Thursday, May 10, 2007

  • CASTING BED, part of a blast-furnace plant directly for the furnace for work on an iron tapping and slag.
  • LETTERS [from an armour. lit (t) era - the character] (obsolete expression), the document on the right preferential or free pass. The title is connected to notation of such documents the conditional character.
  • The LETTER [from an armour. lit (t) era - the character], a rectangular bar from topografskogo an alloy, a tree or plastics materials with the relief (convex) plotting (ochkom) characters, digits or a mark in a butt. At printing ochko coats and gives a reprint on a paper.
  • " LITERATORSKIE the DUCKRUN ", a burial ground of many writers, public figures, scientists on Volkovom a cemetery in Saint Petersburg. Have arisen in 1861 when near to V.G.Belinsky tomb N.A.Dobroljubov has been buried. Here are buried by I.S.Turgenev, M.E.Saltykov-Schedrin, D.I.Mendeleev, I.P.Pavlov, M.A.Uljanova.
  • The LITERATURE [an armour. lit (t) eratura, characters. - written], the products of writing having public value (napr., fiction, the scientific literature, epistoljarnaja the literature). It is more often a baking plate the literature perceive art literary production (fiction; correspondence in 19 century - " refined literature "). In this value the literature - the phenomena of art (" art of the word "), aesthetically expressing public consciousness and in turn forming it. The material carrier of figurativeness in the literature - speech - allows her is unusual to master widely and awakely to interpret zoetic processes in all their complexities, including an inner life of people and their dialogue, embodied in expressions (see. A monologue and the Dialogue). The fiction as a kind of art arises on soil of mythology and oral - poetic national creativity. The fiction keeps, accumulates and transmits from generation to generation aesthetic, moral, philosophical, social values. The literature represents dynamic system of literary stems formed during millenaries (the epos, lyrics, a drama), genres, motives, scenes, modes, verse and prosaic forms (see. Prose and Poetry), a graphic means of tongue (see. Speech art), methods of a composition. There are kinds of written products., closing with fiction, - memuarnaja, epistoljarnaja, the documentary literature. The most ancient products were written in verses, prose - be relative more serotinal range of fiction. Only in 18-19 centuries these two ranges were razed to the ground on value. Communications of fiction are characteristic for 20 century with other predominary novel species of art - kino, a wireless, a television. Creativity of given away figures of fiction marks the major phases of development of world and national crop. The literature is studied by philology, on advantage literary criticism.
  • " The LITERARY NEWSPAPER ", Saint Petersburg, on January, 1 on June, 1830-30 1831, 1 time in 5 days. Editors - publishers: till November 1830 A.A.Delwig, then O.M.Somov. The nearest sharing was accepted by A.S.Pushkin.
  • " The LITERARY NEWSPAPER ", Saint Petersburg, 1840-49. Editors raznovremenno: F.A.Koni, N.A.Polevoj, A.A.Kraevsky, etc. Opposed conservative journalism. Among employees - V.G.Belinsky, N.A.Nekrasov.
  • LITERARY CRITICISM, range of literary creativity on the verge art (fiction) and science about the literature (literary criticism). Is engaged in interpretation and an assessment of literary works from the point of view of a modernity (including vital problems of public and spiritual life); renders active influence on literary process, and also directly on formation of public consciousness; rests on the theory and a history of the literature, philosophy, an aesthetics. Publicistic, politiko-burning character often has. Genres of literary criticism: a review, the critique about separate product, the review, the problem article, the monography about the modern literary process. As a special kind of the literature and as the do-it-yourself trade has developed in Europe in 1-st floor. 19 century (T.Karlejl, S.Sent-Bev, V.G.Belinsky).
  • " LITERARY MOSCOW ", the literary and art collection (Moscow, 1956). Was attempt of consolidation of the literary forces which were standing up to to totalitarian system. Has undergone to sharp criticism, has been suspended on 2-nd extension.
  • " LITERARY STUDY ", 1) the literary - critical log-book, 1930-35, Leningrad, up to 1941 - Moscow. M.Gorkim is based. 2) With 1978 under the same title in Moscow.
  • " The LITERARY PATRIMONY ", acyclic collections of the Russian Academy of Science with 1931, Moscow. The publication of the unpublished documentary materials on a history of the Russian literature and public idea. Has quitted 98 t. (1991).
  • " LITERARY REVIEW ", 1) the kritiko-bibliographic log-book, 1936-41, Moscow, 2 numbers in a month. 2) With 1937 under the same title in Moscow.
  • LITERARY SOCIETY of 11-th NUMBER, literary - political circle of students - raznochintsev of the Moscow university in 1830-31. V.G.Belinsky and where the circle was going is called under number of a room in a hostel, where cable cores. Discussion of problems literary - public and a political life, reading of natural products.
  • LITERARY INSTITUTE him. M.Gorkogo, creative high school, Moscow. It is based in 1933. Study of public and philological sciences combines with special occupations in creative seminars (proses, poetry, dramatic art, literary criticism, art transfer). In 1992 over 700 students.
  • "LITERARY CRITIC", a monthly, 1933-40, Moscow.
  • " LITERARY MUZEUM ", the Russian literary almanac gathered by V.V.Izmajlovym, has quitted in Moscow in 1827. Among participants of the issuing - A.S.Pushkin, P.A.Vjazemsky, V.A.Zhukovsky, E.A.Baratynsky, N.I.Gnedich, I.I.Dmitriev, etc.
  • LITERARY FUND, organization, founded in 1934 at Soyuz of writers of the USSR, for rendering the financially - household help to writers.
  • The LITERARY LANGUAGE, normalized (see. The norm tongue) naddialektnaja the form of tongue existing in oral and written versions and maintaining all orbs of public and cultural life of people.
  • LITERARY CRITICISM, the science investigator fiction: its nature and specificity, an origin, public function, regularities of literary process. Will consist of 3 main sections: the theory of the literature - studies originality of the literature as special forms of spiritual and art activity, structure of the art text (poetics), factors and summands of literary process and a creative method; the history of the literature - investigates developments of the world literature (including changeover of literary epoch, styles, directions), national literatures, creativity of separate writers; the literary criticism - interprets and estimates predominary the modern products, determines their aesthetic significance and a role in the current literary - public life. Auxiliary disciplines of literary criticism: textual criticism, paleography, the bibliography, etc. The modern literary criticism is nonseparable from an aesthetics, ethics, philosophy and is closely related with linguistics, a history, sociology, psychology, and also a semiology; in a nem some methods of exact sciences are used. For sources of literary criticism antique philosophers and poets, and on the Orient - the Chinese, indian, Arabian thinkers of an antiquity and Middle Ages cost. As the do-it-yourself science literary criticism is made out in 19 century; there are different scientific schools and concepts (the migratory theory, mythological school, cultural - historical school, comparative-historical literary criticism). The becoming of Russian literary criticism was promoted special by articles of critics V.G.Belinsky, N.A.Dobroljubova, A.A.Grigorjeva and probe of scientists F.I.Buslaev, A.N.Veselovskogo, A.A.Potebni. Among methodological directions of 20 century the spiritually - historical school, "formal method" are secreted (including. OPOJAZ, " new criticism "), a psychoanalytical method, a sociological method and close to it marxist literary criticism, the ritual - mythological theory, structuralism.
  • LITHIUM ORE. Main minerals: spodumen, petalit, lepidolit, ambligonit, tsinnvaldit, etc. Meet in granite pegmatitah and grejzenah. Content Li2O in ore of 0,2-1,2 %. Major deposits: Manono-Kitotolo (Zaire), Kings-Mautin (USA).
  • No comments: