Sunday, April 8, 2007

  • ARJA SAMADZH (in tongue of a Hindi - a society ariev), the religious - reformatory and educational society in India, is based in 1875 D.Sarasvati. Promoted waking of a national self-consciousness and development of national-liberation motion, but with kon. 20th have transfered on reactivity items.

  • ARJAVARTA (sanskr. Country ariev), a scene of the old indian epos and the myths, settling down in Boreal India; range of initial moving ariev.
  • ARJAMAN, vedijskoe the godhood, one of aditjev; to it{him} reverted with prays about a family health.
  • ACE (frants. as - the expert, characters. - an ace).. 1) the first-class pilot (originally a pilot - fighter, the master of air crocked eggs)... 2) Figuratively - the major expert.
  • ASAD Hafez (r. 1930), the president of Syria and the secretary general of the Consignment of Arabian socialist revitalization with 1971, the general (1968). In 1966-71 Minister of Defence, in 1970-71 prime minister.
  • ASADI TUSI Abu Mansur, the persian poet of 11 century. Epiko-heroic poem "Gershasp-name". " The dictionary of the persian tongue " - most early of known explanatory dictionaries of the persian tongue.
  • ASADOV Edward Arkadjevich (r. 1923), the Russian poet. Lyrical verses (the collection " the High debt ", 1986), poems (including autobiographical " Again in build ", 1948).
  • ASAEV Revaz Nikolaevich (r. 1923), the ossetic poet. A poem " the Drop of blood " (1952) about soldiers of the Soviet Army and friendship of peoples; collections of lyrical verses " the White cloud " (1971), " the Echo of times " (1973), " the Stream gravel of grains " (1976).
  • ASALLUHI, in shumerskoj mythologies the godhood proscribing of malicious demons and encouraging the person at spells, diablery and practice of medicine.
  • ASANGA (4 century), the indian philosopher - Buddhist. Together with his{its} brother Vasubandhu it is considered one of main teachers of school jogachara (vidzhnjanavada), at which centre - idea of the exclusive significance vidzhnjany, or clear consciousness.
  • ASANOV Dinara Kuldashevna (1942-85), the Russian film director, the honored worker of arts of Russia (1980). Delicacy of a manner of films " is not hurt with a head in a woodpecker " (1975), " the non-transferable Key " (1977) is replaced by sharp, nervous style in film "Trouble" (1978), "Nikudyshnjaja" (1980, a TV movie), "Boys" (1983), " Lovely, the road, liked, unique " (1984). The state premium of the USSR (1985, posthumously).
  • ASANSOL, city in India, pieces. Zap. Bengal, in a valley Damodar. 262 thousand inhabitants (1991). A coal mining; metallurgy; a machine industry (industrial area CHhota-Nagpur).
  • ASANJA Manuel (1880-1940), the president of Spanish republic in 1936-39, one of leaders of a dextral wing of the Popular front. In 1931-33, (February, 1936) the head of government.
  • ASARA (Azara) Felis de (1746-1811), the spanish topographer, the naturalist. In 1781-1801 led the first complex{integrated} probes a hall. La Plata, basins of the rivers Parana and Paraguay.
  • ASARIS (Asaris) Gunar (r. 1934), the Latvian architect, the full member AH (1988). Residential buildings in Riga and JUrmale (1959-69), memorial band of Memory{Remembrance} of victims of a fascist terror (1961-67, with co-authors) and a monument racked voennoplennym (1967-70, with the co-author) in Salaspilse. The lenin premium (1970).
  • ASARHADDON (assyrian - Ashshurahiddin), tsar of Assyria in 680-669 up to n. e. Led wars in Arabia, Phoenicia and Egypt. Has reduced Babylon eroded by his{its} father Sinaheribom.
  • ASATIANI George Iraklievich (1914-77), the Georgian film director and the operator, the national actor of the USSR (1967). Documentaries: " Raznoetazhnaja America " (1961), " Paris... Paris " (1965), " In country inkov " (1966), " Light of freedom " (1976), etc.
  • ASAFEV Boris Vladimirovich (literary psevd. Igor Glebov) (1884-1949), the Russian musicologist, the composer, academician AN the USSR (1943), the national actor of the USSR (1946). One of founders of domestic musical science (" the Musical form as process ", kn. 1-2, 2 it is issued 1971, etc.). Ballets " the Flame of Paris " (1932), " Bakhchsarai a spout " (1934), etc. The Professor of the Leningrad conservatory (with 1925). The state premium of the USSR (1943, 1948).
  • " ASAHI SIMBUN " ("Asahi"), the daily Japanese newspaper. Leaves in Osaka (with 1879), Tokyo (with 1888), etc.
  • ASAHI SIMBUNSJA, Japanese newspaper concern. It is based in 1879. Steering in Tokyo.
  • ASAHIKAVA, city in Japan (about. Hokkaido). 362 thousand inhabitants (1992). Wood, pulp and paper, chemical, a food-processing industry, a machine industry.
  • ASBESTOS, city (with 1933) in the Russian Federation, Sverdlovsk region. A depot. 84,9 thousand inhabitants (1992). An asbestos mining-and-processing integrated works, factory asbotehnicheskih items.
  • ASBESTOS (from grech. asbestos - unextinguishable) (a mountain flux), the generalized title of minerals of a class of silikates (groups of serpentine asbestos and amphibole), generatrix fine-fibered units. The greatest value has chrysotile asbestos. Fire-resistant (tпл ok. 1500 °C), shcheloche-and acidproof, not heat-conducting, dielectrics. Filling agents of plastics materials, asbestos cements, a material for fire-resistant and heat-insulating items. Major deposits: Bazhenovskoe (Russian Fediratsija), Dzhefri (Canada), Zvishavane (Zimbabwe). Common stocks of an asbestos in developed capitalist and less developed countries ok. 98 million t.
  • ASBESTOS CEMENT, the building timber received at concreting of a water mix of portland cement and an asbestos fiber. It is water-proof, fire-resistant and cold-resistant.
  • ASBOLAN, see in an item. Vad.
  • ASBOPLASTIKI, the heat-resistant plastics materials keeping in the capacity of of a reinforcing filler asbestos materials. Are issued by the way laminated plastics (laminates) and fiber reinforced plastics.
  • ASBERNSEN Peter Kristen (1812-85), the Norwegian writer and the specialist in folklore. Has emited " the Norwegian national fairy tales " (1841, the supplemented issuing 1871, together with the Norwegian poet and specialist in folklore J.Mu) and " the Norwegian magic fairy tales and national legends " (1845-48).
  • ASVA (Asva), gorodishche 7 century up to n. e. - 9 century n. e. For d. Asva on about. Saaremaa in Estonia. Shafts, residues of home units, instruments, ceramics.
  • ASGARD (dr .-исл. a railings of aces), in the Scandinavian mythology a habitat of gods - aces, the celestial strength constructed by a giant.
  • ASDRENI (Asdreni) Alexander Sotir Drenova (1872-1947), the Albanian poet. The collection of lyrical and patriotic verses " Dreams and teardrops " (1912), " Psalmy the exile " (1930).
  • " ASEA-BRAUN, BOVERI " (ASEA-Brown, Boveri), the Swiss industrial company, the world's largest on manufacture of electrotechnical production. It is based in 1988 by association of the Swiss electrotechnical and electronic company " Brown, Boveri and To ° " and Swedish electrotechnical and machine-building firm " АСЕА ". Has factories, the research centres and branches in 140 countries. Sales volume 17,6 billion dol., a net profit 386 million dol., figure occupied in 170 thousand person (kon. 1980th).
  • ASEAN, see. Association of the states of Southeast Asia.
  • ASEEV Nikolay Nikolaevich (1889-1963), the Russian poet. In poems "Budyonny" (1923), " Twenty six " (1924), " Seeds Proskakov " (1928) - romantic geroizatsija revolutions. From formal refinement of the first collections ("Zor", 1914) has come to liriko-philosophical understanding a real ("Meditation", 1955; "Lad", 1961). In a poem " Majakovsky starts " (1940; the State premium of the USSR, 1941) has created a mode{an image} of the poet contending for new art. The book of speculations about poetry, memories " What for and for whom the poetry " (1961) is necessary.
  • ASENI, in 1187-1280 Bulgarian imperial dynasty of the Second Bulgarian kingdom. It is based boljarami (boyars) Asenem and Peter. Main representatives: Kalojan, Ivan Asen II.
