Sunday, April 8, 2007

ASPERMIA, absence in a seed of spermatozoons. One of the causes of a men's sterility.
ASPIDISTRA, a stem of perennial stemless grasses of a set of a lily family. 6-8 kinds{views}, in mountains JUzh. And Vost. Asia, Japan. 1 kind{view} often cultivate in rooms and greenhouses.
ADDERS, a set of adders. 181 kind{view}. Cobras, duckbills, mamby are distributed, etc.
POST GRADUATE COURSE (from an armour. aspiro - I aspire{try}, try to be approximated), the form of preparation of science officers. It is organized in 1925 at Narkomprose RSFSR, in 1930th it was distributed in high schools and scientific research institute of the USSR (protection by post-graduate students of master's theses - with 1934). In nach. 1990th in the Russian Federation over 60 thousand post-graduate students, including at high schools over 40 thousand. In the majority of foreign countries the preparation analogous to a post graduate course, implements primarily at universities at the special centres t. n. poslediplomnogo educations (it is routine for masters, litsentsiatov, etc.) and it is finished by protection of research work and judgment of the maximum scientific degree (more often doctoral).
ASPIRATOR (from an armour. aspiro - I blow, I inhale, I exhale), a sampling device of air from an industrial atmosphere with the purpose of the analysis of his{its} structure and cleanliness level.
ASPIRATION (from an armour. aspiratio - inhalation), in medicine-.. 1) suction by special purpose tools of a liquid or air from any perigastrium... 2) Hit at an inhalation in wind - pipes of alimentary residues, blood (at a bleeding), etc. as a result of violation{disturbance} of the certificate{act} of a swallowing.
ASPLUND (Asplund) Eric Gunnar (1885-1940), the Swedish architect. Combined principles funktsionalizma (Bacteriological institute, 1933-1937) with classical balance of bands (the Wood crematorium, 1935-40; both in Stockholm).
ASRATJAN Ezras Asratovich (1903-81), the Armenian physiologist, academician AN of Armenia (1947), corresponding member AN the USSR (1939). The main{basic} transactionses on physiology of central nervous system and the maximum nervous activity.
ASRJAN Arus Arutjunovna (1904 - 87), the national actress of the USSR (1972). On the scene with 1919, with 1940 at the Armenian theatre him{it}. Sundukjana.
ASS (an armour. as), drevnerimskaja a copper coin. It was pinched out from 5 century up to n. e., in circulation up to 217 n. e.
ASSAB, city in Ethiopia; see. Aseb.
ASSAMAS, staff on north-east of India, for foot Vost. The Himalayas. 78,5 thousand км2. The population 22,3 million person (1991). Adm. ts. - Dispur. In an antiquity and an early Middle Ages the terrain of an Assam called Kamarupa. As a result of anglo-Burma wars the Assam is adjoined to the English possessions in India. About 1950 staff of Republic India.
ASSEMBLY (from frants. assemblee - collection).. 1) collection... 2) the Title of the supreme body of the government in a number{series} of countries, and also the supreme body of some international organizations... 3) Collections - dancing parties including women in dwellings Russian znati, injected and specified (1718) Peter I.
ASSAMBLJAZH (frants. assemblage; from assembler - to collect), art object - relief or three-dimensional - sculptural, constituted of substantial subjects and their fragments. Such grotesque - absurd " substantial still-lifes ", considerably changing customary senses of things, more all are characteristic for dadaizma and pop art.
ASSAMSKIE MOUNTAINS, see. Shillong.
ASSAMSKY TONGUE, falls into to indian group indoevropejskoj families of tongues. The official language pieces. An Assam in India. Writing goes back to brahmi.
ASSAMTSY (the self-title - ahomija, assamija), people, the main{basic} population pieces. An Assam (India). 14,55 million person (1992). Live also in Bhutan (220 thousand person), etc. countries. Tongue assamsky. Believers - induisty, a part moslems and christians.
ASSEKTATORY, stationary values, but not prevailing kinds{views} of plants in a plant community. Compare. Edificator plants.
The ASSEMBLER (English assembler, from assemble - to collect, built), an accessory in structure of an operating system for machine translation of the source program which is scheduled to be completed on a computer, on computer language. One of kinds{views} of the translator.
ASSEN (Assen), city in Netherlands, adm. ts. prov. Drente. 45 thousand inhabitants. Alimentary, a paper industry, metal working.
SANITATION (from frants. assainissement - environmental sanitation), a way of clearing of the unsewered inhabited places from fluid sewage disposals. Sanitation actuates their tax, a temporary storage, export, detoxication and salvaging.
ASSER (Asser) Tobias (1838-1913), the Netherlands statesman and the lawyer (the doctor of the right, 1860). One of founders (1873) International law institutions in Gent. Headed delegacies of Netherlands on nonpredatory conferences in Hague in 1899 and 1907. The member of the International arbitration tribunal in Hague (with 1909). The Nobel Prize of the world (1911, together with A.Fridom).
ASSIGNATY, impregnated-paper money of the season{term} of Great French revolution; reverted in 1789-97.
BANK NOTES, the impregnated-paper money released in Russia with 1769. In connection with sharp depreciation and introduction of silver monometallism are cancelled on January, 1 1849.
