from avis - a bird and specio - I look), in Other. Rome guessings on overseeing by flight and cry of birds, etc. Auspitsii were expounded avgurami.
  • AUSTENITE (on behalf of U.Roberts - Ostena's English metallurgist, W. Roberts-Аusten; 1843-1902), structural component of iron-carbon alloys - a solid solution of carbon (up to 2 %), and also alloying elements in? To gland. In carbon steels and cast irons it is resistant above 723 °S.
  • AUSTERLITS (Austerlitz), the german title Slavkov in Czechia.
  • AUSTERLITSKOE BATTLE, 20.111805, decisive battle between the russko-Austrian and French troops in time russko-avstro-frantsuzskoj wars 1805 about one . Austerlits (nowadays Slavkov, Czechia). The French army of Napoleon I has divided the russko-Austrian troops under M.I.Kutuzov command, enforced to act under the unsuccessful plan of Austrian colonel F.Vejrotera approved by Alexander I. After battle 3-n the antiFrench coalition has broken up. AUSTERLITSKOE BATTLE on December, 2 (on November, 20) 1805 between the French and russko-Austrian troops bliz Austerlitsa (nowadays Slavkov, Czechia). Has determined disintegration of 3-rd antiFrench coalition. The previous history of battle After to 1805 Englands was possible to organize the antiFrench coalition of the european mandatory powers (Austria and Russia) and to transfer the theater of operations on continent, Napoleon has been compelled to throw ready to sending to British isles a troops from camp on La Manche to Bavaria, towards to avstro-Russian army. The French bodies have enclosed and have forced to delivery the Austrian army of the general of the Poppy in strength Ulm in Wurttemberg (on October, 20). Having taken prisoner or having deleted a considerable proportion of the Austrian army, the Frenchmen a fast flight have moved to Vienna on dextral coast of Danube. The Russian army making now the basis{fundamentals} of a military power of a coalition, was in Moravia, on the left-handed coast. On November, 13 Napoleon has come in Vienna. Russian army, sustaining huge loss, has departed to Olmjutsu (Olomouc, Czechia). Its{her} commanding M.I.Kutuzov did not consider{count} expedient to give decisive battle up to the approach of reinforcements from Russia and concentration of separate residues of the Austrian troops. Alexander I aspired{tried} to battle, supposing, that forces of the parties are approximately equal. Having guessed contraventions in headquarters of an allied troops, Napoleon through lines of diplomatic demarches has convinced allies, that itself is afraid of battle. He has managed to force the opponent to act on designed him{it} to the plan and during battle - for village Austerlits, in hundred kilometres northward from Vienna. Before battle the russko-Austrian troops have taken Pratsenskie altitudes about{near} Austerlitsa. Having loosened the left-handed flank, Napoleon has inspired with to the opponent thought to attack here and to saw the Frenchmen from Danube and roads to Vienna. Course of battle on December, 1 allies have assigned reserves with Pratsenskih altitudes on dextral flank Napoleon achieved that. Battle began at 7 o'clock in the morning on December, 2 on the left-handed flank of the Frenchmen. After here were knotted bitter crocked eggs, Napoleon has banged in the loosened centre of avstro-Russian army. The Frenchmen have fast taken Pratsenskie altitudes and rassekli allied army in two. Furious attempts again to beat off altitudes in anything have not reduced. The dextral flank of the russko-Austrian troops was prizhat to frozen lakes. When some thousand soldiers, retreating, have appeared on ice, the French army has become to beat on nymas a canister. Loss of an allied troops have constituted 27 thousand person, 180 guns, 40 banners. The defeat was crushing. Presburgsky the agreement Already on December, 26 in Presburge has been signed the world between Austria and France. Venice, Istria, Dalmatia headed out to a napoleonic Italian kingdom, Tirol - to the ally of Napoleon of Bavaria. Austria undertook to pay the huge contribution in 40 mill. Florins. Austerlits - hardly probable not the brightest victory of Napoleon. She has allowed Napoleon to become on some time the ruler of destinies of Europe. Literatura:Tolstoj L. N. War and peace. // Sobr. soch.: In 4 t. М., 1951. T. 1. Thiry J. Napoleon Bonaparte. Ulm, Trafalgar, Austerlitz. Paris, 1962. E.I.Lebedeva
  • AUSTRIJA PRESS of AGENCIES (Austriа Presse Agentur), the Austrian news agency, cooperative association of newspapers, a wireless and a television with the participation governments of Austria. It is based in 1946, Vienna.
  • OUTBREEDING (from English out - outside of and breeding - cultivation), a crossing of unrelated organisms of miscellaneous breeds, grades and kinds{views}. Use in animal husbandry and a plant growing for an avoidance of harmful consequences of a closely related crossing (inbreeding), etc.
  • The AUTHENTIC TEXT (from grech. authentikos - genuine), a body of the document officially adjudicated equivalent other text, constituted, as a rule, in the other tongue, and having equal legal force from nymas.
  • AUTHIGENOUS MINERALS (from grech. authigenes - an aboriginal origin), the minerals of sedimental rocks derivated during sedimentation and lithogenesis at-sight of adjournment a upsetting. Napr., barite, zeolites, some clay minerals.
  • AUTISM (from grech. autos - itself), the condition of psychics defined by predominance of selfcontained internal life and active discharge from an external world.
  • AUTO (isp. And portug. auto), one-act drama submission in Spain and Portugal (in 13-18 centuries) on religious scenes.
  • AUTO... (from grech. autos - itself), see. Avto...
  • AUTOHEMOTHERAPY (from auto..., gemo... And therapy), intramuscular or subcutaneous introduction ill natural blood (taken from a vein) with the purpose of a stimulation of protective functions of an organism and improvement of exchange processes; a method of treatment of sluggishly weeping zymotic and other diseases.
  • AUTOGENIC TRAINING (from grech. autogenes - itself effecting), a method of a psychotherapy: through a self-suggestion ill trains to influence on physical and mental condition. It is applied also able-bodied to short-lived leisure time activities, etc.
  • AUTO-DA-FE (isp. And portug. auto de fe, characters. - the certificate{act} of belief), solemn announcement of the sentence of inquisition in Spain, Portugal, and also execution of sentence (primarily public incinerating). The first auto-da-fe falls into 13 century, the latter was comprised in 1826 in Valencia.
  • AUTOIMMUNITY (from auto... And immunity), ability of immune system to recognize and attack cells of a natural organism. In the norm{standard} the immune system does not react to cells and tissues of the organism (see. A tolerance immunological). In 80th of 20 century it is exhibited, that the autoimmunity lays not only in the basis{fundamentals} of autoimmune diseases, but can be connected and to fulfilment of normal living functions, napr. With removal aged and deteriorated cells.



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2 comments:

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