Sunday, April 8, 2007

  • ATANASOV Georges (1882-1931), the Bulgarian composer, the conductor. One of founders of the Bulgarian national opera. Among compositions - opera " Borislav " (1911), "Altsek" (1930), nursery operas, operettas, etc.
  • ATAPASKI (atabaski, the self-title - dene, on - dene), group of American Indian peoples (apaches, chipevaji, dogrib, etc.) in the USA and Canada. 220 thousand person (1992), including 210 thousand person in the USA. Tongues atapaskskie. Believers - protesters, roman catholics, the part holds on to traditional convictions.
  • ATAPASKSKIE TONGUES (atabaskskie tongues), group of tongues atapaskov. Fall into to family on - dene American Indian tongues.
  • ATARAXIA (grech. ataraxia - coolness), concept of ancient greek ethics about peace of mind, serenity as maximum value (see also Apathy); it is developed Demokritom, Epikurom, representatives of stoicism, scepticism.
  • ATAROV Nikolay Sergeevich (1907-78), the Russian writer. Stories " the Chief of the small rivers " (1936), " the Story about the first love " (1954), " Mors under an alias " (1957)... And I like the horse " (1970) - about a becoming of character of the contemporary.
  • ATASU, a urban settlement in Kazakhstan, Dzhezkazgan region. Depot (ZHanaarka). 16 thousand inhabitants (1991). Production of iron oxide.
  • ATASUJSKY IRON-ORE AREA, in Kazakhstan, Dzhezkazgan region. Actuates vulkanogenno-sedimentary deposits: Zap. And Vost. Karazhal, B.Ktaj, etc. Plastoobraznye deposits of the gematito-magnetite ores passing in iron - manganous (manganous). Known reserves 555 million t with content Fe of 43-52 %. Center - urban settlement Atasu.
  • ATATJURK (characters. - father the Turk) Mustafa Kemal (1881-1938), the chief of national-liberation revolution in Turkey 1918-23. 1-st president (1923-38) Turkish republics. Supported strengthening of national independence and country's sovereignty, for maintenance of friendship with Russia.
  • ATAUALPA (Atahualpa) (1500-33), supreme inka (see. Inki), governor Tauantinsuju. In 1532 it is taken in a film by spanish colonialists and it is executed, despite of payment content Spaniards of the titanic repayment.
  • ATBARA, city on north-east of Sudan, for a lockin r. Atbara to Nile. St. 70 thousand inhabitants. A unit of motorways. A depot. Shopping center of a farming area (a cotton, grain, fruits; cattle). Cement plant, railway works.
  • ATBARA (the arab. Bahr-el-Asuad), the river in Ethiopia and Sudan, dextral in-leak{influx} of Nile. 1120 kms. In a dry season in the lower flow dries up. In the season{term} of summer rains (July - November) reaches Nile. A river plant.
  • ATBASAR, city in Kazakhstan, region Akmolinskaja. It is located on r. ZHabaj (in-leak{influx} r. Ishim). A railway junction. 40 thousand inhabitants (1990.) Center of a thorough revision of agricultural raw material. A food-processing industry; factories: elevators, reinforced concrete constructions. It is based in 1846 as the Cossack village.
  • AT-BASHY, a backbone in Tjan-Shang. Abjoints At-Bashynskuju a hollow in a north from CHatyr-Kelskoj hollows and Aksajskih syrtov in the south. Length of 135 kms, an altitude up to 4786 m. Icehouses.
  • ATWOOD (Attwood) Thomas (1783-1856), the English radical, leader Birmingemskogo of the political union, played the important role in extirpation for realization of selective reform 1832. Temporarily bordered on to chartizmu.
  • ATHEISM (frants. atheisme, from grech. atheos - godless), historically diverse forms of denial of religious submissions and a cult and the statement{confirmation} of self-value of life of the world and the person. Found expression in freethinking, latitudinarianizm, etc. The Modern atheism considers religion as illusionary consciousness.
  • ATELECTASIS (from grech. ateles - incomplete and ektasis - a stretching), fall of air cells at a prelum of a lung, a bronchial obstruction (napr., a tumour), pneumonias, etc. For neonatal neraspravlenie lungs owing to asthenia of respiratory motions of the child, etc.
  • ATELLANA (an armour. Atellana), a kind{view} national improvizatsionnogo theatre in Other. Rome with stationary values phylums - mask. It is perceived by an italian comedy del arte. In 1 century up to n. e. Also a literary genre.
  • "STUDIO" (Atelier), the French drama theatre. It is open{discovered} in 1922 in Paris indoors. " Theatre of Montmartre " (existed{breathed} with 1822). Founders of theatre producer S.Djullen (in 1922) and A.Barsak (with 1940) have defined{determined} a democratic directivity " Studio.
  • ATENEJ Nikopolsky (Armenian) (mind{wit}. ok. 319), one of a magpie of five Christian martyrs, postradavshchih in Nikopol Armenian in persecution of emperor Litsinija. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 10 (23).
  • ATENSKY ZION, the krestovo-cupola temple 7 century (architect Todos) such as temple Dzhvari, a monument of the early medieval Georgian architecture (in 12 kms to the south from Burn). On a front reliefs, inside the unique paintings (1080) including portraits of historical faces.
  • ATHEROMA (from grech. athera - a cream and... An ohm), a sebocystoma of a leather - inquest of a corking of its{her} lead-out duct by the condensed secret.
  • ATHEROSCLEROSIS (from grech. athera - a cream and a sclerosis), chronic cardiovascular disease of faces predominary advanced age. It is defined by condensation of an arterial wall at the expense of growth of a connective tissue, throat of a lumen of vessels and deterioration of a blood supply of organs. The heredity, exuberant consumption of an animal fat, small physical activity, psihoemotsionalnoe an overstressing, smoking matter. At an atherosclerosis of coronate arteries of heart the stenocardia, a myocardial infarction, a cardiosclerosis are possible{probable}; at an atherosclerosis of vessels of a brain - violations{disturbance} of a cerebral circulation, including an insult, mental violations{disturbance}.
  • ATHETOSIS (from grech. athetos - unstable), involuntary stereotyped motions owing to sluggish tonic contractions of muscles at a defeat of subcortical departments of a brain. A kind{view} of a hyperkinesia.
  • ATZHE (Atget) Ezhen (1856-1927), the French master of photoart. An ancestor of the european genre photo which are removed{are taken off} reporterskim by a method.
  • ATKARSK, city (with 1780) in the Russian Federation, the Saratov region, at a lockin r. Atkara in r. A she-bear. A railway junction. 28,8 thousand inhabitants (1992). Factories: machine-building, oil extraction.
  • ATLAS.. 1) in the Grecian mythology a titanium keeping on the shoulders{arms} the celestial canopy in punishment for sharing{participation} in titanomahii - extirpation of titaniums against Olympians (Olympic gods)... 2) the Men's statue bolstering blanking of the building, a portico, etc.
  • ATLAS, in anatomy - a ring-shaped first neck vertebra for the person and the maximum vertebrates, linked with a skull.
  • The ATLAS, the guide of Saturn, is open{discovered} from a side of a space vehicle "Voyager - 2" (the USA, 1980). Distance from Saturn ok. 138 thousand in km, a diameter ok. 36 kms.
  • ATLAS (Atlanta), city in the USA, adm. ts. Pieces. Georgia. The large transport, commercial and industrial, cultural centre of the South the USA. An international airport. 394 thousand inhabitants (1990, with suburbs 2,4 million inhabitants). Airspace-rocket, radio electronic, automobile, chemical, polygraphic, flavoring (including board of firm " Coca-cola "), etc. an industry. Atlanta - the centre of crop and business afroamerikantsev. Universities. Games of XXVI Olympic (1996). Museums. M.L.King memorial.
  • ATLANTIDA, under the ancient greek legend kept for Platona, once existing huge fertile densety populated island in Atlantic ok. To the west from Gibraltar, because of earthquake settling. Problems on existence and the causes of death Atlantidy in science remain disputable.
  • ATLANTIK-CITY (Atlantiс Сity), city on north-east the USA, pieces. New Jersey. 309 thousand inhabitants (1988, with suburbs). A seaside resort; the centre of international tourism, gaming.
  • "ATLANTIS", see " Spejs a shuttle.
  • The ATLANTIC CHARTER, the declaration of chapters of governments the USA and the Great Britain, signed 14.8.1941. In the declaration it was spoken in the general format about aims of a war against fascist Germany and its{her} allies, about the post-war device of the world, in particular{personally} about failure{refusal} of seizures of territory and the right of peoples to elect to itself the form of government. 24.9.1941 on the London interallied conference 1941 USSR has declared about apposition to original positions of the Atlantic charter that has created premises for education of an antihitlerite coalition.
  • The ATLANTIC WESTERN TONGUES, see. Zapadnoatlanticheskie tongues.
  • " The ATLANTIC BANK ", the system of long-time strengthening built by fascist Germany in 1942-44 along european shore from Denmark up to Spain (construction is not completed). It has been broken through by an Anglo-American troops in June 1944 at transplantation in Normandy.
