Friday, May 18, 2007

  • VELEBIT (Velebit), a backbone in Croatia, on Dinarskom a mountains, coast-wise the Adriatic m. Length ok. 150 kms, an altitude up to 1758 m. It is combined primarily by limestones; karst is developed. Western downslopes otvesny, eastern are coated broad-leaved, coniferous forests.
  • VELEMBOVSKAJA Irina Aleksandrovna (an ice-film. fam. SHuhgalter) (r. 1922), the Russian writer. In collections of stories and stories " the Wood history " (1967), " the Third semester " (1973), " the Kind from a balcony " (1981), etc. - women destinies, moral - psychologic conflicts of duties. The greatest popularity was received with the story " Sweet woman " (1973, it is picturized in 1977).
  • VELEPOLSKY (Wielopolski) Alexander (1803-77), marquis, in 1861-63 in administration of the Kingdom Polish. Rekrutsky the panel on the nominal lists, declared Velepolskim in January 1863 with the purpose of liquidation of revolutionary insurgent organization, has accelerated the beginning of Polish revolt 1863-64.
  • VELER Fridrih (1800-82), the german chemist, foreign corresponding member Petersburg AN (1853). For the first time synthesized from inorganic matters organic compound (1824) and has placed his sameness with a urea (1828). Probes Velera have called into question rightness of a vitalism.
  • VELES (Hair), " skoty the god " in Slavic-and-Russian mythology, the promoter of domestic animals and the god of oof.
  • VELES DE GUEVARA (Velez de Guevara) Luis (1578-1645), the spanish writer. Plays on biblical scenes, from a national and foreign history. The swindling novel " the Lame evil spirit " (1641).
  • VELIZH, city in the Russian Federation, Smolensk region, in 93 kms from zh.-d. An item. Rudnja, landing stage on r. Zap. Dvina. 9,2 thousand inhabitants (1992). Furniture factory, a flax primary treating plant, the alimentary enterprises. It is based in 1536.
  • VELIZHSKOE BUSINESS, large process (1823-35) on false charge of group of Jews of. Velizh in assassination with the ceremonial purpose. Despite of pressure of reactivity circles accused have been justified.
  • GIANTS Dmitry Petrovich (1908-86), the Russian scientist, corresponding member AN the USSR (1968). The main transactionses on probe of service performance of the automobile, problems of motor movements in unified transport system.
  • GIANTS Michael Andreevich (1879-1964), the Russian hydrobroad gully, corresponding member AN the USSR (1939). Has put in pawn fundamental theory of a stream dynamics.
  • VELIKANOVA Gelena Martselievna (r. 1922), the Russian variety singer, the national actress of Russia (1992). With 1950 solistka Moskontserta. In the basis of repertoir songs of the Soviet composers.
  • GREAT, the river in the Pskov region of 430 kms, the area of basin of 25,2 thousand êì2. Rises on Bezhanitskoj vozv., the eskar runs in CHudsko-Pskov., derivating delta. Main inflow: Issa, Blue, Utroja (at the left); Sorot, CHereha, Pskov (on the right). It is navigable on 40 kms from a mouth. Driveable. On Great - cities Opochka, the Island, Pskov.
  • GREAT (Major, Onemen), the river on north-east of the Russian Federation. 451 kms, the area of basin of 31 thousand êì2. Average discharge of water 290 m3 / with. It will be derivated by confluence Kujimveem and Kolvygejvaam, originating on the Koryak mountains. On Anadyrskoj nizm. Branches on numerous water hoses and ducts. Runs into a hall. Onemen Beringova m.
  • " GREAT WAR " 1409-11, between Teutonic order, on the one hand, the Polish kingdom and the Great principality Lithuanian - with other. The order has sufferred a defeat in Grjunvaldskoj to battle 1410. On Torunskomu to the world the Teutonic order was refused from claims on ZHemajtiju and ground Dobzhinskuju, paid to Poland and Lithuania the contribution.
  • GREAT DAJKA, an intrusive mass of basic rocks in Zimbabwe. Length of 560 kms, width up to 12 kms. Actuates the largest on reserves (1 billion ò) deposits of chromium ores; incidentally are extracted Pt, Ni. It is maintained with 1919. An annual output of 580 thousand t ore (1985). The main centres of production - SHurugvi, Lomagundi.
  • " GREAT DEPRESSION ", the most continuous economic crisis in a history of untrimmed developed countries. It began from " black Friday " - crash of stock quotations on the New York exchange on October, 25 1929. The stock value has falled on 90 %, mass ruin of small-sized investors in the USA at once has had an effect on trade and an industry. Crisis was fast distributed to other countries, first of all the Great Britain and Germany, the bound by the relative fiscal obligations with the USA. Overcoming of crisis connect to " the New course " F.Roosevelt.
