Sunday, April 8, 2007

  • ARNDT (Arndt) Ernest Moritz (1769-1860), the german poet, the publicist, the historian. The patriotic lyrics and political publicism promoted a growth of national awareness of german people.
  • ARNHEM (Arnhem), city in Netherlands, adm. ts. prov. Gelderland. 132 thousand inhabitants (1991). A port on Rhein. A machine industry, a chemical, pharmaceutical, tanning industry. The Netherlands museum in the open air. Bliz Arnhem - museum Kreller-Mjuller (with patterns of Century Van Gog). Gothic church Sint-Esebiuskerk (15-16 centuries); " the Dwelling of a devil " (since 19 century - a town hall; 16 century). Provincial steering (1954-55).
  • ARNHEMLAND (Arnhemland), peninsula in a north of Australia. An altitude up to 400 m. Gum-tree forest and a savannah. Deposits uranoradievyh ores (Frame - jungle). In northwest - a port Darwin.
  • ARNICA, stem of perennial grasses of a set of a thistle family. St. 30 kinds{views}, primarily in the Sowing. To America, and also in Eurasia. Some kinds{views} are used in medicine as cholagogue and krovoostanavlivajushchee a means. The arnica mountain - is rare, is guarded.
  • ARNIM (Arnim) Bettina a background (nee Brentano) (1785-1859), the german writer. The writer autobiographical epistoljarnogo the novel " Goethe Correspondence with the child " (1835).
  • ARNIM (Arnim) Ludwig Ahim a background (1781-1831), the german writer - romantik. Novels, short stories, the collection of national songs " the Magic horn of the boy " (1806-08, it is issued together with K.Brentano).
  • ARNO (Arno), the river in Italy. 248 kms, the area of basin of 8,5 thousand км2. The beginning in Apennines, runs in Ligurijskoe m. Average discharge of water 138 m3 / with. The strong floods. Navigation. To Arno - Florence, Pisa.
  • ARNO (Arnauld) Antoine (1612-94), " Great Arno ", the French seminary student and the philosopher, the priest (with 1641). Supervised jansenistskoj over a community of the Pore - grand piano, in polemic with jesuits settled ideas jansenizma. The writer of "Logic" (together with P.Nikolem) and " General and rational grammar " (together with K.Lanslo).
  • ARNOBY (Arnobius) (kon. 3 - nach. 4 century), the Christian latin writer. Was the teacher of rhetoric in the African city Sikka in Numidia, after christianisation has written the apologetic tract in 7 books with criticism of pagan religious convictions.
  • ARNOLD (Arnold) Metju (1822-88), the English poet, the teacher, the critic. Discredited the myth about " the Victorian prosperity ": poems, the collection " Zabludivshijsja a sphinx " (1849), an essay " Crop and anarchy " (1869); emphasized{pointed out} an educational role of the literature. Asserted{approved} the sociohistorical analysis in the English literary criticism.
  • ARNOLD BRESHIANSKY (Arnaudo da Brescia) (ok. 1100 - ok. 1155), the religious reformer and the political figure, the canon. Probably, (Italy) comes Breshii, studied in Paris for Abailard. Has headed republican motion in Rome. It is executed.
  • ARNOLD Vladimir Ignatjevich (r. 1937), the Russian mathematician, the academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; academician AN the USSR with 1990). The main{basic} transactionses under the theory of differential equations, in particular{personally} on dynamic systems. The lenin premium (1965).
  • ARNOLD Feodor Karlovich (1819-1902), the Russian forester. Transactionses on a history of a forestry, a forest survey, the writer of the known book " Russian wood " (t. 1-3, 1890-91, 2 issuings, 1893-99).
  • ARNOLDI Vladimir Mitrofanovich (1871-1924), Russian botanik, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1923). Transactionses on structural botany and a taxonomist of green algae and gymnosperm. The writer of the first Russian guiding on an algology " Introduction in study of the lowest organisms " (1901).