  • The ATLANTIC OCEAN, second-largest (after Quiet ok.) . The area with seas 91,6 million км2, water volume 329,7 million км3, an average depth of 3600 m, the greatest of 8742 m (Puerto Rico trench). Almost all starving Atlantic ok. - Baltic, Boreal, Mediterranean, Black, Caribbean, etc. - and large bays - Biskajsky, Guinean - are in Boreal hemisphere. In Austral hemisphere - starving Ueddela, Skosha, Lazareva - for Antarctica. Basic groups of islands: the Great Britain, Ireland, Newfoundland, Б. and M.Antilskie, Canary, cape Verde, Falkland (Malvinskie). The meridional Sredinno-Atlantic backbone divides Atlantic ok. On eastern and western parts (depth above nymas ok. 3 thousand in m; to the orient and the west from him{it} - 5-6 thousand м). The temperature of water on a surface for equator up to 28 °S, in a high latitudes solidifies. A salinity 34-37,3 °/оо. Surface movements will derivate in subtropical latitudes antitsiklonalnye and in boreal moderate and austral high latitudes tsiklonalnye turnovers. Boreal subtropical cycle develops from warm the Sowing. Trade-wind and Gulf Stream and cool Canary flows, austral - from warm JUzh. Trade-wind and Brazilian and cool Zap. Winds and Bengelskogo flows. In a north prolongation of Gulf Stream - warm Sev.-Atlantic flow. From the Sowing. Ledovitogo ok. To the south along coasts the Sowing. America cool Labrador current is directed. The greatest value of inflows of 18 m (a hall. Fandi). Fishery (a herring, a cod, a rockfish, merluza, a tuna, etc.) - 2/5 world catch. A crude production on shelfs Mexican a hall., the Caribbean m., Boreal m. Neritic - sea-floor depositses of ilmenite, zircon, rutile (Brazil, the USA), diamonds (southwest Africa), iron manganese ores (the USA, Canada, Finland), sulfur (gulf of Mexico), etc. Atlantic ok. Takes master place in world navigation. The major ports: Rotterdam, New York, Houston, Marseilles, Hamburg, Genoa, the London, Buenos Aires, St.-Petersburg, Odessa.
  • The ATLANTIC THRESHOLD, raising of a bottom Atlantic ok. Between Greenland, Iceland, Farerskimi and islands Shetlendskimi. Depth above the Atlantic threshold ok. 600 m.
  • The ATLANTO-BALTIC STRAIN, enters in major evropeoidnuju strain. The leather, a hair, eyes, the lengthy naze and high growth are characteristic light. It is distributed in the Scandinavian countries, the Great Britain, Netherlands, Germany, Latvia and Estonia.
  • ATLASES Vladimir Andreevich (r. 1939), the Russian singer (the lyrico-dramatic tenor), the national actor of the USSR (1976). With 1963 at the Leningrad theatre of opera and ballet, in 1967-88 at Major theatre. 1 premiums at International competitions of vocalists by him{it}. P.I.Chajkovskogo (1966) and pullet{young man} opera singers in Sofia (1967). Title of honour "Kammerzengera" of the Austrian state opera (1987).
  • ATLANTROP (from the Atlas - highland in Africa and grech. anthropos - the person), the fossil person defined as a kind{view} of a stem of the pithecanthrope. Wreckages of skulls atlantropa are retrieved in Algeria in 1954-55 together with stone instruments ashelskoj crops. An antiquity ok. 360 thousand flying.
  • The ATLAS.. 1) regular collection of maps with an explanatory comment, issued by the way volumes or a panel of separate leafs (napr., the geographycal atlas, the astronomical atlas)... 2) the Title of special albums - the anatomic atlas, etc.
  • The ATLAS (Atlasskie mountains), in northwest of Africa, within the limits of Morocco, Algeria and Tunis. Length ok. 2000 kms. Will consist from hr. The Tel-atlas, the High Atlas, Compare. The atlas, Saharsky the Atlas, an internal plateau (the High plateau, Moroccan Meseta) and plains. An altitude up to 4165 m (Toubkal). On boreal downslopes of a thricket of evergreen bushes, stone and a cork - oak, blended and coniferous forests; internal hrebty and a plateau polupustynny.
  • The ATLAS (the arab., characters. - the smooth), dense silk, polushelkovaja or a cotton mild tissue with the smooth shining front face.
  • ATLASES Vladimir Vasiljevich (ok. 1661-64-1711), Russian zemleprohodets, the Siberian cossack. In 1697-99 has committed marchings across Kamchatka. Has given the first cramps on Kamchatka and Kuril islands. It is killed during clamp sluzhilyh people on Kamchatka.
  • ATHLETICS (from grech. athletikos - inherent to fighters).. 1) system of the physical exercises developing force, dexterity (the term " the athletics meets in titles track and field and weightlifting)... 2) the Genre of a circus art, power exercises with gravities.
  • ATLI (a nem. Etzel), the hero of the germano-Scandinavian heroic epos which mode{image} goes back to historical Attile, to king gunnov. Submissions about Atli have received different treatment in iceland eddicheskih songs, in " to the Saga about Velsungah " and in " to the Song about Nibelungah ".
  • The ATMAN, one of central concepts of indian philosophy and religion induizma, the personal (subjective) spiritual beginning; since upanishad and especially in vedante the sameness atmana with brahmanom - the space (objective) spiritual beginning affirms.



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