  • ASENKOVA Barbarian Nikolaevna (1817-41), the Russian actress. With 1835 in Aleksandrinskom theatre. Has become famous in vaudevilles. The first performer of roles Marji Antonovny ("Auditor" N.V.Gogolja, 1836) and Sofia (" to the Mountain from mind{wit} " A.S.Griboedova, 1839).
  • ASENOVGRAD (up to 1934 Stanimaka), city in Bulgaria. 60 thousand inhabitants (1989). A machine industry, flavoring, a chemical industry. Bliz Asenovgrad - ruins Asenovoj of strength (11-13 centuries) with church of 12 century, Bachkovsky a monastery (11-19 centuries, paintings of 12-19 centuries), church of John the Forerunner (14 century).
  • ASEPSIS (from and - a negative prefix and grech. septikos - triggering a fester), a method of prophylaxis (a sterilization of instruments, etc.) penetrations of microbes into a wound, tissues or perigastriums, napr. At operations.
  • ASESSOR (an armour. assessor - the lay judge), in Other. Rome and medieval Europe the official vested by the judicial authority; in Russia the position corresponded{conformed} to 8 class (collegiate assesor); in central official bodies (18 century), at provincial boards (19 - nach. 20 centuries).
  • ASIDOL, an oily dark brown water-insoluble liquid; a product of sulphuric-acid treatment of waste products from alkali purification of oil distillates (kerosene, solar, lubricated). An antiseptic (napr., for wood), an emulsifier, the solvent, etc.
  • ASHIKAGA, city in Japan on about. Honshu. 168 thousand inhabitants (1992.) Center of a sericulture and a textile industry. A textile machine industry.
  • ASHIKAGA, the second dynasty [1335 (1338) - 1573] shoguns of Japan.
  • UNSYMMETRICAL ATOM, atom in organic compounds, the bound with 4 different substituting groups (the role of one of them can play fallow of electrons). The unsymmetrical atom is marked in the formula by a star wheel, napr. CH3СH (OH) COOH. The availability of a unsymmetrical atom stipulates optical activity of connection.
  • DISSYMMETRIC SYNTHESIS, way of obtaining of optically active connections (see. Optical activity). Execute with the help of reactions as a result of which in a molecule initial{starting} optically inactive connection there is an element of chirality, primarily a unsymmetrical atom of carbon. Dissymmetric synthesis use for obtaining pharmaceuticals. Some hypotheses about an initial germing on the Earth optically active organic substances are connected to dissymmetric synthesis.
  • ASIMOV Muhamed Sajfitdinovich (r. 1920), the Tadjik philosopher, the academician (1965) and the president (1965-88) AN Tadjikistan, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR 1974). Transactionses on a history of philosophy of peoples Compare. Asia.
  • ASYMPTOTE (from grech. asymptotos - distinct) a curve with an infinite branch, direct to which this branch beyond all bounds comes nearer, napr., an asymptote of a hyperbola.
  • The ASYMPTOTIC FORMULA, approximately binds some (composite) function to more simple function at major (or small) values of argument.
  • ASINDETON (grech. asyndeton), the same, that bessojuzie.
  • ASINKRIT (1 century), apostle from 70-ти (the Message to Romans 16:14), diocesan Girkansky (Minor Asia), the martyr. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on January, 4 (17) and on April, 8 (21).
  • ASINO, city (with 1952) in the Russian Federation, Tomsk region. A port on r. Chulym. A depot. 33,1 thousand inhabitants (1992). Wood, a woodworking industry; traktororemontnyj factory, a meat-packing factory.
  • ASYNCHRONOUS CLUTCH (from a - a negative particle and grech. synchronos - simultaneous), an electromagnetic coupling of slide for continuous{smooth} speed control of the presented mechanism at practically stationary value to a rotary speed of the electromotor.
  • The ASYNCHRONOUS ELECTRIC MACHINE, electric machine alternating-current for which the rotor speed is not peer to a rotary speed of a magnetic field of a stator and depends on a load. It is used basically as the engine and it is rather rare as the generator.
  • The ASYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR, the asynchronous electric machine working in generating conditions. An auxiliary source of a current flow of small power and a brake arrangement (in the electric drive).