  • ARNOLDSON (Arnoldson) Klas (1844-1916), the Swedish journalist. The editor of some the periodicals shined{covered} problems of the world. One of osnovatelej in 1883 Swedish unions of the world and arbitration. Supported neutrality of Sweden in international attitudes{relations}. The Nobel Prize of the world (1908, together with F.Bayer).
  • ARNOLDSON (Arnoldson) Sigrid (1861-1943), the Swedish singer (a liriko-coloratura soprano). Solistka the largest theatres of the world. Consignments of classical repertoir. In 1922-38 taught in Vienna.
  • ARNOLFO DEE KAMBIO (Arnolfo di Cambio) (ok. 1245 - up to 1310), the italian sculptor and the architect. Representative Protorenessansa. Penetrating having perceived antiquity, allotted modes{images} with spiritual power, plastic clearness (a tomb of a cardinal bird de Shave, church the Dignity - Domeniko in Orvieto, ok. 1282).
  • ARNSHTADT (Arnstadt), city in Germany, ground Thuringia, in verhovjah r. Gera. 30,5 thousand inhabitants (1988). A machine industry, a tanning industry.
  • ARNSHTAM Leo Oskarovich (1905-79), the Russian film director and the scripter, the national actor of Russia (1969). Films: "Girlfriends" (1936), "Zoja" (1944), " the Lesson of a history " (1957, joint sovetsko-Bulgarian), "Sofia Perovskaja" (1968), etc. The State premium of the USSR (1946, 1947).
  • ARNSHTEJN Charles Avgustovich (1840-1919), one of founders of Russian school nejrogistologov. The main{basic} transactionses on a histology of a rim of nerve terminations.
  • ARO (Haro) Guillermo (r. 1913), the mexican astronomer. Has discovered many epicyclic fogs, novas, a comet, a nova, "light-blue" galaxies (1956). Irrespective of Dzh. Herbiga has discovered (1950-52) compact issuing nebulosities (objects Herbiga-Aro), resulting activity of asters formed near to them.
  • AROZA (Arosa), gornoklimatichesky a health resort in Switzerland, to the west from Davos. Center of winter sport.
  • AROMATIZATION of PETROLEUM, their chemical processing for increase of the content of aromatic hydrocarbons. Implements more often by a catalytic reforming of overhead naphthas of petroleum. Aromatization of petroleum receive high-octane benzines, personal aromatic hydrocarbons, napr. Benzole.
  • AROMATIC COMPOUNDS, organic compounds which molecules contain cycles (t. n. Benzene rings) from 6 atoms of carbon participating in education of unified conjugated system of bonds. Actuate hydrocarbon (бъСnСs) and their derivative (aniline, a benzoic acid, a phenol, etc.). To aromatic compounds attribute also t. n. Not benzenoid connections, napr. An azulene, heterogeneous ring compounds - furan, thiophene, pyridine, etc. The Title is connected with that, that the first open representatives of aromatic compounds had a pleasant odor. The main{basic} sources of aromatic compounds - products of oil processing and coal-mining pitch.
  • AROMORPHOSIS (from grech. airo - I hoist and morphosis - a sample, the form), thickening of organization and functions of organisms during the evolution, producing to them a capability to expand use of an environment (napr., education of four-barrel heart at transition from reptiliepodobnyh ancestors to mammals, development teplokrovnosti).
  • AROMUNY (tsintsary, macedonian Romanians, kutsovlahi, vlehi), people in Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece, Bulgaria and Romania. 115 thousand person (1992). Speak on aromunskom a dialect of the Romanian tongue. Believers - basically orthodox.
  • ARON (Aron) Rejmon (1905-83), the French sociologist, the ideologist of a dextral wing of liberal bourgeoisie. The political analyst of newspaper "Figaro" (with 1947), "Express train" (with 1977), professor Kollezh de France (with 1970). One of writers of the concept of an industrial society.