  • GREAT CHINESE PLAIN, on the orient of China. It is extended more than on 1000 kms along coasts of Yellow and East - Chinese seas. The area ok. 325 thousand êì2. A surface flat, an altitude up to 100 m. On the orient - island SHandunskie mountains. Huai He is combined by a potent strata of alluvial deposits of the rivers of Huang He, etc. The Climate subtropical monsoon with the wet summer and in the dry cool winter. Crowded floods (were accompanied by repeated considerable conveyances of beds of the rivers of Huang He and Huai He). The large part ploughed up (wheat, a cotton, rice, a peanut). One of the populated areas of the world. Large cities - Peking, Tianjin, etc.
  • GREAT CHINESE WALL, fortification in the Sowing. China; a grandiose monument of art of building Other. China. From TSzjajujguanja (prov. Gansu) up to Ljaodunskogo a hall. Length, under one suppositions, ok. 4 thousand in km, on other - over 6 thousand in km, an altitude of 6,6 m, on stray patches up to 10 m. It is constructed basically in 3 century up to n. e. Completely restavrirovan a plot of the Great Chinese wall bliz Peking.
  • GREAT COLUMBIUM, federative republic in 1819-30; it is built in a course of war for independence of spanish colonys in America 1810-1826. Actuated It is new. Granada (the modern Columbia and Panama), Venezuela and Quito (the modern Ecuador).
  • GREAT DOMESTIC WAR 1941-45, liberation war of Soviet people against fascist Germany and its allies (Hungary, Italy, Romania, Finland); the major part of 2-nd world war. To the USSR Germany started direct preparation from an offence in 1940 (the plan "Barbarossa"). Together with european allies Germany has centred for an offence on the USSR 191,5 divisions; enemy forces totalled 5,5 million person, ok. 4,3 thousand tanks and assault guns, 47,2 thousand instruments and mortars, ok. 5 thousand combat aircrafts, 192 ships. Germany planned against the USSR "lightning war" ("blitzkrieg"). Gains of the USSR in 30 years on building system of collective security were not crowned with success. The non-aggression pact with Germany (August 1939) has allowed to delay a beginning of war. However signed thus, and also at the conclusion in September of 1939 friendship treaties and border with Germany secret minutes incompatibled to norms of international law, undermined prestige of country. Defensive capability of country has been undermined by the socio economic policy carried out by a totalitarian mode, the mass reprisals which have covered and military staff, and also large miscalculations in military construction, in definition of probable times of a beginning of war, main wines in what lozhitsja on I.V.Stalin and his nearest surrounding. By June 1941 Red Army had 187 divisions; in its structure was ok. 3 million person, more than 38 thousand instruments and mortars, 13,1 thousand tanks, 8,7 thousand combat aircrafts; in Boreal, Baltic and Black Sea fleets 182 ship and was totalled by 1,4 thousand combat aircrafts. The Soviet troops have not been completely completed by staff, tanks, airplanes, a zenith means, automobiles, engineering technique; Troops and officers of arms had a low level of preparation. On June, 22 1941 fascist Germany has perfidiously attacked the USSR. Having created on a direction of impacts the suppressing superiority, an aggressor has broken through the defence of the Soviet troops, has trapped the strategic initiative and an air supremacy. Frontier battles and an incipient period of war (up to midpoint of July) have as a whole reduced in a defeat of Red Army. She has lost killed and injured in 850 thousand person, 9,5 thousand instruments, over 6 thousand tanks, ok. 3,5 thousand airplanes; in a film has hitted ok. 1 million person. The enemy occupied a considerable proportion of country, was advanced deep into up to 300-600 kms, having lost thus by 100 thousand person killed, almost 40 % of tanks and 950 airplanes. On June, 23 it has been built the Pond of the Main Command (since August, 8 - the Pond of General headquarters). All completeness of an authority has been concentrated in the State Committee of Defence (GKO) built on June, 30. Since August, 8 I.V.Stalin has become Supreme commander in chief. The main military events of aestivo-autumnal campaign 1941 were Smolensk battle, the defence of Leningrad and the beginning of his blockage, military catastrophe of the Soviet troops on Ukraine, the defence of Odessa, the beginning of the defence of Sevastopol, loss of Donbass, the defensive season of the Moscow battle. The red Army has receded on 850-1200 kms, however the enemy has been stalled on main routes near Leningrad, Moscow and Rostov and has transfered to the defence. Winter campaign 1941-42 began a counteroffensive of the Soviet troops on a western strategic direction. During her are carried out a counteroffensive near Moscow, Ljubanskaja, Rzhevsko-Vjazemskaja, Barvenkovsko-Lozovskaja and aerial delivery Kerchensko-Feodosijskaja operations. The Soviet troops have removed threat to Moscow and the Sowing. To Caucasus, have facilitated a rule of Leningrad, have in full or in part released terrain of 10 ranges, and also over 60 cities. The strategy of "blitzkrieg" has failed. It has been routed ok. 50 hostile divisions. In aestivo-autumnal campaign 1942 Soviet troops had a unreal problem: completely to rout the opponent and to release all terrain of country. The main military events have deployed on a southwest direction: a defeat of the Crimean front, military catastrophe of the Soviet troops in the Kharkov operation, Voronezhsko-Voroshilovgradskaja, Donbass, Stalingradskaja