Monday, May 21, 2007

  • VIESITE (up to 1917 official title Weighs), city (with 1928) in Latvia, on coast an eskar. Viesites, in 30 kms from zh.-d. An item. Krustpils. 2,6 thousand inhabitants (1991). A tailoring industry.
  • VIETA (Twists) Francois (1540-1603), the French mathematician. Has developed almost all elementary algebra. " Formulas of Vieta ", producing relation between roots and quotients of an algebraic equation (see are known. Vieta the theorem). Has entered alphabetic designations for quotients in equations.
  • VIETA the THEOREM, content F.Vietom the theorem: the sum of roots of a reduced quadratic equation is peer to quotient at x, taken with an opposite sign, and product - to a constant term.
  • VIZHE (Vigee) Klod (r. 1921), the French poet, the prose writer, the thinker - essayist. With 1943 in emigration in the USA, with 1960 lives in Israel. Verses of 1939-72 gathered in the book " the Sun from starving " (1972). The writer of collections of an essay " Artists neutolennosti " (1960), " the Winter moon " (1970), etc.
  • VIZHE-LEBREN Elizabeth (1755-1842), the French artist. The society idealized portraits (Maria Antuanetty, etc.).
  • VIZHNITSA, city (with 1940) on Ukraine, Chernovtsy region. A depot. 5,7 thousand inhabitants (1989). Wood-working combine, etc. Art crafts (machining of a tree, metal, a carpet weaving). It is known with kon. 15 century.
  • The VISA (from an armour. visus - seen, browsed through), 1) an inscription on any document or the certificate, authenticity certifying it or attaching to him force. 2) the Official mark in the passport about the entry permit in the given state, passage or exit road from him.
  • VIZANTY, ancient city on european coast of prol. Bosporus. In 324-330 on his place it is based Constantinople (about 1453 Istanbul).
  • The BYZANTIAN RIGHT, legal system of Byzantium (6-15 centuries) which basis was codification JUstiniana. It was defined by dualism of the church and society right (norms of them were contained in special collections - "Nomocanons"). The byzantian right has been borrowed by the feudal law of Armenia, Georgia, some countries of Europe and Asia.
  • BYZANTIUM (Eastern Roman empire, the Byzantian empire), the state of 4-15 centuries derivated at disintegration of Roman empire in its eastern part (Balkan p-ov, M.Azija, the southeast Mediterranean). Capital - Constantinople. The population - Greeks, sirijtsy, copts, Armenians, etc. Prevailing tongue - Grecian. In 4 - nach. 7 centuries in Byzantium has become to develop feudalism (at conservation till 7 century rabovladenija). Features of the byzantian feudalism: cities kept in an early Middle Ages as the centres of handcraft and trade; centralized state machinery and tax system; absence of a class closure of the ruling class developed vassalno-lennoj of system; fragility of trading - craft corporations, a rural community, urban communes. Byzantium has reached the greatest territorial expansion in 6 century at JUstiniane I, having turned into Mediterranean powerful the mandatory power. Seizures 7 - it is grey. 9 centuries. Arabs, slavs, langobardov have reduced its terrain basically to a part Balkan p-ova and M.Azii. Capture in 1204 participants of 4-th crusade of Constantinople has reduced in fall of the Byzantian empire, the grounding of Latin empire, and in the terrain not conquered by crusaders - the Grecian states (Nicaean, empires Trapezundskoj, the state Epirskogo). The byzantian empire recovered by Michael VIII in 1261. Taking to 1453 Constantinoples a turkish troops has put an end to Byzantium.
  • " VIZVOLENNJA ÂIÒ×ÈÇÍÈ " (" Discharging of Fatherland "), underground anti-fascist organization in Great Domestic war on Ukraine, the Lvov region (1942-44). Acted together with " National guards ".
  • To the VISA Vladimir Juljevich (1886-1954), the Russian scientist, the explorer of Arctic regions, corresponding member AN the USSR (1933). The participant of expedition G.J.Sedova (1912-1914), expeditions on "Tajmyre" (1921-22), "Malygin" (1924, 1928, 1931); the supervisor of studies of expedition on "Georgii Sedove" (1930), "Sibirjakove" (1932), "Feodor Litke" (1943), etc. The Writer of transactionses on oceanology, meteorologies, ledovitosti arctic seas and to ice forecasts, a history of probe of Arctic regions. The state premium of the USSR (1946).
  • To the VISA the ISLAND, a low island in Karskom m., in structure of the Russian Federation. 288 êì2. Tundra vegetation. It is open in 1930 expedition on "Georgii Sedove" and J.Vize, in 1924 these islands which have theoretically predicted existence is called by name Â. . Polar station (with 1945).
  • VIZEL (Visel) (Wiesel) Torsten Nils (r. 1924), the American doctor, nejrofiziolog. Was born in Sweden, with 1955 in the USA. Together with D.H.Hjubelom has uncovered principles of a thorough revision of the information in the neuronic structures of a brain accepting external signals. The Nobel Prize (1981, together with Hjubelom).
  • VIZEL (Wiesel) Ales (r. 1928), the American writer, the public figure. Writes in French. Was born in Romania; with 1956 lives in the USA. In novels (" And the world was silent ", 1956, on a yiddish, autobiographical; " the Beggar from Jerusalem ", 1968; " gospels rasterzannogo the jewish poet ", 1980; "Twilights", 1987), Chassidic traditions noted by influence and folklore, existentialism, one of essentials - genocide of Jews in 2-nd world war ("Holocaust"), understanding of spiritual nature of the person, his ability to assassination and moral opposition of mors. The Nobel Prize of the world (1986).
  • VIZER (Wieser) Fridrih (1851-1926), the Austrian economist, the representative of the Austrian school. One of writers of limiting utility of the theory and imputation of the theory.
  • VIZIGA, foodstuff of acceptable back structure (chord) of large (predominary sturgeon) fishes (sevrjugi, sterlets, etc.). Viziga it is dryed up on air and it is interweaved in a bunch. Contains kleevidnye substances, it is used in a boiled kind for preparation of a stuffing of cakes, rasstegaev, kulebjak and so forth.
  • VIZIGOTY, see. Vestgoty.
  • SIGHT (a nem. Visier, from an armour. viso - I look), 1) in a photo - an optical system in the cine camera, the employee for selection of borders of the removed space (layout of staff). The analogous optical system in the camera routinely calls as the range finder. 2) In a geodesy, astronomy, military science - the adaptation, the device for a visual guidance of the goniometric, ranging or observation device on a fixed point in the space.
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