  • CHOKEBERRY, stem of bushes of a set pink. Ok. 15 kinds{views}, in a moderate belt the Sowing. America. Some cultivate as the decorative and fruit, including a chokeberry chernoplodnuju, or chernoplodnuju a mountain ash.
  • ARUM, stem of perennial grasses of a set aronnikovyh. Ok. 15 kinds{views}, in Europe, Small and Forward{Front} Asia, 1 - in Compare. Asia. Are toxicant; at drying toxicant properties are lost. The meal from dry klubnej an arum spotty, keeping up to 25 % of starch, is suitable in I peep.
  • ARONOV Arcady Girshevich (r. 1939), the Russian physics - theorist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1990). Transactionses after optician of semiconductors and dielectrics, to the kinetic phenomena in semiconductors, to phase changes metal - dielectric, a superconductivity.
  • AROSEVA Olga Aleksandrovna (r. 1925), the Russian actress, the national actress of Russia (1984). With 1946 at the Leningrad theatre of a comedy, with 1950 in Moskovsk theatre satyrs. Predominary comedy, characteristic actress, achieves a sharpness of scenic drawing, koloritnosti household component parts. Roles: Cuckoo (A.N.Ostrovsky "Lucrative appointment", 1967), Charlotte (A.P.Chehova's "Cherry orchard", 1983), Seraphim Ilyinichna ("Self-murderer" N.R.Erdmana, 1986), etc. Acted in film. In 1970th a stationary value the participant of a telecast " the Vegetable marrow of 13 stools ".
  • ARCH DAM, curvilinear dam in the plan in which the water pressure almost is completely transmitted to rocky coasts or foundations (end supports). Napr., dam Ingurskoj a river plant an altitude of 270 m.
  • ARP (Arp) Hans (Jean) (1887-1966), the Swiss both French artist and the poet, one of initiators dadaizma, then has transfered to synthesis of surrealism and abstraction, creating painting, to the schedule{chart}, collages and a sculpture where prevail{dominate} "biomorfnye", imitating rhythms of a nature of imagination.
  • ARP (Arp) Helton Christian (r. 1927), the American astronomer. Has discovered many astronomical objects: variable and novas, active and interacting galaxies. Has published " the Atlas of peculiar galaxies " (1966).
  • ARPA (Eastern Arpachej), the river in Armenia and Azerbaijan (Nakhichevan), the left-handed in-leak{influx} of Araks. 128 kms, the area of basin 2630 км2. It is used for an irrigation. Sooruzhen a tunnel for a transportation of waters Arpy in an eskar. Sevan.
  • ARPADY (Arpad), a dynasty of the Hungarian princes (889-1000) and kings (1000-1301). Large representatives: Ishtvan I, Laslo I, It is white IV.
  • ARPEDZHIO (is more correct arpedzho) (ital. arpeggio, from arpa - a harp), performance{fulfillment} of notes of a chord in succession, mostly since the lower tint, at the game on a harp, a piano, etc. instruments.
  • ARPINO (Arpino) Giovanni (r. 1927), the italian writer. Public - critical (" Years of ripeness ", 1958; " the Shade from hills ", 1964), anticlerical (" Pullet{Young man} nun ", 1960), psychologic novels; stories for children.
  • ARRABAL (Arrabal) Fernando (r. 1932), the spanish prose writer, the playwright - absurdist. With 1954 lives in France. The theorist t. n. " Panic theatre ". Plays " the Cemetery of automobiles{cars} " (1957), " the Architect and assyrian emperor " (1966), " the Garden of enjoyings " (1969), " On a chain cable, or the Ballad about a train - ghost " (1974), etc.
  • ARRAN, the Arabian title of Albania Caucasian in 6-9 centuries; terrain of an interfluve of the Hen and Araks (the modern steppe Milskaja) in 9-10 centuries.
  • ARRAS (Arras), city in a north of France, on r. A scarp, adm. ts. Department of Pas de Calais and main city of historical range of Artois. 40 thousand inhabitants. A machine industry, mild (including manufacture of laces), a food-processing industry.
