Sunday, April 8, 2007

  • The ARCHANGELICAL Andrey Dmitrievich (1879-1940), the Russian geologist, the founder of the Moscow scientific school tektonistov, academician AN the USSR (1929). Has developed rather - lithologic a method (1912), has placed{installed} one of master principles (on age of a ripple mark) drawing up tectonic maps. The capital report " the Geologic structure of the USSR " (1932). The premium him{it}. V.I.Lenina (1928).
  • The ARCHANGELICAL Sergey Ivanovich (1882-1958), the Russian historian, corresponding member AN the USSR (1946). Transactionses on a history of the English revolution of 17 century.
  • ARCHANGELICAL, usadebnyj band (18-19 centuries) on a cut-off lake r. Moscow, in 18-20 kms to the west from Moscow. Belonged with 1703 knjazjam Golitsynym, in 1810-1917 knjazjam JUsupovym. A palace in style of a classicism (18 century; furniture, patterns А. van Dejka, Dzh. B.Tjepolo, E.M.Falkone's sculpture), regular park with terraces, a sculpture, theatre (nach. 19 century, with P.G.Gonzago's decorations). With 1918 museum - farm.
  • ARHANTROPY (from grech. archaios - ancient and anthropos - the person), the most ancient minerals people (the pithecanthrope, sinantrop, etc.), close on a level of evolutionary development and character of crop.
  • ARCHAR, a cloven-hoofed animal of a stem of rams. An altitude from 65 up to 125 sm, weigh from 25 up to 230 kg. Dwells{lives} primarily in mountains Forward{Front}, Compare, Central, Severo-Vost. And in part the Sowing. Asia. Secrete up to 10 subspecies. An ancestor of a sheep. On the basis of a hybridization of an archar with novokavkazskim a merino the breed of sheep - Kazakh arharomerinos is introduced.
  • ARHAROVTSY.. 1) a nickname of Russian policemen; named N.P.Arharova, Moscow oberpolitsmejstera kon. 18 in... 2) Figuratively - desperate, wanderers.
  • ARHAT, in the Buddhism hinajany the entity which has reached{achieved} "discharging" (nirvana) of a circuit of degenerations (sansara).
  • ARHEANAKTIDY, dynasty Bosporskogo of a kingdom in 480-438 up to n. e.
  • ARCHEGONIUM (from grech. arche - the beginning and gone - a birth), a women organ of a sexual reproduction for mossy, paporotnikovidnyh, plaunovidnyh, hvoshchevidnyh and gymnosperm. Routinely kolbovidnoj forms; in a venter - an ovicell.
  • ARCHEAN (from grech. archaios - ancient), lower from two largest subdividings a Pre-Cambrian. The upper boundary ok. 2,6 billion flying back. In the majority of locales of the world it is submitted{shown} vysokometamorfizovannymi by rocks.
  • ARHEO... (from grech. archaios - ancient), the part of the composite words meaning: ancient, relating an antiquity.
  • ARHEOGRAFICHESKAJA the COMMISSION, establishment for the tax and publications of historical documents. In 1834-1917 at the Ministry for national enlightenment. In 1922-91 in AN the USSR, since December 1991 in the Russian Academy of Science (with 1956 at Branch of a history). Emits " Arheografichesky a year-book " (with 1958).
  • ARHEOGRAFIJA (from arheo... And... grafija), the special historical discipline engaging a congregating, the description and the issuing of handwritten, printed{published;stamped} and other monuments.
  • ARHEOLOGIZM, the direction in from - art of the last quarter of 20 century In Germany is meant by criminalistic term Spurensicherung (conservation of tracks). Masters (napr., Frenchmen А. and P.Puarje, American C.Sajmonds or German L.Baumgarten) construct by the way designs and breadboard models ethnographic etudes or polufantasticheskie " models of a history " with signs ancient or the modern (but versed in ruins) civilizations.
  • ARCHEOLOGY INSTITUTE (IA) the Russian Academy of Science, is built in 1937 on the basis State academy of a history of material crop (1919-37) as Institute of a history of material crop; it is renamed into Institute of archeology in 1959 (Moscow).
  • ARCHEOLOGIC DATING, age determination of an archeologic monument. The chronology of them can be absolute, expressed in years, centuries, millenaries, and relative, fixed concerning other monuments (earlier, later). Archeologic dating is effected by archeologic methods (stratum, typological) and methods of natural sciences (radiocarbon method of dating, etc.).
  • ARCHEOLOGIC CROP, the concept meaning a generality of archeologic monuments, relating one time, fixed terrain and distinguished by aboriginal features. Reflects (not always) an ethnic generality.
  • ARCHEOLOGIC INVESTIGATIONS, search of archeologic monuments for their registration (drawing up of archeologic maps) and consequent pipettings.
  • ARCHEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS, probe of archeologic monuments under the special sanction with observance{holding} of a technique (first of all a stratum method), ensuring full study of a monument and a cultural layer.
  • ARCHEOLOGY (from arheo... And... logija), the science investigator a history of a society on material residues of life and activity of people - to material (archeologic) monuments. Investigates separate ancient subjects (implements, vessels, weapons, dressings) and the whole complexes (settlements, klady, burials), opened by archeological excavations, ground that recovers{restores} a history of epoch which a little or are not lighted at all by written sources. The archeology was issued as science to nach. 20 century (before the archeology investigator antiquity, had an art criticism directivity). Sections of archeology are secreted on epoch (the Stone Age, a bronze age, etc.), sometimes - on countries and cultural - historical ranges, to ethnic attributes (Slavic-and-Russian archeology, etc.). At material handling apply typological, trasseologicheskie, map, etc. methods.
  • ARHEOPTERIKS, the most ancient extinct bird of subclass jashcherohvostyh. Cable cores arheopteriks in a Jurassic. In size with a magpie. The form of a body, a structure of extremities and availability of a plumage of gangway boards with the modern birds, probably, flied, but to many attributes it is still close to kowtowing.
  • ARHEOTSIATY, phylum of extinct marine Invertebrata animal. Lived in early Cambrian period; have been eurysynusic. Had a calcareous porous skeleton, it is routine in the form of a cup or a curved horn; length of 5-10 sm (for some up to 1 м). St. 1000 kinds{views}; some - colonial, organized reefs. Managing minerals of the lower Cambrian period.
  • ARHERM (it is grey. 6 century up to n. e.), the ancient greek sculptor with about. Chios. To him the statue flying Niki (t is attributed. n. Nika Arherma), retrieved on about. Delos.
  • ARHETIP (from grech. arche - the beginning and typos - a mode{an image}).. 1) in pozdneantichnoj philosophy (Filon Alexandria, etc.) a pre-image, idea. In " analytical psychology " K.G.Junga initial, inborn mental structures, modes{images} (motives), components the content t. n. Collective unconscious and basing universal symbolics of dreamings, myths, fairy tales and other buildings of imagination, including art... 2) the Most ancient, unknown to us the text to which remaining texts of a written monument ascend... 3) hypotheticalally renovated or actually certified tongue form, initial{starting} for its{her} latest prolongations, napr. indoevropejskoe *m+ater - for obshcheslavjanskih m+ati (Russian "mother"), latin m+ater, etc.
  • ARHI... (grech. archi--the higher, main), a prefix, означающая:.. 1) significance, supremacy.. 2) the maximum degree something.
  • ARCHIVE (an armour. archivum, from grech. archeion - the presence).. 1) establishment or his{its} part storing documents... 2) Set{Combination} of the documents derivated as a result of activity of establishments, the enterprises and separate persons.
  • The ARCHIVIST, a saver of archive documents, the employee of archive.
  • ARCHIVE COMMISSIONS (provincial scientists archive commissions), in 1884-1918 in 41 provinces of Russia. Organized aboriginal archives, emitted "Transactionses", "Collections". Are liquidated by archive reform.
  • ARHIVOVEDENIE, the complex{integrated} discipline investigator a history and organization, the theory and practice of activity of archives in range of the count, the description, maintenance of safety of documents, scientific organization of transactionses and economy, an archive affair.
