Sunday, April 8, 2007

AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES, are stipulated by reactions of immunity, directed against natural tissues and organs (napr., kollagenozy, a nephritis).
ENDOINTOXICATION (from auto... And an intoxication), a poisoning of an organism with toxic agents of an endogenic nature (napr., at a uremia, a diabetic coma).
AUTOINFECTION (from auto... And an infection), the disease stipulated by an autoinfection by microbes, were in the given organism; activation of a dozing infection under influence of overwork, overcooling.
AUTOPSY (from auto... And grech. opsis-vision), necropsy with the diagnostic or scientific purpose.
AUTOSOMES, all chromosomes in cells diclinous animal and plants, except for gonosomes.
AUTRIMPS, in Prussian mythology the god starving.
The OUTSIDER (English outsider - ectogenic{stranger}).. 1) the layman, the fan{amateur}; lagging... 2) the Enterprise or the company, not included in monopolist unions, but enforced to be subject to conditions of managing, diktuemym large combinations in restraint of trade... 3) the Sportsman who is not having odds of success in a contest{race}; race or a race horse which is not being a favorite.
AUTECOLOGY (auto-ecology) (from auto... And ecology), the section of ecology investigator actions of different environmental factors on separate organisms and populations. Compare. A synecology.
AUFI Sadid-ad-din (kon. 12 century - 1-n a floor. 13 century), the persian and Tadjik scientist - philologist. Has constituted " the Pith of cores " (1220) - the first known anthology of verses on farsi; " Collection of stories and svetochi legends " (1228).
AUHADI MARAGAI (differently Isfahani) Rukn-ad-din (? - mind{wit}. 1337), the Azerbaijan poet. The poem " Bowl Dzhemshida " states cosmogonic and ethical views sufiev.
AUTSE, (Auce), city (with 1925) in Latvia. A depot. 3,3 thousand inhabitants (1991). Factory of knitted and notions items, etc.
AUSHAUTS, in Prussian mythology the god of practice of medicine.
AUSHEV Ruslan Sultanovich (r. 1954), the Russian statesman, the president of the Ingush Republic (1993), the general - major, the Hero of Soviet Union. In 1985-87 ministered in Afghanistan. In 1989-91 People's Deputy of the USSR. In 1993-95 deputy of Council of Federation of Federal assembly of the Russian Federation. With 1995 councilor of Federation of Federal assembly.
"AUSHRA" ("Dawn"), first Lithuanian political and a literary magazine. It was emitted in 1883-86 in Ragajne and Tilsit. It was clandestinely distributed in Lithuania. Supported development of national crop.
AUE (Aue), city in a southeast of Germany, ground Saxony. 26 thousand inhabitants (1989). A machine industry, a textile industry. Bliz Aue - production uranic, nickel ores.
AUEZOV Muhtar Omarhanovich (1897-1961), the Kazakh writer, academician AN of Kazakhstan (1946). Stories, stories, plays. A novel - epopee " Path{Route} Abaja " (hours 1-4, 1942-56). Transactionses on a history of the Kazakh literature and folklore. The lenin premium (1959), the State premium of the USSR (1949).
AUENBRUGGER (Auenbrugger) Leopold (1722-1809), the Austrian doctor. Has offered (1761) new research technique ill - a percussion.
AUER Leopold Semenovich (1845-1930), the violinist, the conductor. In 1868-1917 cable cores in Russia. The professor of the St.-Petersburg conservatory (with 1868). Pupils: M.B.Poljakin, J.Heifetz, E.Tsimbalist, etc. From 1918 cable cores in the USA.
AUER BACKGROUND VELSBAH (Auer von Welsbach) Charles (1858-1929), the Austrian chemist. The main{basic} transactionses on study of rare-earth elements. Has discovered (1885) praseodymium and neodymium. Has invented (1885) incandescent grid called as his{its} name.
AUERBAH Alexander Andreevich (1844-1916), the Russian mining geologist, the businessman, the professor (1868). First in Russia has applied a method of microscopic examination of minerals. Has reconnoitered Rutchenkovskoe and Kurahovskoe coal deposits in Донбасcе. Has based first in Russia mercurial factory in province Ekaterinoslavskoj, in 1896 has organized and has headed joint-stock company " A.Auerbaha's Mercurial business and To ".
AUERBAH (Auerbach) Bertold (1812-82), the german writer. Idealizing patriarchal village " SHvartsvaldskie rural stories " (1843-54) with bright patterns of a national household activities and the novel " the Rate on Rhein " (1869). The historical novel "Spinosa" (1837).
