Sunday, April 8, 2007

  • ARTEM (1 century), apostle from 70-ти (the Message to Titus 3:12), diocesan Listrijsky (in Likaonii, Minor Asia). Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on January, 4 (17) and on October, 30 (on November, 12).
  • ARTEM the ISLAND, in the Caspian m., in 50 kms from Baku. It is paired by a dam with Apsheronskim p-ovom. Ok. 10 км2. A crude production. On an island of Artem - a urban settlement the Artem-island. The title by name Artem (F.A.Sergeeva).
  • ARTEMENKO Stepan Elizarovich (1913-77), doubly the Hero of Soviet Union (1945, for differences in breakages to the south of Warsaw, on r. Oder and at storm of Berlin), the colonel. In Great Domestic war the commander of a rifle battalion.
  • ARTEMIS, in the Grecian mythology daughter Zevsa, the goddess of a hunt, the patroness of parturient women. It was figured with an onions and booms, sometimes with a half moon on a head. To her corresponds{meets} Roman Diana.
  • ARTEMII, a stem of Crustacea of order of branchipods. Length of 0,8-1 sm, in brine lakes and marine firths. Cultivate as a forage for young fishes of fishes. Larvas artemii - a forage of aquarian fishes.
  • ARTEMY (? - after 1571), the abbot to the Trinity - Sergieva of a monastery in 1551, one of ideologists Russian nestjazhatelstva, the writer. On M.Bashkina it is banished in Solovetsky a monastery. Ran to Lithuania.
  • ARTEMOVO (up to 1921 farm Nelepovsky), city (with 1938) on Ukraine, Donetsk region, bliz zh.-d. An item. Magdalinovka. 7,6 thousand inhabitants (1991). Production of mineral coal. It is called by name Artem (F.A.Sergeeva).
  • ARTEMOVSK, city (with 1939, before a settlement. Olhovsky) in the Russian Federation, Krasnoyarsk kr., in 12 kms from zh.-d. An item. Koshurnikovo. 4,5 thousand inhabitants (1992). Production of gold. A forest industry. It is called by name Artem (F.A.Sergeeva).
  • ARTEMOVSK, city (with 1783, up to 1924 Bahmut) on Ukraine, Donetsk region. A depot. 90,8 thousand inhabitants (1991). Production of a rock salt. Manufacture of a building materials; a machine industry, mild, a food-processing industry. It is known with 1571. It is called by name Artem (F.A.Sergeeva).
  • ARTEMOVSK (up to 1921 Ekaterinovka), city (with 1961) on Ukraine, Lugansk region. ZH.-d. An item. Vigorous. 11,4 thousand inhabitants (1991). Production of mineral coal. It is based in 1911. It is called by name Artem (F.A.Sergeeva).
  • ARTEMOVSKY, city (with 1938, before a settlement. Egorshino) in the Russian Federation, Ekaterinburg region. Railway junction (Egorshino). 41,4 thousand inhabitants (1992). Production of mineral coal; a machine industry. Egorshinskaja the cogeneration station. It is called by name Artem (F.A.Sergeeva).
  • ARTEMOVSKIJ-GULAK Peter Petrovich, see Gulak-Artemovskij P.P.
  • ARTEMON (Artem) (nach. 3 century), the chapter of sect and school antitrinitariev in Rome.
  • ARTEMYEV Vladimir Andreevich (1885-1962), the Russian designer of powder rockets. The participant of development and tests of the first Soviet missiles on smokeless powder. Has introduced the investment in building of rocket missiles for "Katjushi". The state premium of the USSR (1941, 1943).
  • ARTEMYEV Pavel Artemjevich (1897-1979), the commander, the general - colonel (1942). In Great Domestic war commanding a troops Moscow IN, it is simultaneous (up to 1943) - the Moscow defense zone. In 1953-60 deputy and 1-st deputy commanding a troops Ural IN.
  • ARTEMYEV Edward Nikolaevich (r. 1937), the Russian composer, the honored worker of arts of Russia (1985). Products{creations} in range of electronic music (" Variations on one tone ", 1970, etc.), music to films (over 80, including "Courier", "Urga"). The state premium of the Russian Federation (1993).
  • ARTERIES (grech., a unit of hours arteria), blood vessels, carriers oxygen-rich (arterial) blood from heart to all organs and tissues of a body (only the pulmonary artery bears a venous blood from heart to lungs).
  • ARTERITIS, inflammatory defeat of arteries; can seize{catch} any layer of a vascular wall (napr., internal at an obliterating endarteritis, all layers - at a nodous periarteritis).
  • ARTERIOLES, the small-sized final branchings of arteries passing in capillaries.
  • ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, the obsolete title of different chronic diseases of arteries (including an atherosclerosis), their walls attending with condensation.
  • ARTESONADO (isp. artesonado), a wooden built-up ceiling with the torsion boxes, often decorated with a thread and paintings. It is borrowed from medieval moorish art of building of architectonic Spain, after Latin America.
  • ARTEFACT (from an armour. artefactum - artificially made).. 1) a subject made, made by the person... 2) Process or the education not inherent to a body of interest in the norm{standard} and originating routinely during his{its} probe. Napr., at fixing a tissue specimen in cells (owing to a coagualation of proteins) a rainfall (glybki) can appear.
  • ARTIGAS (Artigas) Hose Hervasio (1764-1850), the national hero of Uruguay, one of chiefs of War for independence of spanish colonys in America 1810-26.
  • ARTIK, city (with 1945) in Armenia. A depot. 25,1 thousand inhabitants (1989). Developments of deposits of a tufa. Factory of vacuum furnaces; the enterprises of a light industry; a carpet weaving. Churches of 5-7 centuries.
  • ARTICLE (frants. article), in a number{series} indoevropejskih, Semitic and some other tongues the differentiative linkword. Accompanies with a noun and is a parameter of grammar grades of a determinancy and indeterminacy or a stem, figure and an epizooty (napr., English the, and, a nem. der, die, das, ein, eine, frants. le, la, les, un, une, des).
  • The CODE NUMBER (from an armour. articulus - section; the article).. 1) the military regulations issued by Peter I... 2) (Ustar.) the incoterms... 3) the Type of hardware product, the goods, his{its} digital or an alphabetic designation.
  • ARTICULATION, in music - a way of performance{fulfillment} of sequence of notes on the instrument or a voice. Principal views of an articulation - legato, a staccato, portamento, glissando. It is technically connected to methods of motion of an arm{a hand} (its{her} parts) at management of a bow, impact on the key, and also with different use of a vocal apparatus.
  • ARTICULATION (in a communication engineering), figure of merit of the communications systems intended for drive of a voice information; it is determined by attitude{relation} of correctly adopted elements of speech (notes, syllables, words, phrases) to all transferred{handed} and expresses in %. Napr., in telephone systems the articulation reaches 90 %.
  • ARTICULATION (from an armour. articulo - I dismember), activity of organs of the speech, committed at utterance of this or that note; a degree of distinctness of a pronunciation.

  • AMMUNITION DEVICES, sights, binocularses, stereoscopic telescopes, range finders, etc. Intended for maintenance of shooting.
  • ARTILLERY (frants. artillerie).. 1) a service arm. In Europe the artillery has appeared in kon. 13 - nach. 14 centuries. The first mention of application of artillery in Russia falls into 1382 (at the defence of Moscow from a troops of khan Tohtamysha). The artillery of a land forces is divided on terraneous and zenith... 2) Science about the device, properties and battle application of ammunition arms.
  • ARTIN (Artin) Emil (1898-1962), german mathematician. Transactionses on algebra and number theories. One of osnovatelej the modern axiomatic algebra. In theory algebraic numbers has proved a reciprocity law called as his{its} name. One of creators of an ideal theory in finite-dimensional algebras.
  • The ACTOR (frants. artiste, from an armour. ars - art), the same, that the actor. In a broad sense - the person engaging creativity in range of any art. Figuratively - the person who has reached{achieved} skill in the business.
  • ARTICHOKE, stem of perennial grasses of a set of a thistle family. St. 10 kinds{views}, primarily in the Mediterranean. Cultivate in european countries, in India, Algeria, etc. The Artichoke spanish and an artichoke acanthous, or sowing campaign, - vegetable (in beaded receptacles and stakes of leaves of Saccharum, proteins, redoxon, vitamins of group In, etc., aromatic substances), oil-brearing plants (oil{butter} from seeds), feed (green material) and ornamental plants. Productivity of racemes 50-250 ts with 1 ga.
  • ARTMAN (Artmann) Hans Charles (r. 1921), the Austrian writer. The chapter of " the Austrian group " experimental poetry. In the collection of stories " About hussars and other tightrope dancers " (1959) pereosmysljaet folklore motives spirit of surrealism; the collection of stories " the Hunt for doctor У. " (1977) - in spirit neofuturizma.
  • ARTMANE (Artmane) Vija (Alida) (r. 1929), the Latvian actress, the national actress of the USSR (1969). With 1949 at the Latvian Art theatre him{it}. Rajnisa (about 1989 theatre Dajles), Riga. Has created the lyrical, womanly modes{images} executed dramatic nature. Roles: Dzhuljetta (" Romeo and Dzhuljetta " U.Shakespeare, 1953), Elizabeth (" Elizabeth English " F.Bruknera, 1980), etc. It was taken out in films: " Native blood ", " nobody wanted to die ", " Edgar and Christina ", a TV movie "Theatre", etc.
  • ARTO (Artaud) Antonen (an ice-film. A name Antoine Mari Zhozef) (1896-1948), the French actor, the producer, the artist, the poet. In 1924-26 bordered on to surrealism. In 1926 together with R.Vitrakom (R. Vitrac) and R.Aron has based "Theatre Alfreda Zharri" (existed{breathed} up to 1928). Articles (the collection " Theatre and his{its} half-and-half ", 1938). Has put forward idea of " theatre of cruelty ", the spectator directly influencing psychics. Acted in film.
  • ARTOBOLEVSKY Ivan Ivanovich (1905-77), the Russian scientist, the founder of scientific school, academician AN the USSR (1946), the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1969). Many transactionses on grading, a kinematics and a kinetostatics of flat and regional{spatial} mechanisms; has developed methods of the kinematic analysis of mechanisms. Transactionses on building machine systems of automatic action. The chairman of board of the All-Union society "Knowledge" (with 1966).
  • ARTHRALGIA (from grech. arthron - a joint and algos - a pain), a joint pain at different diseases.
  • ARTHRITIS, the collective notation inflammatory and inflammatory - dystrophic, and in a broad sense - any diseases of joints. Can be a basic disease (napr., a spondylarthritis) or a development of other disease (napr., rheumatic disease); acute and chronic; are struck one or several (polyarthritis) of joints. The causes: an infection (a tuberculosis, a Bang's disease, etc.), exchange violations{disturbance} (napr., at a podagra), a trauma, etc. Aboriginal developments: a pain, an erubescence, limitation of motility in a joint, change of his{its} form.
  • ARTHROGRYPOSIS (from grech. arthron - a joint and grypos - curved), inborn multiple rigor contractions of extremities with limitation or absence of motions in joints.
  • ARTHROSIS, chronic disease of a joint of degenerative - dystrophic character. Arises at disbolism, professional harmfulnesses, chronic traumas, intoxications, etc. Changes in linked surfaces of bones, a pain, limitation of motility in a joint and his{its} strain Are characteristic.
  • ART - FATE (English art rock, " art fate "), fate with elements of arcaded, classical, modern chamber and symphonic music.
  • ARTHROLOGY (from grech. arthron - a joint and... logija), the section of medicine investigator joints and their diseases.
  • ARTHROLOGY (from grech. arthron - a joint and... logija), the section of medicine investigator joints and their diseases.
  • ARTROPODY, the same, that arthropods.
  • ARTSEN Peter, see Peter Artsen.
  • ARTOIS (Artois), historical range in a north of France, a main body of department of Pas de Calais. The area ok. 4 thousand км2. The population 1 million person (1982). Main city - Arras.
  • ARTUZOV (Frauchi) Arthur Hristianovich (1891-1937), the political figure. With 1919 member of board VCHK, GPU; up to nach. 1930th the chief of department of counterintelligence, then - in Headquarters RKKA. It is repressed; it is rehabilitated posthumously.
  • ARTHUR (Arthur) Chester Alan (1830-86), 21-st president the USA (1881-85), from the Republican consignment.
  • ARTUROVSKIE LEGENDS, the Celtic national legends, at which centre a mode{an image} of king brittov Arthur (5-6 centuries), struggling with Anglo-Saxon conquerors. Arthur and knights of "Compass table" (behind which as equal heroes Arturovskih of legends were going) embody moral ideals of knights. Arturovskie legends were used by many poets and novelists Zap. Europe. Attempt to systematize them T.Melori has been attempted. Parodijno-satirical deflecting{refraction} have received for M.Twain (" JAnki at a yard of king Arthur ").
  • ARTHA (sanskr. Business, profit), in brahmanistskoj religions and ethics one of four philosophy of correct life alongside with a Dharma, kamoj and mokshej.
  • "ARTHASHASTRA" (sanskr., characters. - science about favour, about practical life), the old indian tract, collection of manuals on government, the major source for study Other. India. It was compounded{made} approximately in 4 century up to n. e. - 2-3 centuries n. e.
  • ARTJUHIN Jury Petrovich (r. 1930), the Russian astronaut, a pilot - astronaut of the USSR (1974), the colonel, the Hero of Soviet Union (1974). Flight on "Soyuz - 14" and orbital station " Salute - 3 " (July 1974).
  • ARTJUSHKOV Eugeny Viktorovich (r. 1937), Russian a geophysics, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991). The main{basic} transactionses on geodynamics{geochanges}.
  • AGC (Association of architects - urbanists) (1928-31), in Moscow. Members of an AGC (, etc.) invoked N.A.Ladovsky, D.F.Fridman to building a unified space system of city, to the functional zoning of urban terrain, considered the building as a part of urban site development. Ideas of an AGC have found reflectance in the modern town-planning.
  • ARUBA (Aruba), an island in M.Antilskie's archipelago of island, in West Indies. Possession of Netherlands. The area 190 км2. The population of 67 thousand person (1991). An altitude up to 188 m. Main city - Oranjestad.
  • ARUWIMI (Aruwimi), the river in Republic Zaire, dextral in-leak{influx} r. Congo (Zaire). Ok. 1300 kms, the area of basin of 116 thousand км2. It is abounding in water, porozhista. It is navigable on 60 kms from a mouth.
  • ARUZ (arud) (the arab.), system metrical stihoslozhenija, arisen in classical Arabian poetry and widespread{distributed} (down to 20 century) in a number{series} of countries Short-range and Compare. The orient. Ritmoobrazujushchy an element of a verse in aruze - varied alternation{sequence} of long and brief syllables.
  • ARUNA, in hettskoj mythologies the god starving, world ocean.
  • ARUNA (sanskr. Pink), vedijskoe the godhood of a morning dawn, kolesnichy the Suns.
  • ARUNACHAL-PRADESH, staff on north-east of India. 83,7 thousand км2. The population of 858 thousand person (1991). Adm. ts. - Itanagar.
  • DESERT ARUNTA (Arunta), the second title of desert of the Simpson in Australia.
  • ARURU, in akkadskoj mythologies goddess - mother, the creator of people. In the epos about Gilgameshe " About all worldly-wise " Aruru creates from clay of hero Enkidu.
  • ARUTCHJAN Michael Avetovich (1897-1961), the Armenian theatrical artist, the national artist of Armenia (1958). One of founders Armenian teatralno-dekoratsionnogo arts.
  • ARUTYUNOV Sergey Aleksandrovich (r. 1932), the Russian ethnographer, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1990). Transactionses on ethnography of peoples Vost. Asia and Transcaucasia, to theoretical problems of ethnography and cultural science.
  • ARUTYUNOV Nina Davidovna (r. 1923), Russian jazykoved, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1990). The main{basic} transactionses in range of the theory of tongue, Romanesque tongues, Russian. The state premium (1995).
  • ARUTYUNYAN Alexander Grigorjevich (r. 1920), the Armenian composer, the national actor of the USSR (1970). With 1954 artistic administrator of the Armenian philarmonic society. Vokalno-symphonic products{creations} (including " the Cantata about Rhodinum ", 1948), opera " Sajat-new " (1969), the concordance (1957), compositions for instruments with an orchestra, etc. The Professor of the Yerevan conservatory (with 1977). The state premium of the USSR (1949).
  • ARUTYUNYAN Jury Vartanovich (r. 1929), the Russian sociologist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991). Activities in range of sociology of village, ethnosociology, a history of sociology.
  • ARUSHA (Arusha), city in Tanzania, adm. ts. prov. Arusha. Ok. 100 thousand inhabitants. An international airport. The alimentary, textile, metal-working enterprises.
  • HARP (from a nem. Harfe), multistring shchipkovyj a musical instrument. Early plotting - in 3-rd thousand up to n. e. In the elementary kind{view} meets almost for all peoples. The modern pedal harp is invented in 1801 S.Erarom (S. Erard) in France.
  • ARFVEDSON (Arfvedson) JUhan August (1792-1841), the Swedish chemist and mineralog. The main{basic} transactionses in range of an inorganic chemistry and mineralogy. Has discovered (1817) lithium and has described his{its} many connections.
  • ARCHAISMS (from grech. archaios - ancient).. 1) words and expressions, and also syntactical designs and the grammar forms which have left the active use (napr., in Russian "vtune", "naushchat", "shelom"). Are used as a stylistic means... 2) Vestiges of olden time.
  • ARHAIKA (from gech. archaikos - arcaded, ancient), an early stage in historical development any the phenomena. In iskusstvoznanii the early season{term} of the ancient greek architecture and fine arts (7-6 centuries up to n. e.).
  • ARHALUK, men's and women upper raspashnaja clothes{clothing} for peoples of Caucasus.
  • ARCHANGELS (grech., a unit of hours archangelos) (angelonachalniki), one of grades of angels.
  • ARKHANGELSK (up to 1613 Novoholmogory), city (with 1584) in the Russian Federation, the centre of the Archangelical region, in a mouth the Sowing. Dvina. Marine and a river harbor. A railway junction. 428,2 thousand inhabitants (1991). Lesopilno-wood-working, pulp and paper, the hydrolyzing, machine-building (including ship-building) an industry. A thorough revision of algas. Art crafts: a thread on a bone, a tree, etc. 3 high schools, 2 theatres. Museums: study of local lore, fine arts and wooden art of building, a folk art. Gostinyj a yard (17 century). Arkhangelsk - initial point of many polar expeditions, one of the main{basic} bases Boreal marine ways.
  • The ARCHANGELICAL RANGE, in northwest of the Russian Federation. 587,4 thousand км2. The population of 1577 thousand person (1991), urban 74 %. 13 cities. 39 urban settlements (1991.) Center - Arkhangelsk. Actuates Nenets and. About. And islands the Sowing. Ledovitogo ok. It is washed against White, Barentsevym and Karskim by seas. A surface flat. Mean temperatures of January from-12 up to-18 °S, July 8-16 °S. A rainfall of 300-500 mm annually. The main rivers - the Sowing. Dvina, Onega, Mezen, Pechora. A large part of terrain - in a zone of a taiga, on north-east - tundra. Pinezhsky reservation. Large area of timber loggings, lesopilenija, lesoeksporta, pulp and paper manufacture. An industry: pulp and paper (combines Kotlas, Archangelical, etc.), Furniture, a machine industry (shipbuilding, manufacture of the equipment for a forest industry), alimentary. Milk cattle breeding. Cultivate a potato. In a north - a deer - raising, a fur farming, a fur and marine St. John's wort family crafts. The major vodno-transport system - the Sowing. Dvina with in-leaks{influxes}. Marine and river harbors - Arkhangelsk, Onega, Mezen, Naryan-Mar. On islands Solovetskih - a like monastery both istoriko-architectonic and natural museum - reservation (with 1974).
  • The ARCHANGELICAL Alexander Aleksandrovich (1892-1978), the Russian aircraft designer, the Hero Socialist Transactionses (1947). The participant of building of the majority of airplanes of the KB of A.N.Tupolev; the designer of bomber SB, etc. The Lenin premium (1957), the State premium of the USSR (1941, 1949, 1952).
  • The ARCHANGELICAL Alexander Andreevich (1846-1924), the Russian choral conductor, the honored artist of Republic (1921). The organizer of blended chorus (1880). One of first has entered into Russian liturgucal chant women voices. Machining of national songs, choruses.
  • The ARCHANGELICAL Alexander Grigorjevich (1889-1938), the Russian poet. The master of a parody (the book of "Parody", 1927).
  • The ARCHANGELICAL Alexander Nikolaevich (r. 1962), the Russian critic, the literary critic. In articles - the analysis of literary process in a political and common cultural context (the collection " For a main entrance ", 1991). The book " Vage fire " (1996) about epoch and the personality of emperor Alexander I.
  • The ARCHANGELICAL Alexander Semenovich (1854-1926), the Russian literary critic, corresponding member Russian AN (1904). The representative of cultural - historical school. Activities (including regular courses of lectures on high schools) on a history of the Russian literature of 11-19 centuries. Pedagogical activity.



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