  • ARCHIVOLT (ital. archivolto), the border of an arch opening secreting an arch of an arc from a plane of a wall.
  • ARHIDAM II (?-427 or 426 up to n. e.), tsar of Sparta with 469 (or 476). Suppressed revolt ilotov 464-458 or 455. In beginning Peloponnesskoj of war the chief of devastating marchings of Spartans to Attica.
  • ARCHBISHOP (from arhi... And diocesan), the higher diocesan.
  • The BISHOP (from arhi... And grech. hiereus - the clergyman), non-proprietary name of the maximum orthodox clergymen (diocesan, archbishop, metropolitan).
  • ARHIEREJSKIE SCHOOLS, initial educational institutions for clergy in Russia with 1721. After 1737 were transduced to theological seminaries.
  • ARCHICARP, women sexual organ of many thecasporous fungi. Will consist routinely of two cells: lower it is spherical - ventricose - an ascogonium and upper cylindrical - a trichogyne. Compare. An antherid.
  • ARHILOH, the ancient greek poet - lirik (2-n a floor. 7 century up to n. e.). Bordered on to homeric tradition, but contrasted epicheskomu to an ideal a new mode{image} of the individualized person. ARHILOH (7 century up to n. e.), The Grecian poet, in an antiquity was considered as the founder jambicheskoj poetry which characteristics were singleness of tongue and style, expressivity and an accusatory satirical directivity. Survival time Arhiloha is determined proceeding from a mention in one of his{its} fragments about solar eclipse 648 up to n. e. The native of an island Paros; father Arhiloha Telesikl descended from an aristocratic stem, mother - rabynja Enipo. In youth Arhiloh, having elected the destiny which is routinely falling out on a lobe of illegitimate sons of aristocrats, has become the mercenary (" On an acute spear it is involved wash bread, drink, opershis on a spear "). Participated in wars on island Fasos where inhabitants of Paros have based colony, wared in Thrace, on an island Euboea; a forest fire in battle with natives of island Naskos. Under the legend, delfijsky the oracle has refused to reply naskostsa Kalonda, struck Arhiloha as from his{its} arm{hand} the great poet has perished. On Paros Arhiloha honored as the hero, Parian historian Demej has written his{its} biography (extraction from it{her} was saved on a boom table of a statue of the poet put in 100 up to n. e. His{its} fellow countryman Sosfeem) .Okolo 120 kept fragments of products{creations} Arhiloha differ an exclusive diversification. Except for jambov Arhiloh wrote elegii, tetrametry, epody, epigrammy. Papyrian finds of the last decades have considerably expanded submissions about his{its} creativity; largest of fragments - t. n. " Cologne epod " - has been found on papyrus of 1-2 centuries in the Cologne papyrian collection; (it is published in 1974). In epode it is mentioned Neobula to which, according to the antique legend, asked in marriage Arhiloh. However father Neobuly Likamb has infringed promising to give the daughter for the poet, for what Arhiloh has subjected both of them to derision in venomous verses. Products{creations} Arhiloha were widely known in classical epoch. His{its} hymn in honour Gerakla was executed on Olympic games. Aristofan in a comedy "World" quotes Arhiloha alongside with Gomerom. Well-known verses Arhiloha on the soldier who has thrown{stopped} a board (that was considered as a shame), but keeping life, use meter and epicheskie formulas of "Illiada"; it gives fragment Arhiloha frankly parody character. Modes{images} of this fragment utilised Goratsiem in an ode, versed to Pompeju to Pitch which free translation on Russian has been made Pushkinym. In verses Arhiloha poetic individuality for the first time in the Grecian lyrics it is expressed brightly and unique. Arhiloh - the poet - soldier living in epoch of breaking of aged aristocratic system of values; in his{its} verses the high heroic of the epos gives up the place to rigid and sharp descriptions of everyday lives of military marchings, small-sized skirmishes and defeats. To vicissitudes of life Arhiloh contrasts bravery, steadfastness and steep sensation of the rhythm basing human life. Издания:Эллинские poets in V.V.Veresayev transfer{translation}. М., 1963Древнегреческая melika. M. 1988. I.V.Kuvshinskaja
  • ARCHIMANDRITE (grech. archimandrites), monashestvujushchy a dignity of 2-nd degree of priesthood (before diocesan), routinely it{him} priors of orthodox monasteries have the higher.