ASSIZI (Assisi), city in Italy, in region. Umbrija. Ok. 25 thousand inhabitants. It is based etruskami. A cathedral (with 1140), a complex the Dignity - Franchesko (with 1228) - a monastery, Top and bottom churches with frescos CHimabue, S.Martini, P.Lorentsetti and other architectonic monuments. The religious and tourist centre.
ASSIMILATION (from an armour. assimilatio).. 1) likening, interflow, mastering... 2) In ethnography - interflow of one people with other with loss by one of them of the tongue, crop, a national self-consciousness. Distinguish the natural assimilation originating at contact piece of ethnically heterogeneous groups of the population, heterogeneous marriages, etc., and violent assimilation, characteristic for countries where nationalities are disparate... 3) In linguistics - likening of one note other, precedent (incentive assimilation: polsk. sfora from swora) or following to nymas (regressive assimilation: Russian "wedding" from "svatba")... 4) In biology - the same, that an anabolism, in more fine-bored sense - a digestion living cells (a photosynthesis, root absorption, etc.).
ASSYRIAN TONGUE (novosirijsky, ustar. - ajsorsky), falls into a Semitic branch afrazijskoj families of tongues. Writing on the basis of the syrian alphabet.
ASSYRIANS (ajsory, the self-title - aturaja), people in countries of the Near East, in the USA, etc. The Aggregate number of 350 thousand person (1992), including in the Russian Federation (10,6 thousand person), Iraq (120 thousand person), Iran (100 thousand person), Turkey (70 thousand person), etc. Tongue assyrian. Believing basically nestoriane.
ASSIRIOLOGIJA, science about tongues, writings, crop and a history of Assyria and Babylonia; in a broad sense - set{combination} of sciences, the bound with the civilizations using a cuneiform (excluding ugaritskuju and drevnepersidskuju).
ASSYRIA, the ancient state in the Sowing. Dvurechje (in terrain of the modern Iraq). In 14-9 centuries up to n. e. Repeatedly subordinated all the Sowing. Mesopotamia and adjacent areas. The season{term} of the best power of Assyria - 2-n a floor. 8-1-n a floor. 7 centuries up to n. e. In 605 up to n. e. It is deleted by Media and Babylonia.
The ASSISTANT (from an armour. assistens - assisting).. 1) the mate of the expert... 2) In high schools of many countries an academic status and the teaching position... 3) a Face included in honorary guarding{preservation} of a military banner.

ASSONANS (frants. assonance - a consonance), a consonance of vowel sounds (predominary impact), especially in an inaccurate rhyme (" formidability - I shall come round ", " grust - I shall light up "). In French, spanish and some other literatures on assonanse more arcaded was plotted stihoslozhenie, on a precise rhyme - newer.
ALLSORTS (frants. assorti - it is well fitted), specially the fitted mix, a panel (napr., sweets of allsorts).
ASSORTMENT (frants. assortiment).. 1) assortment of production - structure and a ratio of separate kinds{views} of items in production of the enterprise, branch of manufacture or any group of the goods... 2) In commercial facility - selection of different kinds{views} and grades of the goods (napr., tissues).
The ASSOCIATIVE PSYCHOLOGY, one of main routes in psychology of 17-19 centuries. A main explanatory principle of mental life - concept of association. Started with mechanistic philosophical concepts of 17 century (T.Gobbs, Dzh. Lock, B.Spinosa), in 18 century the different treatment of the associative psychology has been given D.Gartli, Dzh. Berkeley and D.Jumom.
ASSOCIATIVITY (from medieval an armour. associatio - connection), the associative (combinative) law, property of build and the multiplication, expressed formulas: (a + b) + c = a + (b + c), a (bc) = (ab) c.
ASSOCIATION, in psychology - the communication{connection} originating under certain conditions between two or more mental educations (sensations, propulsion certificates{acts}, perceptions, ideas, etc.); the main{basic} concept of the associative psychology. Distinguish associations on adjacency (in the space or time), to similarity and contrast. The term is entered Dzh. Lock (1698).
ASSOCIATION vegetative, main{basic} classification unit of plant communities (phytocenosises). It is defined by a fixed floristic composition. The association calls on prevailing kinds{views} of one or several storeys, napr. In a wood association of a spruce forest - bilberry.
ASSOCIATION, the union, association.
ASSOCIATION of the STATES of SOUTHEAST ASIA (ASEAN; English Association of South East Asian Nations - ASEAN), it is based in 1967 in structure of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Philippines. In 1984 Brunei is adopted. The purposes - economic, social, cultural and political cooperation. With it is grey. 80th are taken steps on building in locale of a zone of peace and neutrality, and also a denuclearized zone.
ASSOCIATION of PUBLISHERS (ASKI), public and professional organization of labour collectives of book and knizhno-occasional publishing houses (a residence - Moscow). It is based in 1990, the modern title with 1991. Represents over 150 publishing houses of all patterns of ownership from countries - members of the CIS. Has founded (1990) Development fund of book publishing by him{it}. I.D.Sytina.
ASSOCIATION of RESEARCH INSTITUTES of SOCIAL SCIENCES Russian, see. RANION.
ASSOCIATION of NEW ARCHITECTS, see. Asnova.
ASSOCIATION of SOCIETIES GENETIKOV AND SELECTORS him{it}. N.I.Vavilov. It is built in 1993 on the basis of the All-Russia society genetikov and selectors by him{it}. N.I.Vavilov (1966-91). Central advice{council} - in Moscow.
