Monday, May 21, 2007

  • VOCODER (from English voice - a voice and code - a code), a communications system in which the transmitted voice information will be transformed by a sound analyzer to code signals on frequency or on time. Restoration of speech on a receiving end executes the synthesizer of a note. Allows essentially (approximately in 10 times) to compact the communication line at minor deterioration of quality of drive.
  • VOKULER (Vaucouleurs) Gerard Anri de (r. 1918), the American astronomer. Probeed Mars, has developed new grading galaxies, has discovered rotation of a galaxy Major Magellanovo the Cloud, has described an aboriginal superclump of galaxies. The writer of books " Physics of a planet Mars " (1951, Russian transfer 1956), " the Astronomical photo " (1961, Russian transfer 1975), etc.
  • The BULLOCK castrated samets of a large horned stock. It is used as meat and a work animal.
  • VOLAN (frants. volant), 1) a ball finned for the game in badminton. 2) Finish for a coat frock, a blouse, skirts, a stem of a frill.
  • VOLGA (ancient - Ra, in Middle Ages - Itil), the river in the European part of the Russian Federation, the largest in Europe. 3530 kms, the area of basin of 1360 thousand êì2. The beginning on Valdai vozv., the m. runs in Caspian, derivating delta (the area of 19 thousand êì2). Average discharge of water for Volgograd 724 m3 / with, in a mouth - 7710 m3 / with. Volga accepts ok. 200 inflow, the largest - Kama and Oka. In connection with a structure of a coordinated hydroelectric system with water reservoirs a drainage of Volga hardly zaregulirovan. The largest river plants - Volga (Kujbyshevskaja), Volga (Volgograd), CHeboksarskaja. Regular navigation from Rzhev (3256 kms). Volga is bridged to Baltic m. A Volga-Baltic waterway, with White m. - Severodvinsk water system and the Belomorsko-Baltic channel, with Azov and Black seas - the Volga-Don shipping canal, with Moscow - the channel him. Moscow. On Volga - large cities Tver, Yaroslavl, N.Novgorod, Kazan, Ulyanovsk, Samara, Saratov, Volgograd, Astrakhan. In a bass. Volga reservations: Volzhsko-Kamsky, ZHigulevsky, Astrakhan; natural national park Samara the Onions. As a result of man impacts the environmental setting has sharply worsened; search of scientifically reasonable ways of restoration of natural complexes of Volga is conducted.
  • VOLGIN Vyacheslav Petrovich (1879-1962), the Russian historian, academician AN the USSR (1930). Transactionses on a history of socialist and communist ideas domarksova the season. The lenin premium (1961).
  • VOLGO, the lake largest in system Verhnevolzhskih of lakes on Valdai vozv. 61 êì2.
  • VOLGA-BALTIC WATERWAY (. Mariinsky water system), in the Russian Federation. Bridges Volga to Baltic m., and through the Belomorsko-Baltic channel with White m. Passes through Rybinsk vdhr. Up to Cherepovets, r. Sheksna, Belozersky the channel, r. Kovzha, the Mariinsky channel, r. Vytegra, the Onega channel, r. Svir, Ladoga an eskar. And r. Neva. Mariinsky water system sooruzhena in nach. 19 century; with 1964, after native born renovation, - the Volga-Baltic waterway. Length ok. 1100 kms, depth not less than 4 m. Court up to 5000 t.
  • VOLGOGRAD (up to 1925 Tsaritsyn, up to 1961 Stalingrad), the city - hero in the Russian Federation, the centre of the Volgograd region. A port on Volga. Initial point of the Volga-Don shipping canal. A railway junction. 1005 thousand inhabitants (1992). A machine industry (a software: " the Volgograd tractor plant ", "Barricades", etc.) and metal working, black (factory " Red October ", etc.) and nonferrous machine industry, chemical and petrochemical, wood-working, a building materials, mild, a food-processing industry. Bliz Volgograd - the Volga (Volgograd) river plant. 7 high schools (including 3 universities), 5 theatres. Museums (monument - band to " Heroes Stalingradskoj of battle " on Mamayev a tumulus, the Museum of the defence, study of local lore, fine arts, etc.). It is based in 1589, with 1615 on the modern place. Within Great Domestic war almost it completely eroded, recovered under the general plan (1945).