  • ARCHIMEDES (ok. 287-212 up to n. e.), the ancient greek scientist. (Sicily) comes from Syracuse. Has developed the methods which have anticipated an integral calculus of presence of the areas, surfaces and volumes of different figures and ph. In basic transactionses on a statics and a hydrostatics (law of Archimedes) has given samples of application of mathematics in natural sciences and technique. The writer of many inventions (the Archimedean screw, definition of structure of alloys by weighing in water, systems for raising major gravities, military propellant machines, etc.) . The organizer of the engineering defence of Syracuse against rimljan. ARCHIMEDES (ok. 287 up to n. e., Syracuse, Sicily - 212 up to n. e., in the same place), ancient greek mathematician and the mechanics, the founder of theoretical mechanics and a hydrostatics. Has developed methods of presence of the areas of surfaces and volumes of different figures and bodies which have anticipated methods of differential and integral calculations. Archimedes posesses flock of the technical inventions, conquered to him unusual popularity among contemporaries. Life Archimedes has received shining education for the father, the astronomer and mathematics Fidija, the relative sirakuzskogo tyrant Gierona II patronizing Archimedes. In a youth has conducted a little bit{some} flying at the largest cultural centre of that time of Alexandria where has acquainted with Erastosfenom. Then up to the extremity of life of cable cores in Syracuse. During 2-nd Punic war Archimedes has organized the engineering defence of city. Invented by him{it} military propellant, etc. Machines (about them tells Plutarh in the biography of Roman commander Martsella) during two flying restrained osadu Syracuse Romans. To Archimedes incinerating of Roman fleet directed on him{it} through system of concave mirrors is attributed by a sun light also, but it is hardly reliable. The genius of Archimedes invoked{produced} such delight for rimljan, that Martsell has ordered to save to him life, but at taking Syracuse he has been killed by the soldier not found out it{him}. Archimedes as mathematician Up to us 13 tracts of Archimedes have reached. In most well-known of them - " About a sphere and the cylinder " (in two books) Archimedes establishes{sets}, that area of surface of a sphere in 4 times is more than area of his{its} greatest section; states a ratio of volumes of a sphere and the cylinder described about him{it} as 2:3 - discovering which he so valued, that in the will appealed for{asked} to deliver on the tomb a monument with the plotting of the cylinder with the sphere entered in him{it} and an inscription of calculation (the monument in one and a half eyelid saw TSitseron). In the same tract the Archimedean principle (called sometimes by postulate Evdoksa), playing the important role in the modern mathematics is formulated. In the tract " About conoids and spheroids " Archimedes considers a sphere, an ellipsoid, a paraboloid and the hyperboloid of revolution and their segments and determines their volumes. In the composition " About spirals " investigates properties of the curve which has received his{its} name (see. The Archimedean spiral) and tangent to her. In the tract " Measurement of a circle " Archimedes offers a method of definition of figure?, which was used up to the extremity of 17 century, and indicates two surprisedly precise borders of figure?: 310/71
  • ARCHIMEDES the LAW: on any body submersed in a liquid, the buoyancy force upward and equal weight of a liquid extruded by him{it} acts. The law of Archimedes is fair and for gases.
  • The ARCHIMEDEAN SCREW, the water-raising machine, the bank with a helical surface, content in a slope pipe which toe is submersed in water. At rotation (napr., from wind or other engine) the helical surface of the bank transposes{drags;moves} water on a pipe at the altitude up to 4 m.
  • The ARCHIMEDEAN SPIRAL, the plane curve circumscribed by point M, uniformly driving on direct OA while this direct is uniformly spun in a plane around of one of points O. An equation in polar coordinatess r=af, where a - a stationary value.