ASSOCIATION of ARTISTS of REVOLUTIONARY RUSSIA, see. AHRR.
ASSOSHIEJTED NJUSPEJPERS LIMITED (Associate Newspaper Ltd.), the English newspaper and publishing company. It is based in 1905. Emits the newspaper " Dejli a mail ", etc.
ASSOSHIEJTED PRESS (Associated Press), the largest news agency the USA, cooperative association of newspaper publishers. It is based in 1848, New York.
ASSUR Leonid Vladimirovich (1878-1920), the Russian scientist, one of osnovatelej Russian scientific school under the theory of mechanisms and machines. Has created rational grading flat link mechanisms.
ASTANGOV (an ice-film. fam. Ruzhnikov) Michael Fedorovich (1900-65), the actor, the national actor of the USSR (1955). In 1925-27, 1930-41 in Moskovsk theatre of Revolution, with 1945 at Theatre him{it}. Vahtangova. To the game emotional brightness, an impulsiveness, deepened dramatic nature are peculiar. (Roles: Gaj (" Wash the friend " N.F.Pogodin, 1932), Feodor (L.M.Leonov "Irruption", 1944), Mattias Klauzen (" Before sunset " G.Gauptmana, 1954), etc. It was taken out in films: "Dream", etc. The State premium of the USSR (1948, 1950, 1951).
ASTAPOVO, the former title of a urban settlement the Lion Tag in Lipetsk region.
ASTARA, city (with 1945) in Azerbaijan, on the Caspian m., in a mouth r. Astara (boundary with Iran). A depot. 13,0 thousand inhabitants (1990). A flavoring industry.
ASTARA, city in northwest of Iran. Ok. 25 thousand inhabitants the Port on the Caspian m., in a mouth r. Astara (boundary with Azerbaijan). Point of international transit traffic.
ASTARTA (Ashtart), in Phoenician mythology the goddess of fertility, a maternity and love; the astral godhood, olitsetvorenie planets Venus.
ASTATINE (an armour. Astatium), At, the chemical element of VII group of a periodic system, atomic number 85, atomic weight 209, 9871, falls into to halogens. It is radioactive, most stable isotope 210At (a half - life 8,1 ч). The title from grech. astatos - unstable (has no long-lived isotopes). On one properties reminds metalloid an iodine, on other - metal a polonium.
The ASTATIC INSTRUMENT, electrical measuring instrument (the ammeter, the voltage meter, etc.) which measuring mechanism plumps in such a manner that on a rule{situation;position} of a movement (meter reading) does not influence an external uniform{homogeneous} magnetic field. Apply primarily to precision measurings in electric circuits permanent and alternating-current.
ASTAFEV Alexander Ivanovich (1816-63), the Russian military theorist, the general - major (1863). The main{basic} transactionses " About the modern military art ".
ASTAFEV Victor Petrovich (r. 1924), the Russian writer, the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1989). In psychologic stories and novels about war and the modern Siberian village "Theft" (1966), " the Shepherd and a water - rail " (1971), "Tsar - fish" (1976; the State premium of the USSR, 1978), in a cycle of autobiographical stories and stories " the Last bow " (kn. 1-2, 1971-92), the story " Zrjachy a crosier " (1988, on the basis of correspondence with critic A.N.Makarovym; the State premium of the USSR, 1991) - opposition to moral disintegration with a support on root foundations of national life, a theme of death of Russian nature; in the novel "are damned and killed" (kn. 1, 1992) - gloomy conditions{situation} of barracks a wartime, travails of soldiers - victims of a wanton cruelty of the Soviet repressive system. In the novel " the Sad detective " (1986) - the severe diagnosis of a moral and social condition of a society 1970-80-Х. A cycle of lyrical miniatures "Zatesi" (it is published with 1972). Stories, movie scripts.
ASTAFEVA Natalia Georgievna (an ice-film. fam. Romanova-Astafjeva) (r. 1922), the Russian poetess. Writes also in Polish tongue. Collections of verses: "Devchata" (1959), "Pride" (1961), "Verses" (1963), " Kumachovyj a scarf " (1965), " In beat a nature " (1977). In the verses including in the collection "Covenants" (1989), - experiences, the bound with loss of the parents which have perished in GULAGe.
ASTAKHOV Feodor Alekseevich (1892-1966), the commander, marshal of aircraft (1944). In Great Domestic war commanding air force of Southwest front; in 1942-47 chief of Headquarters GVF.
ASTAKHOV Polina Grigorjevna (r. 1936), Ukrainian sportsmenka (sporting gimnastka), the deserved master of sport (1960). CHempionka Olympic Games (1956, 1960, 1964), the world (1958, 1962), Europe (1959, 1961), repeated chempionka the USSR (in 1959-65) in separate exercises and command competitions.
ASTHENIA (grech. astheneia), psychological asthenia; undue fatiguability, an emaciation, violations{disturbance} of dream, etc.
ASTHENOPIA (from grech. asthenes - weak and ops - an eye), asthenia of sight. Distinguish an asthenopia akkomodatsionnuju (for pullet{young man} hyperope people at overwork of sight) and muscle (for mope-eyed at asthenia of internal muscles of an eye).