  • ASYNCHRONOUS MOTOR, the asynchronous electric machine working in a motoring. The three-phase asynchronous motor (it is invented in 1889 M.O.Dolivo-Dobrovolskim) is most distributed. Asynchronous motors differ relative singleness of a design and serviceability, however have restricted range of revolutions and a low power coefficient at small loads. Power from lobes of W up to tens MVt.
  • ASIHARA-BUT NAKATSUKUNI (japon. Reed plain - middle country), the mythical self-title of Japan; the world inhabited by people.
  • Broadcast television complex (ascus), organ sexual sporonoshenija thecasporous fungi inside which ascospores develop. It will be derivated on a mycelium from a zygote or in a fruit body on the cleaning cloth of hyphas.
  • ASKANY (JUl), in Roman mythology son Eneja and Kreusy, running with Eneem from Troy; has based in Italy of the Albian stage of Long. To Askaniju Roman stem JUliev erected the origin.
  • It ASKANIJA-NEW, biosphere reserve on Ukraine, the Kherson region. It is derivated in 1921 on the basis private{individual} reservation existing with 1874. The area of 11 thousand ga. Dry tipchakovo-stipa steppes. Horse Przhevalskogo, zebras, antelopes (cannas, a gnu), ostriches, etc. In dendroparke over 150 kinds{views} of trees and bushes.
  • It ASKANIJA-NEW (up to 1841 CHapli), a urban settlement on Ukraine, the Kherson region, in 76 kms from zh.-d. An item. Novoalekseevka. 4,6 thousand inhabitants (1991). Ukrainian of scientific research institute of animal husbandry of steppe areas him{it}. M.F.Ivanov ("Askanija-new"). Factories of a breeder cattle, state breeding station. A museum of a flora and a fauna of the south of Ukraine.
  • ASKARIDIOZ, invazionnaja disease of hens, turkeies, the pigeons, called askaridijami - cabbage worms of a set askaridiid. For hens the egg production is sinked.
  • ASCARIDOSIS, invazionnaja disease of the person and the pigs, called by ascarides. Symptoms: primarily a digestive disturbance, an exhausting.
  • ASCARIDES, a set of worms of a class of the nematodes parasitizing in an intestines of the person and vertebrates. The pork ascaride and a human ascaride (length samki 25-40 sm, samtsa - 15-25 sm), triggering an ascaridosis are most distributed.
  • ASKVIT (Asquith) Gerbert a Henry, columns Oxford and Askvit (1852-1928), the prime minister of the Great Britain in 1908-16, the leader of Liberal party. In 1892-95 Minister of Internal Affairs. Government Askvita promoted a unloosening of 1-st world war, has suppressed Irish revolt 1916.
  • ASCETICISM (from grech. asketes - practising in something), limitation or depressing{supression} of sensual desires, voluntary transference of a physical pain, loneliness, etc., inherent{intrinsic} in practice of philosophical schools (napr., kinikov) and especially different religions (monasticism, etc.). The purpose of asceticism can be achievement of freedom from requirements, concentration of spirit, preparation to ekstaticheskim to conditions, achievement of " supernatural abilities " (yoga), in christianity - partnership in "travails" of the Christ. Frequent motive of asceticism - failure{refusal} of use by privileges in conditions of public disparity (tolstovtsy, etc.).
  • ASKITREJA Selevkijskaja (Persian) (mind{wit}. 344), the Christian martyress who has perished in Selevkii in persecution SHapura II; daughter Fusika. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on April, 17 (30).
  • ASKLEPIAD (128-56 up to n. e.), drevnerimsky the doctor, by origin the Greek, the founder of methodical school, medical system, founded on atomism Epikura. Recommended the idle time, treatment conformable to a nature (" to treat safetyly, soon and pleasantly "). It is considered, that Asklepiad has entered into medicine a tracheotomy.
  • ASKLEPIAD (128-56 up to n. e.), drevnerimsky the doctor, by origin the Greek, the founder of methodical school, medical system, founded on atomism Epikura. Recommended the idle time, treatment conformable to a nature (" to treat safetyly, soon and pleasantly "). It is considered, that Asklepiad has entered into medicine a tracheotomy.