  • ARCHIPELAGO (ital. arcipelago), group of the islands located close from each other and having routinely same origin (continental, volcanic, coral) and a similar geologic structure.
  • ARHIPELAGSKIE EXPEDITIONS of RUSSIAN FLEET, marchings of Russian squadrons from Baltic m. in area of the Grecian archipelago in 2-nd floor. 18 - nach. 19 centuries, during russko-turkish wars. In 1-st arhipelagskoj expeditions (1769-74) Russian fleets (actual commanding admiral G.A.Spiridonov) were routed with turkish fleet in CHesmenskom to fight (1770) and quenched Dardanelles. In 2-nd arhipelagskoj expeditions (1806-07) Russian fleet (vice-admiral D.N.Senjavin) has routed turkish fleet in Afonskom battle (1807).
  • ARHIPENKO Alexander Porfirjevich (1887-1964), the Ukrainian sculptor. With 1908 worked in France, Germany and the USA. One of founders of a cubism in a sculpture. The writer of indicative portraits ("I.J.Franko").
  • ARHIPOV Abram Efimovich (1862-1930), the Russian painter, the national artist of Russia (1927). Peredvizhnik. Plein-air lyrical zhanrovo-landscape cloths (" On the river to Oka ", 1890), patterns of a heavy working life of people ("Laundress", 1890th and 1901), major on blossom figures krestjanok (" the Girl with a pitcher ", 1927).
  • ARHIPOV Vasily Sergeevich (1906-85), the commander, the general - colonel of a tank troops (1963), doubly the Hero of Soviet Union (1940, for difference at outbreak of a reinforced strip in the sovetsko-finnish war, and 1944, for boosting r. Vistula). In the sovetsko-finnish war the commander of a tank company. In Great Domestic war the commander of a tank brigade.
  • ARHIPOV Trofim Arhipovich (r. 1908), the Udmurt writer, the national writer of Udmurtiya (1960). Novels " By the river Ludzinki " (1949-57), " there Was thee on a road " (1968-69), stories.
  • ARHIPOV Irina Konstantinovna (r. 1925), the Russian singer (mezzo-soprano), the national actress of the USSR (1966), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1984). In 1956-88 at Major theatre. The president of the International union of the musical figures with 1991. The professor of the Moscow conservatory (with 1982). The lenin premium (1978).
  • ARHIPO-OSIPOVKA, a urban settlement (with 1960) in the Russian Federation, Krasnodar kr., climatic resort district on coast of Black m. of 7,3 thousand inhabitants (1991). It is called named Arhipa Osipov.
  • ARHIPP (mind{wit}. Between 54-68), apostle from 70-ти (the Epistle to the colossians 4:17), diocesan in Colossuses and Ierapole (the second after apostle Epafrasa). Has suffered in Colossuses in persecution of emperor Nerona. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on January, 4 (17), on February, 19 (on March, 4) and on November, 22 (on December, 5), in Roman catholic on March, 20.
  • ARHIPP Herotopsky (Ierapolsky) (4 century), the Christian ascetic, the sexton, the witness of miracle Arhistratiga of Michael in Honeh (salvage of a temple in the name of Arhistratiga Michael from a torrent of the mountain river). Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on September, 6 (19).
  • ARHIT Tarentsky (4 century up to n. e.), the ancient greek philosopher, mathematician, the statesman, one of the most outstanding representatives ancient pifagoreizma. 7 times it was elected by the strategist of. Tarenta, has placed{installed} the democratic constitution, has rescued Platona from punishment of Sicilian tyrant Dionisija II in 361 up to n. e.
  • ARCHITECTONICS (from grech. architektonike - building art), art expression of regularities of a structure, a ratio of a load and a support, inherent{intrinsic} in design system of a structure or products{creations} of a sculpture.
  • The ARCHITECTURE (an armour. architectura, from grech. architekthon - the builder) (art of building), art to design and plot buildings, etc. structures (also their complexes), creating financially organized medium necessary for people for their life and activity, according to destination, the modern technical feasibilities and aesthetic views of a society. As the kind{view} of art the architecture enters into an orb of spiritual crop, aesthetically forms a surrounding of the person, expresses public ideas in artistic images. Historical development of a society determines functions and phylums of structures (the building with the organized internal space, the structures forming open-spaces, bands of structures), technical design systems, art build architectonic structures. Architectonic organization of the space of occupied points, building of cities and settlements, regulation of systems of moving were secured{discharged} in special range - town-planning. In the architecture the functional, technical, aesthetic beginnings (favour, toughness, beauty) are interdependent. Destination, functions of an architectonic structure determine his{its} plan and volumetric - spatial structure, building technique - a capability, an economic feasibility and a concrete means of his{its} building. The figurative - aesthetic beginning of the architecture is connected to its{her} social function and shows in formation of volumetric - regional and design structure of a structure. An indicative means of the architecture - a composition, a tectonics, a scale, proportions, a rhythm, a plastic of volumes, the pattern and colour of materials, synthesis of arts, etc. In 2-nd floor. 19-20 centuries social and technological alterations have called occurrence{appearance} of new functions, design systems, an art means of the architecture, factory techniques of construction.
  • The ARCHITECTURE of SMALL FORMS, the small structures used for organization of open-spaces and adding an architectonic - town-planning or garden architecture composition. Have the function - decorative (a spout, ladders, a railings) or memorial (gravestones, steles) value, minister elements of a urban accomplishment (flashlights, boothes), data carriers (advertising and so forth).
  • The ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS, studies an acoustic propagation in a room, influence of reflectance and an acoustical absorption enclosuring designs on audibility of speech and music.
  • ARCHITRAVE (from arhi... And an armour. trabs - a balk), lower from 3 horizontal parts of the entablature, superjacent on small caps of columns; looks like balks - broad, the smooth (in doric and Tuscan warrants) or disjointed on 3 horizontal terraces - a fascia (in ionicheskom and the corinthian warrants).
  • ARHIJA (from grech. arche - an authority, supremacy), a part of the composite words meaning the form of an authority, board (napr., a monarchy).
  • ARCHON (archon), the maximum official in ancient greek policies. In Athenes ok. It is grey. 7 century up to n. e. The board of archons comprised of 9 faces. In 5 century up to n. e. Have lost value.
  • ARHYZSKOE GORODISHCHE, residues alanskogo cities of 10-12 centuries for a seconds. N.Arhyz (Karachaevo - Circassia). Debris of strengthening, temples and other constructions, burials.
  • ARTSEBARSKY Anatoly Pavlovich (r. 1956), the Russian astronaut, a pilot - astronaut of the USSR (1991), the colonel, the Hero of Soviet Union (1991). Flight on " Soyuz TM-12 " and an orbital complex "World" (May - October 1991).
  • ARTSEULOV Konstantin Konstantinovich (1891-1980), the Russian pilot - verifier and the glider pilot. First in Russia has executed on an airplane an intentional spin (1916), the designer of gliders.
  • ARTSIZ, city (with 1963) on Ukraine, the Odessa region. A railway junction. 20,8 thousand inhabitants (1991). A flavoring industry, a machine industry, etc. Has arisen in 1816. It is called in commemoration of victory of Russian troops in 1814 under. Arsi (Arsi-sjur-Ob, frants. Areis-sur-Aube).
  • ARTSIMOVICH Victor Antonovich (1820-93), the Russian statesman, with 1858 Kaluga governor. At realization of country reform 1861 rested on a liberal Kaluga circle. Has received a nickname "red". In 1862 it is discharged as a result of intrigues of landlords.
  • ARTSIMOVICH Lion Andreevich (1909-73), Russian physics, academician AN the USSR (1953), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1969). Transactionses on nuclear and a nuclear physics. Under guiding Artsimovicha for the first time in the USSR the electromagnetic method of an isotope separation is developed. With 1951 chief of probes on physics of a high-temperature plasma and a problem of steered thermonuclear fusion. Under guiding Artsimovicha in laboratory conditions the thermonuclear reaction for the first time is received{obtained}. The lenin premium (1958). The state premium of the USSR (1953, 1971).