  • ARRASSKAJA the UNION, the union of some provinces of Netherlands historical (Henon, Artois, a douay), encased in Arras in January 1579 under the initiative of reactivity roman catholic nobility and directed in essence against the Netherlands bourgeois revolution and war with Spain. Boreal 7 provinces of Netherlands answered on Arrakskuju the union the conclusion of the Utrecht union.
  • The ARRHENIUS (Arrhenius) Svante August (1859-1927), the Swedish scientist, one of osnovatelej a physical chemistry, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1903) and foreign honorary member AN the USSR (1925). The writer of the theory of electrolytic dissociation. Transactionses on chemical kinetics (Arrhenius equation), and also on astronomy, an astrophysics and biology. Studied a solar corona, evolution of asters and planets. The writer of a hypothesis of a panspermia about transmission of germs of life from one planet on other. The Nobel Prize (1903).
  • The ARRHENIUS the EQUATION, expresses relation of a kinetic constant of a chemical change k from temperature T: k = A·ehr (-Е/RT); E - activation energy; R - gas constant. It is offered to S.Arreniusom in 1889.
  • ARREOLA (Arreola) Huan Hose (r. 1918), the mexican prose writer. The book of short stories "Pobasenki" (1952), the novel "Holiday" (1963), etc.
  • CAGING DEVICE (from frants. arreter - to intercept), the mechanic adaptation for fixation of a movement of a precise probing device (a galvanometer, analytical balance, etc.) in the rule{situation;position} eliminating its{her} breakage at random pushes.
  • ARRIAN Flavy (between 95-175), the ancient greek historian and the writer. The writer reached us " Alexander's Anabasis in 7 books (a history of marchings Alexander the Great), "India", philosophical compositions (in which has stated doctrine Epikteta), tracts about military science and a hunt; from remaining compositions fragments or the title were saved.
  • ARRO Vladimir Konstantinovich (r. 1932), the Russian playwright. In ostrokonfliktnyh plays " the Maximum measure " (1976, it is published 1984), " Look, who has come! (1982), "Track" (1987), etc. searches of escaping of spiritual crisis of the modern person on ways of the statement{confirmation} of universal moral values. Stories and stories for children.
  • ARRORUT, the starch received from rootstocks, klubnej and fruits of macrotherms (a Bermuda arrowroot, a manioc, bananas, etc.). On nutritive properties it is close to starch of a potato.
  • ARS it is NEW (an armour. ars nova - new art), an incentive direction in the French and italian music of 14 century. The main{basic} features: failure{refusal} of use is extreme genres of church music and the circulation to society vokalno-tool{vokalno-instrument} chamber genres, rendezvous{approach} with household pesennostju, use of different musical instruments. Counterly t. n. ars antikva (an armour. ars antiqua - aged art), implying the musical art up to nach. 14 century.
  • ARSENAL (frants. arsenal), establishment for a storage, repair and assembly of arms and an ammunition. Up to kon. 19 century were engaged basically in manufacture of arms and an ammunition.
  • "ARSENAL", the Russian group, it is derivated in 1973 in Moscow A.Kozlovym. Structure: I.Smirnov (the acoustic gear quadrant, the electrogear quadrant), A.Denisov (keyboard), A.Kulikov (bass), I.Dzhavad-zade (impact), A.Pishchikov (tenor - saxophone). The title reflects a diversification zhanrovo-stylistic (a jazz, fate, folklore, chamber music) and an indicative means (from traditional duhovyh and national instruments up to the modern electronic package). In the program of band were the concert version of a rock opera of E.Lloyd of Weber " Jesus Christ - the superstar ", a number{series} of jazz - fatal compositions. The group is distinguished with the integrated art concept.
  • ARSENATES of METALS, salt ortho-arsenic acid Н3АsO4, napr. К3АsO4, arsenious acids НАsO2 and Н3АsO3, napr. Sa (АsO2) 2. Apply as insecticides, antiseptics to a steeping of wood, as components of antifouling paints for the bottom doors of the ships{spacecrafts}, luminophores, pjezo-and ferroelectric materials. Are toxicant.