ASTENOSPHERE (from grech. asthenes - weak and an orb), a layer of the under hardness, toughness and viscosity in the upper Earth mantle, underlying a lithosphere. High bound on depth ok. 100 kms under mainlands and ok. 50 kms under an ocean bed; lower - on depth of 250-350 kms. The astenosphere plays the important role in an origin of the endogenic processes weeping in earth crust (magmatizm, metamorphism, etc.).
ASTER (Astaire) Fred (an ice-film. A name and fam. Frederik Austerlits) (1899-1987), the American actor. Acted at theatres of the Broadway. With 1933 at kino. The master of musical - dancing art, has enriched a genre of a film-musical, having removed in films "Cylinder" (1935), " we Shall dance? (1937), "Carefree" (1938), " the Amusing attractive face " (1957), etc. Long years of his{its} stationary value partnershej was Dzh. Rogers. Drama bestowal of the Aster has revealed in film " On the last coast " (1959).
ASTEREOGNOSIS (from a - a negative prefix and grech. stereos - solid, volumetric, gnosis - a recognition), neuznavanie familiar subjects to the touch (at conservation of ability to accept their separate qualities) at a defeat of a parietal lobe of a brain.
ASTERISM (from grech. aster - an aster), group of asters in the mia maid, having the do-it-yourself title, napr. A ladle of mia maid of the Major She-bear, the Belt of Orion, etc.
ASTERY Kilikijsky (mind{wit}. 285), the Christian martyr damaged in persecution of emperor Diokletiana, the brother of martyrs Klavdija, the Neon and Feonilly Kilikijskih. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on October, 29 (on November, 11), in Roman catholic on August, 23.
ASTERY the Roman (mind{wit}. 269), the Christian martyr, the dignitary damaged in Rome in persecution of emperor Klavdija II. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 6 (19).
ASTEROIDS (grech. asteroeideis - starlike), the same, that planetoids.
ASTIGMATISM (from a - a negative prefix and grech. stigme - a point), an image error an optical system, the bound with that, that deflecting{refraction} (or reflectance) rays in different sections of a passing light beam unequally. Owing to an astigmatism the plotting of a subject becomes blurred. Each point of a subject is figured by a dim ellipse. The astigmatism of an eye is removed with the help of glasses with cylindrical glasses, contact lenses.
ASTILBE (ostilba), a stem of perennial grasses of a set of a saxifrage family. Ok. 30 kinds{views}, primarily in a Himalaya and Vost. Asia; in Russia 1 kind{view}, on the Far East. In crop as an ornamental plant under the title a spiraea.
ASTION Almirissky (mind{wit}. 290), prepodobnomuchenik, damaged in persecution of emperor Diokletiana, the son holy Alexander and Markelliny Tomsk. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on July, 7 (20).
ASTHMA (from grech. asthma - an asthma), attacks of an asthma at a defeat of bronchuses (an asthma bronchial), hearts (an asthma cordial), and also at hit of a foreign body in wind - pipes, etc.
ASTHMA BRONCHIAL, the allergic disease, showing attacks of an asthma, with sharply hindered expiration, whistling rhonchuses as a result of throat of a lumen of small-sized bronchuses.
ASTHMA CORDIAL, attacks of an asthma (from several minutes till several o'clock) at a myocardial infarction, a cardiosclerosis, heart diseases, etc.; the edematization of lungs is possible.
ASTON (Aston) Frensis William (1877-1945), English physics, foreign corresponding member AN the USSR (1925; foreign corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science with 1924). Has created the mass spectrograph, with his{its} help has discovered and probeed many stable isotopes. Has constructed a curve of packing factors. The Nobel Prize (1922).
ASTER, stem grassy, predominary perennial plants of a set of a thistle family. St. 250 kinds{views}, in the Sowing. And JUzh. To America, Africa, Eurasia. In a flower growing as an aster call also annotinous kallistefus Chinese of the same set. More than 4000 grades with flowers of the different form and colour use as the decorative.
MILK VETCH, oblom architectonic, an intricate shape (combination of the platen with polochkoj).
MILK VETCH, stem of plants of a set of pod-bearing plants. Ok. 2000 kinds{views}, in moderate and subtropical belts of Boreal hemisphere, primarily in rainless ranges. The kinds{views} integrated in a subgenus tragacanth gum, give a gum for a textile industry. Many milk vetches - feed. A milk vetch sherstistotsvetkovyj - a drug plant.
ASTRAHAN Dmitry Hananovich (r. 1957), the Russian producer of theatre and kino. Worked at the Petersburg Major drama theatre him{it}. G.A.Tovstonogova, Petersburg and Omsk TJUZah. In 1991-95 artistic administrator of the St.-Petersburg theatre of a comedy him{it}. N.P.Akimova. At kino uses melodramatic scenes more often. Has delivered films: " Izydi! " (1991), " thee for me one " (1993), " the Fourth planet ", " All will be good " (both 1995).
ASTRAHAN-MARKET, the title of. Dzhalilabad in Azerbaijan up to 1967.
The ASTRAHANO-CASPIAN MILITARY FLOTILLA, October 1918 - July 1919, participat in the defence of Tsaritsyn and Astrakhan from a troops white. Was part of the Volzhsko-Caspian military flotilla.
The ASTRAKHAN RANGE, in the Russian Federation. 44,1 thousand км2. The population of 1006,6 thousand person (1991), urban 68 %. 5 cities, 14 urban settlements (1991.) Center - Astrakhan. Takes part Prikaspijskoj nizm. With Volgo-Ahtubinskoj a bottom land and delta of Volga. Mean temperatures of January from-6 up to-10 °C, July 24-25 °C. A rainfall ok. 200 mm annually. A machine industry (shipbuilding, manufacture of a forge - pressure equipment, air engines, etc.), alimentary, mild, wood-working, pulp and paper, a chemical industry. Production and a thorough revision of gas, production of a common salt (an eskar. Baskunchak). Crops grain (including rice); a vegetable raising, a melon production. A meat - wool production and meat-and-milk cattle breeding.
The ASTRAKHAN DEFENCE, July 1919 - January 1920, during the Civil war. The Soviet troops (since August 11-n army) under S.M.Kirova and V.V.Kujbysheva's guiding have reflected attacks to Astrakhan a White Guard troops Caucasian (general P.N.Vrangel), Ural belokazachjej (general V.S.Tolstov) of armies and parts of general Dratsenko from a north, the orient and a southwest and have divided them.
The ASTRAKHAN RESERVATION in a bayshore part of delta of Volga. It is based in 1919. The area ok. 67 thousand ga. 3 plots. A breeding site of herons, gooses, cormorants. Clumps a fill, swans during a molting and span. Places of a spawning and a wintering of food fishes. Thrickets of a lotus.
The ASTRAKHAN REVOLT, streltsov and posadskih against taxes and arbitrariness of authorities in July 1705 - March 1706. Rising have trapped Astrakhan, have created elective advice{council} of foremen which has cancelled a number{series} of taxes, has increased the salaries streltsam. Has covered Red JAr, Black JAr, Guryev, Graters. It is suppressed{quenched} by an imperial troops.
The ASTRAKHAN COSSACK ARMY, is built in 1817 on the lower Volga (the centre - Astrakhan) from the cossacks living there with is grey. 16 century. In 1916 population ok. 40 thousand hours, over 808 thousand tithes of ground. In 1-Ї world war has exhibited 3 horse shelf, 2 horse hundreds and 1 battery. In 1918 it is abolished.
The ASTRAKHAN DEPOSIT gas condensate, in the Russian Federation, the Astrakhan region. Enters in Prikaspijskuju an oil-and-gas-bearing province. It is open{discovered} in 1976. Level of a gas presence of 220 m. The content of a condensation moisture from 240 up to 560 sm3 / m3. On the basis deposits the industrial complex on production and a thorough revision of gas and a condensation moisture, manufacture of sulfur is formed.
ASTRAKHAN HANSTVO, the tatar state (ok. 1459-1556) on the lower Volga; it was secured{discharged} from structure of Golden Horde. Capital - Astrakhan. It is adjoined to Russia.
ASTRAKHAN, city in the Russian Federation, the centre of the Astrakhan region, in delta of Volga. A railway junction, river and seaport. 512,2 thousand inhabitants (1992). Main industries: alimentary (including fish), a machine industry and metal working (including shipbuilding), mild. The paper-pulp industry is developed wood-working. 4 high schools. 2 theatres. A study of local lore museum. A dwelling - museum of family Uljanovyh, S.M.Kirova's Dwelling - museum. Picture passageway. It is known from 13 century, with 1459 capital Astrakhan hanstva, with 1556 in Russian state. The Kremlin (kon. 16 - nach. 17 centuries) with Uspenskim (nach. 18 century) and Troitskim (kon. 17 century) cathedrals.
ASTREJ, in the Grecian mythology olitsetvorenie the sidereal root.
ASTREJA, the planetoid, is open{discovered} by G.Genke (Germany, 1845). A diameter ok. 38 kms, distance from the Sun vary within the limits from 2,13 up to 3,03 and. e.
ASTRO... (from grech. astron - an aster), the part of the composite words meaning: relating heavenly bodies, space.
ASTROBIOLOGY (from astro... And the biology), studies biological aspects of a problem of existence of life on different space bodies in the Universe (see also the Exobiology).
ASTROBLEMA (from astro... And grech. blema - a wound), geologic structure of an ancient meteoritic crater. On the Earth it is known ok. 100 astroblem.
ASTROVYE, the same, that a thistle family.
The ASTROGRAPH (from astro... And... Columns), a telescope for photography of celestial objects.
ASTROID (from grech. astron - an aster and eidos - a kind{view}), the plane curve circumscribed by a point of a circle which touches from within a fixed circle of the four times greater radius and will be rolled on her without slide. Belongs to hypocycloids. An astroid - an algebraic curve of 6-th order.
ASTROLOGY (from astro... And... logija), the doctrine about influence of heavenly bodies on the earth world and the person (his{its} temperament, character, acts and the future) which was determined through apparent motions on celestial sphere and a positional relationship of heavenly bodies (konstelljatsiju) at present time (see. A horoscope). Has arisen in an antiquity (the babylonian temple astrology, etc.), has been closely related with astral cults and astral mythology. Has received a wide circulation in Roman empire (the first horoscopes - on a boundary of 2-1 centuries up to n. e.) . With criticism of an astrology as versions pagan fatalizma the christianity has acted. The Arabian astrology which has reached{achieved} the considerable development in 9-10 centuries, from 12 century inpours{insinuates} into Europe where the astrology has influence up to is grey. 17 century and then are driven out with distribution{propagation} of a natural-science pattern of the world. Revitalization of interest to an astrology descends after 1-st world war, phenomena of an astrology contact the thin space and biospace rhythms, etc. With it is grey. 20 century the astrology has again acquired popularity.