defensive operations, battle on the Sowing. Caucasus. On a northwest direction the Red Army has conducted Demjanskuju and Rzhevsko-Sychevskuju offensive operations. The opponent was advanced on 500-650 kms, has quitted to Volga, has trapped a part of saddle-points of the Main Caucasian crops. The terrain where before war 42 % of the population lived has been occupied, 1/3 gross products were effected, was more than 45 % of areas under crops. The economy was transferred to military rails. In eastern areas of country the plenty of the enterprises (only in 2-nd half-year 1941 - 2593 has been redeployed, including 1523 large), is exported 2,3 million. Heads of cattle. In 1-st half-year 1942 it has been exhausted by 10 thousand airplanes, 11 thousand tanks, ok. 54 thousand instruments. In 2-nd half-year their extension was increased more than in 1,5 times. The Sovetsko-English agreement from July, 12 1941, the Moscow conference of representatives of the USSR, the USA and the Great Britain (on September, 29 - on October, 1 1941), the Declaration of 26 states from January, 1 1942 about the military union of the countries battling against fascism, the sovetsko-American agreement from June, 11 1942 have issued a nucleus of an antihitlerite coalition. In winter campaign by 1942-43 main military events were Stalingradskaja and North Caucasian offensive operations, breach of blockage of Leningrad. The red Army was advanced to the west on 600-700 kms, having released terrain over 480 êì2, has routed 100 divisions (40 % of forces of an enemy on the sovetsko-German front). A favorable conditions for completion of approach of allies in the Sowing have been built. To Africa, Sicily and JUzh. Italy. In aestivo-autumnal campaign by 1943 decisive event there was a Kursk battle. The important role guerrillas (the operation " Rail war ") have played. During battle for Dnepr it has been free by 38 thousand occupied points, including 160 cities; with capture of strategic bridgeheads on Dnepr conditions for approach in Belarus are built. In battle for Dnepr guerrillas have conducted the operation "Concert" on destruction of communications of an enemy. On other directions Smolensk and Bryansk offensive operations are carried out. The red Army has passed with breakages up to 500-1300 kms, has routed 218 divisions. The important stage in development of international and interallied attitudes the Teheran conference (on November, 28 - on December, 1 1943) has become. In winter campaign 1943-44 Red Army has conducted approach to Ukraine (10 simultaneous and serial front operations, consolidated general premeditation), has finished rout of an army group "South", has quitted on border with Romania and has transferred operations on its terrain. Penecontemporaneous the Leningradsko-Novgorod offensive operation has deployed; Leningrad has been finally deblocked. As a result of the Crimean operation Crimea is free. The Soviet troops were advanced to the west on 250-450 kms, have released ok. 300 thousand êì2 terrains, have quitted on frontier with Czechoslovakia. In June 1944 allies have discovered 2-nd front in France that has worsened a political-military rule of Germany. In aestivo-autumnal campaign 1944 Soviet troops have conducted Byelorussian, Lvovsko-Sandomirskuju, East - Karpatskuju, JAssko-Kishinev, Baltic, Debretsenskuju, East - Karpatskuju, Belgrad, in part Budapest and Petsamo-Kirkenesskuju offensive operations. Discharging Belarus, Ukraine and Baltic has been completed (except for some areas of Latvia), in part Czechoslovakia, are forced to surrender and Romania and Hungary have entered war against Germany, are free of occupiers Soviet Zapoljarje and boreal ranges of Norway. On February, 4-11 1945 in Yalta the Crimean conference of chiefs of the USSR, the Great Britain and the USA was comprised. Campania 1945 in Europe actuated East - Prussian, Vislo-Oderskuju, completion Budapest, East - Pomeranskuju, Nizhnesilezskuju, Verhnesilezskuju, Western - Karpatskuju, the Austrian and Berlin operations which were finished by unconditional surrender of fascist Germany. After the Berlin operation the Soviet troops together with 2-nd army Signals Commands Polish, 1-st both 4-th Romanian armies and 1-st Czechoslovak body have conducted the Prague operation. On June, 24 in Moscow Parade of Victory was comprised. On having place in July - August of the Berlin conference of chiefs of three great powers the arrangement has been reached on the post-war device of the world in Europe. On August, 9 1945 USSR, carrying out of allied obligations, began act of war against Japan. During the Manchurian operation the Soviet troops have routed Kvantunskuju army, have released JUzh. Sakhalin and Kuril islands. On September, 2 1945 Japan has signed Act of unconditional surrender. On the sovetsko-German front 607 divisions of the opponent have been routed and captivated, 75 % of his military technique are deleted. Under different data, loss vermahta have constituted from 6 million up to 13,7 million person. The USSR has lost ok. 27 million person, including 11,3 million person at the front, 4-5 million guerrilla, many people have perished on an occupied territory and in back of country. In a fascist film has appeared ok. 6 million person. The material loss has constituted 679 billion rbl. In heavy bloody war the Soviet people has introduced decisive investment in discharging of peoples of Europe of a fascist yoke. Day of Victory (on May, 9) is marked annually as a national holiday and day of memory on perished.
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