Friday, May 18, 2007

  • PERPETUALLY SNOW, perennial clumps of snow and ice in polar countries and in mountains are higher than a snow limit.
  • PERPETUUM MOBILE (an armour. perpetuum mobile - perpetuum a mobile), 1) a perpetuum mobile of 1-st stem - envisioned, continuously operational machine which, being time started, would commit activity without obtaining power from the outside. The perpetuum mobile of 1-st stem contradicts conservation law and energy conversions and consequently is impracticable. 2) the Perpetuum mobile of 2-nd stem - the envisioned thermal machine, which as a result of committing cycling process (cycle) completely will transform the heat received from any one "inexhaustible" source (ocean, an atmosphere, etc.), to activity. Action of a perpetuum mobile of 2-nd stem does not contradict conservation law and energy conversions, but upsets the second law of thermodynamics and consequently such engine is impracticable.
  • PERPETUALLY JEW (Agasfer) (an armour. Ahasverus), the hero of medieval legends, the Jew - wanderer convicted by the God on perpetually life and for the fact that has not given wandering to the Christ to have a rest (on many versions, has banged it) on ways to Golgotha. To a legend about Agasfere reverted I.V.Gete, german poet - romanticism (K.F.Shubart, N.Lenau), E.Sju, etc.
  • "EVERLASTING PEACE" between Russia and Speech Pospolitoj (Moscow, 6.5.1686). Has confirmed conditions Andrusovskogo of armistice 1667. Has assigned to Russia Left-bank Ukraine and Kiev, has caused sharing Russia in an antiturkish coalition.
  • The PERPETUALLY FIRE, flame permanently bolstered in special torches for monuments, on memorial complexes, cemeteries, tombs; a numeral of memory of the gorged heroes, their exploits, victims of fascism, etc. For the first time Perpetually fire is lighted in 1920 on a tomb of the Unknown soldier in Paris, in the USSR - in 1957 in Leningrad on the Battlefield for a monument to " Fighters of revolution ". Perpetually fire is lighted on a tomb of the Unknown soldier for the Kremlin wall in Moscow (1967), in other occupied points, and also in places of memorable events.
  • VECHORKA, in vostochnoslavjanskoj mythologies the goddess of a vesper dawn.
  • VESHIN JAroslav (1860-1915), the Bulgarian painter. Realistic cloths on themes of the Balkan wars 1912-13, household scenes.
  • VESHSHELENI Miklosh (1796-1850), baron, one of chiefs of nobiliary opposition in the Hungarian state collection in 1830-1840-Õ. Supported independence of country from Gabsburgov, realization of restricted bourgeois reforms.
  • REAL NUMBER, the same, that a real number.
  • SUBSTANCE, kind of a matter which has a rest-mass (fundamental particles, atoms, molecules, etc.). In chemistry of substance it is accepted to section on simple, derivated by atoms of one chemical element, and composite (chemical combinations).
  • PROPRIETARY INTEREST, version of the proprietary interests relating figure of the absolute powers. Object of a proprietary interest is the concrete thing. Kinds of a proprietary interest: the property right, easements, the right of the lien, etc.
  • THING, in a civic right - the legal object of the property and other proprietary interests. The proprietor has the right to possess, use and dispose of a thing in the limits statutory.
  • THING, in philosophy - the subject of a material real having relative independence and resistance of existence.
  • "TRANSCENDENTAL OBJECT" (a nem. Ding an sich), the philosophical concept meaning things, as they exist in themselves (" in themselves "), how they are " for us " in knowledge; one of central concepts of " Criticism of clear reason " I.Kanta.
  • WINNOWING, the machine for secretion of a grain from a heap received after a thrashing of agricultural crops. It is substituted by more perfect grain-cleaning machines.
  • ONE-TO-ONE CORRESPONDENCE, such correspondence between elements of two flocks at which to each element of the first flock there corresponds one fixed element of the second flock, and to each element of the second flock - one fixed element of the first flock.
  • RELATIVELY PRIME FIGURES, the natural numbers which are not having common divisors, distinct from 1; napr., 15 and 16.
  • The RELATIVE EDUCATION (Bell - Lankasterskaja system), system of education in an elementary school at whom the higher and more aware pupils under a guiding of the teacher led occupations with other pupils. It is developed by the English teachers A.Bell (1753-1832) and Dzh. A Lancaster (1778-1838). In Russia it was used with 1818; some schools acted till 1860th.
  • INTERACTION, the philosophical grade reflecting processes of influence of objects against each other, their relative condition and causing by one object other. Interaction - the generalpurpose form of motion, development, determines existence and structural organization of any material system.
  • INTERACTIONS FUNDAMENTAL in physics, are known 4 types: the strong, electromagnetic, weak and gravity. For protons at power ~1 GeV intensity stipulated with these interprocess communications concern accordingly as 1:10-2:10-10:10-38. The consolidated theory of electromagnetic and weak interactions (weak coupling) is developed. There are the models including as well a strong coupling (great association). Attempts are done to describe all 4 interactions on the unified basis.
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