ASTROLABE (from astro... And grech. labe - setting).. 1) an inclinometer being till 18 century for definition of latitudes and longitudes in astronomy, and also horizontal angles at a land measuring... 2) the Prismatic astrolabe - the modern astrometrical instrument for definition of the moments of transit of asters through some parallel of altitude with the purpose of definition of a geographic latitude and a clock correction.
ASTROMETRY (from astro... And... metrija), section of astronomy which primal problem is building a reference inertial system of coordinates in the space and the agreed complex of fundamental astronomical stationary values on the basis of measurement of coordinates of celestial objects and study of rotation of the Earth.
The ASTROGATOR (from astro... And grech. nautes - the seafarer), the same, that an astronaut. The term is distributed in the USA and some other countries.
ASTRONAUTICS the same, that astronautics.
ASTRONOMICAL UNIT of length (and. e.), unit of distances in astronomy, equal to mean distance of the Earth from the Sun. 1 and. e. = 149,6 million in km.
ASTRONOMICAL SYMBOLS, see. Marks astronomical.
ASTRONOMICAL COORDINATES.. 1) the systems of spatial polar coordinateses used in astronomy (see. Celestial coordinates)... 2) Geographical coordinates (a latitude and longitude) points of a surface, fixed directly from astronomical supervision{observations}.
ASTRONOMICAL STATIONARY VALUES, the parameters defining an orbit of the Earth, its{her} dimensions and the form, rotation about an axis, ratio of its{her} mass with mass of moon, planets and the Suns, etc. The system of astronomical stationary values affirmed by 19-th cross-over of the International astronomical union (1986) Conventionals.
ASTRONOMICAL INSTITUTE him{it}. P.K.Shternberga State (GAISH), is built in 1931 on the basis observatories of the Moscow State University (it is based in 1830), etc. Observatories in Moscow, the Moscow region; station in Crimea; radioastronomical laboratory on the Sowing. Caucasus; permanent high-mountainous expeditions on Pamir and Tjan-Shang. Probes on all directions of the modern astronomy.
ASTRONOMICAL CLIMATE (astroclimate), set{combination} climatic and a weather conditions in the given district, essential for quality of astronomical supervision{observations}.
ASTRONOMY (from astro... And grech. nomos - the law), science about a structure and development of the space bodies formed by them of systems and the Universe as a whole. The astronomy actuates orbicular astronomy, practical astronomy, an astrophysics, a gravitational astronomy, sidereal astronomy, extra-galactical astronomy, a cosmogony, a cosmology and a number{series} of other sections. Astronomy - the most ancient science which has arisen from practical requirements of mankind (a forecast of the seasonal phenomena, the account{invoice} of time, a position finding on a surface of the Earth, etc.). The birth of the modern astronomy has been connected to failure{refusal} of a geocentric conception of the world (Ptolemy, 2 century) and changing by its{her} heliocentric system (N.Kopernik, is grey. 16 century), with the beginning of telescopiform probes of heavenly bodies (G.Galilej, nach. 17 century) and discovering of the law of universal gravitation (I.Njuton, kon. 17 century) . 18-19 centuries were for astronomy the season{term} of data storage about the Solar system, the Galaxy and a physical nature of asters, the Suns, planets and other space ph. In 20 century in connection with discovering of the world of galaxies has become to develop extra-galactical astronomy. Probe of spectrums of galaxies has allowed E.Hubble (1929) to find the general expansion of the Universe predicted by A.A.Fridmanom (1922) on the basis of theory of gravitation, the built A.Ejnshtejnom in 1915-16. Technological revolution of 20 century has rendered revoljutsionizirujushchee influence on development of astronomy as a whole and astrophysicses in particular. Building of optical and high resolution radio telescopes, application of missiles and artificial satellites of the Earth for extra-atmospheric astronomical supervision{observations} have reduced in discovering a lot of novel species of space bodies: radiogalaxies, quasars, pulsars, X-ray sources, etc. Have been developed by a fundamentals of the theory of evolution of asters and a cosmogony of the Solar system. The largest achievement of an astrophysics of 20 century the relativistic cosmology - the theory of evolution of the Universe as a whole has become.
ASTRONOMO-GEODESIC, system of the bound among themselves astronomo-geodetic stations.
ASTRONOMO-GEODESIC, a point above ground which coordinates are determined from geodesic measurements and astronomical supervision{observations} as well as an azimuth from one astronomo-geodetic station on other.
ASTROORIENTATION, orientation of a space vehicle concerning asters. It is applied at astrophysical probes, fulfilment of precise manoeuvres, etc.
ASTROPHYSICS, the section of astronomy investigator physical condition and chemical composition of heavenly bodies and their systems, interstellar and intergalactic mediums, and also processes descending in them. The main{basic} sections of an astrophysics: physics of planets and their guides, physics of the Sun, physics of sidereal atmospheres, interstellar medium, the theory of interior of asters and their evolution. Problems of a structure of superdense objects and the bound with them of processes (capture of substance from an environment, akkretsionnye discs, etc.) and problems of a cosmology are considered with a relativistic astrophysics.

ASTRJUK (Astruc) Jean (1684-1766), the French doctor, one of osnovatelej critical study of the biblical text. The writer of a hypothesis about a volume, that in the book of Life two most ancient sources are merged, in one of which the God calls as Jahveh, and in the friend - Elohim.
ASTURIAS (Asturias) Migel Anhel (1899-1974), the guatemalan writer, the public figure, the diplomat. The antityrannical novel " the Seigneur the President " (1946), the trilogy about destinies of people of Guatemala of 20 century, proniknutaja liberation ideas: "Hurricane" (1950), " His{Its} green svjatejshestvo " (1954), " the Chapter pogrebennyh " (1960); the novel "Good Friday" (1972), verses, stories. The international Lenin premium (1966), the Nobel Prize (1967).
ASTURIAS (Asturias), autonomous region in a north of Spain, for Biskajskogo a hall., in Cantabrian mountains. The area of 10,6 thousand км2. The population 1,1 million person (1991). Main city - Oviedo. In terrain of Asturias - the modern prov. Oviedo. With 718 (after battle in valley Kovadonga) Asturias - a kingdom (capital - Oviedo). In 924 terrains of Asturias and Leon in a unified kingdom (the title Leon) have been joint. The terrain of Asturias in structure of Castile in 15 century was included in the unified state Spain.
Automatic control system, see. The automized guidance system.
ASWAN (the ancient title to Siena, Siena), city in Egypt, a port on r. Nile, adm. ts. muhafazy Aswan. A depot. 196 thousand inhabitants (1986). Chemical, textile, an iron and steel industry. Bliz Aswan dams - aged and new altitude Asuanskaja (it is constructed with the help of the USSR). 2 river plants. Center of tourism and pilgrimage of moslems - ismailitov. A climatic health resort. Production of iron oxide and a building stone - sienita.
ASUNCION, capital of Paraguay. 608 thousand inhabitants (1990). A port on r. Paraguay (75 % of export and 90 % of import of country). An international airport. Textile, kozhevenno-boot, alimentary, woodworking enterprises. Shipyard. Universities. Asuncion is based in 1537 spanish konkistadorami.
ASURY, in induistskoj mythologies mighty rivals and the enemies of gods overthrown from the root and turning into demons.
ASUELA (Azuela) Mariano (1873-1952), the mexican writer. Realistic novels from the modern mexican life "Comrade Pantoha" (1937), " New bourgeoisie " (1941.) Roman about mexican revolution 1910-17 " Those who below " (1916).
ASPHALT (from grech. asphaltos - bitumen), a mix of bitumens (60-75 % in natural and 13-60 % in synthetic) with inorganic substances (a limestone, a sandstone, etc.). Apply in a mix with sand, gravel, a broken stone to the device of roads, as reefing, gidro-and an insulant, for preparation of putties, fining agents, varnishes, etc.
ASPHYXIA (from grech. asphyxia, characters. - absence of pulse), an asthma stipulated by an oxygen starvation and excess of a carbonic gas in blood and tissues, napr. At a prelum of wind - pipes from the outside (suffocation), closure of their lumen by a dropsy, etc.
The ASPHYXIA of the FRUIT and neonatal, is defined by violation{disturbance} of cordial activity of a fruit at a shortfall of oxygen because of any disease of mother or the fruit (a toxicosis pregnant, etc.) and occurrence{appearance} of Meconium in amniotic waters; for neonatal - absence (or an irregularity) respirations if there is palpitations. A principal cause mertvorozhdeny and early nursery mortality. Well-timed recognition{identification} of an asphyxia of a fruit allows to conduct reanimation.
ASTSIDII, a class marine chord animal a subtype obolochnikov. A body sacculate (length up to 30 sm). Ok. 2 thousand kinds{views}, are distributed widely. Ground, solitary or colonial forms.
ASCITES (from grech. askites, characters. - similar to fanned fur; edematous), a clump of a liquid in an abdominal cavity (abdominal dropsy). The causes: a heart failure, a hepatic cirrhosis, a peritonitis, etc.
ACES, in the Scandinavian mythology the basic group of gods, main of which is One. The list of gods and goddesses, aces and asin, is contained in " the Junior Edda ", where aces are contrasted vanam (to gods of fertility), to giants, dwarfs and the lowest women godhoods.
ASYLMURATOVA Altynaj Abduahimovna (r. 1961), the Russian actress of the ballet, the deserved actress of Russia (1983). With 1978 at Theatre of opera and ballet by him{it}. Kirov (nowadays Mariinsky theatre). The performer of master consignments of classical repertoir: Odetta-Odillija (" Swan lake "), ZHizel ("ZHizel"), Kitri (" Don Kihot "), Nikija ("Bayadere"), etc.
ASENDA (isp. hacienda), a large manor in the majority of the Latin American countries; in Argentina, Chile corresponds{meets} estansii, in Brazil - fazende.
ASENTO (isp. asiento - the agreement), contracts on which Spain in 16-18 centuries granted the sole right on importation of Negros - slaves in its{her} American possessions (about 1701 this right belonged to France, in 1713-50 - to the Great Britain).
ASYUT, city in Egypt, a port on r. Nile, adm. ts. muhafazy Asyut. 291 thousand inhabitants (1986). A Kozhevenno-boot, textile industry. University.
ASEB (Assab), city in Eritrea, a port on Red m., adm. ts. Independent{autonomous} area Aseb. St. 30 thousand inhabitants. Petroleum refinery. The alimentary, textile enterprises.
ATABAEV Kajgisyz Serdarovich (1887-1937), the political figure. The teacher. In 1920-23 chairman of Advice{Council} of national commissioners (SNK) Turkestani ASSR. With 1925 chairman SNK Turkmenii. It is repressed; it is rehabilitated posthumously.
ATABASKA, a deposit of bituminous sands in Canada (prov. Albert). It is open{discovered} in 1778. The area of 25,6 thousand км2. Initial commercial reserves of bitumens 583 million t. At a thorough revision of bituminous sands receive bitumen, petroleum (9 million t in 1988), a sulphur, petroleum, coke, fuel gas.
ATABASKA, lake in Canada, in system r. Mackenzie. 7,9 thousand км2, depth up to 60 m. A drainage in B.Nevolnichje an eskar. On r. Nevolnichja.
ATABASKA (Athabaska), the river in Canada (system r. Mackenzie). 1231 kms, the area of basin of 153 thousand км2. Runs into an eskar. Atabaska. Average discharge of water 651 m3 / with. It is navigable from. Uoteruejs.
ATABEK (atabeg) (the turki. ata - father and bek, trot race - the master).. 1) a title of the chapter of principalities in some countries of the Near East at 12-13 vv... 2) the Commander in Egypt at mamljukah... 3) the Tutor of successors seldzhukskih anthuruses.
ATABEKOV Joseph Grigorjevich (r. 1934), the Russian virologist, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1992). Probes on a molecular genetics of viruses of plants. The state premium of the Russian Federation (1994).
ATAVISM (from an armour. atavus - the distant{remote} ancestor), occurrence{appearance} for organisms of the attributes which are inherent to their far ancestors (napr., trehpalost for the modern horses, development of a tail for the person).
ATADZHANOV Ata (1922-89), the Turkmen writer, national writer Turkmenii (1984). Collections of lyrical verses, novels about a modernity "Flints" (1971), " thy familiar " (1975), " As you live, JAran? (1977), stories, sketches.
ATAEVA Sabira (r. 1917), a Turkmen actress, the national actress of the USSR (1981). With 1941 at Turkmen theatre of a drama him{it}. Mollanepesa.
ATAI, the Uzbek poet - lirik 1-st floor. 15 century.
ATTACK (frants. attaque), the most decisive moment of offensive troop operations, airplanes (helicopters), the ships{spacecrafts}, combining fire and violent motion. Distinguish attack of a motorized-rifle troops, tank, horse, air, the air - attack, marine.
ATTACK.. 1) transition of a vocal apparatus to a singing condition... 2) the Indicating in notes on direct, fast transition to other rate... 3) In fortepiannoj to the game sudden pressure{voltage;stress} of arms{hand} for the strong accent.
ATAKAMA (Atacama), desert in a north of Chile, in JUzh. To America, alongshore Quiet ok., between 22-27 °ju. sh.; a rainfall less than 50 mm annually. It is traverseed r. Loa. Large deposits of copper ores (CHukikamata, the Ale - Salvador), saltpeter (Taltal), a common salt, bores.
ATAKAMSKAJA the HOLLOW, see. The Peruvian gutter.
ATAXIA (from grech. ataxia - disorder), a hypotaxia of motions owing to a defeat of frontal lobes of a brain, a cerebellum, etc. Shows unbalance at stand (a static{quiescent} ataxia) and naturally an ataxia (a dynamic ataxia).
ATALANTA, in the Grecian mythology arkadskaja ohotnitsa, the participant of a marching of argonauts. In time Kalidonskoj of a hunt first has wounded a wild boar, and from in love in it{her} Meleagra, the finished beast, has received a head and a skin animal. Agreed to leave in marriage only for the hero who will overtake her{it} in trot race, not dognavshego her{it} slayed a spear. Has lost for contest{race} Melanippu which, learned the Aphrodite, in time trot race scattered golden apples; hoisting them ohotnitsa has lost. Afterwards Melanipp and Atalanta have been transformed{have been turned into} by the Aphrodite angry on them into a lion and a lioness.
ATALYCHESTVO (the turki. atalyk - the paternity), custom to return children of notable parents on education to vassals or servants (after achievement of fixed age returned in native family) for peoples of Caucasus, keltov, arabs, etc.
The ATAMAN.. 1) the leader of armed order... 2) the Maximum chief Cossack a troops (army, nakaznyj, marching, koshevoj the ataman), the chief of the Cossack administrative and territorial unit (circumferential, a department, stanichnyj, the farm ataman) or the commander of subdividing (kurennoj the ataman).
ATAMANS Lion Konstantinovich (1905-81), the Russian film director, the national actor of Russia (1978). One of initiators of domestic multiplication kino. Films: " Alenky a floret " (1952), " the Golden antelope " (1954), " Snow queen " (1957), "Bench-base" (1967), " the Kitten by name Gav " (1977-80, a series from 4 multiplication films), etc.



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