  • ASKLIADA (Asklipiodota) Markianopolskaja (Mizijskaja) (mind{wit}. 305 or 311), the Christian martyress damaged in persecution of emperor Maksimiana Galerija. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on September, 15 (28).
  • ASKOLD (?-882), old russian prince. Under the legend, regulations together with Dirom in Kiev, deposited{precipitated} Tsargrad; it is killed by prince Oleg.
  • ASKOLDOV (an ice-film. Alekseev Sergey Alekseevich's name) (1871-1945), the Russian religious philosopher, son A.A.Kozlova. Participat in collections of " the Problem of idealism " (1902), " From depth " (1918). In the beginning of 1920th has organized in Leningrad a secret religious - philosophical society - the Brotherhood of Saint Seraphim Sarovsky, which all members in 1928 arrested; itself Askoldov after Solovetskih camps was in the reference in Novgorod. During german occupation has left to Germany, has died in Potsdam.
  • ASKOLDOVA the TOMB, a part of park on the right to coast of Dnepr in Kiev where, under the legend, prince Askold is buried.
  • ASCOMYCETES, the same, that thecasporous fungi.
  • ASCORBIC ACID (vitamin C), water-soluble vitamin. It is synthesized by plants (from galactose) and animal (from a glucose), except for primates and some other animal which receive an ascorbic acid with nutrition. Influences different functions of an organism, increases resistance to adverse effects, promotes regeneration. Hips, a red pepper, oranges, an European black currant, an onions, a leafy vegetables are most affluent an ascorbic acid. Absence of an ascorbic acid in nutrition of the person invokes{produces} a scurvy (scurvy), depresses resistance to diseases.
  • ASKOHITOZY, the blights called by mushrooms. Are hazardous askohitozy a flux, pod-bearing plants, fruit crops. On plants of a stain of different colour, leaves and shoots die, stalks break (bean), fray (flux).
  • ASKOCHENSKY Alexander Nikolaevich (1898-1973), Russian hydraulic engineerings, academician VASHNIL (1956) and AN Uzbekistan. (1943), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1968). Transactionses on a hydrotechnical construction and an irrigation. Participat in designing and a structure of Kara Kum canal. The lenin premium (1965).
  • ASKOCHENSKY Victor Ipatjevich (1813-79), the Russian writer, the journalist. In verses (the collection " the Fable and echoes ", 1869) and prose (" the Note of the bell-ringer ", 1862) - religious propovednichestvo, fervor of faithful patriotism. In the novel " Asmodej our time " (1858) the phylum of the "superfluous" person, "koshchunstvujushchego" under influence "volterjanstva" above the religious - moral bases{fundamentals} is unmasked. The editor and the writer of the extremely dextral weekly journal " Domestic conversation " (1858-77).
  • ASLAMAZJAN Mariam Arshakovna (r. 1907), the Armenian painter, the national artist of Armenia (1965). Sonorous on I blossom the decorative still-lifes (" the Armenian still-life ", 1955), theme patterns (" Recurring of the hero ", 1943), landscapes, portraits.
  • ASLANDUZSKOE BATTLE, 19 - 20.10.1812, during the russko-persian war 1804-13, at ford Aslanduzskom through r. Araks (dextral in-leak{influx} of the Hen). Russian order under a command of general P.S.Kotlyarevsky has defeated persian army Abbas-mirzy.
  • ASLANOV Azi Ahad ogly (1910-45), doubly the Hero of Soviet Union (1942; 1991, posthumously), the general - major of a tank troops (1944). In Great Domestic war the commander tank a shelf and brigades. It was distinguished in course Stalingradskoj of battle 1942-43 and Byelorussian 1944 operation. Has perished in fight in Lithuania.
  • ASLAUG, in the Scandinavian mythology the legendary foremother of the Norwegian kings, the wife konunga Ragnara Lodbroka.
  • ASMAN (Amann) Rihard (1845-1918), a german aerologist. One of first has placed{installed} existence of a stratosphere (1902). Has invented a psychrometer.
  • ASMARA, city in Ethiopia; see. Asmera.
  • ASMIK (an ice-film. A name and fam. Tagush Akopjan) (1879-1947), the national actress of Armenia (1935), the Hero of Transactionses (1936). On the scene with 1906. With 1921 at the Armenian theatre him{it}. Sundukjana.