  • ARSENATES NATURAL, group of minerals, salt ortho-arsenic acid H3SO4 with cations Sa, Mn, Cu, U, Al, Zn, Pb, less often Mg, Fe, Co, Ni, Bi. Distinguish simple and double natural arsenates. The basis{fundamentals} of structures of natural arsenates - a tetrahedron [AsO4] 3-; prevail{dominate} island and laminated structures. Ok. 120 mineral kinds{views}. Will be derivated in oxidation zone of the sulphidic deposits keeping arsenides Ni and With, by the way crusts, scurfs, etc. Many natural arsenates - gauges of ores of metals.
  • ARSENIDES, chemical combinations of an arsenic with metals, napr. Na3As, Ca3As2, Zn3As2. At action of acids toxicant hydrogen arsenide is secreted. GaAs, InAs - the important semiconductive materials.
  • ARSENIDES NATURAL, a class of minerals, connections of metals (Fe, Ni, Co, Pt, Cu) with an arsenic. Structures coordination and island. Are opaque; luster metal. Isomorphism Ni, Co, Fe is characteristic. Routinely meet in hydrothermal deposits. Many natural arsenides - ore of a cobalt, a nickel, platinum.
  • ARSENY (in the world Mogiljansky Alexey) (1704-70), metropolitan the Kiev, court ecclesiast of the empress of Elizabeth Petrovny, the writer of the akathist to prelate to Demetrios Rostov.
  • ARSENY (in the world Moskvin Feodor Pavlovich) (1797-1876), metropolitan Kiev and Galitsky (with 1860), the writer " Explanations on first twenty six psalmov " (1873).
  • ARSENY I Serbian (mind{wit}. 1266), archbishop Serbian (1233). Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on August, 30 (on September, 12) (a cathedral of the Serbian prelates) and on October, 28 (on November, 10).
  • ARSENY Dead (Selizharovets) (17 century), outlet box Nilovoj of desert (on about. Seliger), spravshchik liturgucal books (together with Saint Dionisiem and Ivan the Sitting hen).
  • ARSENY the Greek (17 century), spravshchik and a translator of liturgucal books at patriarch Nikone; has transferred{translated} "Skryzhal" inoka John Nafanaila and "Chronograph" of metropolitan Dorofeja.
  • ARSENY Matseevich (in the world Alexander) (1697-1772), the Russian church figure, metropolitan Rostov (1742-63), the opponent of church reform of Peter. For performance{statement} against laicisation of conventual landholdings the peavine denuded monastic and ground in casemate Revelskoj of strength.
  • ARSENY Satanovsky (17 century), the hieromonk of the Kievo-brotherly monastery, spravshchik and a translator of liturgucal books at patriarch Nikone.
  • ARSENY Sukhanov (mind{wit}. 1668), the hieromonk, the builder to Trinity - Sergieva Bogojavlenskogo of a monastery and the cellarer to the Trinity - Sergievoj the laurels, exported from traveling to Athos 700 ancient manuscripts (remain deposited in the Moscow synodal library).
  • ARSENY Uglichsky (mind{wit}. 1609), prepodobnomuchenik, perished at ruin of Uglich by Poles in Vague time. Memory{remembrance} in the Orthodox church on May, 23 (on June, 5) (a cathedral Rostovo-Yaroslavl sacred).
  • ARSENOPIRIT (arsenic iron), a mineral of a class of sulphides, FeAsS. Impurity{additives} With, Ni, Au. Olovjanno-white. Hardness 5,5-6; firmness of 5,9-6,3 g / sm3. Deposits hydrothermal, pegmatitic and kontaktovo-metasomaticheskie. Ore of an arsenic, less often than a cobalt and gold.
  • ARSENYEV, city (with 1952) in the Russian Federation, Bayshore kr. On r. Arsenjevka. A depot. 71,5 thousand inhabitants (1992). A machine industry, a building materials, a woodworking industry, etc. Branch of the Bayshore state museum. It is called named V.K.Arsenyev.
  • ARSENYEV Vladimir Klimovich (1872-1930), the Russian explorer of the Far East, the geographer and the writer. Probeed JUzh. Primorski Krai (1902-03), mountains Sihote-Alinja (1906-10). One of creators of a study of local lore direction in domestic scientific - fiction. Books " On Ussurijskomu to an edge{a boundarouse} " (1921), " Dersu Uzala " (1923), " In mountains Sihote-Alinja " (the separate issuing 1937), etc.
  • ARSENYEV Konstantin Ivanovich (1789-1865), Russian statisticians, the historian, the geographer, the academician Petersburg AN (1841). In 1819-21 professor of the Petersburg university, is discharged for condemnation of serfdom. Attempted to justify an economic zoning of Russia. Main transactionses: " Statistical sketches of Russia " (1848).
  • ARSENYEV Konstantin Konstantinovich (1837-1919), the Russian publicist, the lawyer, zemsky the figure, the honorary academician of the Russian Academy of Science (1917; the academician Petersburg AN 1900). In 1906-07 one of chiefs of a consignment of democratic reforms. The managing editor of " the Encyclopaedic dictionary " and " the New encyclopaedic dictionary " Brockhaus and Efron.
  • ARSENYEV Nikolay Sergeevich (1888-1977), the orthodox seminary student and the philosopher. With 1920 in emigration, up to 1944 taught divinity and the Russian literature in Kenigsberge, with 1948 in the USA. With 1927 participat in ecumenic movement, emphasizing{pointing out} (after A.S.Homjakovym) idea of cathedral salvage and uncovering spiritual tradition of Eastern church.
  • ARSINE, the same, that an arsenic a hydride.
  • ARSKY Jury Mihajlovich (1936), the Russian scientist, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Science (1991; corresponding member AN the USSR with 1990). The main{basic} transactionses under the theory of a geologo-industrial assessment{evaluation} of deposits of mineral wealths, harmonious exploitation of mining.
  • ARSLANKULOV Tashpulat (1882-1962), the Uzbek master of a thread on ganchu, the national artist of Uzbekistan (1944). Participat in registration of buildings in Tashkent. The state premium of the USSR (1948).
  • ARTAVAZD II (?-31 up to n. e.), tsar of Armenia Great (56-34 up to n. e.). Has expanded terrain of country, led the long-lived extirpation with Rome, it is seized by Mark Anthony and it is executed.
  • ARTAKSERKS I Dolgoruky, tsar of the state Ahemenidov in 465-424 up to n. e. Has concluded with Athenes Kalliev the world 449 which finished the greko-persian wars and have recorded defeats of persians.
  • ARTAKSERKS II Mnemon, tsar of the state Ahemenidov in 404-358 up to n. e.
  • ARTAKSERKS III Oh, tsar of the state Ahemenidov in 358-338 up to n. e. Achieved strengthening of the state, loosened at his{its} precursors; has conquered Egypt.
  • ARTAMONOV Mihail Illarionovich (1898-1972), the Russian archeologist, the doctor of historical sciences. The director of the State Hermitage (1951-64). Transactionses about skiffs, hazarah, early slavs.
  • ARTAMONOV Sergey Dmitrievich (r. 1915), the Russian literary critic, the Doctor of Philology (1983), the professor (1985). The main{basic} orb of interests - a history of the French literature. Books: "Volter" (1954), "Beaumarchais" (1960), "Francois Rable" (1964), " the History of foreign literature XVII-XVIII of centuries " (1978), " the Literature of the ancient world " (1988).
  • ARTANIJA (Arsanija, Arta), one of three centres (alongside with Kujaviej and Slaviej) Other. Russia 9-10 centuries. It is mentioned by Arabian and persian geographers.