  • The VOLGOGRAD RANGE, in the Russian Federation, 113,9 thousand êì2. The population of 2643 thousand person (1992), urban 76 %. 19 cities, 32 urban settlements (1989.) Center - Volgograd. The river Volga divides range on a raised Right bank (an altitude up to 358 ì) and low Zavolzhje. Mean temperatures of January from-8 up to-12 °S, July 23 °S. A rainfall ok. 350 mm annually. The main rivers - Volga and Don. Production of gas and petroleum; oil refining, chemical and a petrochemical industry, a machine industry (tractors, court, bearings, the industrial equipment, etc.), black and nonferrous machine industry; a building materials, wood-working, mild, a food-processing industry. The Volga (Volgograd) river plant. Crops of wheat and other grain, sunflower, mustard. A melon production (watermelons), a vegetable raising. A fruit growing. An irrigation farming. Meat-and-milk cattle breeding, a sheep raising. Navigation across Volga, Don, the Volga-Don channel.
  • The VOLGOGRAD THEATRE him. M.Gorkogo, drama, is based in 1918.
  • The VOLGOGRAD UNIVERSITY, is based in 1980. Plots experts on physical and mathematical sciences, philologies, histories. In 1991 over 3 thousand students.
  • The VOLGOGRAD WATER RESERVOIR, on r. Volga. It is derivated by a dam of the Volga (Volgograd) river plant. It is filled in in 1958-1961. The area 3117 êì2, volume 31,5 êì3, length of 540 kms, an extreme breadth of 17 kms. Navigation. It is used for water supply and an irrigation. Fishery. Ports: Saratov, Kamyshin.
  • VOLGODONSK, city (with 1956) in the Russian Federation, the Rostov region, a port on TSimljanskom vdhr. A depot. 182 thousand inhabitants (1992.) softwares of a nuclear power machine industry "Atommash"; chemical, a food-processing industry. A study of local lore museum.
  • The VOLGO-URAL OIL-AND-GAS-BEARING PROVINCE, on the orient is limited to Ural, in the south - Prikaspijskoj a hollow, in a north - Timanskim a block, in the west - Sysolskim, Kotelnicheskim, Tokmovskim vaults and the Voronezh mass. A gross area of 700 thousand êì2. It is open over 900 petroleum and 50 gas fields. Industrial deposits are dated for adjournments of Devonian, Carbon and permi. Major deposits: Romashkinskoe, Orenburg, Tujmazinskoe, SHkapovskoe, Arlanskoe, etc.
  • VOLZHANSKIE (an ice-film. fam. Volzhankiny), family of circus performers, tightrope dancers. The chief of number - Vladimir Aleksandrovich (1917-83), the national actor of the USSR (1979). Has developed the instrumentation changing a discharge angle of chain cables, has given the composite ekvilibristicheskomu to amusement romantic character. Partners - members of family Volzhanskih. The state premium of the USSR (1978).
  • VOLZHSK (up to 1940 settlements. Lopatino), city in the Russian Federation, Republic of Maries El, landing stage on Kujbyshevskom vdhr. A depot. 62,5 thousand inhabitants (1992). A machine industry and metal working; pulp and paper and a woodworking industry.
  • The VOLGA MILITARY FLOTILLA, in June 1918 - July 1919 participat in breakages with White Guards on Volga and Kama, then part of the Volzhsko-Caspian military flotilla. During Great Domestic war existed in October 1941 - June 1944, participat in Stalingradskoj to battle.
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