  • ASMODEJ, in biblical mythology malicious spirit.
  • ASMUS Valentine Ferdinandovich (1894-1975), the Russian philosopher, the Doctor of Philosophy. The professor of the Moscow State University (with 1939). Transactionses on a history of philosophy, the theory and a history of logic, an aesthetics and literary criticism. The state premium of the USSR (1943).
  • ASMERA (Asmara), capital of Eritrea, at the altitude 2300 m. of 344 thousand inhabitants (1989). An international airport. Ceramic and textile manufacture. The large trading - transport centre. University.
  • ASNOVA (Association of new architects) (1923-30), in Moscow, association of architects, engineers, artists (N.A.Ladovsky, K.S.Melnikov, A.M.Ruhljadev, A.M.Rodchenko). Members Asnovy aspired{tried} to building the artistic - indicative architectonic form in synthesis with plastic arts, on the basis of the off-the-shelf building timbers and designs with allowance for psychophysiological regularities of perception of volume, the space, colour.
  • ASNYK (Asnyk) Adam (1838-97), the Polish poet. A cycle of sonnets " Above depths " (1883-1894) spirit of romanticism; a historical drama of " Pole Rientsi " (1873).
  • ASOP, in the Grecian mythology the godhood of the like river. Was srazhen lightning Zevsa when attempted to take away from him{it} the daughter Eginu.
  • ASORIN (Azorin) (an ice-film. A name Hose Martinez Ruis, Martinez Ruiz) (1874-1967), the spanish writer. The antibourgeois novel "Will" (1902), "Antonio Asorin" (1903); the surrealistic novel " White in blue " (1929); literary criticism.
  • ASPAZIJA, see. Aspasija.
  • ASPAZIJA (Aspazija) (an ice-film. A name and fam. Elza Rosenberg, Rozenberga) (1868-1943), the Latvian poetess and the playwright. Wi J.Rajnisa. The collection of verses " Red flowers " (1897), the play " the Silver coverlet " (1905) expressed democratic ideas. Has departed social subjects (the collection " the Solar angle ", 1910, etc.) later.
  • ASPARAGINE, amide of asparaginic acid. In living cells is present at a loose kind{view} and in structure of proteins. By education of an asparagine from asparaginic acid in an organism toxic ammonia is bound.
  • ASPARAGINIC ACID, HOOCCH2CH (NH2) COOH, an aliphatic amino asid. In an organism is present at structure of proteins and in a loose kind{view}. Plays the important role in an exchange of nitrogenous substances. Participates in education pirimidinovyh the groundings, a urea.
  • ASPARUH (Isperih) (ok. 644 - ok. 700), khan protobolgar (has headed their encroachment to the Balkans), with 681 khan of the First Bulgarian kingdom.
  • ASPASIJA (Aspazija) (ok. 470 up to n. e.-?), getera in Other. Athenes. Differed mind{wit}, erudition and beauty; in its{her} dwelling artists, poets, philosophers were going. With 445 wife Perikla.
  • ASPECT, in botany - the external appearance of a plant community stipulated by a species composition of plants and a season. Aspects call routinely on prevailing{dominating} plants.
  • ASPECT, in linguistics - the same, that a verbal kind{view}.
  • ASPECT (from an armour. aspectus - a kind{view}), the point of view from which it is considered any the phenomena, concept, a perspective.
  • ASPERGILL, the stem of imperfect mushrooms, which ascigerous stage falls into to the order plektaskovyh. Ok. 160 kinds{views}, primarily by the way a mould on foodstuffs, in soil, on crude walls, etc. Some kinds{views} invoke{produce} diseases, other - apply in manufacture of a citric acid, antibiotics, ferments.
  • ASPERGILLOSIS, chronic mycosis animal (basically of birds, bees) and the person, called aspergillami. Symptoms: a defeat of a respiratory organs, serous coats.
  • ASPERMATISM (from a - a negative prefix and grech. sperma - a seed), absence of an ejaculation during coitus at conservation normal semjaobrazovanija, sexual passion and an erection. A symptom of some diseases of sexual organs or nervous system. One of the causes of a men's sterility.



  • fast relevant articles, work control

1 comment: