Saturday, May 19, 2007

  • VIGNETTING (from frants. vignette - a picture), limitation by diaphragms of a part of a slope light beam in an optical system. The vignetting conducts in fall of an image illumination from the centre to a headland of sight.
  • VIGNETTE (frants. vignette), a dressing in the book or manuscripts: small drawing or a decorative pattern in the beginning or at the end of the text.
  • VINI (Vigny) Alfred Victor de (1797 - 1863), the French writer - romantik. In poems "Eloa" (1824), "Moseses" (1826), "Deluge" (1826) - antheming of theoretical love, travails of the disappointed hero; bogoborcheskie motives. In psychologic drama "CHatterton" (1835), a poem " Mors of the wolf " (1843) - tragical loneliness selected a shower in the world not perceiving them " trite crowd ". Verses. The book " the Diary of the poet " (it is published in 1867).
  • VINOLA (Vignola) (an ice-film. fam. Barotstsi, Barozzi) Dzhakomo yes (1507-73), the italian architect. Palaces (Farneze in Kaprarole, 1558-73), country houses (dads Julia III in Rome, 1550-55), churches (Il Dzhezu in Rome, 1568-84) combine principles of the architecture of Revitalization with elements of Baroque and a classicism. The theorist of the architecture (" the Rule of five warrants of the architecture ", 1562).
  • VINJA-DEL-MAR (Vina del Mar), the city and seaport to Chile, are included into agglomeration of Valparaiso. 305 thousand inhabitants (1990). A climatic health resort. Center of tourism. Sugar, textile, chemical, a petroleum industry.
  • VIOLLE-LE-DJUK (Viollet-le-Duc) Ezhen (1814-79), the French architect, the historian and the theorist of the architecture. The restorer of Gothic cathedrals and the deputies.
  • VIOLONCELLO (ital. violoncello), a musical instrument skripichnogo sets of the baso-tenor register. Has appeared in 15 - 16 centuries. Classical samples are built by italian masters 17 - 18 centuries: À. And N.Amati, Dzh. Gvarneri, A.Stradivari, etc. The VIOLONCELLO (ital. violoncello), a musical instrument skripichnogo sets of the baso-tenor register. Has appeared in 15 - 16 centuries. Classical samples are built by italian masters 17 - 18 centuries: À. And N.Amati, Dzh. Gvarneri, A.Stradivari, etc.
  • VIOLJA the CANDLE, unit Violja, obsolete unit of light intensity, equal to the light intensity, radiated 1 sm2 of a surface of solidifying platinum in a direction of a normal to this surface. It is offered French physicist L.Z.Violem (L. J. Violle, 1841-1923) in 1881. The modern unit of light intensity of a SI candela (candle) is peer approximately 1/20 Violja candles.
  • VIOTTI (Viotti) Giovanni Battista (1755-1824), the italian violinist, the composer. Cable cores in the Great Britain and France (headed "Grandee - opera"). One of creators French skripichnoj schools. 29 concerts for a violin with an orchestra, string quartets, etc.
  • ASPS, the same, that vipers.
  • VIPPER Boris Robertovich (1888-1967), the Russian historian of art, the museum figure, corresponding member AH the USSR (1962). Son R.J.Vippera. Transactionses contain the analysis and generalization of problems of the theory and a history of art (predominary Western-European 16-18 centuries and Russian 18 century).
  • VIPPER Robert Jurjevich (1859-1954), the Russian historian, academician AN the USSR (1943). Transactionses on a history from antiquity up to a modernity. The writer of tutorials on a history for mean and a higher school.
  • VIPPER Jury Borisovich (1916-91), the Russian literary critic, academician AN the USSR (1987). Son B.R.Vippera. Transactionses under the French literature (Revitalization, including poetry of the Pleiad; a classicism, Enlightenment, critical realism).
  • VIRA, in Ancient Russia the fine for the benefit of prince for assassination of the loose person. For a mutilation it was paid poluvirje.
  • VIRADZH, in vedijskoj and induistskoj mythologies the women godhood, olitsetvorenie creative powers of cosmos.
  • TURN (frants. virage), 1) turning movement. 2) the Figure of flying - complete turn of a flight vehicle in a horizontal plane. 3) Reagent for toning - metamorphosises of black-and-white photographic plotting in colour monochrome (single-color). See also Staining of photographic plotting.
  • VIRBALIS (Virbalis) (up to 1917 Verzhbolovo), city in Lithuania, bliz zh.-d. An item. Kibartaj. 1,5 thousand inhabitants (1990). Manufacture of hardware and milk food. It is known with 1593.
  • VIRGINIUM, Virginia (Virginia), staff on the orient the USA. 105,7 thousand êì2. The population 6,5 million person (1993). Adm. ts. - Richmond.
  • VIRGIN ISLANDS (Virgin Islands), group of small-sized islands in West Indies. Possession of the Great Britain [153,4 êì2, the population of 13 thousand person (1987); adm. ts. - Road Town] and the USA [355 êì2, 104 thousand person (1984); adm. ts. - Charlotte - Amalia].
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