  • ARTARI Alexander Petrovich (1858-1919), Russian botanik, the professor (1917). Transactionses on structural botany, physiologies and ecology of algae. One of the first beginnings in Russia to apply (1898) method of clean cultures to cultivation of algae.
  • ARTASHAT, city (with 1961) in Armenia, on r. Araks. A depot. 32,3 thousand inhabitants (1989). Vinodelcheskaja, canning, mild, a woodworking industry. A machine industry and metal working. Theatre. Center of area of cultivation of a grape (including valuable and unique grades). It is based ok. 176 up to n. e. Capital of Armenia Great. The large centre of handcraft and ellinisticheskoj crops. The most ancient Armenian theatre.
  • ARTASHES I (? - ok. 160 up to n. e.), tsar of Armenia Great with 189. Has headed revolt against Selevkidov, has proclaimed independence of the Armenian state.
  • ARTEVELDE (Artevelde) JAkob (ok. 1290-1345), the affluent merchant - cloth-maker who has headed in 1338 revolt suknodelov Gent against the column of Flanders. Has centred in the arms{hand} an authority above all Flanders. Pursued{adopted} a policy in interests of a urban top of Gent. It is killed by rising handicraftsmen.
  • ARTESIAN WATERS (from Artesium - an armour. The title of the French province of Artois where these waters were long since used), the pressure-tight underground waters encased in aquifer beds of rocks between waterproof layers. Routinely meet within the limits of fixed geologic structures (hollows, charging boxes, flexures, etc.), derivating artesian basins. At dissection by bucket wells artesian waters are hoisted above a roof covering of an aquifer bed, sometimes flow by heads.
  • ARTESIAN BASIN, the ground water basin dated for negative, geologic structure (to a syneclise, a charging box, a sag, intermontane trough), keeping pressure-tight edge water. Large artesian basins in the Russian Federation - Western - Siberian, Moscow.
  • ARTESIAN WELL, bucket well for a fence of underground artesian waters.
  • ARTEK, a nursery climatic resort in Crimea, on coast of Black m., bliz Gurzuf. It is based in 1925. Up to 1991 all-Union pioneer camp, since May 1991 international nursery centre. Integrates architectonic complexes: "Marine", 1960-61, "Coastal", 1960-64, "Mountain", 1972, architect A.T.Poljansky, etc.
  • ARTEL, different kinds{views} of association of citizens for general economic activities.
  • ARTEL of ARTISTS in Saint Petersburg, the first association in Russia demokraticheski tuned artists in the chapter from I.N.Kramskim; it is based in 1863 graduates Petersburg AH, left of it{her} (t. n. Clamp 14-ти) in connection with failure{refusal} to write a competitive pattern on the given theme and derivated a commune. A number{series} of former members of Artel of artists afterwards - peredvizhniki.
  • ARTEM, city (with 1938) in the Russian Federation, Bayshore kr. A depot (Artem-bayshore I). 70,2 thousand inhabitants (1992). Factories: furniture, carpet, the piano; porcelain factory, etc. Bliz Artem - a state district power station. Production of brown coal. It is based in 1924; the title by name Artem (F.A.Sergeeva).
  • ARTEM (Sergeev Feodor Andreevich) (1883-1921), the political figure. The chairman of Revolutionary-military committee (VRK) supervised in Kharkov armed revolt in 1905 and 1917. With 1918 chairman of Advice{Council} of national commissioners (SNK) of republic Donetsko-Krivorozhskoj, in 1920 chairman Donetsk gubispolkoma. In 1920-21 secretary of Moscow committee (MK) of a consignment, then the chairman of a Central Committee of the All-Russia union of colliers. The member of a Central Committee of a consignment in 1917-1918, 1920-21. Has perished in a test period of the aerorail car.
  • ARTEM (an ice-film. fam. Artemyev) Alexander Rodionovich (1842-1914), the Russian actor. With 1888 played the Society of art and the literature, with 1898 in Moskovsk art theatre (MHT).



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1 comment:

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