Wednesday, May 23, 2007

  • GAMALEJA Nikolay Fedorovich (1859-1949), the Russian microbiologist and an epidemiologist, honorary member AN the USSR (1940), academician AMN (1945). Has discovered bacteriolysins (1898), the causal organism of a cholera of birds. Has justified value of a disinfection for liquidation sypnogo and returnable typhoids. Transactionses on prophylaxis of a rabies, a cholera, a smallpox and other contagions. The state premium of the USSR (1943).
  • GAMALEJA Platon JAkovlevich (1766-1817), the Russian mathematician and the mechanics, the honorary member Petersburg AN (1800). Transactionses on a theory of naval architecture and navigations. The writer of the tutorial " the Maximum theory of marine art " (1808).
  • GAMAN (Hamann) Iogann George (1730-88), the german critic, the writer, the philosopher, the adherent of the doctrine about direct knowledge. Has advanced ideas misticheski colored intuitivistskoj dialectics (concurrence of contrasts, etc.). Poetry, on Gamanu, - the most ancient tongue of mankind. Has exerted influence the literature " Storms and a rush " and german romanticism.
  • GAMARNIK JAn Borisovich (1894-1937), the political and military figure, the army commissioner of 1-st rank (1935). With 1920 chairman Odessa, Kiev gubkomov KP (á) Ukraine. With 1923 chairman Dalrevkoma, krajispolkoma and 1-st secretary Dalkrajkoma of a consignment. In 1928 1-st secretary of Central Committee KP (á) Belarus. With 1929 chief of Political department RKKA, with 1930 1-st deputy narkoma defences, in 1930-34 vice-president RVS the USSR. The member of a Central Committee of the CPSU with 1927. In conditions of mass reprisals has committed suicide.
  • GAMARRA (Gamarra) Pierre (r. 1919), the French writer. The anti-fascist novel " the Igneous dwelling " (1948). Social novels " Children of poverty " (1950), " Woman and the river " (1951); the satirical novel " to Killer Gonkurovskaja the premium " (1963). The historical trilogy, including the novel " Seventy two sunny days " (1975) about the Commune of Paris; publicism.
  • GAMBAHSKOE FESTIVAL, political demonstrating 27.5.1832 in village Gambah (Hambach, Pfalts, Bavaria), preformed by german liberals; its participants (ok. 30 thousand person) association of country, constitutional freedom demanded. Many of them were the freedom of the press arrested, cancelled, public assemblies and the political unions are forbidden.
  • GAMBASHIDZE SHalva Ksenofontovich (1899-1955), the Georgian actor, the national actor of Georgia (1939). On the scene with 1921. With 1928 at theatre him. Mardzhanishvili (Tbilisi).
  • GAMBETTA (Gambetta) Leon (1838-82), the prime minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs of France in 1881-82. The leader of the left-handed republicans, the member of " Government of the national defence " (September 1870 - February 1871). In 70th opposed clericals and monarchists. At the end of life it was pulled together to dextral bourgeois republicans.
  • GAMBIT (from ital. dare il gambetto - to deliver a sideboard), non-proprietary name of the checkrow beginnings in which figures are sacrificed with the purpose of the prompt development. In an event of acceptance of a victim there is an adopted gambit, at its deviation - refused gambit. The term "gambit" for the first time is applied by spanish chess player R.Lopez (1561).
  • GAMBIA, the river in Zap. To Africa. 1200 kms, the area of basin of 180 thousand êì2. Fouta Djallon rises on a plateau; runs in Atlantic ok. Average discharge of water ok. 2000 m3 / with. It is navigable on 350 kms from a mouth. Port Bandzhul.
  • GAMBIA, Republic Gambia (Republic of Gambia), the state in the west Africa. 11,3 thousand êì2. The population of 1033 thousand person (1993); malinke, fulbe, volof, etc. The Urban population of 21,5 % (1988). The official language - English. The majority of believers - moslems - sunnity. Administrative territorial division: 7 districts. Capital - Bandzhul. Enters into Commonwealth. The chief of state and governments - the president. The body of legislation - a House of Representatives. Terrain flat, in basin r. Gambia. A climate equatorial monsoon. Monthly mean temperatures 25-27 °S. A rainfall from 750 up to 1500 mm annually. Savannah; in a valley r. Gambia - evergreen tropical forests. National park River-Gambia, wildlife reserve Abuko. The terrain of Gambia was part of empire Mali (13-15 centuries) and Songaj (15-16 centuries) . To it is grey. 19 century the large part of Gambia has been seized by the Great Britain and declared by colony; up to 1894 remaining part - the British protectorate. With 1965 Gambia - an independent state. Gambia - the agrarian country dependent from foreign, primarily English, of the capital. A lobe in a runway (1991/92, %): an agriculture 23,3, a manufacturing industry and construction 12,8. The basis of economy - cultivation for export a peanut. Timber loggings. Fishery. A flavoring industry. Manufacture of the electric power 67 million in kw? A h (1990). Length of motorways of 2,4 thousand in km (1990); railways no. Main marine and a river harbor - Bandzhul. Export: a peanut and products of his thorough revision. The main foreign trade partners: France, the Great Britain, the USA, etc. Monetary unit - dalasi.
  • GAMBRINUS (Gambrinus), fantastic Flemish king, the inventor of beer.
  • GAMBUSIA, fish of a set petsilievyh. Length samtsov up to 4 sm, samok up to 7,5 see. Rhodinum - the Sowing. America. It is acclimatized in many locales, including in the south of Ukraine, on Caucasus, in Compare. Asia where her use for extirpation with a malaria (eats larvas of mosquitoes).
  • GAMBURD Moseses Efimovich (1904-54), the Moldavian painter. Patterns on themes of the Moldavian history, country life, portraits of workers of Moldova ("Movers", 1935).
  • GAMBURTSEV Grigory Aleksandrovich (1903-55), Russian a geophysics, one of founders of a seismic survey in the USSR, academician AN the USSR (1953). Has offered new seismic methods of investigation and depth sounding of earth crust. The state premium of the USSR (1941).
  • GAMBURTSEVA MOUNTAINS, subglacial mountains in Vost. To Antarctica, in area of a plateau Soviet. Length up to 1300 kms. An altitude up to 3390 m. A glacial cover depth of 600 m and more. Are open by the Soviet expedition in 1958. Are called named G.A.Gamburtseva.
  • GAMELAN, the Indonesian traditional orchestra (gongs, xylophones, including metal, drums, sometimes string, duhovye and a voice). The concept "gamelan" implies also phylum of playing music.
  • GAMELEN (Gamelin) Moris Gjustav (1872-1958), the French army general. In 1931-35 and 1938-39 chief of the General Staff. In 2-¯ world war till May 1940 commander-in-chief an overland allied troops in France.
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