  • ARTSIHOVSKY Artemy Vladimirovich (1902-78), the Russian archeologist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1960). Son V.M.Artsihovskogo. Transactionses on general problems of archeology, Russian antiquities. The state premium of the USSR (1970, 1982, posthumously).
  • ARTSIHOVSKY Vladimir Martynovich (1876-1931), Russian botanik, the professor. Transactionses on sterilizing action of poisons on seeds, a plant anatomy, a water relationships of species of woods, chemical amelioration of alkali soils. Has developed aeroponiku (1910).
  • ARTSRUNI Grigor (1845-92), the Armenian liberal public figure and the publicist. One of chiefs of motion for discharging of turkish Armenians with the help of Russia. The founder of newspaper "Mshak" (1872).
  • ARTSRUNIDY, a dynasty of the Armenian tsars in 908-1021. The founder - Gagik from a like princely stem.
  • ARTSYBASHEV Michael Petrovich (1878-1927), the Russian writer. Nitssheanskie moods in the novel "Sanin" (1907) which have received reputation of product{creation}, preaching primitive hedonism and immorality. In 1923 has emigrated.
  • ARTSYBASHEV Nikolay Sergeevich (1773-1841), the Russian historian of skeptical school. Transactionses: " Remarks on N.M.Karamzina's "History" "," the Narration about Russia ".
  • CENTRAL ASIAN JUNIPER, the Central Asian kinds{views} of a juniper.
  • ARCHIL II (1647-1713), tsar of Imeretia and Kaheti, the poet and the historian. Unsuccessful extirpation with Persia and Turkey and civil strifes znati has forced it{him} in 1699 to emigrate to Russia. The founder of the Georgian colony in a seconds. Vsehsvjatskoe (nowadays in terrain of Moscow). Has created 1-Ї the Georgian printing house.
  • ARCHINSKY TONGUE, see in an item. The Dagestan tongues.
  • ARCHINTSY (the self-title - arshishtib), people in the Russian Federation, in Dagestan. St. 1 thousand person (1992). Tongue archinsky. Believers - moslems - sunnity.
  • ARSHAVSKY Ilya Arkadjevich (r. 1903), the Russian physiologist. Has put forward negentropijnuju (thermodynamic) theory of an ontogeny of organisms. Developing submissions of teacher A.A.Ukhtomsky about nonequilibrium of alive systems, Arshavsky has found, that the motor performance of an organism results in redundancy of anabolic processes, ensuring his{its} growth and development. Has introduced the investment in a pedonosology (early feeding by a breast of mother, criteria of an assessment{evaluation} of a biologicol ripeness neonatal, original system of quenching, etc.).
  • ARSHAKIDY, a dynasty of tsars of Armenia in 62-428. The founder - Trdat I.
  • ARSHAKIDY (Arsakidy), a parthian dynasty in 250 up to n. e. - 224 n. e.
  • ARSHIN (turki)., the linear measure in a number{series} of countries, in Russia from 16 century, is peer to 16 vershoks (71,12 sm).
  • ARYK (turki)., the title of the channel of an irrigating network in Compare. Asia, Kazakhstan, Transcaucasia, Arabian countries, Turkey, Afghanistan, etc.
  • ARYS, bitter and salty self-charge lake in Kazakhstan, in a western part of desert Betpak-give. 173 км2.
  • ARYS, city (with 1956) in Kazakhstan, the Southern - Kazakhstan region, on r. Arys. A railway junction. 34,7 thousand inhabitants (1991). The enterprises of a railway transport.
  • ARYS, the river in the south of Kazakhstan, dextral in-leak{influx} of Syr-Darya. 378 kms, the area of basin of 14,9 thousand км2. Average discharge of water for. Arys 46,6 m3 / with. It is used for an irrigation.
  • REAR GUARD (from frants. arriere - rear, back and garde - the sentinel), a part (subdividing) sent from an all-arms formation (part) for cover of withdrawal of the main force.



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