AUERBAH (Auerbach) Erih (1892-1957), the german historian of literature, the philologist - novelist. The writer basic transactionses " Mimesis: the Plotting of a real in the Western-European literature " (1946).
AUERSHTEDT (Auerstedt), city in Saxony (Germany). See. Yen - Auershtedtskoe battle.
APHASIA (from a - a negative prefix and grech. phasis - the expression), an alalia at safety of organs of speech and the ear, stipulated by a defeat of a bark of major hemispheres of a brain. Ground forms: motor (loss of ability to speak at safety of comprehension of speech) and touchsensitive (the comprehension of speech is upset; ability to utter words and phrases often it is saved). It is routinely accompanied by an alexia and agraphia.
APHAKIA (from a - a negative prefix and grech. phakos - lentil; a lens), absence in an eye of a crystalline lens owing to removal of a cataract or a heavy wound, sometimes - inborn (in combination to other malformations of an eye); sight is worsened.
AFALINA, an aquatic mammal of a set delfinovyh. The length up to 3,9 m, weighs up to 280 kg. It is distributed widely in moderate and warm waters, including in Black, Baltic and Far East seas; the craft afaliny is forbidden (with 1966). Often it is contained in oceanariums (it is unpretentious, is multiplied in a captivity, yields to a temper rolling).
AFANASY (? - mind{wit}. After 1568), Russian metropolitan in 1564-66. The father confessor of Ivan Terrible and protopop the cathedral of the annunciation. Nominal the chapter of Russian government at introduction oprichniny.
AFANASY (in the world Kondoidi Anastasy) (mind{wit}. 1737), diocesan Suzdal, by origin the Greek; spravshchik slavonic transfer{translation} of the Bible.
AFANASY (in the world Ljubimov Alexey Artemjevich) (1641-1702), the first archbishop Holmogorsky (1682), the writer of compositions against old believers " Colour spiritual " и " the Board of belief ", and also explanations on the first chapter of the book of Life "SHestodnev".
AFANASY ALEXANDRIA (ok. 295-373), the church figure and the seminary student, the representative patristiki, diocesan Alexandria. In extirpation with arianism has developed the mystical doctrine about "consubstantiality" of the god - father and the god - son, becoming a tenet on 1-st (325) and 2-nd (381) Ecumenical councils; shadowed independence of church of an imperial authority.
AFANASY Brest (Filippovich) (1597-1648), the martyr, the abbot Brest Simeonovskogo a monastery (with 1638). Opposed introductions of the union, it is executed by Poles. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 20 (on August, 2) and on September, 5 (18).
AFANASY Vysotsky, Serpukhov, Junior (mind{wit}. 1395), second abbot Vysotsky Serpuhovskogo of a monastery (1387), pupil Sergija Radonezhskogo and Afanasija Vysotsky Starshego. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 6 (19) (cathedral Radonezhskih sacred) and on September, 12 (25).
AFANASY (in the world Andrey) Vysotsky, Serpukhov, the Higher (mind{wit}. After 1401), the pupil Saint Sergija Radonezhskogo, basing (1374) together with nymas a monastery of the Conception of the Holy Virgin Theotokos for Serpukhov on high to riverbank Nara (from here his{its} title Vysotsky) and becoming his{its} first abbot; in 1387 year has expelled to Constantinople where has conducted the rest{remainder} of life, transferring{translating} with the Grecian tongue and rewriting the church books sent then in Vysotsky a monastery (such way the Jerusalem charter widely distributed then under the title " Oko church " has hitted to Russia). Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 6 (19) (cathedral Radonezhskih sacred) and on September, 12 (25).
AFANASY Melitinsky (mind{wit}. 298), one of thirty three Christian martyrs - soldiers damaged in the Melitin in persecution of emperor Diokletiana. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on November, 7 (20).
AFANASY Sevastijsky (mind{wit}. ok. 320), one of a magpie sevastijskih martyrs.
AFANASY Uglichsky (mind{wit}. 1609), prepodobnomuchenik, perished at ruin of Uglich by Poles in Vague time. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on May, 23 (on June, 5) (a cathedral Rostovo-Yaroslavl sacred).
AFANASEV Alexander Mihajlovich (r. 1938), Russian physics, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1984). Transactionses on messbauerovskoj spectroscopies, physics of X-rays, a solid-state physics, a nuclear physics. The state premium of the USSR (1976).
AFANASEV Alexander Nikolaevich (1826-71), the Russian literary critic, the representative of " mythological school " in folkloristike. Articles about the Russian literature of 18 century. Transactionses " Poetic views of slavs on a nature " (t. 1-3, 1866-69), the collection " National Russian fairy tales " (1855-64).
AFANASEV Victor Grigorjevich (1922-94), the Russian philosopher, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1981). In 1976-89 managing editor of the newspaper "Truth". In 1989-90 on activity in AN the USSR. The main{basic} transactionses on problems of social development, steering, philosophical problems of biology. The state premium of the USSR (1983).
AFANASEV Victor Mihajlovich (r. 1948), the Russian astronaut, a pilot - astronaut of the USSR (1991). The hero of Soviet Union (1991). Flight on " Soyuz TM-11 " and an orbital complex "World" (December 1990 - May 1991), " Soyuz TM-18 " and an orbital complex "World" (January - July 1994).
AFANASEV George Dmitrievich (1906-75), the Russian geologist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1953). The main{basic} transactionses on petrology and a geochemistry of ancient stratas, radiological age of geologic formations.
AFANASEV E. А., see Klimanov E.A.
AFANASEV Peter Onisimovich (1874-1944), the Russian teacher. The writer of abc-books, tutorials and methodical allowances on Russian for initial and high school.
AFANASEV Sergey Aleksandrovich (r. 1918), the statesman, doubly the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1975, 1978). With 1965 minister for a general machine industry of the USSR. In 1983-87 minister for a heavy and transport machine industry of the USSR. The lenin premium (1973), the State premium of the USSR (1952).
AFANASEV Jury Nikolaevich (r. 1934), the Russian political figure; the historian, the doctor of historical sciences, the professor (the main{basic} transactionses on history Zap. Europe). Since December 1986 rector of the Moscow istoriko-archive institute (since March 1991 Russian state humanitarian universities). With 1990-92 cochairman of motion " Democratic Russia ".
AFANASEVSKAJA CROP, archeologic crop of epoch eneolita (3 - nach. 2-nd thousand up to n. e.) in JUzh. Siberia, it is called on the burial for mountain Afanasjevskaja in Khakassia. Residues of settlements and burials. An economy: cattle breeding, a hunt, agriculture.
AFAR (the self-title - danakil, adalo), people in Ethiopia (670 thousand person, 1992), Eritrea (180 thousand person), Djibouti (150 thousand person). Tongue afar-saho. Believers - moslems - sunnity.
AFAR (Danakil), tectonic a hollow and desert to the orient from Ethiopian highlands, in Africa. In a central part for an eskar. Assal an altitude of 153 m are lower than a sea level. One of the most hot places on the Earth (a mean temperature of air in July 35 °S). Glinisto-saline and sand deserts.
AFAR-SAHO TONGUES (danakilskie), tongues of nationalities{national characters} afar (north-east of Ethiopia and Djibouti) and saho (North-east Ethiopia). Fall into kushitskoj branches afrazijskih tongues.
The AFGHAN, an aboriginal southwest wind in verhovjah Amu Darya. It is marked 30-70 sut in year (in area of Termez). Bears a lot of dust.
AFGHANISTAN, the Islamic State Afghanistan, the state in JUgo-Zap. Asia. 652,2 thousand км2. The population 20,3 million person (1993), over 1/2 populations - Afghans (pushtuny), lives over 20 nationalities{national characters}. A urban population of 18 % (1990). Official languages - pushtu also give. Prevailing religion - moslem faith. Administrative territorial division: 29 provinces (vilajatov) and 2 districts of central subordination. Capital - Kabul. The chief of state - the president. Afghanistan - highland. From north-east on a southwest Hindu Kush (an altitude in Afghanistan up to 6729 м), in a north and the south - plains and a tableland is extended. A climate continental, dry. Mean temperatures of January on plains from 0 up to 8 °S, in high mountains places are lower - 20 °S, July accordingly from 24 up to 32 °S and from 0 up to 10 °S. A rainfall of 200-400 mm annually, in mountains up to 800 mm. The main{basic} rivers - Amu Darya, Murghab, Hari Rud, Helmand, Kabul. The arid and semidesert vegetation prevails{dominates}. The first Afghani state educations have arisen in 16 century. In 1747 - 1818 existed{breathed} Durranijskaja the mandatory power. Attempts of the Great Britain to subordinate Afghanistan (the anglo-Afghani wars of 19 century) Have ended in a fall, but Englishmen have achieved establishment of the supervisory control above foreign policy of Afghanistan. In 1919 government of Amanully-khan has proclaimed independence of Afghanistan. War of the Great Britain against Afghanistan (May - June 1919) has ended in victory of Afghanistan. Government Amanully executed reforms, directed on liquidation of archaic feudal institutes, on development of capitalist attitudes{relations}. In January 1929 feodalno-clerical reaction backed{promoted;supported} by the Great Britain, has seized power. In October 1929 to an authority there has come a dynasty of the Nadir - check (a rule till July 1973). The strengthening of independence of Afghanistan was promoted by the sovetsko-Afghani contracts 1921, 1926, 1931. In July 1973 Afghanistan is professed by republic. After a coup d'etat 1978, perfect the People's democratic consignment of Afghanistan (it is based in 1965; the ideological basis{fundamentals} of a consignment had been professed scientific socialism), in Afghanistan the civil war has deployed. In 1979 the Soviet troops participating in war have been entered into Afghanistan (up to 1989) on the party of the government which have come to an authority (has gorged in 1992). In April 1992 country has become to call the Islamic state Afghanistan, the authority has been transferred{handed} to Managing advice{council} of jihad (to transient advice{council} modzhahedov). In December 1992 president of country selects B.Rabbani who has headed Managing advice{council}. Afghanistan - agrarian country. A lobe in the internal gross product (1990, %): an agriculture 52,6, an industry 28,5. In an agriculture over 1/3 cultivated lands - raflux. Grain (primarily wheat, and also corn, barley, rice), technical (a cotton, oil-brearing plants, sugar-beet, a cane) crops. A vegetable raising, a melon production, a fruit growing and wine growing. A livestock (1990, one million): ovets 13,5, including karakulskih 4,5 (one of the first places in the world on an output of astrakhan), a large horned stock 1,6, she-goats 2,1, camels, etc.; a poultry breeding. Production of a natural gas, petroleum, etc. Textile, chemical, flavoring, etc. an industry. Kovrodelie. Manufacture of the electric power 1128 million kVt·ch (1990). Length of motorways (198819,2 t. Km, railways of 10 kms. Export: a natural gas, a dried fruit, carpets, astrakhan, etc. The Main{Basic} foreign trade partners: countries CIS, Japan, Pakistan, Czechia, Slovakia, India, etc. Monetary unit - afghani.
The AFGHANI TONGUE, the same, that pushtu.
AFGHANS (the self-title - pushtun, patanas), people, the main{basic} population of Afghanistan (over 10 million person, 1992). St. 19 million person (basically nomads and polukochevniki) live in northwest of Pakistan. Breeding associations (afridii, vaziry, gilzai, durrani, etc.) are saved. Tongue pushtu. Moslems - sunnity believing main{basic}.
APHELION (from apo... And grech. helios - the Sun), the point of an orbit of a heavenly body reverting around of him{it} most remote from the Sun. Distance of the Earth in an aphelion from the Sun equally 152 million in km.
SWINDLE (from frants. affaire - business), fraud, a queer transaction.
AFILLOFOROVYE, the order of basidiomycetes with the open hymenophore. Ok. 4 thousand kinds{views}; predominary saprotrophs. Causal organisms of rots of wood (some trutovikovye), wood funguses. The few afilloforovye are edible (chanterelles, some ezhoviki and rogatiki).
AFINA (Afina a Pallada), in the Grecian mythology the goddess of war and victory, and also wisdom, knowledge, arts and handcrafts. Daughter Zevsa who has been born in full arms (in a top section and an armour) from his{its} head. The patroness of Athenes. To her there corresponds{meets} the Roman Minerva. Among the most known plotting Athenes - sculptural group " Afina and Marsy " (Myron sphinx), titanic statues " Afina Promahos " и " Afina Parfenos " on the Athenian Acropolis (Fidy; were not saved) - all 5 century up to n. e.
AFINA PARFENOS (grech. A Virgo), Grecian hrisoelefantinskaja a statue of activity of the ancient greek sculptor Fidija, facing in Parthenon (it is consecrated in 438 up to n. e.).
AFINAGOR (2 century), the Christian apologist, the writer of "Application" in protection of christianity, versed to emperor to Mark Avreliju, and books " About vokresenii dead ".
AFINAGOR (1886-1972), patriarch Konstantinopolsky (with 1948), encouraging conciliation of Christian churches of the Orient and the West. Under initiative Afinagora in 1964 his{its} meeting with a dad Roman Pavlom VI in Jerusalem (the first meeting of chapters of Greko-orthodox and Catholic churches with 1439) then the relative{mutual} have been cancelled anafematstvovanija, existing with 1054) was comprised.
AFINOGENOV Alexander Nikolaevich (1904-41), the Russian playwright. In plays "Odd fellow" (1929), "Pavor" (1931), "Mashenka" (1941) - social - philosophical and moral problems. Has perished at a bloom nemetsko-fashistskioj aircraft to Moscow.
AFINODOR RODOSSKY (1 century up to n. e.), the ancient greek sculptor. See. Agesandr from Rhodes.
The ATHENIAN EDUCATION, educational system of boys and young men (except for slaves), usual in Other. Athenes in 7-5 centuries up to n. e. With 7 up to 16 flying - education{learning} at grammar school, school kifarista and palestre. Children from the most solvent families kept up to 18 flying of occupation in gimnasii. Education of young men 18-20 flying was finished in efebii. Musicheskoe education combined{blended} with gym. Physical work was excluded.
The ATHENIAN NEWS AGENCY, state information service of Greece. It is based in 1896, Athenes.
ATHENES, capital of Greece, adm. ts. A noma Attica. 748 thousand inhabitants (1991). Together with a port Piraeus and suburbs Athenes will be derivated by Major Athenes with the population over 3 million person. The important traffic centre. International airport Elinikon. Major Athenes give over 2/3 obshchegrecheskoj to an industrial output. Textile, sewing, kozhevenno-boot, alimentary, chemical, oil refining, metallurgical, machine-building (including shipbuilding) an industry. Underground railway. Center of international tourism. A complex of the Acropolis, temple Zevsa Olympic (175-132 up to n. e.), Medieval churches of the byzantian epoch. The first settlements at-sight the modern Athenes in 16-13 centuries up to n. e. In Other Greece Athenes - the large centre, the city - state in Attica (see Athenes Ancient). In 146 up to n. e. - 395 n. e. Athenes under an authority of Rome, in 395-1204 - Byzantium. In 1204-1458 capital of the Athenian duchy. In 1458 are seized by Turkey. With 1834 capital of independent Greece. In Athenes - university, AN, the National archeologic museum, a museum of the Acropolis, museum Agory, the Byzantian museum, National passageway, etc.; the National library. I games of the Olympic (1896).
ATHENES Ancient, the city - state (policy) in Attica, played the leading part in economic, political and cultural life Other. Greeces; a classical sample of the slaveholding democracy which have reached{achieved} bloom at Perikle (2-n a floor. 5 century up to n. e.).
AFIROVAJA STRUCTURE, fine-crystalline structure of effusive rocks, free of vkraplennikov.
AFLATOXINS, toxic agents (derivative coumarins), produced by musty mushrooms, primarily aspergillami. Render toxic effect on a liver of mammals, birds, fishes; potential carcinogenic agents.
ATHOS (Ajon-Oros, a sacred mountain), peninsula, eastern tip of peninsula Halkidiki on north-east of Greece, the centre of orthodox monasticism. 20 monasteries, including Grecian Karejsky (a residence of monastic steering Athos - Protaton), the Laurel St. Afanasija (10 century), Serbian - Hilandar (12 century), Bulgarian - Zograf (11-13 centuries), Georgian - Iversky (10 century), Russian monastery over. Pantelejmona (1169). The largest collection of manuscripts and monuments of church art. Athos is under jurisdiction Konstantinopolskoj of a patriarchy with the right of self-management.
AFONIN Vasily Egorovich (r. 1939), the Russian writer. In stories and stories reverts to a rural theme. Books: " In a volume to an edge{a boundarouse} " (1975), " the Last autumn " (1979), " the Small cranberry a berry " (1979), " the Game in laptu " (1981), "Evenings" (1984), " Clear reaches " (1986), etc. The Autobiographical story "Biography" (1990).
APHONIA (from and - a negative prefix and grech. phone - a note, a voice), absence of a voice at safety shepotnoj speeches; it is supervised at diseases of a larynx, at a hysteria, etc.
AFONSKOE BATTLE, 19.6.1807, during russko-turkish war 1806-12, for peninsula Athos (Ajon-Oros) in Egejskom m. Russian squadron of vice-admiral D.N.Senjavina has defeated a turkish squadron.
APHORISM (grech. aphorismos), the saying expressing in the laconic form generalized, a finished thought (" To minister the rad to cringe sickeningly ", A.S.Griboedov).
AFRAZIJSKIE TONGUES (semito-Hamitic, afro-Asian), macrofamily of the tongues distributed in the Sowing. To Africa, Zap. Asia and on about. Malta. Are divided on 5 (or 6) the main{basic} branches: Semitic, egyptian, berbero-Libyan, chadskuju, kushitskuju and omotskuju (sometimes considered as a branch kushitskoj).
AFRASIAB, gorodishche - debris of Samarkand of 6 century up to n. e. - 13 century n. e. (Uzbekistan). Strengthening, mosques, residues of frescos, etc.
AFRIGIDSKAJA CROP, in archeology - the crop rannefeodalnogo Khoresm (4-8 centuries), is called on dynasty Afrigidov; residues of the feudal farms - deputies

AFRICA, mainland, second-largest after Eurasia. 29,2 million км2 (with islands 30,3 million км2). From the west it is washed against Atlantic ok., from a north - Mediterranean m., from north-east - Red m., from the orient - Indian ok. Coasts are bluffy weakly; the largest bay - Guinean, p-ov Somalia. In geologic attitude{relation} predominary a ramp with dokembrijskim the crystalline grounding overlapped{blocked} by more pullet{more young man} sedimentary rocks. Wrinkled mountains place only in northwest (Atlas) and in the south (Kapskie mountains). A mean height above sea level of 750 m. In a relief high stepwise plains, a plateau and a tableland prevail{dominate}; in hinterlands - extensive tectonic hollows (Kalahari in JUzh. To Africa, Congo in Central Africa, etc.). From Red m. and up to r. Zambezi Africa is milled by the greatest in the world system of fault hollows (see. The east - African rift system), in part occupied in lakes (Tanganyika, Njasa, etc.) . On edges{boundarice} of hollows burning mountains Kilimandzharo (5895 m, a peak level of Africa), Kenya, etc. Mineral wealths of world value: diamonds (JUzh. And Zap. Africa), gold, uranium (JUzh. Africa), ore gland, aluminium (Zap. Africa), copper, a cobalt, beryllium, lithium (basically in JUzh. To Africa), phosphorites, petroleum, a natural gas (the Sowing. And Zap. Africa). In Africa northward and to the south from a zone of an equatorial climate zones subequatorial, tropical and a subtropical climate follow. Monthly mean temperatures of summer{years} ok. 25-30 °S. In the winter also prevail{dominate} high positive temperature (10-25 °S), but in mountains of temperature be lower 0 °S; in mountains of the Atlas snow annually falls out. The greatest amount of precipitation in an equatorial zone (on the average 1500-2000 mm annually), on a shore Guinean a hall. (up to 3000-4000 mm). Northward and to the south from equator a rainfall diminish (100 mm and less in deserts). The main{basic} drainage is directed in Atlantic ok.: rr. Nile (the most lengthy in Africa), Congo (Zaire), Niger, Senegal, Gambia, Orange, etc.; the large river of basin Indian ok. - Zambezi. Ok. 1/3 Africa - range vnutrennogo a drainage basically of temporary channels. The largest lakes - Victoria, Tanganyika, Njasa (Malawi). Haupttypuses of vegetation - savannahs and deserts (the largest - Sahara), occupying ok. 80 % of the area of Africa. The wet equatorial ever-green forests are characteristic for an equatorial zone and offshore areas of subequatorial zones. Northward or to the south from them - the rarefied tropical forests passing in savannahs, and then in desertificated savannas. In tropical Africa (primarily in reservations) - elephants, rhinoceroses, river horses, zebras, antelopes, etc.; lions, cheetahs, leopards and other large predators. Monkeys, small predators, rodents are numerous; in dry areas abundance kowtowing. Flock of birds, including ostriches, ibises, a flamingo. The damage to an economy is put with termites, a locust, a tse-tse fly. In Africa the states are located: Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea - Bissau, Djibouti, a large part of Egypt, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Cabo Verde, Cameroon, Kenya, Congo, the Cat - d'Ivuar, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Mauritania, Malawi, Mali, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Ruanda, Swaziland, Senegal, Somalia, Sudan, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, That, Tunis, Uganda, TSAR, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, the republic of South Africa, and also terrain Zap. Sahara, Ceuta and Melilla. On the islands relating Africa, - the states: Comoro islands, Mauritius, Madagascar, the Dignity - volume and Prinsipi, Seychelles, and also Reunion, Sacred Elena Ostrov. The population of Africa 670 million person (1993) .AFRIKAIstorija issledovanijaNachalnyj a stage (2 thousand up to n. e. - till 6 century) The beginning of study of Africa falls into an extreme antiquity. Ancient Egyptians mastered boreal part of continent, advancing coast-wise from a mouth of Nile up to gulf of Sidra, inpoured{insinuated} into the Arabian, Libyan and Nubian deserts. About 6 century up to n. e. finikijtsy committed the long-lived marine marchings around of Africa. In 6 century up to n. e. karfagenjanin Gannon the seafarer has undertaken float along a western shore of continent. According to record on a slab, waste him{it} in one of temples of Carthago, he has reached{achieved} an interior of gulf of Guinea where Europeans have penetrated later almost two thousand flying. In the season{term} of Roman domination and later fishing court reached Canary islands, Roman travellers inpoured{insinuated} penetrating into Libyan desert (L.K.Balb, S.Flakk). In 525 byzantian merchant, the seafarer and the geographer Cosmas Indikoplov has mounted up on the river Nile, has crossed Red sea and has travelled a shore of eastern Africa. He has kept the 12-languid composition being unique for the time a source of cramps on the river Nile and adjacent terrains. The second stage - Arabian marchings (7-14 centuries) After seizure of Boreal Africa (7 century) Arabs many times traverseed Libyan desert and desert Sahara, have started to study the rivers Senegal and Niger, lake Chad. One of the most early geographycal reports Ibn Hordadbeha in 9 century contains cramps on Egypt and trade ways to this country. In the beginning of 12 century. Idrisi has shown Boreal Africa on a map of the world which on accuracy considerably surpassed existing then in Europe maps. Ibn Battuta in 1325-49, vyjdja from Tangier, has crossed boreal and eastern Africa, has visited Egypt. Later (1352-53) he has passed Western Sahara, Niger has visited Timbuktu on the river and then has returned back through Central Sahara. Waste him{it} the composition contains valuable cramps on a nature of countries visited by him{it} and tempers of peoples populating them. The third stage - travelings of 15-17 centuries. In 1417-22 Chinese naval commander Chzhen He in one of the numerous marchings, projdja Red sea, has bent Somali peninsula and, being shaded slide along eastern shore, Zanzibar has reached{achieved} an island. In 15-16 centuries. Study of Africa has been connected to searches by Portugueses marine ways to India. In 1441 N.Trishtan the Burl - Blan has reached{achieved} headland. D.Diash in 1445-46 has bent a marginal western point of Africa as which has called as cape Verde. In 1471 Fernandos Po has discovered an island called as his{its} name. In 1488 B.Diash has discovered a marginal austral point of Africa, having called as its{her} headland of Storms (afterwards it is renamed into headland of Kind Hope); in 1500 nearby to this headland during B.Diash's storm has perished. Ground B.Diasha's reports the route to India was developed by Portuguese seafarer Vasko yes Gama-grass. In 1497-98 he, being directed in India from Lisbon, has rounded a cape Kind Hope and has passed along eastern shore up to 3 ° 20 ' ju. sh. (City Malindi). In 1487-92 P.Koviljan has committed traveling from Lisbon through Mediterranean sea up to a mouth of Nile, and has further passed along a southwest shore of Red sea about one . Suakin. To the extremity of 16 century circuits of continent have been established{installed}. In 17 century. In hinterlands of Africa, to the south from equator, the Portuguese travellers had been open{discovered} lakes Tanas (1613) and Njasa (1616), headstreams of Light-blue Nile and the lower flow of Congo are investigated. In the west of continent A.Brju's French expedition to 17 century probeed the river Senegal, English - the river Gambia. The fourth stage - expeditions of 18-20 centuries. From the extremity of 18 century the tendency to take possession of new affluent sources of natural resources stimulated{promoted} study of Africa by the English, French and german travellers. Expeditions are focused in internal ranges of continent. Englishmen create special " Association for assistance of discovering of interiors of Africa " which has organized a number{series} of the important expeditions. M.Park in 1795-97 and 1805-06 studied upper reaches Niger, U.Audni, D.Denem and H.Klapperton in 1822-23 have crossed Sahara from a north on the south (from city Tripoli up to lake Chad) and have proved, that the river Niger not a beret the beginning from this lake. Transition through Sahara in 1827-28 was committed by French traveller R.Kaje. In 1830 English expedition has studied a lower reaches and the river mouth Niger (R.Lender and D.Lender) .V the extremity 18 - the first half of 19 century starts study of Austral Africa which first explorer English traveller Dzh was. Barrow. In 1835 E.Smith inspected the river of Limpopo, in 1868 S.Ernskajn has passed on its{her} in-leak{influx} Olifants. Geographycal and geologic study of basin of Light-blue Nile conducted in E.P.Kovalevskogo's 1847-48 Russian expedition, first of the Russian travellers describing Abyssinia. In midpoint of 19 century in basin of White Nile worked French (A.Lenan de Belfona and D'Arno) and german expeditions (F.Verne). A peak level of mainland burning mountain Kilimandzharo have discovered in I.Krapf and I.Rebman's 1848-49 german missionarys. English expedition Dzh. Speek and R.F.Burton in 1856-59 has found lake Tanganyika. To 1858 lake Victoria has discovered Dzh. Speek, later (1860-63) steady together with Dzh. The underback, that from this lake the river Nile rises. The major investment in probe of Africa Scottish traveller D.Livingston, in 1849 unblocking has introduced lake Ngami, first of Europeans crossed Austral Africa west-to-east (1853-56), incidentally having inspected a considerable proportion of a water-collecting area of Zambezi and having discovered the world's largest Victoria falls (1855). In 1867-71 he has studied austral and western lakeshores Tanganyikas, has discovered lake Bangweulu. In Europe expedition of Livingstone considered{counted} missing and on his{its} searches journalist G.M.Stenli met with Livingstone in 1871 on lake Tanganyika has departed. Further they together inspected boreal part of this lake and have straightened{found} out, that it irrelevants with Nile. One more expedition on searches of Livingstone in 1873 was headed by the English seaman and traveller V.L.Kameron. However his{its} help has retarded, t. To. By then Livingstone has died of a fever. Kameron has prolonged traveling and 1874 has reached{achieved} lake Tanganyika and has discovered his{its} drainage - river Lukuga. Probes of Sahara G.Rolfs's german travellers, in 1865-67 first of Europeans crossed have conducted Africa from coasts of Mediterranean sea (city Tripoli) up to gulf of Guinea (city Lagos), and G.Nahtigal executed in 1869-74 marching in area of lake Chad. He first of Europeans has reached{achieved} mountains Vadai and has collected an extensive material about a nature and the population of hinterlands of Central Africa. Later he has published three-volume transactionses " Sahara and Sudan " (1879-89). The Russian biologist, the doctor and traveller A.V.Yeliseyev in 1881, being still the student, has departed to Egypt, has driven up across Nile up to Siuta, and then two months wandered across Arabia. Three years later he has again visited Africa, from city Tripoli he has moved to Algeria, has passed across Sahara, has visited Morocco; his{its} pen posesses many geographycal compositions, including and on Africa. The Russian traveller of Century. Century. JUnker in 1876-78 has committed major traveling across Central Africa during which has conducted geographycal and ethnographic supervision{observations}, has updated hydrography of river heads White Nile. On following expedition to 1879-86 he probeed a watershed of the rivers Nile and Congo; outcomes of the supervision{observations} has extended in the book " Travelings across Africa (1877-78 and 1879-86) " (1949). In 1896-1900 the Russian traveller A.K.Bulatovich has triply visited Ethiopia, has conducted filming slaboizuchennyh southwest and western ranges of country, first from Europeans has crossed mountain range Kaffa. Terrain of the modern Angola and Mozambique A.A.Serpa's Portugueses studied the Pint (1877-79) which has discovered headstreams of the rivers of Cunene and Cubango, E.Britu Kapelu and R.Ivensh (1877-79) who have crossed continent west-to-east. As a result of geographycal probes to the extremity of 19 century four great African rivers have been studied: Nile, Niger, Congo and Zambezi. In the beginning of 20 century. Huge natural resources of the African continent are revealed. The literature: Zabrodskaja M.P.Russkie travellers across Africa. М., 1955. Magidovich I.P.Ocherki on a history of geographycal discoverings. М., 1967. Gornung M.B., Lipets J.G., Olejnikov I. N. A history of discovering and probe of Africa. М., 1973. Moljavko G.I., Franchuk V.P., Kulichenko V.G.Geologi. Geographers. Kiev, 1985. E.G.Mirlin

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